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  • 1.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Dasari, Siva Krishna
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för datalogi och datorsystemteknik.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Petter, Andersson
    GKN Aerospace Systems , SWE.
    Model-based decision support for value and sustainability assessment: Applying machine learning in aerospace product development2018Inngår i: DS92: Proceedings of the DESIGN 2018 15th International Design Conference / [ed] Marjanović D., Štorga M., Škec S., Bojčetić N., Pavković N, The Design Society, 2018, Vol. 6, s. 2585-2596Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a prescriptive approach toward the integration of value and sustainability models in an automated decision support environment enabled by machine learning (ML). The approach allows the concurrent multidimensional analysis of design cases complementing mechanical simulation results with value and sustainability assessment. ML allows to deal with both qualitative and quantitative data and to create surrogate models for quicker design space exploration. The approach has been developed and preliminary implemented in collaboration with a major aerospace sub-system manufacturer.

  • 2.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik. Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling. Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Dasari, Siva Krishna
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Petter
    GKN Aerospace Engine Systems, SWE.
    Integration of Value and Sustainability Assessment in Design Space Exploration by Machine Learning: An Aerospace Application2019Inngår i: Design ScienceArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 3.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Isaksson, Ola
    GKN Aerospace Sweden.
    A model-based approach for sustainability and value assessment in the aerospace value chain2015Inngår i: Advances in Mechanical Engineering, ISSN 1687-8132, E-ISSN 1687-8140, Vol. 7, nr 6, s. 1-19Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the aerospace industry, systems engineering practices have been exercised for years, as a way to turn high-level design objectives into concrete targets on system functionality (e.g. range, noise, and reliability). More difficult is to decompose and clarify sustainability implications in the same way and to compare them against performance-related capabilities already during preliminary design. This article addresses the problem of bringing the important—yet typically high level and complex—sustainability aspects into engineering practices. It proposes a novel integrated model-based method that provides a consistent way of addressing the well-known lack of generic and integrated ways of clarifying both cost and value consequences of sustainability in early phases. It further presents the development and implementation of such approach in two separate case studies conducted in collaboration with a major aero-engine sub-system manufacturer. The first case concerns the assessment of alternative business configurations to maintain scarce materials in closed loops, while the second one concerns the production technology of an aero-engine component. Eventually, this article highlights the learning generated by the development and implementation of these approaches and discusses opportunities for further development of model-based support.

  • 4.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Value assessment of sustainability hotspots in conceptual design: an aerospace study.2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, when designing structural aero-engine components, the engineering team does not only deal with aerodynamics and structural mechanics criteria. Rather, it needs to make more informed decisions based on the value and sustainability contribution of a design concept. This paper proposes a novel approach that combines qualitative sustainability assessment techniques, which are Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Sustainability Assessment (SSA), with Net Present Value (NPV) analysis to facilitate early stage decision-making in design. A case study, related to the development of a new high-temperature aero-engine component, illustrates how EIA and SSA identify sustainability hotspots for a new product technology, and how NPV is used to assess alternative solution strategies within the hotspot. Within the studied case, the milling process was identified as a sustainability hotspot, therefore two process options - Electro-Chemical Milling (ECM) and Mechanical Milling (MM) - where benchmarked by calculating their NPV in alternative future scenarios, featuring different market and regulatory assumptions. The approach and its constituting models have been preliminarily verified with designers and process owners in co-located industrial workshops.

  • 5.
    Bratt, Cecilia
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Sophie, Hallstedt
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Procurement as driver of sustainable product-service innovation2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Current patterns of production and consumption need to change and they need to do so radically. For this shift sustainability-oriented product-services are highly potential contributors. Product-services have been described as a market proposition that extends the functionality of a product beyond the traditional view by inclusion of additional services into the product-service system. From a producer perspective this opens up for a differentiation from competitors and thereby for strategic market opportunities. For the customer this means the possibility to be released from responsibilities linked to asset ownership, more differentiated options and increased function availability .For society at large it means the possibility to gain sustainability achievements. However, the market adoption of product-services or functional products brings with it significant challenges. The demand side is still hesitant to ownerless consumption and the supply side faces economical and company culture-related challenges. The challenges also include customer-related challenges and the development of product-services will require joint efforts of a number of actors along the value chain, actors that traditionally have been outside the buyer-seller relationship. Product-services need to be developed on a case-by-case basis and involve the users perspective from initial need phase until end-of-life in a collaborative process that is not practice today. This paper explores the strategic position of a procurer in this development. It aims at providing guidelines for procurement processes on how to successively and systematically utilize its potential as drivers for sustainability-oriented product-service solutions. Three procurement cases are studied for which a movement from a traditional product-oriented process to a functional-oriented process was the selection criteria. These cases were used to gain a deepened understanding of drivers and barriers for function-oriented procurement processes. A template for sustainable product development is used as a base for the development. The result from the cases is used to adapt the guidelines to current procurement processes and to meet the procurers where they are today.

  • 6. Bratt, Cecilia
    et al.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Broman, Göran
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    Oldmark, Jonas
    Assessment of Eco-labelling Criteria Development from a Strategic Sustainability Perspective2011Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 19, nr 14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To turn current patterns of consumption and production in a sustainable direction, solid and understandable market information on the socio-ecological performance of products is needed. Eco-labelling programmes have an important role in this communication. The aim of this study is to investigate what gaps there may be in the current criteria development processes in relation to a strategic sustainability perspective and develop recommendations on how such presumptive gaps could be bridged. First a previously published generic framework for strategic sustainable development is described and applied for the assessment of two eco-labelling programmes. Data for the assessment is collected from literature and in semi-structured interviews and discussions with eco-labelling experts. The assessment revealed that the programmes lack both an operational definition of sustainability, and a statement of objectives to direct and drive the criteria development processes. Consequently they also lack guidelines for how product category criteria might gradually develop in any direction. The selected criteria mainly reflect the current reality based on a selection of negative impacts in ecosystems, but how this selection, or prioritization, is made is not clearly presented. Finally, there are no guidelines to ensure that the criteria developers represent a broad enough competence to embrace all essential sustainability aspects. In conclusion the results point at deficiencies in theory, process and practice of eco-labelling, which hampers cohesiveness, transparency and comprehension. And it hampers predictability, as producers get no support in foreseeing how coming revisions of criteria will develop. This represents a lost opportunity for strategic sustainable development. It is suggested that these problems could be avoided by informing the criteria development process by a framework for strategic sustainable development, based on backcasting from basic sustainability principles.

