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  • 1. Björkman, Christina
    et al.
    Elovaara, Pirjo
    Trojer, Lena
    Feminist Technoscience Rearranging in the Black Box of Information Technology2007In: Gender Designs IT. Construction and DEconstruction of Information Society Technology / [ed] Zorn, Isabel; Maass, Susanne; Rommes, Els; Schirmer, Carola; Schelhowe, Heidi, Wiesbaden: VS Verlag fur sozialwissenschaften , 2007Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2. Björkman, Christina
    et al.
    Trojer, Lena
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Technoculture, Humanities and Planning.
    What does it mean to Know Computer Science? Perspectives from Gender Research2006In: tripleC (cognition, communication, co-operation): Journal for a Global Sustainable Information Society / Unified Theory of Information Research Group, ISSN 1726-670X, E-ISSN 1726-670X, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 316-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The epistemological basis for computer science (CS), on which research and education as well as development of applications are founded, are fundamental for its production of knowledge. In this paper we raise the issue of how gender research developed within science and technology can be used within computer science, to approach and discuss foundations of the discipline, and what the implications of this reflection are for CS education. After an introduction, which serves to motivate the questions raised, we discuss issues concerning the foundations of computer science. We then introduce gender research, as we use it, and present some points where this type of research can contribute to the question “What does it mean to know CS?”.

  • 3. Björkman, Jan
    et al.
    Elovaara, Pirjo
    Trojer, Lena
    ”Att resa tillsammans” – Kunskapsnätverken i Blekinge2003Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats diskuterar vi samverkan mellan högskolan och företagen genom olika berättelser. Den första berättelsen hämtar inspiration från begreppen ´triple helix´ och ´distribueradkunskapsproduktion´. Med hjälp av dessa begrepp kan vi åstadkomma en berättelse som syftar till att fånga in en övergripande samhällsdiskurs och därmed en mer abstrakt berättelse om hur relationerna mellan akademin och företagen kan omformuleras och omprövas. Den andra berättelsen landar i Blekinge och tar sin empiriska utgångspunkt från att presentera historia och nutid för två kunskapsnätverk som drivs i samarbete mellan Blekinge tekniska högskola och två företagsbranscher, nämligen tillverkningsindustrin och callcenterföretag. I vår historiebeskrivning och analys hämtar vi inspiration och verktyg från Actor-Network Theory (ANT) och dess vidareutveckling, Actor-Network Theory and After (ANTA). Den första analytiska blicken omfattas av hur ´samverkansdiskursen´ och de befintliga regionala nätverken deltar i pågående förhandlingar/processer där olika förståelser av kunskap står i centrum. Den andra analytiska blicken riktar vi mot nätverkskoordinatorn, anställd av högskolan. På vilket sätt initierade koordinatorn som talesman de övriga deltagarna till projektet? Hur tydlig var ´invitationen´? Vilka förväntningar hade de olika nätverksdeltagarna? Utöver människor finns det också icke-mänskliga aktörer, som till exempel tid och pengar. Hur agerade de? Med vilket kunskapsperspektiv gick högskolan in i nätverksarbetet? Vilka kunskapssyner hade de deltagande företagen? Kan vi förstå kunskapsförhandlingar genom att utgå från två samexisterande kunskapsperspektiv: teoretisk kunskap och praktisk kunskap? Hur förhöll sig högskolan respektive de deltagande företagen till dessa perspektiv? Den andra blicken riktar vi oss mot kunskapsnätverkens stabilitet. Hur stabila är de existerande kunskapsnätverken? Vad innebär stabilitet? Har nätverkens ursprungliga mål och innehåll förändrats under tidens gång? Är stabilitet alltid något eftersträvansvärt eller kan det finnas negativ stabilitet? Vi syftar till att genom de lokala tillämpningarna kunna förstå på vilket sätt samarbete mellan akademin och företagen kan växa fram så att samarbetet kan bli givande för bägge parter. Vi syftar också till att synliggöra de kritiska punkterna för samarbetet mellan akademin och företagen. Parallellt med detta syftar vi också till att se vilka faktorer som kan bidra till att samarbetet blir meningsfullt och kraftfullt.

  • 4. Boeren, Ad
    et al.
    Alberts, Tom
    Alveteg, Thomas
    Thulstrup, Erik
    Trojer, Lena
    Sida/SAREC Bilateral Research Cooperation: Lessons Learned2006Other (Other academic)
  • 5. Ecuru, Julius
    et al.
    Lating, Peter Okidi
    Ziraba, Yasin
    Trojer, Lena
    Integrating Science, Technology and Innovation in the National Development Planning Process: The Case of Uganda2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Science, technology and innovation plays a critical role in enhancing economic growth and contributing to national development. It is the means by which new products and services are developed or improved and brought to the market. However, to make this contribution, science, technology and innovation must be integrated in the national development planning process. Over the years, the integration of science, technology and innovation in Uganda’s national development planning has been implicit. Intentions to use science, technology and innovation as the vehicle for economic growth were evident in the country’s comprehensive development framework such as the Poverty Eradication Action Plan (1997 – 2008/09) and the National Development Plan (2010/11-2014/15). However, strategies of how to use it to bring about the desired outcomes of economic growth were lacking. The recent designation of science, technology and innovation in the National Development Plan of Uganda as a sector that provides institutional and infrastructural support to the production of goods and services demonstrates that integration of science, technology and innovation in development planning could be accomplished through endogenous efforts. But such inclusion of science, technology and innovation in the Plan should not be taken as an end in itself; rather it should be seen as a process. And implementation of the science, technology and innovation provisions of the National Development Plan ought to be undertaken within the context of the national innovation system.

