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  • 1.
    Andersson, Jonathan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science. student.
    Hu, Yan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Exploring the Impact of Menu Systems, Interaction Methods, and Sitting or Standing Posture on User Experience in Virtual Reality2023In: 2023 IEEE Gaming, Entertainment, and Media Conference, GEM 2023 / [ed] Gittens C., Hogue A., Cannavo A., Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual Reality (VR) has become an increasingly crucial aspect in both commercial and industrial settings. However, the user experience of the user interfaces and interaction methods in the VR environment is often overlooked. This paper aims to explore different menu systems, interaction methods, and the user’s sitting or standing posture on user experience and cybersickness in VR applications. An experiment with two menu systems and two interaction methods in an implemented VR application was conducted with 20 participants. The results found that traditional, top-down, panel menus with motion controls are the best combination regarding the user experience. Sitting posture provides less severe simulator sickness symptoms than standing.

  • 2.
    Elwardy, Majed
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Hu, Yan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Zepernick, Hans-Juergen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Chu, Thi My Chinh
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Comparison of ACR Methods for 360° Video Quality Assessment Subject to Participants' Experience with Immersive Media2020In: 2020 14th International Conference on Signal Processing and Communication Systems, ICSPCS 2020 - Proceedings / [ed] Wysocki T.A.,Wysocki B.J., Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2020, article id 9310071Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Watching 360° videos on head-mounted displays (HMDs) has become more popular in recent years. As such, subjective quality assessment of 360° videos on HMDs is needed to obtain a ground truth on the quality as perceived by users. Due to the lack of standardized methods, the absolute category rating (ACR) with hidden reference (ACR-HR) method for conventional videos has also been used for subjective quality assessment of 360° videos on HMDs. A modified ACR (M-ACR) method tailored for assessing 360° videos on HMDs has recently been proposed. In this paper, we compare the ACR-HR and M-ACR with hidden reference (M-ACR-HR) method regarding subjective quality assessment of 360° videos on HMDs. The comparison is conducted subject to participants' experience with watching immersive media on HMDs. The findings include: 1) Average rating times to cast opinion scores is lower for the ACR-HR method irrespective of participants' experience, 2) Mean opinion scores are similar for both methods irrespective of participants' experience, 3) The M-ACR-HR method is more reliable, especially with experts and participants with no experience, 4) Discomfort is significantly lower for the ACR-HR method, especially, for participants with no experience. © 2020 IEEE.

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  • 3.
    Elwardy, Majed
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Zepernick, Hans-Juergen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Chu, Thi My Chinh
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Hu, Yan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    On the Opinion Score Consistency in Repeated 360° Video Quality Assessment for Standing and Seated Viewing on Head-Mounted Displays2021In: 2021 15th International Conference on Signal Processing and Communication Systems, ICSPCS 2021 - Proceedings / [ed] Wysocki T.A., Wysocki B.J., Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of immersive media systems and services relies on subjective tests that provide ground truth on the quality of experience as perceived by humans. In this paper, we investigate the opinion score consistency through a repeated subjective 360° video quality assessment experiment. The test stimuli are presented on a head-mounted display with participants given the task to rate the video quality in three repeated sessions for both standing and seated viewing. The statistical analysis of the data from the subjective tests aims at revealing if participants change their rating behavior over time or keep their opinion scores given to the test stimuli in standing and seated viewing consistent in a statistical sense. The experimental results are reported in terms of histograms of opinion scores, skewness and kurtosis of opinion scores, mean opinion scores, standard deviation of opinion scores (SOS), SOS fitting functions, and analysis of variance tests. The statistical analysis supports the conjecture that each participant has its own but consistent rating behavior throughout the respective sessions for standing and seated viewing. The finding that the quality rating behavior of the individual participant does not fundamentally change over time may, e.g., assist in scheduling subjective tests under pandemic conditions where experimental campaigns may need to be stalled for an unknown period of time. © 2021 IEEE.

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  • 4.
    Elwardy, Majed
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Zepernick, Hans-Juergen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Hu, Yan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    On Head Movements in Repeated 360 degrees Video Quality Assessment for Standing and Seated Viewing on Head Mounted Displays2021In: 2021 IEEE CONFERENCE ON VIRTUAL REALITY AND 3D USER INTERFACES ABSTRACTS AND WORKSHOPS (VRW 2021), IEEE, 2021, no 28th IEEE Conference on Virtual Reality and 3D User Interfaces (IEEE VR), p. 71-74Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Watching 360 degrees videos on head mounted displays (HMDs) allows viewers to explore scenes in all directions. In this paper, we focus on investigating the head movements of two participants for standing and seated viewing of a total of 720 360 degrees videos on HMDs. The head movements were recorded in a 360 degrees video quality assessment experiment which was repeated after a long and short break between sessions to study changes in viewing behavior over time. The analysis of the head movement data is provided as histograms of head rotations, head speed, head turns, and head trajectories. It is shown that the participants have their own distinct exploration behavior for standing viewing which becomes less different for seated viewing.

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  • 5.
    Elwardy, Majed
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Zepernick, Hans-Juergen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Hu, Yan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    SSV360: A Dataset on Subjetive Quality Assessment of 360° Videos for Standing and Seated Viewing on an HMD2022In: Proceedings - 2022 IEEE Conference on Virtual Reality and 3D User Interfaces Abstracts and Workshops, VRW 2022, IEEE Computer Society, 2022, p. 189-194Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we introduce the SSV360 dataset containing psy-chophysical and psychophysiological data gathered in a pilot study on the effect of standing and seated viewing of 360° videos on subjective quality assessment. The stimuli were shown to the participants on a head-mounted display for both viewing conditions. The ground truth contained in the SSV360 dataset may support, e.g., benchmarking of immersive media processing algorithms and developing of objective perceptual quality metrics. © 2022 IEEE.