  • 7.
    Bratt, Cecilia
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Robèrt, Karl Henrik
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Oldmark, Jonas
    Assessment of criteria development for public procurement from a strategic sustainability perspective2013Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 52, s. 309-316Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Green public procurement has emerged as a policy instrument with a significant potential to steer procurers' and producers' decisions in a sustainable direction. The purpose of this study is to assess the process for development of green public procurement criteria at a Swedish governmental expert body from a strategic sustainability perspective, i.e. to identify strengths and weaknesses from such a perspective as a basis for making this process more supportive of sustainable product and service innovation. A previously published framework for strategic sustainable development is used for the assessment. The assessment shows that the criteria development process is transparent, well-documented and that it encourages a high level of participation by the members of the working groups. However, the assessment also points to several weaknesses of the process. These include, e.g., a limited impact perspective and lack of a clear definition of sustainability objectives. The development process therefore results in criteria which mainly concern a selection of current environmental impacts outside the context of long-term objectives and consequently there are no strategies to prepare for future processes. The conclusion is that the current process may result in improvements as regards some known environmental problems, but to allow for a strategic approach that could more significantly promote innovative product-service system solutions in support of sustainable development, process changes are needed. Essential process changes are proposed in this paper.

  • 8.
    Broman, Göran
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Byggeth, Sophie
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Integrating Environmental Aspects in Engineering Education2002Inngår i: International journal of engineering education, ISSN 0949-149X, Vol. 18, nr 6, s. 717-724Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The key role of engineers for the transformation of society towards sustainability is a strong motivation for increasing the environmental knowledge within engineering education. Doing this by the concept of integration is presently considered more appropriate than to develop more new education programmes for environmental specialists. This paper describes the integration of environmental aspects into a mechanical engineering education programme. The Natural Step Framework has been used as a basis for this integration. It has been possible to include environmental knowledge without compromising the engineering quality of the programme.

  • 9. Byggeth, Sophie
    Integration of Sustainability Aspects in Product Development2001Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Integration of sustainability aspects into the product development process has been difficult to achieve, especially for small and medium-sized enterprises. The main reason is that existing tools are experienced to be too detailed and as a result too demanding in terms of time and resources. This Licentiate Thesis presents a method for sustainable product development (MSPD). The method is intended to be a complement to existing overarching sustainability management tools and detailed quantitative product analysis tools. The objectives of the MSPD are: (i) identification of potential problems of present or planned products caused by substances and activities during the product life cycle that are critical with regard to principles for sustainability; (ii) guidance in finding solutions to the potential problems by modifications of present or planned products, and (iii) promotion of new products and business ideas based on sustainability aspects. A method suitable for most enterprises, irrespective of product type or background knowledge, has been sought. The MSPD includes: (1) a management tool which supports the user with information about, and instructions for applying, the method; (2) a flexible model for an integrated product development process, including checklist questions concerning traditional aspects of product development; (3) a modular system of guiding questions concerning aspects of sustainability, and (4) a prioritisation matrix for evaluation and choice of proposals in each product development phase. A MSPD prototype has been developed and tested in six small and medium- sized enterprises to study the usability of the basic structure of the method, and to obtain ideas for improvements and further development.

  • 10. Byggeth, Sophie
    et al.
    Broman, Göran
    Environmental Aspects in Product Development: an Investigation among Small and Medium Sized Enterprises2000Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Small- and Medium sized Enterprises (SMEs) represent a large part of industry. Environmental considerations during product development in SMEs therefore imply a large potential for reducing society's environmental impact. Implementing environmentally adapted product development among SMEs has been considered difficult and is uncommon. Our approach is to develop a qualitative Method for Sustainable Product Development (MSPD) that relates both to a framework for sustainability and to the ordinary product development process. The aim is to guide the user to avoid problems related to social and ecological non-sustainability without demanding extensive expertise knowledge. Two surveys in ten Swedish SMEs have been carried out. An initial survey registered their product development procedures and environmental work as well as desired characteristics of a new suggested method for integrating environmental aspects into the product development process. A second survey registered additional desired characteristics and improvement suggestions when testing an early version of our MSPD. The surveys and the structure of our MSPD are presented, and the desired characteristics for a workable method in SMEs, found in our investigation and in literature, are discussed.

  • 11.
    Byggeth, Sophie
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Holmberg, John
    Lundqvist, Ulrika
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    A Method for Sustainable Product Development In Small and Medium Sized Enterprises2000Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A qualitative Method for Sustainable Product Development (MSPD) is presented. It consists of three tools: an Integrated Product Development Model (IPDM), a strategic planning process based on backcasting (ABCD-analysis), and a matrix containing hierarchically ordered and guiding questions. This Sustainability Product Analysis (SPA) matrix has conditions for sustainability along one axis and the life cycle of the product along the other axis. The SPA-matrix is used in the ABCD-analysis, which in turn is used in the IPDM. Integrating the tools in this way and using overall conditions for sustainability is unique compared to many other tools and methods for design for the environment. The MSPD is being developed in discussions with ten small- and medium sized enterprises.

  • 12.
    Byggeth, Sophie
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Lundqvist, Ulrika
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Holmberg, John
    An Approach to Sustainability Product Analysis in Product Development2001Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 13.
    Byggeth, Sophie
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    A method for sustainable product development based on a modular system of guiding questions2007Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 1-11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a Method for Sustainable Product Development (MSPD) with the aim of integrating social and ecological aspects of sustainability with a strategic business perspective in product development. The method applies backcasting from basic principles for sustainability, which allows a strategic approach, and it includes a modular system of guiding questions that are derived by considering these principles and the product life cycle. Initial testing in Swedish companies indicates that the suggested MSPD promotes a ‘bird’s eye’ perspective and encourage and aid development of products that support society’s transformation towards sustainability. Furthermore, it is concluded that the modular system provides flexibility and user-friendliness.

  • 14.
    Byggeth, Sophie
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    Handling trade-offs in Ecodesign tools for Sustainable Product Development and Procurement2005Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 14, nr 15-16, s. 1420-1430Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Trade-off situations often occur in the product development and procurement processes when alternative solutions emphasize different aspects that have to be balanced against each other. Ecodesign tools can be used in both product development and purchasing, for example to prescribe design alternatives, assess environmental impacts or to compare environmental improvement alternatives. However, it is not always clear what should be chosen in trade-off situations. In this study, fifteen different Ecodesign tools were analyzed to ascertain whether a valuation is included in the tools, in what way the tools give support in different types of trade-off situations and whether the tools give support from a sustainability perspective. Nine of the fifteen tools analyzed included a valuation and were able to give support in a trade-off situation, but the support was not sufficient. The valuation should include a lifecycle perspective and a framework for sustainability. Otherwise it can lead to strategically incorrect decisions from a sustainability perspective with concomitant risks of sub-optimized investment paths and blind alleys. However, all the analyzed tools can be complemented with other tools and methods based on strategic planning towards sustainability in order to include a framework for sustainability.