  • 6.
    Ecuru, Julius
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Planning and Media Design.
    Trojer, Lena
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Planning and Media Design.
    Lating, Peter
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Planning and Media Design.
    Ziraba, Yasin
    Structure and Dynamics of Uganda’s Technological Innovation System2012In: African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development, ISSN 2042-1338, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 255-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides insight into Uganda’s evolving innovation system. The framework used to gain this insight presents science, technology and innovation as a function of financing, governance, human capital and the strength of interactions within and across the functional spheres. From the framework, it appears universities and public research organizations are playing a major role in building Uganda’s innovation system. Public research organizations should, however, collaborate more closely with universities, and be more pragmatic in technology dissemination. It seems that in Uganda the public sector will continue to play a leading role in fostering innovation in the foreseeable future as the private sector grows. A crucial element of the public sector support is to have in place stable merit-based system of science funding where competitive grants are awarded annually for research and innovation.

  • 7.
    Ecuru, Julius
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Planning and Media Design.
    Trojer, Lena
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Planning and Media Design.
    Okidi Lating, Peter
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Planning and Media Design.
    Ziraba, Yasinn
    Cluster development in low resource settings: The case of bioethanol and fruit processing clusters in Uganda2013In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, ISSN 1368-275X, E-ISSN 1741-5098, Vol. 18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, bioethanol and fruit processing clusters in Uganda were taken as sectoral innovation systems, and enabling conditions and barriers to their growth were analysed from a technoscientific and innovation systems perspective. Active participation of entrepreneurial university scientists in the clustering process appears to be an enabling factor. Absence of goals and incentives specifically to attract investments in the cluster areas and to drive formation of markets for cluster products is a major barrier. Adopting more inclusive innovation policies, and having in place good community engagement strategies, could help overcome the barriers and expand opportunities for clusters in low resource settings to grow and become competitive.

  • 8.
    Elovaara, Pirjo
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Gustavsson, Kerstin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Hallgren, Elin
    Paxling, Linda
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Trojer, Lena
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Gender Budgeting, Human Resources, Organisational Culture -Development of Methods2015Other (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    GENISLAB, is a four year project (2011 - 2014) within the 7th Framework Programme for research and technology. The aim of the project is to promote organizational change in six European scientific organizations. Each partner develops its own Tailored Action Plan based on three dimensions, Gender Budgeting, Human Resources (HR) Management and Gender and Organisational Culture and Stereotypes. This report presents results of quantitative and qualitative data on Gender Budgeting and HR management as well as comments on organizational culture.

  • 9. Elovaara, Pirjo
    et al.
    Haikola, Lars
    Trojer, Lena
    Research Management/Organization Development at the National University of Rwanda for Sida/SAREC supported programmes2007Report (Other academic)
  • 10. Giger, Peter
    et al.
    Trojer, Lena
    From Control to Networks in Academic Publishing: Introduction of an Open Peer Review International Journal2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the article is to discuss alternatives to the traditional peer review system and reconstruct the review praxis to include ideas from Mode 2 and the second generation of web solutions, often called Web 2.0. The article starts by discussing the concept of Research 2.0 which basically propose a gentle marriage between the concepts Mode 2 in the the researchosphere and Web 2.0 in the webosphere. The following discussion concerns the concept Open Peer Review. Open Peer Review is a young and still quite open concept, used to describe a general transparency in the review process as well as a complete shift in the ideology of peer review. Our preference goes to the later interpretation. The last section before the conclusion describes International Journal of Feminist Technoscience. The journal is a way of realising our ideas in a working praxis.

  • 11. Gulbrandsen, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Elovaara, Pirjo
    Trojer, Lena
    Samverkansprocesser i Innovationssystem: teknovetenskaplig genusforskning som utvecklingsresurs2006Other (Other academic)
  • 12. Gulbrandsen, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Nsengiyumva, AlbertRydhagen, BirgittaTrojer, Lena
    ICT, Innovation Systems and the Role of Universities in Societal Development: a (post) colonial strain?2005Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this book is to develop knowledge and understanding about how ICT can be involved in local and national innovation systems in developing countries. Special attention is paid to the role of the university as an important stakeholder in local and national development processes. For this purpose, the interdisciplinary group of researchers has made the study carrying the question about the prerequisites for postcolonial identities to make their mark on a national situated ICT development and implementation. The study addresses the emerging implosion of postcolonial situations and ICT development. The theory frame of feminist technoscience studies is included in the analysis as a special resource.