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  • 6.
    Elwardy, Majed
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Zepernick, Hans-Juergen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Hu, Yan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Chu, Thi My Chinh
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    ACR360: A Dataset on Subjective 360° Video Quality Assessment Using ACR Methods2023In: 2023 16th International Conference on Signal Processing and Communication System, ICSPCS 2023 - Proceedings / [ed] Wysocki B.J., Wysocki T.A., Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent advances in immersive technologies have been essential in the development of a wide range of novel standalone and networked immersive media applications. The concepts of virtual reality, augmented reality, and mixed reality relate to different compositions of real and computer-generated virtual objects. In this context, 360° video streaming has become increasingly popular offering improved immersive experiences when viewed on a head-mounted display (HMD). An important component in the development of novel immersive media systems are subjective tests in which participants assess the quality of experience of representative test stimuli. In this paper, the annotated ACR360 dataset is presented which is publicly available on GitHub. The ACR360 dataset contains a wide range of psychophysical and psychophysiological data that was collected in Subjective tests on 360° video quality. The test stimuli were shown on an HMD and rated according to the absolute category rating (ACR) and modified ACR (MACR) methods. To support an easy exploration and utilization of the ACR360 dataset by the research community, its structure on GitHub is described and a comprehensive illustration of analysis options are provided for each data category. The ACR360 dataset may be used for conducting meta-analysis in combination with other datasets to improve precision and to pursue research questions that cannot be answered by an individual study. © 2023 IEEE.

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  • 7.
    Elwardy, Majed
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Zepernick, Hans-Juergen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Hu, Yan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Chu, Thi My Chinh
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Evaluation of Simulator Sickness for 360 degrees Videos on an HMD Subject to Participants' Experience with Virtual Reality2020In: IEEE CONFERENCE ON VIRTUAL REALITY AND 3D USER INTERFACES WORKSHOPS (VRW 2020), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2020, p. 477-484, article id 9090490Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual reality (VR) has seen tremendous advances in head-mounted displays (HMDs), optics, media quality, and other improvements that facilitate immersive experiences. With the occurrence of new technologies like Cloud VR and networked VR video services, applications such as 360° video streaming are becoming more popular within the broader consumer markets. As a result, VR content is accessible to customers with rather different levels of experiences with immersive media, i.e., never, sometimes, or often use of VR. The question, therefore, arises to which degree simulator sickness is induced to viewers depending on their experiences with VR on HMDs. In this paper, simulator sickness is evaluated for 360° videos that were shown on an HTC Vive Pro HMD to participants having different levels of experience with VR on HMDs. The modified absolute category rating with hidden reference (M-ACR-HR) method was used in a subjective experiment for video quality assessment within two subsequent sessions along with a simulator sickness questionnaire (SSQ). A statistical analysis of the SSQ scores is performed to reveal the relationship between simulator sickness and participants' experiences with VR regarding: (1) Individual symptoms, (2) Pairwise comparison of symptoms, and (3) Symptom clusters of nausea, oculomotor, disorientation, and total score. It is shown that the simulator sickness symptoms, in general, are slightly or rarely perceived across the different experience levels for the selected 360° videos. The results indicate that the reported simulator sickness increases in the second session for participants that never used VR on HMDs. Sufficiently long breaks between sessions should therefore be accounted for in the M-ACR-HR method to avoid that simulator sickness influences quality rating. © 2020 IEEE.

  • 8.
    Elwardy, Majed
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Zepernick, Hans-Juergen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Hu, Yan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Impact of Participants' Experiences with Immersive Multimedia on 360 degrees Video Quality Assessment2019In: 13th International Conference on Signal Processing and Communication Systems, ICSPCS 2019 - Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study the impact that the level of experience of participants with immersive multimedia has on 360° video quality assessment. An extensive subjective experiment using the modified absolute category rating with hidden reference (M-ACR-HR) method was conducted. The opinion scores obtained from the participants in this experiment along with other sensor data support this study. The statistical analysis is performed in terms of screening participants' distribution of opinion scores for consistency, average rating time, box plots related to mean opinion scores (MOSs) and differential MOS (DMOS). Detailed results for MOS and DMOS are also provided for reference and test sequences covering a wide range of qualities. Major findings include: (1) Screening detects many outliers for participants with no experience, (2) Average rating times show that experts learn the quality assessment task fast, (3) Participants with no experience provide lower opinion scores in average, (4) DMOS may alleviate the bias in quality rating caused by different levels of experience. © 2019 IEEE.

  • 9.
    Fu, Yu
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Hu, Yan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    A Systematic Literature Review of Virtual, Augmented, and Mixed Reality Game Applications in Healthcare2022In: ACM Transactions on Computing for Healthcare, ISSN 2691-1957, Vol. 3, no 2, article id 22Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual reality, augmented reality, and mixed reality (VR/AR/MR) as information and communication technologies have been recognised and implemented in healthcare in recent years. One of the popular application ways is games, due to the potential benefits of providing an engaging and immersive experience in a virtual environment. This study presents a systematic literature review that evaluates the state-of-the-art on VR/AR/MR game applications in healthcare by collecting and analysing related journal and conference papers published from 2014 through to the first half of 2020. After retrieving more than 3,000 papers from six databases, 88 articles, from both computer science and medicine, were selected and analysed in the review. The articles are classified and summarised based on their (1) publication information, (2) design, implementation, and evaluation, and (3) application. The presented review is beneficial for both researchers and developers interested in exploring current research and future trends in VR/AR/MR in healthcare. © 2022 Association for Computing Machinery.