  • 15.
    Byggeth, Sophie
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Ny, Henrik
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Wall, Johan
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Introductory Procedure for Sustainability-Driven Design Optimization2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In response to the increasingly competitive global market, there is a growing interest in design optimization. Being able to include aspects of socio-ecological sustainability in product design should aid companies to both improve current competitiveness and to identify viable long-term investment paths and new business opportunities in the evolving sustainability-driven market. A case study of a water jet cutting machine is used to illustrate a new iterative optimization procedure that combines a technical assessment with a sustainability assessment. Sustainability assessment methods/tools are first used to identify prominent sustainability problems from present-day flows and practices (“societal indicators”) and to generate ideas of long-term solutions and visions. Based on this, preliminary ideas about likely desirable changes in machine properties are obtained. Technical investigations are then performed to assess if/how these particularly desirable changes in machine properties could in principle be realized through changes in design variables. After that, obtainable changes are fed back to a new and more refined sustainability assessment to find out the societal implications of these changes. This may in turn result in other desirable design changes, which may call for a new and more refined technical assessment, etcetera. The experience from the case study indicates that the suggested integrated and iterative working procedure should be able to add information about socio-ecological impacts of product properties and influence design criteria used in prioritisation situations during product development.

  • 16.
    Eckert, Claudia
    et al.
    The Open University, GBR.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Chalmers University of Technology, SWE.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Malmqvist, Johan
    Chalmers University of Technology, SWE.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, SWE.
    Panarotto, Massimo
    Chalmers University of Technology, SWE.
    Industry Trends to 20402019Inngår i: Proceedings of the Design Society: International Conference on Engineering Design 2019, Cambridge University Press, 2019, Vol. 1, s. 2121-2128Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 17. Franca, Cesar-Levy
    et al.
    Broman, Göran
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Systematic Guidance for How to Integrate a Strategic Sustainability Perspective in Core Business Decision Systems2009Inngår i: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Engineering Design, 2009, s. 385-396Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability integration in core business and product development has been a challenge, even if many supporting methods, tools and concepts are available today. However, these are mainly focusing on specific environmental aspects and are often failing to serve companies in integrating sustainability thinking into their strategic decision processes, and consequently into their core business and product development. In this study a previous proposal for an approach to assessing the current state of sustainability integration in company decision systems was used at two case companies, ABB High Voltage Cables and Hammarplast AB. The purpose was to develop this approach further so that it can better assist decision makers (when initial assessment points to such gaps) to integrate sustainability thinking into the strategic decision processes, i.e. align vision, management system and tools to help prioritize actions in a backcasting plan for a sustainable company within a sustainable society. The developed approach includes a SWOT analysis supported strategic capability assessment, and genericguidelines for how to identify appropriate targets, which can also serve as a basis for development of indicators – all informed by a framework for strategic sustainable development.

  • 18.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    A Foundation for Sustainable Product Development2008Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Product development is a particularly critical intervention point for the transformation of society towards sustainability. Current socio-ecological impacts over product life-cycles are evidence that current practices are insufficient. The aim of this thesis is to form a foundation for sustainable product development through the integration of a sustainability perspective into product development procedures and processes. Literature reviews and theoretical considerations as well as interviews, questionnaires, observations, testing and action research through case studies in various companies have indicated gaps in current methodology and have guided the development of a new general Method for Sustainable Product Development (MSPD). This method combines a framework for strategic sustainable development based on backcasting from basic sustainability principles with a standard concurrent engineering development model. A modular system of guiding questions, derived by considering the sustainability principles and the product life-cycle, is the key feature. Initial testing indicates that this MSPD works well for identification of sustainability problems as well as for generation of possible solutions. However, these tests also indicate that there is sometimes a desire for a quick overview of the sustainability performance of a specific product category. This is to guide early strategic decisions before the more comprehensive and detailed work with the MSPD is undertaken, or, alternatively, when an overview is sufficient to make decisions. In response, a Template for Sustainable Product Development (TSPD) approach is presented as a supplement to the MSPD. To generate products that support sustainable development of society it is necessary to combine sustainability assessments with improvements of technical product properties. An introductory procedure for such sustainability-driven design optimization is suggested based on a case study. For maximum efficiency of a company in finding viable pathways towards sustainability, it is also necessary to coordinate different methods and tools that are useful for sustainable product development and integrate them into the overall decision-making processes at different levels in companies. To find gaps in the sustainability integration in a company’s decision system, an assessment approach is suggested based on case studies. A general conclusion from this research is that the support needed for making sustainability-related decisions are not systematically integrated in companies today. However, this thesis also indicates that it is possible to create generic methods and tools that aid the integration of sustainability aspects in companies’ strategic decision-making and product development. These methods and tools can be used to guide the prioritization of investments and technical optimization on the increasingly sustainability-driven market, thus providing a foundation for competitive sustainable product development.

  • 19.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    HOW TO DEFINE A SUSTAINABILITY DESIGN SPACE2015Inngår i: Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED). Milan, Italy, July 27-30, 2015., DESIGN SOC, UNIV STRATHCLYDE , 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

     In order for a company to define a sustainability design space and become more sustainable it must know: what sustainability means; how sustainability can be achieved; and, how sustainability can be measured. 

    The main contribution of this paper is an approach to define the design space for sustainability, with purpose to give support in the early product innovation process. A novel approach is presented for how to identify strategic sustainability criteria, tactical design guidelines and sustainability compliance index that are important parts of a sustainability design space. A case company within the aerospace industry has been chosen to test and validate the sustainability criteria and how it can give support in evaluating the current sustainability profile of a product component by using the suggested Sustainability Compliance Index (SCI). 

    The result from company feedback and early pilot-testing showed that the sustainability criteria and sustainability compliance index can give support in decisions regarding sustainability perspective in early concept development. The pilot-tests also indicated that there is a need for further development and validation.

  • 20.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Sustainability criteria and sustainability compliance index for decision support in product development2017Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 140, nr Part 1, s. 251-266Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability criteria used for decision support in the product innovation process and aligned throughout the design process is one key element to efficiently introduce a sustainability perspective early in product development. The aim of this paper is to present an approach for identifying such sustainability criteria and to suggest a process for how these can be developed in any manufacturing company. The sustainability criteria are presented in a set of matrices, separating the criteria into product life-cycle phases and socio-ecological sustainability principles. In addition the paper presents a qualitative measurement scale for the criteria, called a sustainability compliance index that indicates to what degree a product or process concept performs in relation to a sustainable solution. The sustainability criteria were tested in different settings at a case company within the aerospace industry to give a first indication and evaluation of the ability to give guidance and support in bringing in a sustainability perspective when developing, evaluating and selecting different concepts in the early phases of product development.