  • 13. Gulbrandsen, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Trojer, Lena
    Re-thinking excellence; getting smart between the no longer and the not yet comments on the convergence of knowledge and politics2010In: Travelling Thoughtfulness: feminist technoscience stories / [ed] Elovaara, Pirjo, Umeå: Institutionen för Informatik, Umeå Universitet , 2010Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scientific Excellence has become the catch word for research politics, manifesting itself in the establishment of centres of excellence all over Europe as well as in the European Research Council. What is the meaning of this phenomenon? What will we find when trying to open up the black box of “scientific excellence”? The need to question evaluation processes seems intrusive, when we realize the increasing demands on knowledge production to be societally robust, not the least within the energy and environmental sector. How do we move towards a situation where scientific ‘excellence’ is automatically taken to include reflection and wider engagement concerning societal dimensions?

  • 14. Gulbrandsen, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Trojer, Lena
    Björkman, Christina
    Elovaara, Pirjo
    Genusforskning inom teknisk fakultet: en kunskapspolitisk utmaning2006In: Kvinnovetenskaplig tidskrift, ISSN 0348-8365, Vol. 27, no 2-3, p. 49-64Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15. Henningsson, Samuel
    et al.
    Trojer, Lena
    Why Triple Helix?2005In: Biuletyn KPZK (Bulletin of Polish National Committee for Space Economy and Regional Planning, ISSN 0079-3493, Vol. 217, p. 132-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge creation today increasingly takes place within the overlapping areas between universities, industry and government. One model explored for the processes taking place has been the triple helix model. In this paper we address our understandings and experiences of the triple helix-figuration. We formulate situated knowledges about how to start building a local innovation system, NetPort.Karlshamn, in a small town in the south of Sweden. The practices within NetPort.Karlshamn can exemplify one way of understanding a triple helix system and why this kind of cooperation is important and a prerequisite for becoming functional, innovative and developmentally strong. We recognize the necessity for a co-evolution process, where relevance and situated knowledges compose keystones. We notice the transformation of the situated knowledge production in our context to move from contract negotiation focus towards co-evolution focus. The theoretical frame is reinforced by technoscientific reflections.

  • 16. Kalinga, Ellen
    et al.
    Bagile, Burchard
    Trojer, Lena
    An Interactive e-Learning Management System (e-LMS): A Solution to Tanzanian Secondary Schools’ Education2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) has been integrated in education in many developing and developed countries alike, but the use of ICT in Tanzanian schools is dismal. Many Tanzanian secondary schools have no computers. The few schools with computers use them primarily for secretarial services and computer literacy training. The Tanzanian education system at other levels like secondary school level has to undergo substantial transformation, underscored by the growing application of new information and communication technology. This paper presents the e-readiness survey result from secondary schools in Tanzania. The paper also suggests how Tanzania can make use of the few present ICT resources to support and improve teaching and learning functions to improve performance and acquisition of knowledge by using e-Learning Management System (e-LMS).

  • 17. Kalinga, Ellen
    et al.
    Bagile, Burchard
    Trojer, Lena
    An Interactive e-Learning Management System (e-LMS): A Solution to Tanzanian Secondary Schools’ Education2007In: International Journal of Social Sciences, ISSN 1306-973X, Vol. 1, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18. Kalinga, Ellen
    et al.
    Bagile, Burchard
    Trojer, Lena
    Focus Group Discussion in Developing Tanzania Secondary Schools e-Learning (TanSSe-L) System2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The knowledge on how ICT and its application can improve the social and economic lives of people generally is very limited in many communities of developing countries, Tanzania being among them. Although many people may have and be in contact with computers, does not mean that they really understand the impact that ICT if used effectively could have on improving performance. Developing computer systems for people to use, if lack of knowledge is not carefully considered, the motivation to use the system may be very minimal or completely absent. The emphasis on participatory action research methodology is that the introduction of technology into organizations accompanies learning and generates a specific form of knowledge. Finding appropriate system requirements depends on how close the developer is to the system users or stakeholders. Focus group discussion as inspired by the qualitative and participatory action research methodologies is the key to being close to users. This paper presents how focus group discussion was employed during developing Tanzania Secondary Schools e-Learning (TanSSe-L) system, specifically during requirement specification and analysis phase. It shows the importance of involving users while developing contextual information systems for a specific purpose. It also shows how secondary school stakeholders were made closer to the process of TanSSe-l System development, together with users’ response to reveal real problems in Tanzania education system.