  • 10.
    Fu, Yu
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Hu, Yan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Fagerstrom, Cecilia
    Linnéuniversitetet, SWE.
    A Survey of Possibilities and Challenges with AR/VR/MR and Gamification Usage in Healthcare2021In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 14TH INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGIES - VOL. 5: HEALTHINF / [ed] Pesquita, C (Pesquita, C) Fred, A (Fred, A) Gamboa, H (Gamboa, H, SCITEPRESS , 2021, p. 733-740Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software and applications of augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR), and mixed reality (MR) technology combined with game/gamification techniques in healthcare have increasingly been studied in academia. However, there is a need to explore the usage, challenges and opportunities of AR/VR/MR game/gamification software/applications in the healthcare system. To explore this, we present an online survey conducted in the healthcare-relevant system (including hospital-based system, homecare-based system, institute and university, and industry). Based on the answers, we found examples of digital games and AR/VR/MR applications used in healthcare, as well as some general information (name and feature, purpose, target user, and use occasion), usage situation, and user experience. This presented survey is beneficial for both researchers and developers in computer science and medical science. It can familiarise them with existing products and their current use, advantages and potential issues of AR/VR/MR and game applications in healthcare. In future work, the survey would be extended to obtain other user experiences and feedback of AR/VR/MR techniques and game/gamification technology applied to healthcare, as well as to study how to overcome the challenges, and develop the opportunities further.

  • 11.
    Fu, Yu
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Hu, Yan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Karolinska Inst, SWE.
    A Review of Extended Reality Exercise Games for Elderly2021In: HEALTHINF: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 15TH INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGIES - VOL 5: HEALTHINF / [ed] Bier, N, Fred, A, Gamboa, H, SciTePress, 2021, no 15th International Conference on Health Informatics (HEALTHINF) held as part of 15th International Joint Conference on Biomedical Engineering Systems and Technologies (BIOSTEC), p. 201-210Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increasing of ageing all over the world, elderly health attracts more and more attention. This paper aims to study existing extended reality (XR) game applications for physical exercise through a literature review with 14 papers as an outcome. Based on these papers, we explored the contributions, opportunities, and challenges of exercise XR games for the elderly. The papers were analysed based on several perspectives, including publication information, design and implementation, game information, teamwork and social games, evaluation, and advantages and disadvantages. We found that the elderly were interested in and accepted the use of XR games. The positive effect of such games was common in the research results. Even if there were problems, such as simulator sickness, safety risks. device problems, and cost, there are still opportunities and space for research and development in the future. The overall positive attitudes toward XR exercise games for the elderly could be seen by both researchers, developers, and users. However, these game applications also presented some problems and future improvements are needed. The presented review is beneficial for researchers and developers to create or enhance future XR applications by learning from existing work.

  • 12.
    Fu, Yu
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Hu, Yan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Karolinska Institutet.
    A Systematic Literature Review of Extended Reality Exercise Games for the Elderly2023In: Biomedical Engineering Systems and Technologies: 15th International Joint Conference, BIOSTEC 2022, Virtual Event, February 9–11, 2022, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Ana Cecília A. Roque, Denis Gracanin, Ronny Lorenz, Athanasios Tsanas, Nathalie Bier, Ana Fred, Hugo Gamboa, Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2023, p. 333-352Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, with the rise of the ageing population worldwide, the health of the elderly has attracted increasing attention. This study explored existing extended reality (XR) game applications aiming at physical exercise for the elderly. Through the review of 1847 papers from the Scopus database, 17 articles were included. Based on these papers, we explored the existing contributions of exercise XR games for the elderly, the development opportunities and challenges of such games, and their special considerations in adapting to the characteristics and requirements of the target user. The results were organized into several perspectives: publication information and keywords, immersive technologies and game concepts, teamwork and social games, evaluation, opportunities and challenges, and adapting designs. We found the elderly interested in and accepted using XR games. The reported research results proved positive effects on such games’ physical and mental health. XR exercise games for the elderly should considerately adapt to the elder’s cognition, behaviour, and demand. Although problems existed, such as simulator sickness, safety risks, device problems, and cost, there were opportunities and space for research and future developments. Researchers and developers could refer to this paper for XR exercise games for the elderly and create or enhance future XR applications by learning from existing work. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