  • 21.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Assessing Sustainability and Value of Manufacturing Processes: A case in the aerospace industry2015Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 108, nr Part A, s. 169-182Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In spite of the growing awareness and significance of accounting for sustainability aspects in product development, design decision support is still immature in this end compared to other decision support areas, such as product performance and manufacturability. This paper proposes a novel decision support method that combines qualitative sustainability assessment techniques with a quantitative analysis, without losing transparency and still covering a full sustainability perspective. The aim is to contribute to an understanding for how to enable value assessment of sustainability issues already in early product development situations. The method, named Sustainability Assessment and Value Evaluation, combines two qualitative sustainability assessment techniques with a quantitative Net Present Value analysis based on alternative future scenarios. A case study, related to the development of a new high-temperature aero-engine component, illustrates both how the sustainability assessment identifies hotspots and clarifies potential sustainability consequences for a new product technology, and how Net Present Value is used to assess alternative solution strategies based on the hotspot, to facilitate early stage decision-making in design. The paper argues that the method serves two main purposes: i) to make sustainability consequences more concrete and understandable during design concept selection activities, rather than to have an exact measurement, and ii) to simplify and prioritize, systematically asking what is important in the sustainability analysis, rather than to reduce the sustainability problem. The method allows undertaking the sustainability assessment in a more structured way than what happens today in preliminary design, through scenario building based on socio-ecological assessments, including back-casting to cover the longer time perspective. In addition, the Sustainability Assessment and Value Evaluation-method provided the design team of a means for displaying sustainability consequences on an equal basis with other decision support tool results.

  • 22.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Clarification of sustainability consequences of manufacturing processes in conceptual design2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the conceptual design of aircraft jet engine components, not only the product architecture and dimensions are set but the associate manufacturing processes are also defined. From a design decision point of view it is critical to identify and characterize the consequences of alternative solutions. This paper reports on a case, where a milling process needed to be selected in an early design phase of a jet engine component. An Electro-Chemical Milling process was considered but its impact on sustainability needed clarification. An approach that combined a simplified Environmental Impact Assessment with a Strategic Sustainability Assessment was used. The main finding and contribution from the work is a method that helps to clarify consequences of sustainability-related issues by combining the two analysis tools with a risk analysis implementation. The results reveal that once the consequences can be clarified, increased attention and understanding are gained.

  • 23.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Chalmers University of Technology, SWE.
    Material criticality assessment in early phases of sustainable product development2017Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 161, s. 40-52Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving structural performance of products is often realized by introducing increasingly advanced and complex materials as well as material combinations. What material to use in products is decided in the early product development phases and has a decisive impact for manufacturing, maintenance and end-of-life. A particular challenge is that the decisions need to be made upfront, where information of the forthcoming product is limited. This paper presents an early product development method to assess the criticality of alloy materials from a resource availability- and sustainability perspective. The method distinguishes itself from previous studies that focus on element criticality on a country level. The method is used to characterize and analyze the criticality of alloys in a three-step process that aims to support product design teams selecting what material alloy to use in early phases of design. It provides a proactive and systematic approach related to critical materials to avoid potential future problems on a long-term basis. The method presented has been developed in an action research-based approach in an aerospace company where a product design team validated and evaluated the material criticality method. The generic nature of the method is likely to be applicable not only to aerospace companies but also to other industries using advanced alloys. An important finding from applying the method in the company case was the clear link between long term business impact and sustainability performance. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  • 24.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Wallin, Johanna
    Zetterlund, Helena
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Material criticality method: Product vulnerability from a sustainable business perspective2016Inngår i: Proceedings of the International Design Conference / [ed] Bojcetic N.,Marjanovic D.,Pavkovic N.,Storga M.,Skec S., DESIGN SOC, UNIV STRATHCLYDE , 2016, Vol. DS 84, s. 221-230Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 25. Hallstedt, Sophie
    et al.
    Ny, Henrik
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    Broman, Göran
    An approach to assessing sustainability integration in strategic decision systems for product development2010Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 18, nr 8, s. 703-712Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to explore a new approach to assess company decision systems regarding sustainability-related communication and decision support between senior management and product development levels. The assessment approach was developed in theory and its applicability was directly tested in action research in two small and medium-sized companies and two large companies. The results were validated against experiences made by two management consultancies. Our study indicates that successful companies should: (i) integrate sustainability into business goals and plans, backed up by suitable (ii) internal incentives and disincentives and (iii) decision support tools. Our study also indicates that the new assessment approach can be used as a template to assess the current state of sustainability integration in company decision systems.

  • 26.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Nylander W., Johanna
    GKN Aerospace Engine System AB, SWE.
    SUSTAINABILITY RESEARCH IMPLEMENTATION IN PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT: LEARNINGS FROM A LONGITUDINAL STUDY2019Inngår i: Proceedings of the Design Society: International Conference on Engineering Design 2019, Cambridge University Press, 2019, Vol. 1, s. 3381-3390Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Industry is a main stakeholder when it comes to realising the transition towards a sustainable future. Academia, with its, knowledge and methods, needs to support the industry on this journey. This paper, focuses on the practical learnings on how to implement sustainability research from an industrial perspective. It aims to share some lessons learnt from a longitudinal case study and a development journey in implementing sustainability research in the product innovation process at GKN Aerospace Engine System. The paper gives an overview, based on a literature study, of what is required to successfully implement sustainability in product development. It also provides a summary of the different research projects at the company with learnings from practical and academic perspectives, and the main learnings and changes in relation to different development phases in the sustainability journey. Although, this journey began over ten years ago, and shows the importance of long-term collaboration, it provides key-factors that can be applied also in short term collaborations and for faster implementation of research in general and sustainable product development research in particular.

  • 27.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Pigosso, Daniella
    Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, DEN.
    Sustainability integration in a technology readiness assessment framework2017Inngår i: DS87-5 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 21ST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING DESIGN (ICED 17), VOL 5: DESIGN FOR X, DESIGN TO X / [ed] Van der Loos M.,Salustri F.,Oehmen J.,Fadel G.,Kokkolaras M.,Maier A.M.,Skec S.,Kim H., The Design Society, 2017, Vol. 5, nr DS87-5, s. 229-238, artikkel-id DS87-5Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, an approach to systematically include sustainability into the Technology Readiness Levels (TRL) is proposed. The aim is to answer the question "how can sustainability provide systematic guidance in technology development and early product development?". Results from a case study illustrate that the suggested approach can support i) the inclusion of sustainability into the early design stages, when only limited data and information is available; ii) the enhancement of the comprehensiveness of sustainability and ease of use in the day-to-day engineering working environment; and iii) simplified sustainability assessments without being too simplistic and/or reducing the sustainability scope. The proposed approach is being co-developed in collaboration with a case company, and tests on an actual technology development project are planned. The next steps are related to the application of the proposed approach in other companies to test its robustness and enhance its generalization for application in diverse contexts.

  • 28. Hallstedt, Sophie
    et al.
    Thompson, Anthony
    Integrating Sustainability and Innovation Through a Master's Program in Product-Service Systems2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The results of unsustainable product innovation are evident worldwide. Products and their usage contribute to global sustainability problems. Companies building competence in innovation for sustainability will therefore gain competitive advantages in the evolving sustainability-driven market at the same time as sustainability is a driving force for innovation. Blekinge Institute of Technology (BTH) has a research group that brings together competences with the unifying purpose of supporting industrial capacity for sustainable product-service system innovation. From this research, it is evident that there is a need for systems innovators who can help create leap frog solutions as well as make sure that incremental improvements fit into a viable strategy towards a sustainable society. Industry needs people who can manage the whole innovation process for sustainability, including need-finding, design, implementation through to remanufacturing. BTH is therefore offering a comprehensive master’s program to prepare people to be systems' innovators for sustainability. This programme is focused where sustainability, innovation and product-service systems (PSS) meet. Supporting areas such as leadership, management and entrepreneurship are also included. The two-year program will allow students to engage in front-edge research results and will be continuously developed in close collaboration with industry to develop a relevant profile for graduates. Students will be engaged in ongoing research projects and have industrial projects. Upon completion, students will have practical experience in using methods and tools that support sustainable product innovation, as well as have a thorough theoretical understanding as a basis for development of new supplementary methods and tools as necessary.