  • 19. Kalinga, Ellen
    et al.
    Bagile, Burchard
    Trojer, Lena
    Strategies for Developing e-LMS for Tanzania Secondary Schools2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tanzania secondary schools in rural areas are geographically and socially isolated, hence face a number of problems in getting learning materials resulting in poor performance in National examinations. E-learning as defined to be the use of information and communication technology (ICT) for supporting the educational processes has motivated Tanzania to apply ICT in its education system. There has been effort to improve secondary school education using ICT through several projects. ICT for e-learning to Tanzania rural secondary school is one of the research projects conceived by the University of Dar-es-Salaam through its College of Engineering and Technology. The main objective of the project is to develop a tool to enable ICT support rural secondary school. The project is comprehensive with a number of components, one being development of e-learning management system (e-LMS) for Tanzania secondary schools. This paper presents strategies of developing e-LMS. It shows the importance of integrating action research methodology with the modeling methods as presented by model driven architecture (MDA) and the usefulness of Unified Modeling Language (UML) on the issue of modeling. The benefit of MDA will go along with the development based on software development life cycle (SDLC) process, from analysis and requirement phase through design and implementation stages as employed by object oriented system analysis and design approach. The paper also explains the employment of open source code reuse from open source learning platforms for the context sensitive development of the e-LMS for Tanzania secondary schools.

  • 20. Kalinga, Ellen
    et al.
    Burchard, Bagile
    Trojer, Lena
    Strategies for Developing e-LMS for Tanzania2007In: Proceedings of World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, ISSN 1307-6884, Vol. 24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tanzania secondary schools in rural areas are geographically and socially isolated, hence face a number of problems in getting learning materials resulting in poor performance in National examinations. E-learning as defined to be the use of information and communication technology (ICT) for supporting the educational processes has motivated Tanzania to apply ICT in its education system. There has been effort to improve secondary school education using ICT through several projects. ICT for e-learning to Tanzania rural secondary school is one of the research projects conceived by the University of Dar-es-Salaam through its College of Engineering and Technology. The main objective of the project is to develop a tool to enable ICT support rural secondary school. The project is comprehensive with a number of components, one being development of e-learning management system (e-LMS) for Tanzania secondary schools. This paper presents strategies of developing e-LMS. It shows the importance of integrating action research methodology with the modeling methods as presented by model driven architecture (MDA) and the usefulness of Unified Modeling Language (UML) on the issue of modeling. The benefit of MDA will go along with the development based on software development life cycle (SDLC) process, from analysis and requirement phase through design and implementation stages as employed by object oriented system analysis and design approach. The paper also explains the employment of open source code reuse from open source learning platforms for the context sensitive development of the e-LMS for Tanzania secondary schools.

  • 21. Lating, Peter Okidi
    et al.
    Kucel, Samule Baker
    Trojer, Lena
    Design and Development of Interactive Multimedia CD-ROMs for Rural Secondary Schools in Uganda2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22. Lating, Peter Okidi
    et al.
    Kucel, Samule Baker
    Trojer, Lena
    Development of Sustainable Hybrid Digital Libraries for Secondary Schools in Uganda: Arua Case Study2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23. Lating, Peter Okidi
    et al.
    Kucel, Samule Baker
    Trojer, Lena
    E-Learning for Development in Rural Uganda: Co-evolution in Triple Helix Processes2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper shows how an ICT/GIS Research Center was established in a remote, poor and insecure Ugandan rural district of Arua, 500 kms from Kampala, the capital city. The triple helix methodology was used in this process. The Research Center which was meant to support the implementation of hybrid e-learning in two girls’ secondary schools in Arua, is now offering Internet access, ICT training, digital library services and ICT technical support in the West Nile region of Uganda (8 rural districts), Southern Sudan and Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. The paper discusses the challenges experienced in the implementation of the triple helix processes. It concludes by highlighting the role of multi stakeholder collaboration in knowledge generation in rural areas.

  • 24. Lating, Peter Okidi
    et al.
    Kucel, Samule Baker
    Trojer, Lena
    Implementation of Hybrid E-learning in Advanced Level Rural Girls' Secondary Science Education in Uganda2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25. Lating, Peter Okidi
    et al.
    Kucel, Samule Baker
    Trojer, Lena
    Longitudinal Analysis of Performance of Ugandan Rural Female Advanced Level Students in Physics Practicals2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced-level rural female students perform very poorly in Physics and Mathematics at national examinations in Uganda. Consequently, they fail to get state sponsorship for engineering and technology training in Universities. Hybrid e-learning was introduced for two years in two typical rural girls’ advanced-level secondary schools (Ediofe and Muni) in the rural district of Arua to support the learning and teaching of Physics and Mathematics and was expected to result in an improvement in the achievement scores.. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of such an intervention on the achievement scores of the female students in both subjects. Multistage sampling was done to identify 21 participants for Mathematics (11 from Ediofe and 10 from Muni) and another 19 for Physics (12 from Ediofe and 7 from Muni). Six students of Ediofe were offering both Mathematics and Physics while Muni had four such participants. In the hybrid e-learning project, the main course delivery platforms were the training CD-ROMs that were developed based on the requirements of the local curriculum. Senior teachers from Makerere College School, one of the elite advanced level secondary school in Uganda, took part in the development of the content. Additionally, the participating students were allowed access to resources from the Internet from the Faculty of Technology ICT Research Center in Arua town. The Center was set up using the Triple Helix Methodology. External examinations were given to the participating female students in May, June, July and August 2007. The results of these examinations were analyzed as incomplete longitudinal multivariate data. The results of the analysis of the sources of variabilities in performance scores of students show that student level factors were more dominant than school level factors. These results were discussed in light of the Ugandan national policies on rural education.