  • 13.
    Fu, Yu
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Hu, Yan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Karolinska Institutet SWE.
    Conceptual Design of an Extended Reality Exercise Game for the Elderly2022In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 12, no 13, article id 6436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Facing the increasingly serious ageing problem, IT technology is being applied more and more to alleviate the increasing health demands of the elderly. Virtual reality (VR) games, in particular, have been shown to benefit the physical and mental health of the elderly. However, almost all consumer-level VR games address the general user, not considering the characteristics of the elderly, such as their particular needs regarding cognitive aspects and safety. In addition, the existing VR rowing games’ research typically focuses on athlete training or is based on a rowing machine. Extending on previous research, this paper proposes a conceptual design of a VR rowing game, VRrowing to provide a home exercise game for the elderly which benefits both physical and mental health. This research first analysed the relevant literature and existing VR exercise games for the elderly to find characteristics and their particular needs. Then, following design principles (in exercise games, human–computer interaction, and user interfaces (UIs)) for the elderly, this study proposed a conceptual design of VRrowing through the MDA framework (standing for mechanics, dynamics, and aesthetics). The results cover the system architecture, activities and tasks, patterns and roles, mechanics and structures, and UI examples. Based on comprehensive consideration of the results from relevant research and fostering strengths and circumventing weaknesses, VRrowing was designed as a sports game, aimed at the elderly according to their characteristics and needs, which fills the void of home VR rowing games for seniors’ exercise. This research has reference value for scientific research or development personnel in VR game applications and evaluations, especially for such games targeting the elderly. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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  • 14.
    Guo, Yang
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Bai, Guohua
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Hu, Yan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Using Bayes Network for Prediction of Type-2 Diabetes2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease and a major public health challenge worldwide. Using data mining methods to aid people to predict diabetes has become a popular topic. In this paper, Bayes Network was proposed to predict patients with developing Type-2 diabetes. The dataset used is the Pima Indians Diabetes Data Set, which collects the information of patients with and without developing Type-2 diabetes. Weka software was used throughout this study. Accurate results have been obtained which proves using the proposed Bayes network to predict Type-2 diabetes is effective.

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  • 15. Guo, Yang
    et al.
    Hu, Yan
    Afzal, Javed
    Bai, Guohua
    Using P2P Technology to Achieve eHealth Interoperability2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract—eHealth is an emerging area that boosts up with advancement in Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Due to variety of eHealth solutions developed by different IT firms with no unified standards, interoperability issue has raised. In this paper, a case study in Blekinge County healthcare organizations has been conducted for understanding the contexts of eHealth interoperability issues. Then a peer-to-peer (P2P) model based on JXTA platform is implemented to solve the identified eHealth interoperability problems. According to the test result of the prototype, the suggested syntactic level interoperability among healthcare organizations has been achieved.

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  • 16.
    Hu, Yan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Cloud Computing for Achieving Interoperability in Home-based Healthcare2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The care of chronic disease has become the main challenge for healthcare institutions around the world. As the incidence and prevalence of chronic diseases continue to increase, it is a big challenge for traditional hospital-based healthcare to meet requirements of patients. To meet the growing needs of patients, moving the front desk of healthcare from hospital to home is essential. Home-based healthcare for chronic disease involves many different organizations and healthcare providers. Therefore, there are interoperability problems for cooperation among the various organizations and healthcare providers to provide efficient and seamless home-based healthcare. 

    This thesis aims to point out an appropriate technical solution to interoperability problems in home-based healthcare. There are different levels of interoperability, such as pragmatic, semantic and syntactic. We explored alternative solutions specifically for syntactic interoperability. We started to identify the interoperability problems among different healthcare centers by interviews and online surveys. Based on this empirical study, we mainly used two current techniques, namely peer-to-peer (P2P) networks and cloud computing, to design prototypes for sharing healthcare data. Comparing these two techniques, we found the cloud-based solution figured out most of the problems encountered in healthcare interoperability. 

    To identify state of the art, and pinpoint the challenges and possible future directions for applying a cloud-based solution, a systematic literature review was carried out on cloud-based healthcare solutions. Based on the literature reviewed, we suggest a hybrid cloud model, with access controls and techniques for securing data, could be an acceptable solution for home-based healthcare in the future. This cloud model would work as a community for both healthcare providers and recipients, as well as other stakeholders, such as family members and other patients with similar symptoms. Then we conducted a questionnaire study with healthcare recipients and interviewed healthcare providers to gather the requirements for the design of the community. Based on the concept of ‘community’ from the activity theory model, we designed a prototype to demonstrate our proposed solution.   

    Finally, we proposed the conceptual hybrid cloud model. In our hybrid cloud model, hospitals and primary healthcare centers could continue using their own databases as private clouds. For home-based healthcare data, we argued, the best approach is to store and process the data in public clouds. Healthcare recipients, as the owners of their health data in public clouds, should then decide who can access their data and the conditions for sharing. To evaluate this model, we conducted a two-step case study of diabetes healthcare in Blekinge, Sweden. We found that our improved hybrid cloud model will be feasible in the future for home-based healthcare, and it will benefit both healthcare providers and recipients.

    To apply this model in practice, we suggest that a professional IT healthcare education team should be created to support both healthcare providers and recipients.

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  • 17.
    Hu, Yan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Cloud Computing for Interoperability in Home-Based Healthcare2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The care of chronic disease has become a main challenge for healthcare institutions around the world. As the incidence and prevalence of chronic diseases continue to increase, traditional hospital-based healthcare is less able to meet the needs of every patient. Treating chronic disease heavily depends on the patient’s daily behaviors, so patient-centered healthcare is encouraged. To improve patients’ quality of life, moving the base of healthcare from hospital to home is imperative. Home-based chronic disease care involves many different healthcare organizations and healthcare providers. Therefore, interoperability is a key approach to provide efficient and convenient home-based healthcare services. This thesis aims to reveal the interoperability issues in the current healthcare system and to point out an appropriate technical solution to overcome them. We start with collecting perspectives from both healthcare providers and healthcare recipients through interviews and online surveys to understand the situations and problems they face. In our research study, we mainly use two current techniques―peer-to-peer (P2P) networks and cloud computing―to design prototypes for sharing healthcare data, developing both a P2P-based solution and a cloud-based solution. Comparing these two techniques, we found the cloud-based solution covered most of the deficiencies in healthcare interoperability. Although there are different types of interoperability, such as pragmatic, semantic and syntactic, we explored alternative solutions specifically for syntactic interoperability. To identify the state of the art and pinpoint the challenges and possible future directions for applying a cloud-based solution, we reviewed the literature on cloud-based eHealth solutions. We suggest that a hybrid cloud model, which contains access controls and techniques for securing data, would be a feasible solution for developing a citizen-centered, home-based healthcare system. Patients’ healthcare records in hospitals and other healthcare centers could be kept in private clouds, while patients’ daily self-management data could be published in a trusted public cloud. Patients, as the owners of their health data, should then decide who can access their data and the conditions for sharing. Finally, we propose an online virtual community for home-based chronic disease healthcare―a cloud-based, home healthcare platform. The requirements of the platform were mainly determined from the responses to an online questionnaire delivered to a target group of people. This platform integrates healthcare providers and recipients within the same platform. Through this shared platform, interoperability among different healthcare providers, as well as with healthcare recipients’ self-management regimens, could be achieved.