  • 29. Hallstedt, Sophie
    et al.
    Thompson, Anthony
    Sustainability driven product development -some challenges and opportunities for aero industry2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Products contribute to global sustainability problems throughout their entire life cycles. The majority of opportunities to influence the sustainability performance of products come when the product is designed – far before it is created or put into use. Within the aeronautics industry, there are specific targets set out by the Advisory Council for Aeronautics Research in Europe (ACARE) with one of the high-level targets being an “ultra green air transport system.” At Volvo Aero, a leading manufacturer of aero engine components, this has turned into concrete design targets like light weight, noise/emission reduction and high reliability. Volvo Aero has been used as a case in this research survey to identify some challenges and opportunities of implementing a sustainability perspective in the product innovation process in the aero industry. The overall purpose of this paper is, then, to discuss these challenges and the associated opportunities to include such a sustainability perspective to reach a sustainability-driven product innovation process.

  • 30.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Thompson, Anthony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Ny, Henrik
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    A Decision Support Approach for Modeling Sustainability Consequences in an Aerospace Value Chain2014Inngår i: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASME INTERNATIONAL DESIGN ENGINEERING TECHNICAL CONFERENCES AND COMPUTERS AND INFORMATION IN ENGINEERING CONFERENCE, 2013, VOL 4, ASME Press, 2014, Vol. 3Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Next generation jet engine technologies are typically driven by performance, value and environmental challenges, and appropriate technologies are developed in international research programs. One on-going engine component technology project at an aerospace component manufacturer aims to develop an engine with less fuel consumption. A likely consequence is higher pressure in the core engine, which leads to higher temperature. One way to handle the higher temperature is using a more advanced Ti-alloy for the product component, which will render a different sustainability profile. One weakness in current decision situations is the inability to clarify and understand the “value” and “sustainability” implications compared to e.g. performance features of concepts. Both “value” and “sustainability” include a rich set of features important for successful introduction of new products and product-service solutions to the market. The purpose with this research is to provide decision support for companies in early development phases for assessment of value and sustainability consequences over product-service system lifecycles. A workshop was held with the aerospace component manufacturer and a value chain partner focusing on material handling, to: i) get a better understanding of activities, flows and ownership related to the studied materials at the two companies, ii) to understand the companies’ perspective at new suggested scenarios with regard to these materials, and iii) define relevant scenarios to look into more in depth from asustainability and value perspective. Three different scenarios were developed with differences in ownership, responsibilities and value streams. It is therefore essential to be able to quickly assess and optimize consequences of such alternative scenarios. Based on the workshop experiences and scenarios, a modeling and simulation approach to assess sustainability and value consequences for the scenarios is proposed. The sustainability consequences are based on a sustainability life cycle assessment and a risk assessment. Key features of the proposed tool include: consideration of the time dimension, societal sustainability consequences, risk assessment, company value assessment, and cost/revenue perspectives.

  • 31.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Thompson, Anthony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Lindahl, Pia
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Key elements for implementing a strategic sustainability perspective in the product innovation process2013Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, Vol. 51, s. 277-288Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to present identified key elements for successful implementation of a strategic sus- tainability perspective in the early phases of the product innovation process. In-depth interview studies were conducted in six companies within the same corporate group. These, together with a review of literature, previous research and company documents, were a foundation for evaluating if and how a strategic sustainability perspective has been successfully implemented on a day-to-day basis in the product innovation processes of the studied companies. The results are divided into strengths and challenges of the companies with regard to implementing a strategic sustainability perspective in the product innovation process. From this research, eight key elements for successful implementation of a strategic sustainability perspective have been identified. These elements are divided into four categories: organization, internal processes, roles, and tools. It is posited that incorporating these key elements into product innovation processes will encourage a company to have a strategic sustainability perspective, which will support the company’s long-term success.

  • 32. Isaksson, Ola
    et al.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Lavesson, Niklas
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för datalogi och datorsystemteknik.
    Model Based Decision Support for Value and Sustainability in Product Development2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Decomposing and clarify “sustainability” implications in the same way as concrete targets on product functionality is challenging, mainly due to the problem of showing numbers and ‘hard facts’ related to the value generated by sustainability-oriented decisions. The answer lies in methods and tools that are able, already in a preliminary design stage, to highlight how sustainable design choice can create value for customers and stakeholders, generating market success in the long term. The paper objective is to propose a framework where Sustainable Product Development (SPD) and Value Driven Design (VDD) can be integrated to realize a model-driven approach to support early stage design decisions. Also, the paper discusses how methods and tools for Model-Based Decision Support (MBDS) (e.g., response surface methodology) can be used to increase the computational efficiency of sustainability- and value-based analysis of design concepts. The paper proposes a range of activities to guide a model-based evaluation of sustainability consequences in design, showing also that capabilities exist already today for combining research efforts into a multi disciplinary decision making environment.

  • 33.
    Isaksson, Ola
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, SWE.
    Eckert, Claudia
    The Open University, GBR.
    Borgue, Olivia
    Chalmers University of Technology, SWE.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Hein, Andreas Makoto
    Université Paris-Saclay, FRA.
    Gericke, Killian
    University of Luxembourg, LUX.
    Massimo, Panarotto
    Chalmers University of Technology, SWE.
    Reich, Yoram
    Tel Aviv University, ISR.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna B
    Luleå University of Technology, SWE.
    PERSPECTIVES ON INNOVATION: THE ROLE OF ENGINEERING DESIGN2019Inngår i: Proceedings of the Design Society: International Conference on Engineering Design 2019, Cambridge University Press, 2019, Vol. 1, s. 1235-1244Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the paper is to foster a discussion in the engineering design community about itsunderstanding of the innovation phenomena and the unique contribution that comes from engineeringdesign. The paper reports on the dialouge originating from a series of workshops with participants fromdifferent backgrounds in engineering design, systems engineering, industrial design psychology andbusiness.Definitions of innovation are revisited as used in business, management and engineering designcontexts. The role of innovation is then discussed related to product development from (i) themanagement perspective, (ii) a systems architecture perspective and (iii) in relation to sustainabledevelopment as one driver of innovation.It is argued that engineering design has a central role in how to realise the novelty aspect of innovationand often plays a critical role in maturing these into the valuable products, and there is a need to articulatethe role of engineering design in innovation to better resonate with the business and managementresearch.