  • 26. Lating, Peter Okidi
    et al.
    Kucel, Samule Baker
    Trojer, Lena
    Strategies for implementing hybrid e-learning in rural secondary schools in Uganda2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27. Lujara, Suzan
    et al.
    Kissaka, MM
    Bhalalusesa, E
    Trojer, Lena
    Learning Objects: a New Paradigm for E-learning Resource Development for Secondary Schools in Tanzania2007In: Proceedings of World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, ISSN 1307-6884, Vol. 24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), and the Wide World Web (WWW) have fundamentally altered the practice of teaching and learning world wide. Many universities, organizations, colleges and schools are trying to apply the benefits of the emerging ICT. In the early nineties the term learning object was introduced into the instructional technology vernacular; the idea being that educational resources could be broken into modular components for later combination by instructors, learners, and eventually computes into larger structures that would support learning. However in many developing countries, the use of ICT is still in its infancy stage and the concept of learning object is quite new. This paper outlines the learning object design considerations for developing countries depending on learning environment.

  • 28. Lujara, Suzan
    et al.
    Kissaka, MM
    Trojer, Lena
    Mvungi, N.H.
    Introduction of Open-Source e-Learning Environment and Resources: A Novel Approach for Secondary Schools in Tanzania2007In: International Journal of Social Sciences, ISSN 1306-973X, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 237-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of e-Learning is now emerging in Sub Saharan African countries like Tanzania. Due to economic constraints and other social and cultural factors faced by these countries, the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is increasing at a very low pace. The digital divide threat has propelled the Government of Tanzania to put in place the ICT Policy in 2003 which is defines the direction of all ICT activities nationally. Among the main focused areas is the use of ICT in education, since for the development of any country, there is a need of creating knowledge based society. This paper discusses the initiatives made so far to introduce the use of ICT tools to some secondary schools using open source software in e-content development to facilitate a self-learning environment

  • 29. Mutambi, Joshua
    et al.
    Byaruhanga, Joseph K.
    Trojer, Lena
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Planning and Media Design.
    Buhwezi, Kariko B.
    Research on the State of Business Incubation Systems in Different Countries: Lessons for Uganda2010In: African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation & Development, ISSN 2042-1338, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 190-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small and Medium sized enterprises have proven to be capable of catalyzing national economies owing to their high growth potential, their role in promoting innovations, employment creation and economic development. However, in the early days of their growth period, these firms face difficulties that may lead to their failure. Business incubation has been identified as an effective growth mechanism for such entrepreneurial firms. This paper mainly looked at the concept and description of business incubation, development process and contribution of incubators to start-up firms. It examined the impact to regional entrepreneurship and economic development globally. The paper concluded by highlighting the existing incubators in Uganda and identified recommendations for strengthening the business incubation in Uganda.

  • 30. Mutambi, Joshua
    et al.
    Byaruhanga, Joseph K.
    Trojer, Lena
    Buhwezi, Kariko B.
    Lating, Peter Okidi
    Transferring Best Practices for Uganda Technological Innovation and Sustainable Growth2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Uganda, like many other African countries has not been developing primary science, technology and innovation Indicators and to make them accessible to public and private sector decision makers for social economic development and investment purposes. Indicators have not been given serious attention as engines of long-term development. This paper reports the results of a research undertaken to develop a set of relevant science, technology and innovation Indicators for Uganda. From a population of 7,336 firms, 300 firms were sampled for innovation surveys and 200 institutions for the Research and Development survey. The data collected were represented in tables and was grossed up. Data entry was taken in CSPRO and the analysis was done using STATA statistical software There is a global perception that businesses in developing countries like Uganda are generally dominated by Small and Medium enterprises; and that is where most innovations were happening. This paper will discuss the core indicators of Research and Development (R&D) and Innovation; the empirical data of the state of Uganda’s Science, Technology and Innovation Indicators. The paper further explores the potential benefits and the best practices in incubation process. The major conclusions are; prioritizing science and technology policy will create more opportunities and build capabilities for innovations and technology. The monitoring of industry, government and university R&D programs is crucial to successful policy making and analysis.

  • 31. Mwamila, Burton LM
    et al.
    Trojer, LenaDiyamett, BitrinaTemu, Abraham
    Innovation Systems and Innovative Clusters in Africa2004Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    innovationssystem, innovativa kluster, triple helix, samverkansprocesser, regional utveckling

  • 32. Otine, Charles
    et al.
    Kucel, Samule Baker
    Trojer, Lena
    Dimensional modeling of HIV data using open source2010In: Proceedings of World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, ISSN 2010-376X, E-ISSN 2070-3740, Vol. 62, no March, p. 156-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selecting the data modeling technique for an information system is determined by the objective of the resultant data model. Dimensional modeling is the preferred modeling technique for data destined for data warehouses and data mining, presenting data models that ease analysis and queries which are in contrast with entity relationship modeling. The establishment of data warehouses as components of information system landscapes in many organizations has subsequently led to the development of dimensional modeling. This has been significantly more developed and reported for the commercial database management systems as compared to the open sources thereby making it less affordable for those in resource constrained settings. This paper presents dimensional modeling of HIV patient information using open source modeling tools. It aims to take advantage of the fact that the most affected regions by the HIV virus are also heavily resource constrained (sub-Saharan Africa) whereas having large quantities of HIV data. Two HIV data source systems were studied to identify appropriate dimensions and facts these were then modeled using two open source dimensional modeling tools. Use of open source would reduce the software costs for dimensional modeling and in turn make data warehousing and data mining more feasible even for those in resource constrained settings but with data available.