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  • 18.
    Hu, Yan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Afzal, Javed
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Achieving eHealth interoperability Via peer-to-peer communication Using JXTA Technology2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    eHealth is an emerging area that boosts up with advancement in Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Due to variety of eHealth solutions developed by different IT firms with no proper shared standards, interoperability issue is then raised. Blekinge County healthcare organizations use two different systems MAGNA CURA and SYStem Cross. The two systems work well in their own scope. But these systems often need to communicate and coordinate for exchange of patients’ information which leads to the problem of interoperability. The aim of this research study is to provide fast and reliable peer-to-peer solution for exchange of patient information so as to achieve interoperability among healthcare organizations. This proposed solution is tested as a middleware between MAGNA CURA and SYStem Cross currently used by Blekinge County healthcare organizations. A qualitative approach including in-depth literature review and a semi-structured face-to-face interview has been used for understanding the context of research problem. We have tested our approach through an executable prototype. The prototype is implemented using JXTA platform. We have learned that Blekinge healthcare is decentralized and heterogonous in nature. For such kind of environment, peer-to-peer communication approach is suggested. According to the test result, the suggested syntactic level interoperability between the two mentioned systems has been achieved.

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  • 19.
    Hu, Yan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Bai, Guohua
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    A Cloud Model for Interoperable Home-based Chronic Diseases Healthcare2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional hospital based care cannot meet all the needs of chronic diseases care in home, especially for elderly people. A new approach applying eHealth that supports interoperable health care is required. To find a way to meet the new needs, we firstly carried out a questionnaire to analyze current problems and needs in chronic disease care. Then we compared possible technical solutions and proposed a cloud model for the identified problems. This model would help chronic patients self-record and control their daily care data, communicate with other patients who have the similar situation. The proposed solution could be also used to integrate data from different healthcare providers for a cooperative work, namely in this paper as Home-based Chronic Diseases Healthcare (HCDH).

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  • 20.
    Hu, Yan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Bai, Guohua
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    A systematic literature review of cloud computing in eHealth2014In: Health Informatics-An International Journal (HIIJ), ISSN 2319-2046, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 11-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud computing in eHealth is an emerging area for only few years. There needs to identify the state of the art and pinpoint challenges and possible directions for researchers and applications developers. Based on this need, we have conducted a systematic review of cloud computing in eHealth. We searched ACM Digital Library, IEEE Xplore, Inspec, ISI Web of Science and Springer as well as relevant open-access journals for relevant articles. A total of 237 studies were first searched, of which 44 papers met the Include Criteria. The studies identified three types of studied areas about cloud computing in eHealth, namely (1) cloud-based eHealth framework design (n=13); (2) applications of cloud computing (n=17); and (3) security or privacy control mechanisms of healthcare data in the cloud (n=14). Most of the studies in the review were about designs and concept-proof. Only very few studies have evaluated their research in the real world, which may indicate that the application of cloud computing in eHealth is still very immature. However, our presented review could pinpoint that a hybrid cloud platform with mixed access control and security protection mechanisms will be a main research area for developing citizen centred home-based healthcare applications.

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  • 21.
    Hu, Yan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Bai, Guohua
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Building up a Virtual Community for Home-Based Chronic Diseases Healthcare2014In: 2014 IEEE 2nd International Workshop on Usability and Accessibility Focused Requirements Engineering, IEEE , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the development of Internet, social networks get more and more popular, it brings us an idea of designing a virtual community for home-based chronic diseases healthcare. In this paper, we conduct a questionnaire to gather the requirements of the community and describe them with user stories. Afterwards, a conceptual prototype is developed based on the requirements. The proposed virtual community involves healthcare providers, healthcare recipients and other people relevant to the home-based healthcare into one platform. It will solve the interoperability problems of current healthcare systems, as well as provide a technical solution of home-based healthcare.