  • 34.
    Isaksson, Ola
    et al.
    Chalmers, SWE.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Luleå universitet, SWE.
    Digitalisation, sustainability and servitisation: Consequences on product development capabilities in manufacturing firms2018Inngår i: Proceedings of NordDesign: Design in the Era of Digitalization, NordDesign 2018, The Design Society, 2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the impact of the three mega-trends (1) digitalisation (2) sustainability and (3) servitisation on design and development capabilities in manufacturing companies. First, technological advancements have created both product opportunities, and new aids, captured in e.g. the Industry 4.0 paradigm, and intensively driving digitalisation of businesses, that, besides the technological challenges, cause new challenges and problem areas, such as information ownership and shared long-term responsibilities. Second, the need for sustainable solutions increases the focus on the design of circular, resource efficient and radically new technological solutions to be designed with a total life cycle perspective in mind, through use phase, repair and overhaul, until recycling and end-of-life. Third, and finally, the classical roles for suppliers, integrators and users are being changed as servitisation and Product-Service Systems (PSS) offerings affect both products and businesses, and ultimately entire value networks with new constellations of business partners contributing to the realization of solutions for customers. This paper builds on a conceptual literature review to identify relevant information about the three trends regarding their impact on design and societal development. In addition, a semi-structured interview study was conducted to investigate possibilities and challenges that four different types of manufacturing companies perceive today with respect to the mega-trends, and more specifically how these trends impact the design and development capabilities in the studied companies. Results from this empirical study show that digitalisation is viewed as an opportunity to find new solutions to meet customer needs and be competitive at the future market. Sustainable Product Development (SPD) was instead primarily to fulfil requirements and legislation. However, it was clear that some manufacturers start to see market forces as a driver. PSS can be seen as a means to create new solutions, often with digital tools as facilitator. Altogether, the literature study and the empirical data show that increasingly, designers are expected to design entire solutions, as opposed to merely artefacts. This implies that designers need to consider not only the product performance and cost, but products' and solutions' behaviour and impact over complete life cycles, developed and organized by business networks together with several suppliers and other partners with different capabilities. The basis for the designer is a technology mix comprising services, software, electronics and hardware, bundled into offerings in new business models, interlinked with new digital opportunities. Moreover, it is clear that the three trends do not represent stand-alone perspectives but affect one another in an intertwined way. To achieve long-term effects, the sustainability issues need to be integrated with many other subject areas, and implemented simultaneously as digital solutions, e.g. digital twins to physical artefacts are conceived, and value creating networks are being built up. Obviously, these three trends affect the need for change in product design capabilities and escalate the challenges of the integrated product development viewpoint, in a way that is difficult to master for individual engineers. Support for design and development work is needed that takes into account the mega-trends digitalisation, sustainability, and servitisation.

  • 35.
    Jaghbeer, Yasmeen
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Wall, Johan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Exploration of Simulation-Driven Support Tools for Sustainable Product Development2017Inngår i: Procedia CIRP / [ed] Tim C. McAloone, Daniela C.A. Pigosso, Niels Henrik Mortensen and Yoshiki Shimomura, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 64, s. 271-276Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Global society is encountering many challenges such as climate change, resource depletion, etc., which comes with a set of challenges and opportunities for businesses. Applied research in operational tools and methods that support sustainable product- and service systems innovation, aims to strengthen businesses to overcome these challenges. In recent years, several tools and methods have been developed in the sustainable product development field with focus on modelling and digitalization. This paper explores how sustainability has been integrated in modelling and simulation, and presents results from a literature review with the purpose of highlighting opportunities and challenges in the field. Furthermore, an initial model-based engineering support toolbox (MBE) is presented, with focus on support tools for socio-ecological sustainability integration in the early product development stages.

  • 36.
    Jaghbeer, Yasmeen
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Motyka, Yvonne
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    A process for designing lean-and sustainable production2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, The Design Society, 2017, nr DS87-1, s. 51-60, artikkel-id DS87-1Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Today's trends such as globalization, increased customer demands, and increased sustainability challenges have caused a paradigm shift, where the importance of designing lean-and sustainable modern manufacturing systems is realized by many companies. This study proposes a process of action steps using Value Stream Mapping method integrated with sustainability life cycle analysis and sustainability compliance index to assist in designing lean-and sustainable production systems. The developed process was validated through a case study to test the adopted tools and how they can capture and improve the lean-and sustainability levels. The current sustainability and lean levels were explored first, followed by analyzing and developing the future improved state. A roadmap of about 40 actions was suggested to the case company distributed on a one year time plan. The key contribution of this study is an applicable and generic process of action steps including several adopted tools from the leanand sustainable product development fields to help manufacturing companies in creating roadmaps for more lean-and sustainable production systems.

  • 37.
    Kwok, Sze Yin
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Towards Strategic Sustainable Product Development: Challenges and Opportunities for Communicating Sustainability in a Value Chain2018Inngår i: Proceedings of NordDesign: Design in the Era of Digitalization, NordDesign 2018, The Design Society, 2018, Vol. Code 141730Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable product development and sustainable manufacturing have been considered one of the main enablers towards addressing the global sustainability challenge. Sustainable communication among stakeholders in a value chain is believed to be an important catalyst for effective collaboration towards reaching sustainability goals. However, research that focuses on sustainability communication in the context of product development remains scant.

    Sustainable product development literature has traditionally examined decision-making and value-adding activities without explicitly considering sustainable communication as part of these. A great variety of tools, methods and frameworks have been developed to enhance understanding of the complex sustainability challenge and support decision-making in product development and consumption. However, there lacks a complete picture of sustainability communication in product development context from a practical point of view.

    This paper aims to provide an updated overview of the existing practices in sustainability communication and related support tools. The overarching research question was defined to be: How to improve support for sustainability communication among stakeholders in a value chain?

    Findings reported in this paper are drawn from a conceptual literature review and a workshop with participants from two large product development and manufacturing companies. This paper outlines an overview of sustainability communication tools on operational, tactical and strategic levels in relation to stakeholders in the upstream and downstream of a value chain. It was found that the biggest communication gap lies between product developers and consumers. This led to the specific question of how can consumers communicate sustainability related information to product developers to accelerate the development towards more sustainable solutions? Challenges of bridging this communication gap, as well as challenges for applying support tools in the product innovation process are delineated. Based on the discussion with industrial partners involved in the workshop, a number of success factors of support tools were identified. Opportunities for developing sustainability communication solutions are proposed with an emphasis on connecting consumers with product developers. Two future research directions are suggested to be i) further investigation into consumer perception to improve information design on different levels, and ii) closing the communication loop with consumers using digital technologies such as the internet-of-things.