  • 33. Otine, Charles
    et al.
    Kucel, Samule Baker
    Trojer, Lena
    Knowledge Discovery in Healthcare using Data Mining2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The exponential growth of databanks in health care creates opportunities for knowledge generation using data mining. Advancements in information and communication technologies now mean that large quantities of data collected from different sources can be easily stored, secured and retrieved for analysis using databases. For data mining to be carried out the data sets from the different interacting source systems have to be organised in a data warehouse. Data mining offers the potential for exploring hidden patterns in data sets of a particular domain in this case health care. This can eventually be used to perform diagnosis and prognosis on different patient health care condition. Furthermore it places health care providers at a more informed point by enabling predictions hence through classification enhancing generation of new knowledge. This paper provides the state-of-art on data mining and its role on knowledge discovery in the health care sector.

  • 34. Rydhagen, Birgitta
    et al.
    Trojer, Lena
    ICT and the role of universities: a technopolitical and postcolonial challenge2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ICT and the role of universities - a technopolitical and postcolonial challenge When ICT (information and communication technology) development issues are situated in the context of knowledge- and technology co-development between low and high income countries, the need for understandings and praxis of postcolonial ICT emerge and the challenges for the academy and its technical faculties enhance. Relevance seems to be a core concept often raised. For development the change of position from merely technology transfer to co-development is strongly in demand. Feminist technoscience with emphasis on ICT is certainly motivated by transformation goals. The reasons for transformation are not only seen in the ongoing difficulties of achieving appropriate ICT system solutions especially in low income countries, but in the way we face contemporary processes of knowledge and technology development. The prerequisites for the latter are still to be met, and urge for transformation not the least within technical faculties of universities. Experiences from development of feminist technoscience within technical faculties implies recognitions of techno- and research politics deeply rooted in understandings of knowledge and technology production as processes, which occur in distributed systems. In other words, knowledge creation takes place on the boundaries between universities, companies (private sector) and other regional, national and international actors (public sector). Hence the role of the university comes into sharp focus and its (dis)ability of transformation. In the study presented experiences from University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden, will be discussed.

  • 35. Rydhagen, Birgitta
    et al.
    Trojer, Lena
    Postcolonial ICT Challenges2006In: Encyclopedia of Gender and Information Technology / [ed] Trauth, Eileen, Information Science Publishing , 2006Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 36. Rydhagen, Birgitta
    et al.
    Trojer, Lena
    Prerequisites for Postcolonial ICT2004In: Kvinnoforskningsnytt, ISSN 1401-5390, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Informationsteknik, IT, postkolonialism, feministisk teknovetenskap, genusforskning, teknopolitik

  • 37.
    Rydhagen, Birgitta
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola [bth.se], School of Planning and Media Design.
    Trojer, LenaBlekinge Tekniska Högskola [bth.se], School of Planning and Media Design.
    The role of universities in inclusive innovation. Cluster development in East Africa.2014Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Universities play a vital role in development and innovation in small and local businesses in East Africa. This has been made possible through Triple Helix processes linking academia, business and government in Innovative Cluster Initiatives. The cluster initiatives are coordinated through country chapters of Pan African Competitiveness Forum (PACF). Scandinavian Institute for Collaboration and Development (SICD) has been linked to PACF since start. In this anthology, active partners in cluster initiatives in Tanzania and Uganda present their experiences of university involvement. The contributors represent business persons in clusters, cluster facilitators, researchers in Uganda, Tanzania and Sweden and key persons of the PACF network.

  • 38. Simba, Fatuma
    et al.
    Trojer, Lena
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Planning and Media Design.
    Mvungi, Nerey
    Mwinyiwiwa, Bakari
    Mjema, Emmanuel
    Techno-Economic Analysis of UMTS900 and UMTS2100 for Rural Connectivity in Tanzania2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most rural areas of the developing countries lack Information and Communication (ICT) infrastructures such as access network (last mile connectivity) to deliver ICT services. The lack of connectivity is due to high cost associated with implementing ICT infrastructures. Wireless technologies are envisioned as candidates for rural connectivity. They are not only easier and faster to deploy but also cheaper than the wired technologies. This paper presents a techno-economic analysis of two wireless mobile technologies in Tanzania called third generation (3G) implemented at 900MHz and at 2100MHz frequency bands. Objectives of techno-economic analysis are to investigate economic feasibility and to determine a cost effective option between the two connectivity options. Results show that 3G at 900HMz is a feasible and cost effective connectivity technology in Tanzania. These results can be generalized to other developing countries, since their rural areas pose similar characteristics with regard to ICT infrastructure development.