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  • 22.
    Hu, Yan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Bai, Guohua
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Eriksén, Sara
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Lundberg, Jenny
    Linnaeus University.
    An IoT Cloud Model for Diabetes Home-Based Care: A Case Study for Perceived Future Feasibility2021In: Enhanced Telemedicine and e-Health / [ed] Gonçalo MarquesAkash Kumar BhoiIsabel de la Torre DíezBegonya Garcia-Zapirain, Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2021, p. 99-115Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, the care of chronic disease has become a worldwide challenge. Although the healthcare domain has begun to adopt new ICT technologies such as the Internet of Things and cloud computing, it is still in its initial phase. In this chapter, the authors conduct a small-scale two-step case study of diabetes care in Blekinge, Sweden. The first step is intended to acquire insight into the actual care situation to improve the original conceptual model. In the second step, we validate the feasibility of the improved model working in real healthcare. The results show that the Internet of Things and cloud computing is acceptable by both healthcare providers and recipients for home-based chronic diseases healthcare with little concerns of security and privacy in the future. In our hybrid cloud model, hospitals and primary healthcare centers could continue using their own exciting databases as private clouds. The best approach for home-based healthcare data is to collect it by connecting the different devices directly and storing and processing them in public clouds. To realize this model in the future, we suggest that a professional IT healthcare education team should be created to support both healthcare providers and recipients. © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

  • 23.
    Hu, Yan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Bai, Guohua
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Lundberg, Jenny
    Linnaeus University, SWE.
    Eriksén, Sara
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    A Virtual Community Design for Home-Based Chronic Disease Healthcare2016In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science / [ed] Seyff N.,Ebert A.,Humayoun S.R.,Perini A.,Barbosa S.D.J.,Seyff N., Springer Publishing Company, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The internet based social network has been applied to serve many social functions, such as democratic decision making, knowledge sharing, educa‐ tion, and healthcare. In this paper, we provide a prototype of virtual community designed for home-based chronic diseases healthcare. We studied the concept “community” from the activity theory model in order to design the prototype with a solid theoretical base. Then we conducted a questionnaire from healthcare recipients and interviewed healthcare providers to gather the requirements for the design of the community. With some user stories we described the requirements as use cases for our design and a conceptual prototype is built based on the requirements. This virtual community servers as a shared platform for all the stakeholders who are engaged in the healthcare activity. With this shared community platform, the interoperability problems of current healthcare systems can be moderated

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  • 24.
    Hu, Yan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Elwardy, Majed
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Zepernick, Hans-Juergen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    On the Effect of Standing and Seated Viewing of 360 degrees Videos on Subjective Quality Assessment2020In: 2020 IEEE CONFERENCE ON VIRTUAL REALITY AND 3D USER INTERFACES WORKSHOPS (VRW 2020), IEEE COMPUTER SOC , 2020, p. 285-286Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we compare the impact that standing and seated viewing of 360 degrees videos on head-mounted displays has on subjective quality assessment. The statistical analysis of the data gathered in a pilot study is reported in terms of average rating times, mean opinion scores, and simulator sickness scores. The results indicate: (1) Average rating times consumed for 360 degrees video quality assessment are similar for standing and seated viewing, (2) Higher resolving power among different quality levels is obtained for seated viewing, (3) Simulator sickness is kept significantly lower when seated.

  • 25.
    Hu, Yan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Elwardy, Majed
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Zepernick, Hans-Juergen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    On the Effect of Standing and Seated Viewing of 360 degrees Videos on Subjective Quality Assessment: A Pilot Study2021In: Computers, E-ISSN 2073-431X, Vol. 10, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the advances in head-mounted displays (HMDs), hardware and software technologies, and mobile connectivity, virtual reality (VR) applications such as viewing 360 degrees videos on HMDs have seen an increased interest in a wide range of consumer and vertical markets. Quality assessment of digital media systems and services related to immersive visual stimuli has been one of the challenging problems of multimedia signal processing. Specifically, subjective quality assessment of 360 degrees videos presented on HMDs is needed to obtain a ground truth on the visual quality as perceived by humans. Standardized test methodologies to assess the subjective quality of 360 degrees videos on HMDs are currently not as developed as for conventional videos and are subject to further study. In addition, subjective tests related to quality assessment of 360 degrees videos are commonly conducted with participants seated on a chair but neglect other options of consumption such as standing viewing. In this paper, we compare the effect that standing and seated viewing of 360 degrees videos on an HMD has on subjective quality assessment. A pilot study was conducted to obtain psychophysical and psychophysiological data that covers explicit and implicit responses of the participants to the shown 360 degrees video stimuli with different quality levels. The statistical analysis of the data gathered in the pilot study is reported in terms of average rating times, mean opinion scores, standard deviation of opinion scores, head movements, pupil diameter, galvanic skin response (GSR), and simulator sickness scores. The results indicate that the average rating times consumed for 360 degrees video quality assessment are similar for standing and seated viewing. Further, the participants showed higher resolving power among different 360 degrees video quality levels and were more confident about the given opinion scores for seated viewing. On the other hand, a larger scene exploration of 360 degrees videos was observed for standing viewing which appears to distract from the quality assessment task. A slightly higher pupil dilation was recorded for standing viewing which suggests a slightly more immersed experience compared to seated viewing. GSR data indicate a lower degree of emotional arousal in seated viewing which seems to allow the participants to better conduct the quality assessment task. Similarly, simulator sickness symptoms are kept significantly lower when seated. The pilot study also contributes to a holistic view of subjective quality assessment and provides indicative ground truth that can guide the design of large-scale subjective tests.

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  • 26.
    Hu, Yan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Eriksén, Sara
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Lundberg, Jenny
    Future Directions of Applying Healthcare Cloud for Home-based Chronic Disease Care2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The care of chronic disease has become the main challenge for healthcare institutions around the world. To meet the growing needs of patients, moving the front desk of healthcare from hospital to home is essential. Recently, cloud computing has been applied to healthcare domain; however, adapting to and using this technology effectively for home-based care is still in its initial phase. We have proposed a conceptual hybrid cloud model for home-based chronic disease care, and have evaluated its future feasibility by a case study of diabetes care in Blekinge, Sweden. In this paper, we discuss some possible future opportunities and challenges to apply this cloud model with the huge population for home-based chronic diseases care. To apply this model in practice, a professional IT healthcare education team is needed for both healthcare providers and healthcare recipients. For home-based healthcare, a monitoring system with an automatic alarm to healthcare providers is also necessary in some cases. Also, how to record and integrate excises data through wearable devices in a cloud should be considered. Given the high demand, sharing medical images through the cloud should be another research focus.