  • 38.
    Lagun Mesquita, Patricia
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling. Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Analyzing Social LCA approaches through the lens of Strategic Sustainable Development2016Inngår i: Proceedings of ISPIM Conferences, 2016, s. 1-13Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years several approaches to Social LCA have been proposed. Despite recognized shortcomings of those, recent development has focused more on testing existing approaches and less on finding a unifying framework that can support Social LCA to deliver on its promise: to aid decision making regarding social issues related to product life cycles. This paper offers an analysis and evaluation of the potential contribution of the body of work on Social LCA to sustainable development using the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development. A number of strengths and weaknesses from a strategic sustainability perspective are identified and recommendations to improve the support for how to deal with social issues in the product innovation process are provided.

  • 39.
    Lagun Mesquita, Patricia
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling. Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    An Introductory Approach to Concretize Social Sustainability for Sustainable Manufacturing2016Inngår i: Proceedings of TMCE 2016 / [ed] I. Horváth, J.-P. Pernot, Z. Rusák, 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the growing awareness of sustainability issues and importance of considering sustainability aspects in the product innovation process, the methodological support for doing so is still immature compared to the methodological support for considering other aspects in the decision-making, such as product performance and manufacturability. The immaturity is particularly pronounced regarding the social dimension of sustainability. In this paper we use a novel process for identifying sustainability criteria and estimating a sustainability compliance index, with the purpose of supporting inclusion of social sustainability aspects in the decision-making in product development. By including social sustainability aspects into a compliance metric, the foundations for strategic and operative decisions can be integrated. The process has been developed and tested collaboratively with industry representatives in a selected case company. Preliminary results show that social sustainability criteria can be integrated in a meaningful way into a more complete metric, and that the learning resulting from gathering knowledge and experience is a first deployable benefit of the process. Challenges and possible ways forward for further implementing social sustainability aspects in product development are also identified and discussed. The next step will be to further test the applicability of the results, by involving more representatives in the case company and from companies in its value chain.

  • 40.
    Ny, Henrik
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Ericson, Åsa
    A Strategic Approach for Sustainable Product Service System Development2013Inngår i: Proceedings of the 22nd CIRP Design Conference 2012, Conference on Assembly Technologies & Systems (CIRP), 2013, s. 427-436Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Product-Service Systems (PSS) have been justified by a desire to find sustainable solutions that go beyond contemporary approaches. The characteristics of PSS of-ferings are to link goods and services in development and to provide systemic per-formance-based solutions to the customers. This paper investigates how estab-lished strategic product development tools for socio-ecological sustainability could be adapted for PSS development. An approach is suggested for how to apply these tools in early PSS development phases.

  • 41. Ny, Henrik
    et al.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    Broman, Göran
    Introducing Templates for Sustainable Product Development: A Case Study of Televisions at the Matsushita Electric Group2008Inngår i: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 12, nr 4, s. 600-623Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We have previously developed a method for sustainable product development (MSPD) based on backcasting from basic sustainability principles. The MSPD informs investigations of product-related social and ecological sustainability aspects throughout a concurrent engineering product development process.We here introduce “templates” for sustainable product development (TSPDs) as a complement. The idea is to help product development teams to arrive faster and more easily at an overview of the major sustainability challenges and opportunities of a product category in the early development phases. The idea is also to inform creative communication between top management, stakeholders, and product developers. We present this approach through an evaluation case study, in which the TSPDs were used for a sustainability assessment of televisions (TVs) at the Matsushita Electric Group.We study whether the TSPD approach has the ability to (1) help shift focus from gradual improvements of a selection of aspects in relation to past environmental performance of a product category to a focus on the remaining gap to a sustainable situation, (2) facilitate consensus among organizational levels about major sustainability challenges and potential solutions for a product category, and (3) facilitate continued dialogue with external sustainability experts, identifying improvements that are relevant for strategic sustainable development. Our findings indicate that the TSPD approach captures overall sustainability aspects of the life cycle of product categories and that it has the above abilities.

  • 42.
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Göran, Broman
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Ny, Henrik
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Byggeth, Sophie
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Missimer, Merlina
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Connel, Tamara
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Moore, Brendan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Waldron, David
    Cook, David
    Oldmark, Jonas
    Sustainability Handbook2012Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Today"s society is faced with a multitude of compounding and inter-related socio-ecological challenges. In order to adequately navigate this 'sustainability challenge" and to capture the innovation opportunities that come with it, we need professionals from all sectors of society who can help plan, act, and lead strategically towards sustainability. Sustainability handbook first outlines a structured approach to planning within this complex challenge, which is known as the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development. It provides the readers with fundamental social and ecological knowledge from which a scientifically-derived definition of sustainability has been established. From there, the book shares examples of how this Framework can be applied in a variety of situations, sectors, and scales and points to the self-benefit for companies, municipalities and other organizations of working strategically for sustainability. The readers are left with a solid understanding of how to define sustainability, how to plan and act towards it, and how to select from the vast array of sustainability-related concepts, methods and tools in the field today. Sustainability handbook combines the academic and practical experience from a collection of authors. The content has been used, tested and refined over many iterations, and now serves as a primary resource for academic courses and programmes around the world. Any student or practitioner looking for more clarity on how to strategically plan and act towards sustainability in a structured, scientific, and collaborative manner will find value inside. Because of the generic nature of the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development, it can be useful for any discipline, from engineering, to product-service innovation, to business management, to urban and regional planning, and beyond.

  • 43.
    Schulte, Jesko
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Challenges and preconditions to build capabilities for sustainable product design2017Inngår i: DS87-1 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 21ST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING DESIGN (ICED 17), VOL 1: RESOURCE SENSITIVE DESIGN, DESIGN RESEARCH APPLICATIONS AND CASE STUDIES / [ed] Maier A.M.,Skec S.,Salustri F.A.,Fadel G.,Kim H.,Kokkolaras M.,Oehmen J.,Van der Loos M., Design Society , 2017, Vol. 1, nr DS87-1, s. 1-10, artikkel-id DS87-1Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable product innovation has previously been found to be positively correlated to competitiveness. However, in order to build capabilities for sustainability integration one must first understand companies' current state. The overall aim is therefore to identify common preconditions and challenges for sustainability integration in product innovation. A questionnaire study, targeting employees with roles in product development, was conducted at four medium-sized to large product development and manufacturing companies in Sweden. Results show that capabilities for sustainability integration are perceived as decisive for future company success, but are not considered to be correspondingly high prioritized today. Decision making is focused on material selection and energy efficiency, so no full socio-ecological sustainability perspective is covered. Formal decision support tools are only used by half of respondents and are a main area for improvement. Identified challenges include short-term economic thinking, lack of sustainability criteria and vague management commitment. Based on these findings, seven recommendations for companies are presented and validated.