  • 39. Simba, Fatuma
    et al.
    Trojer, Lena
    Mvungi, N.H.
    Mwinyiwiwa, B.M.
    Mjema, Emmanuel
    Rural Connectivity Technologies Cost Analysis2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rural areas of Tanzania are still disadvantaged in terms of diffusion of IP-based services; this is due to lack of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) infrastructures, especially lack of connectivity. One of the limitations for connectivity problems in rural areas of Tanzania is the high cost to establish infrastructures for IP-based services [1-2]. However the cost of connectivity varies from one technology to the other and at the same time, the cost is also different from one operator (service provider) to another within the country. This paper presents development of software system to calculate cost of connectivity to rural areas of Tanzania. The system is developed to make an easy access of connectivity cost from different technologies and different operators. The development of the calculator follows the V-model software development lifecycle. The calculator is used to evaluate the economic viability of different technologies considered as being potential candidates to provide rural connectivity. In this paper, the evaluation is based on the techno-economic analysis approach.

  • 40. Simba, Fatuma
    et al.
    Trojer, Lena
    Mvungi, N.H.
    Mwinyiwiwa, B.M.
    Mjema, Emmanuel
    Strategies for Connectivity Configuration to Access e-Learning Resources: Case of Rural Secondary Schools in Tanzania2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In response to address different development challenges, Tanzania is striving to achieve its fourth attribute of the National Development Vision, i.e. to have a well educated and learned society by the year 2025. One of the most cost effective methods that can reach a large part of the society in a short time is to integrate ICT in education through e-learning initiatives. However, e- learning initiatives are challenged by limited or lack of connectivity to majority of secondary schools, especially those in rural and remote areas. This paper has explores the possibility for rural secondary school to access online e-Learning resources from a centralized e- Learning Management System (e-LMS). The scope of this paper is limited to schools that have computers irrespective of internet connectivity, resulting in two categories schools; those with internet access and those without. Different connectivity configurations have been proposed according to the ICT infrastructure status of the respective schools. However, majority of rural secondary schools in Tanzania have neither computers nor internet connection. Therefore this is a challenge to be addressed for the disadvantaged schools to benefit from e-Learning initiatives.

  • 41. Simba, Fatuma
    et al.
    Trojer, Lena
    Mwinyiwiwa, BM.
    Mvungi, N.H.
    Mjema, Emmanuel
    Broadband Access Technologies for Rural Connectivity in Developing Countries2011In: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Computer Science (IJRRCS), ISSN 2079-2557, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 312-319Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rural areas especially those of the developing countries provide challenging environment to implement communication infrastructure for data and Internet based services. The main challenges are the high cost of network implementation and lack of customer base, as rural areas are characterized by low income, highly scattered and low population density. This situation drives network operators to establish network infrastructures in urban/city centers leaving rural areas as underserved community. This paper surveys the available connectivity technologies with potentials to offer broadband access network to rural areas. The scope of this survey is on wireless access technologies, due to the fact that they are efficient in terms of cost, time of deployment and network management for rural environment. We provide comparison of the surveyed technologies in terms of their capacity (data rates) and coverage. We also discuss the current deployment of WiMAX and 3G technologies in Africa, which is a home to most of the developing countries. The survey results indicate potential broadband access technologies for rural areas of the developing countries.

  • 42. Simba, Fatuma
    et al.
    Trojer, Lena
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Planning and Media Design.
    Yonah, Zaipona
    Sustainable Broadband Connectivity Model for Rural Areas of Tanzania2012In: African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development (AJSTID), ISSN 2042-1338, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 150-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the reasons for lack or limited ICT infrastructures in rural areas in developing countries in general and Tanzania in particular, is the lack of strategies to implement already established policies, regulations and legislations that support roll-out of such ICT infrastructures in rural areas. In addition, high cost of connectivity, lack of energy, low ICT literacy and shortage of local contents also contribute to the lack of ICT infrastructure in the rural areas. Despite the presence of eighteen (18) licensed service providers of network facilities in the communications market in Tanzania, rural areas are still unconnected. Notably, there is a government initiative to build a countrywide terrestrial fiber optic broadband backbone with penetration presence down to the level of district headquarters. This is a commendable initiative; however, areas that are far from district headquarters will still be disadvantaged. The public private peoples partnership (PPPP), is recommended as a sustainable model for rural connectivity. This paper investigates the readiness to deploy the PPPP model for rural broadband connectivity in Tanzania. Furthermore, it recommends implementation strategies to build a sustainable model for rural connectivity in Tanzania by borrowing best practices from existing PPPPs projects for broadband rural connectivity.