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  • 27.
    Hu, Yan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Goswami, Prashant
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    A Review on XR in Home-based Nursing Education2023In: HEALTHINFO 2023: The Eighth International Conference on Informatics and Assistive Technologies for Health-Care, Medical Support and Wellbeing, International Academy, Research, and Industry Association (IARIA) , 2023, p. 39-43Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent developments using extended reality (XR) technologies have allowed for increased use in healthcare in the last few years. This review paper explores how XR applications are utilized in home-based nursing education, in particular, to identify future challenges and opportunities. The systematic literature review evaluates relevant extracted papers based on publication information, XR technology used for education purposes, target users, and study design and evaluation, including sample size. The results show potential for using XR technologies in home-based nursing education. In particular, Virtual Reality (VR) has become quite popular and the most used to date. However, Augmented Reality (AR) has also emerged as an alternative for the future.

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  • 28.
    Hu, Yan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Jiang, Zeting
    Blekinge Institute of Technology. student.
    Zhu, Kaicheng
    Blekinge Institute of Technology. student.
    An Optimized CNN Model for Engagement Recognition in an E-Learning Environment2022In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 12, no 16, article id 8007Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the wake of the restrictions imposed on social interactions due to the COVID-19 pandemic, traditional classroom education was replaced by distance education in many universities. Under the changed circumstances, students are required to learn more independently. The challenge for teachers has been to duly ascertain students’ learning efficiency and engagement during online lectures. This paper proposes an optimized lightweight convolutional neural network (CNN) model for engagement recognition within a distance-learning setup through facial expressions. The ShuffleNet v2 architecture was selected, as this model can easily adapt to mobile platforms and deliver outstanding performance compared to other lightweight models. The proposed model was trained, tested, evaluated and compared with other CNN models. The results of our experiment showed that an optimized model based on the ShuffleNet v2 architecture with a change of activation function and the introduction of an attention mechanism provides the best performance concerning engagement recognition. Further, our proposed model outperforms many existing works in engagement recognition on the same database. Finally, this model is suitable for student engagement recognition for distance learning on mobile platforms. © 2022 by the authors.

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  • 29.
    Hu, Yan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Lu, Fangjie
    Khan, Israr
    Bai, Guohua
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    A Cloud Computing Solution for Sharing Healthcare Information2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, sharing healthcare information becomes one of essential requirements of e-health development. To cover this gap, different solutions are presented through different technologies. In this paper, we proposed a cloud computing solution for sharing healthcare information based on Google App Engine (GAE). With the experiment test results, we achieve interoperability among different healthcare centers and between healthcare providers and receivers with high stability and availability.

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  • 30.
    Hu, Yan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Peng, Cong
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Bai, Guohua
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Sharing Health Data Through Hybrid Cloud For Self-Management2015In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Multimedia & Expo Workshops (ICMEW), IEEE, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, patient self-management is encouraged in home-based healthcare, especially for chronic disease care. Sharing health information could improve the quality of patient self-management. In this paper, we introduce cloud computing as a potential technology to provide a more sustainable long-term solution compared with other technologies. A hybrid cloud is identified as a suitable way to enable patients to share health information for promoting the treatment of chronic diseases. And then a prototype on the case of type 2 diabetes is implemented to prove the feasibility of the proposed solution.

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  • 31.
    Hu, Yan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Exploring Biometrics as an Evaluation Technique for Digital Game Addiction Prevention2018In: Journal of Behavioral Addictions, ISSN 2062-5871, E-ISSN 2063-5303, Vol. 7, p. 15-15Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Boeva, Veselka
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Zepernick, Hans-Juergen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Goswami, Prashant
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Cheddad, Abbas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Tutschku, Kurt
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Grahn, Håkan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Casalicchio, Emiliano
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Fiedler, Markus
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Abghari, Shahrooz
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Hu, Yan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Garro, Valeria
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Chu, Thi My Chinh
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Lundberg, Lars
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Arlos, Patrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    HINTS: Human-Centered Intelligent Realities2023In: 35th Annual Workshop of the Swedish Artificial Intelligence Society SAIS 2023 / [ed] Håkan Grahn, Anton Borg and Martin Boldt, Linköping University Electronic Press, 2023, p. 9-17Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade, we have witnessed a rapiddevelopment of extended reality (XR) technologies such asaugmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR). Further, therehave been tremendous advancements in artificial intelligence(AI) and machine learning (ML). These two trends will havea significant impact on future digital societies. The vision ofan immersive, ubiquitous, and intelligent virtual space opensup new opportunities for creating an enhanced digital world inwhich the users are at the center of the development process,so-calledintelligent realities(IRs).The “Human-Centered Intelligent Realities” (HINTS) profileproject will develop concepts, principles, methods, algorithms,and tools for human-centered IRs, thus leading the wayfor future immersive, user-aware, and intelligent interactivedigital environments. The HINTS project is centered aroundan ecosystem combining XR and communication paradigms toform novel intelligent digital systems.HINTS will provide users with new ways to understand,collaborate with, and control digital systems. These novelways will be based on visual and data-driven platforms whichenable tangible, immersive cognitive interactions within realand virtual realities. Thus, exploiting digital systems in a moreefficient, effective, engaging, and resource-aware condition.Moreover, the systems will be equipped with cognitive featuresbased on AI and ML, which allow users to engage with digitalrealities and data in novel forms. This paper describes theHINTS profile project and its initial results. ©2023, Copyright held by the authors   