  • 44.
    Schulte, Jesko
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Challenges for integrating sustainability in risk management-current state of research2017Inngår i: DS87-2 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 21ST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING DESIGN (ICED 17), VOL 2: DESIGN PROCESSES, DESIGN ORGANISATION AND MANAGEMENT, The Design Society, 2017, nr DS87-2, s. 327-336, artikkel-id DS87-2Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous examples have shown how environmental and social issues can affect companies to an existential level. In fact, today's most urgent business risks, e.g. brand value, legislative change, litigation, and supply chain disruptions, are directly linked to sustainability issues. These risks need to be systematically identified and strategically managed on both strategic company-and operational product development level in order for a company to be long-term competitive. Based on literature review and interviews at case companies, this paper investigates the current state for integrating a strategic sustainability perspective in risk management processes and related support tools. Results show that sustainability risks are not consciously identified and managed at the companies. Research is at an early stage and few frameworks and tools exist. Based on the findings, the study identifies and provides a comprehensive analysis of challenges for sustainability integration, which work as a foundation for future research. Finally, key steps to advance understanding and methods in sustainability risk management are suggested.

  • 45.
    Schulte, Jesko
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Company Risk Management in Light of the Sustainability Transition2018Inngår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, artikkel-id 4137Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many of the most important business and economic risks are directly linked to environmental and social issues. This includes both threats and opportunities, not only in relation to reputation, which is often mentioned in this context, but, even more importantly, in relation to innovation capability and legislative change on inevitably more and more sustainability-driven markets. It is, however, unclear through which mechanisms such sustainability risks currently affect companies and how they can be systematically identified and managed. Based on the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development, this study investigates the dynamics and implications of society’s sustainability transition from a company risk management perspective. In addition, exploratory and descriptive studies were conducted at two large product innovation companies to identify current risk management practices and preconditions for sustainability integration. The results reveal that a society moving closer towards a collapse of environmental and social systems leads to increasing sustainability-related threats for unsustainable businesses and increasing opportunities for sustainable businesses. Also, risk management is found to be a promising way for maneuvering in a smart zone between being too passive and being too pro-active in relation to sustainable innovation.The study participants at the case companies were knowledgeable about risk management in general but were largely unfamiliar with risks associated with sustainability and no processes or support tools exist to work systematically with such risks. Key steps to accomplishing an integration of a strategic sustainability perspective into risk management are proposed as: (i) identifying the effects of sustainability issues on internal and external stakeholder value; (ii) actively including sustainability in objective setting and cascading objectives across the levels of the organizational hierarchy; and (iii) developing concrete support for identifying, assessing, and managing economic sustainability risks. Thereby, companies can enhance their competitiveness while providing leadership in the sustainability transition.

  • 46.
    Schulte, Jesko
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Risk Management Practices in Product Development Companies2018Inngår i: Proceedings of Norddesign 2018, The Design Society, 2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Product development (PD) is inherently linked to taking and managing risks. For risk management (RM) to be truly effective, it cannot be treated in product development in isolation. Instead, a holistic perspective is required that recognizes and leverages the communication and connections between RM sub-disciplines across the organizational hierarchy, including e.g. enterprise-, portfolio-, project-, and product RM. Therefore, the purpose of this study is (i) to investigate current RM practices on the strategic, tactical, and operational levels, and (ii) to increase the understanding of how RM sub-disciplines are connected and interact. To answer these questions, semi-structured interviews were conducted at two large multinational PD and manufacturing companies in Sweden. Also, based on previous research, a novel self-assessment tool was developed and tested to map areas of strength and identify improvement potential. The results show that RM processes are mostly formalized and systematic, but there is variation in the quality of performed RM activities. Qualitative support tools are dominating. The tools themselves are considered to be helpful, however, the challenge is to make people use them in value-adding ways. Other challenges and success factors include competence and awareness, culture, top-down demand for high quality RM activities and deliverables, a dedicated role with clear responsibility, and working early and continuously with RM. The importance of experience is stressed, however, no systematic way to work with lessons learned and knowledge sharing is in place at the companies. Risks are found to be primarily escalated bottom-up. The corresponding top-down flow constitutes of objectives, which ideally are cascaded all the way from company vision and strategy into product requirements. Through these findings, the contribution of this study is (i) providing detailed insight into current RM practices, not limited to the PD function, but considering a broader organizational context; and (ii) clarifying the role of goals and objectives for connecting RM on different levels.

  • 47.
    Schulte, Jesko
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Self-Assessment Method for Sustainability Implementation in Product Innovation2018Inngår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, nr 12, artikkel-id 4336Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Companies, striving towards an effective and systematic integration of a strategic sustainability perspective in product innovation, need to treat the implementation of necessary processes and tools, as well as their continuous improvement, as a project in itself. An efficient way to measure the current sustainability implementation level in the organization, as well as guidance for progression, is required. To meet this need, a novel self-assessment was developed, which provides companies with a tool to assess and visualize their current capabilities in relation to key elements for successful sustainability integration in the product innovation process. It includes a scale of different sustainability implementation levels to support building a roadmap for systematic implementation, and to measure progress over time. This research is based on results from previous descriptive work within the area of sustainable product development and learning from applying strategic and tactical assessment tools for eco-design and sustainability maturity. Besides the contribution to practice, this study also contributes to knowledge by specifying detailed aspects for each key element that must be considered to guide sustainability integration. Also, insights from applying different existing tools in real cases are provided. The newly-developed self-assessment method was applied and validated at two case companies. Independent and continuous use of it by the companies beyond this particular study indicate the practical value of the method.

  • 48.
    Schulte, Jesko
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Sustainability Risk Management for Product Innovation2018Inngår i: Proceedings of International Design Conference, DESIGN, The Design Society, 2018, Vol. 1, s. 655-666Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Social and environmental issues are directly connected to many of the most important risks that productdevelopment companies are facing. Based on literature review and interviews, this study investigatesrisk management practices on the strategic, tactical, and operational levels of companies. The findingsare used to identify preconditions for integrating sustainability into risk management processes andsupport tools. The results show that sustainability risks need to be connected to company objectivesthrough internal and external stakeholder value creation.

  • 49.
    Schulte, Jesko
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Workshop Method for Early Sustainable Product Development2018Inngår i: DS 92: Proceedings of the DESIGN 2018 15th International Design Conference, The Design Society, 2018, s. 2751-2762Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is in the early phases of product development that most of a product’s life-cycle sustainability impact is determined. This study presents a workshop method that has the purpose to support multi-disciplinary teams in sustainable product development, focusing on early phases. The workshop method aims to map the sustainability challenges and opportunities of a concept at an overarching level, utilizing backcasting from sustainability principles in three steps: create vision, assess current state, derive strategies. Testing and validation was done at two companies and with one academic group.

  • 50.
    Thompson, Anthony
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Introductory approach for sustainability integration in conceptual design2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of sustainability-related requirements into new product development has been a popular topic since the 1990s, and one of the very roots of the topic – scarcity of resources – indicates that market forces will require improved ways of dealing with sustainability for product developing companies. The question remains, however, of the importance of considering sustainability aspects in product design, and if important - how to do it? This paper assumes importance and works to answer the question of how to do it by presenting an approach, currently under development, to include sustainabilty aspects in a generic design process by defining a sustainable design space inpsired by the early steps of a set-based concurrent engineering (SBCE) approach, and then describing how each stage of the generic design process can be aligned in order to arrive at more sustainable products.

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