  • 43. Trojer, Lena
    Building Epistemological Infrastructures: interventions at a technical university2006In: Computing, Philosophy, and Cognitive Science / [ed] Crnkovic, Gordana Dodig; Stuart, Susan, Cambridge Scholars Press , 2006Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Trojer, Lena
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Change @ campus Karlshamn - Our Story: Culture, Norms and Gender at Blekinge Institute of Technology2015Book (Other academic)
  • 45. Trojer, Lena
    Clean and Unclean Facts: Diffractions on Knowledge Production2009In: Gender Delight / [ed] Harrison, K.; Pernrud, B.; Gustavson, M., Linköping: Linköping University , 2009, p. 201-215Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 46. Trojer, Lena
    Conference report on The regional Conference INNOVATION SYSTEMS and INNOVATIVE CLUSTERS in Africa2004Other (Other academic)
  • 47. Trojer, Lena
    Elin Wägner och ekofeminismen2009In: Elin Wägner: Det första fotstegets moder / [ed] Swartz, Marianne Enge, Växjö: Artèa Förlag , 2009, p. 155-160Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Trojer, Lena
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Planning and Media Design.
    Gender Research as Knowledge Resource in Technology and Engineering2013In: Gender in Science and Technology, Interdisciplinary Approaches / [ed] Ernst, Waltraud; Horwath, Ilona, Bielefeld: Transcript Verlag , 2013, p. 167-185Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aspirations in gender research within technology and engineering have developed into a research-transforming activity focusing on societal relevance and engineering faculties. The conditions that are needed and created require epistemological pluralism. The gender research referred to here is also called feminist technoscience. When discussing gender in sectors like technology and engineering, we often tend to count heads, i.e. how many women are present in which functions. By contrast, gender issues are much less seen as generating knowledge and technology in themselves. This chapter will illustrate what kind of added value certain academic activities starting in gender-related issues can have. Epistemological comments on feminist technoscience are presented as fostering and attempting to advance our understanding of knowledge production in technology and engineering. The aim of this chapter is to contribute to the recognition of feminist technoscience and its knowledge-producing values. Discussions of key understandings of feminist technoscience are illustrated by two cases and summed up by some closing remarks.

  • 49. Trojer, Lena
    Genusforskning inom teknikvetenskapen: en drivbänk för forskningsförändring2002Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns många föreställningar om relationen mellan genus och teknik. En vanlig uppfattning är att det handlar om kvinnor - om kvinnors låga antal i teknisk utbildning och forskning samt i ett teknikrelaterat näringsliv. Det kan också förstås som teknikens konsekvenser för kvinnor och inflytelsesvaga grupper i samhället. Få uttrycker någon mening om tekniken i sig och vad genus eller genusforskningen kan ha för betydelse inom olika teknikområden och för den tekniska kunskapsutvecklingen ? annat än fromma förhoppningar om att kvinnor bär på någon inneboende potential att utveckla ämnet annorlunda. Denna skrift inbjuder till en resa mellan föreställningar om genusforskning inom teknikvetenskapen, och ämnet så som det faktiskt utvecklats. Ordet inom anger att jag ämnar göra en tydlig avgränsning gentemot andra betydelsefulla verksamheter, som jämställdhetsarbete och genusforskning inom andra disciplinområden. Berättelser präglas av författaren, så också i detta fall. Att jag själv är verksam inom en teknisk högskola och alltså har ett direkt inifrånperspektiv ger texten sin specifika karaktär. Jag har studerat, forskat inom och utvecklat genusforskningsmiljöer på en matematisk-naturvetenskaplig och tre tekniska fakulteter i Sverige. Den genusforskning jag bedrivit har haft kopplingar till forskare i de nordiska länderna. Mina internationella kontakter är särskilt riktade mot söder och sydost, dvs. till utvecklingsländer. Denna berättelse kan kanske komma att bjuda på överraskningar. Mina svar på frågan vad genusforskning inom teknikvetenskap kan vara och bidra med, är måhända inte de förväntade. En sammanfattning av svaren återfinns i sista kapitlet, men redan nu kan vi konstatera att studieobjektet för genusforskning inom teknikvetenskap utgörs mer av teknikvetenskapen i sig ? dess teorier, metoder, kunskapsprocesser och praktik ? än av kvinnor, kön och/eller könsmaktrelationer. För att underbygga denna insikt är det nödvändigt att skapa en ram för förståelsen. Den introduceras i de kapitel som handlar om begrepp och avgränsningar, den historiska utvecklingen, forskningspolitik, försöken att vrida forskningsfrågorna in mot teknik och vetenskap samt kunskapsprocesser och integreringsstrategier. Eftersom all genusforskning - inte minst den teknikvetenskapliga - syftar till konkret förändring, måste genusforskningen göra sig relevant i de sammanhang den befinner sig. Detta förändringsarbete innebär stora utmaningar för den etablerade vetenskapen såväl som för genusforskningen själv. I bästa fall utgör genusforskning inom teknikvetenskap en verksam förändringskraft för våra tekniska akademiska institutioner i deras strävanden att utveckla sin roll i vår tids alltmer distribuerade forskningsprocesser

  • 50. Trojer, Lena
    Genusperspektiv i forskarhandledning2005In: Forskarhandledning i förändring / [ed] Airey, Susanna Stymne; Wolmesjö, Maria, Växjö universitet , 2005Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    forskarhandledning, genusperspektiv,jämställdhet, ledarskap, förändringsförsök

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