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  • 33.
    Zepernick, Hans-Juergen
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Elwardy, Majed
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Hu, Yan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    On the Number of Participants Needed for Subjective Quality Assessment of 360° Videos2019In: 13th International Conference on Signal Processing and Communication Systems, ICSPCS 2019 - Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Immersive multimedia applications such as 360° videos and virtual reality (VR) live broadcasting are expected to receive increased popularity in the consumer markets. These applications provide three-dimensional spatial information and require to develop the related advanced wired and wireless ecosystems ranging from head-mounted displays (HMDs) and processors to network connectivity. To develop immersive multimedia systems that provide acceptable user experiences, it is essential to conduct subjective experiments that support assessing subjective video quality as perceived by the users. In this paper, we focus on the question of how many participants are needed in subjective experiments for 360° videos such that a statistically meaningful subjective quality assessment is supported. For this purpose, a subjective experiment for 360° videos has been conducted using the modified absolute category rating with hidden reference (M-ACR-HR) method. A statistical analysis of the opinion scores given by the participants to the visual stimuli shown on an HMD is provided. In particular, mean opinion scores (MOS), differential MOS (DMOS), and the associated margin of error (MoE) and differential MoE are obtained. It is shown that 21 to 26 participants would be sufficient to drive the differential MoE of the DMOS below the given thresholds of ϵ =1% and ϵ=0.75%, respectively. © 2019 IEEE.

  • 34.
    Zhang, Jialin
    et al.
    Zhejiang Normal University, CHI.
    Hu, Yan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Li, Hui
    Zhejiang Normal University, CHI.
    Zheng, Hui
    Zhejiang Normal University, CHI.
    Xiang, Ming
    Zhejiang Normal University, CHI.
    Wang, Ziliang
    Zhejiang Normal University, CHI.
    Dong, Guangheng
    Zhejiang Normal University, CHI.
    Altered brain activities associated with cue reactivity during forced break in subjects with Internet gaming disorder2020In: Addictive Behaviours, ISSN 0306-4603, E-ISSN 1873-6327, Vol. 102, article id 106203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Studies have proven that forced break can elicit strong psychological cravings for addictive behaviors. This phenomenon could create an excellent situation to study the neural underpinnings of addiction. The current study explores brain features during a cue-reactivity task in Internet gaming disorder (IGD) when participants were forced to stop their gaming behaviors. Methods: Forty-nine IGD subjects and forty-nine matched recreational Internet game users (RGU) were asked to complete a cue-reactivity task when their ongoing gaming behaviors were forced to break. We compared their brain responses to gaming cues and tried to find specific features associated with IGD. Results: Compared with RGU, the IGD subjects showed decreased activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), parahippocampal gyrus, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Significant negative correlations were observed between self-reported gaming cravings and the baseline activation level (bate value) of the ACC, DLPFC, and parahippocampal gyrus. Conclusions: IGD subjects were unable to suppress their gaming cravings after unexpectedly forced break. This result could also explain why RGU subjects are able to play online games without developing dependence. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd

  • 35.
    Zhang, Jialin
    et al.
    Hangzhou Normal University, CHN.
    Hu, Yan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Wang, Ziliang
    McGovern Institute for Brain Research, CHN.
    Wang, Min
    Hangzhou Normal University, CHN.
    Dong, Guangheng
    Hangzhou Normal University, CHN.
    Males are more sensitive to reward and less sensitive to loss than females among people with internet gaming disorder: FMRI evidence from a card-guessing task2020In: BMC Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Many studies have found an interesting issue in the Internet gaming disorder (IGD): males are always observed to be the majority. However, there are little research to exploring the differences in the neural mechanisms between males and females in decision-making process among people with IGD. Therefore, explore the reward/loss processing between different gender with IGD could help in understanding the underlying neural mechanism of IGD. Methods: Data from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were collected from 111 subjects (IGD: 29 males, 25 females; recreational internet game user (RGU): 36 males, 21 females) while they were performing a card-guessing task. We collected and compared their brain features when facing the win and loss conditions in different groups. Results: For winning conditions, IGD group showed hypoactivity in the lingual gyrus than RGU group, male players showed hyperactivity in the left caudate nucleus, bilateral cingulate gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus (MFG), right precuneus and inferior parietal lobule relative to the females. And significant sex-by-group interactions results showed higher brain activities in the thalamus, parahippocampal gyrus and lower brain activities in Inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) were observed in males with IGD than females. For losing conditions, IGD group showed hypoactivity in the left lingual gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus and right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) compared to the RGU group, male players showed hyperactive left caudate nucleus and hypoactive right middle occipital gyrus relative to females. And significant sex-by-group interactions results showed that compared to females with IGD, males with IGD showed decreased brain activities in the IFG and lingual gyrus. Conclusions: First, there appeared to be no difference in reward processing between the IGD and RGU group, but IGD showed less sensitivity to loss. Secondly, male players showed more sensitivity to rewards and less sensitivity to losses. Last but not least, males and females showed opposite activation patterns in IGD degree and rewards/losses processing. And male IGD subjects are more sensitive to reward and less sensitive to loss than females, which might be the reason for the gender different rates on IGD. © 2020 The Author(s).

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