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  • 1. Björkman, Christina
    et al.
    Elovaara, Pirjo
    Mörtberg, Christina
    Gender and IT goes second millenium2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Where does feminist research on gender and IT stand today? What are the possibilities now and for the future? How does today’s research both build on and break with earlier approaches? In this article, we make a journey, where the starting point is taken in re-visiting two positions, liberal feminism and radical feminism, in the history of gender and (information) technology. We make a historical exposé to highlight some of the questions feminist technology research has been engaged in, in order to relate, inspire, challenge and partly also provoke future research. We then link these approaches to our own position in feminist technoscience research. This perspective opens up the world of information technology as a world of networks, relations, and negotiations going on within localised and situated practices, where IT and gender are continuously co-constructing each other. Feminist technoscience research challenges much of the present understandings, interpretations and even experiences of information technology and it demands re-thinking the foundations of computing. We discuss concepts and figurations developed within feminist technoscience research, that encourage us to imagine, think and do things differently, and we ask: “How do we make a difference?”

  • 2. Björkman, Christina
    et al.
    Elovaara, Pirjo
    Trojer, Lena
    Feminist Technoscience Rearranging in the Black Box of Information Technology2007In: Gender Designs IT. Construction and DEconstruction of Information Society Technology / [ed] Zorn, Isabel; Maass, Susanne; Rommes, Els; Schirmer, Carola; Schelhowe, Heidi, Wiesbaden: VS Verlag fur sozialwissenschaften , 2007Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Björkman, Jan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Planning and Media Design.
    Elovaara, Pirjo
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Planning and Media Design.
    Fredriksson, Eva
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Planning and Media Design.
    Stille, Björn
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Planning and Media Design.
    Sutter, Berthel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Planning and Media Design.
    FoU vid MAM (3). I närkamp med "tredje uppgiften".2012Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ur förordet: Högskolans ”tredje uppgift” är att samverka med aktörer utanför högskolan och göra det som ett nytt sätt att bedriva undervisning och forskning och inte som någon extra pålagd vid-sidan-uppgift. De tre artiklarna i detta nummer av FoU vid MAM har vi samlat under titeln I närkamp med den ”tredje uppgiften”. De är exempel på hur samverkan med utomakademiska aktörer kan se ut i praktiken. Denna praktik är förstås olikartad. Här i förordet lyfter jag fram två teman i artiklarna. Ett tema är vad för slags samverkan det är fråga om. Det andra temat är att samverkan kan vara konfliktfylld. Sammantaget säger dessa teman något viktigt om samverkansuppgiften: Vilka samhällsaktörer är inblandade och hur ska de olika intressen de representerar hanteras produktivt när nya utvecklingsgrupperingar skapas i FoU-arbetet?

  • 4. Björkman, Jan
    et al.
    Elovaara, Pirjo
    Trojer, Lena
    ”Att resa tillsammans” – Kunskapsnätverken i Blekinge2003Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats diskuterar vi samverkan mellan högskolan och företagen genom olika berättelser. Den första berättelsen hämtar inspiration från begreppen ´triple helix´ och ´distribueradkunskapsproduktion´. Med hjälp av dessa begrepp kan vi åstadkomma en berättelse som syftar till att fånga in en övergripande samhällsdiskurs och därmed en mer abstrakt berättelse om hur relationerna mellan akademin och företagen kan omformuleras och omprövas. Den andra berättelsen landar i Blekinge och tar sin empiriska utgångspunkt från att presentera historia och nutid för två kunskapsnätverk som drivs i samarbete mellan Blekinge tekniska högskola och två företagsbranscher, nämligen tillverkningsindustrin och callcenterföretag. I vår historiebeskrivning och analys hämtar vi inspiration och verktyg från Actor-Network Theory (ANT) och dess vidareutveckling, Actor-Network Theory and After (ANTA). Den första analytiska blicken omfattas av hur ´samverkansdiskursen´ och de befintliga regionala nätverken deltar i pågående förhandlingar/processer där olika förståelser av kunskap står i centrum. Den andra analytiska blicken riktar vi mot nätverkskoordinatorn, anställd av högskolan. På vilket sätt initierade koordinatorn som talesman de övriga deltagarna till projektet? Hur tydlig var ´invitationen´? Vilka förväntningar hade de olika nätverksdeltagarna? Utöver människor finns det också icke-mänskliga aktörer, som till exempel tid och pengar. Hur agerade de? Med vilket kunskapsperspektiv gick högskolan in i nätverksarbetet? Vilka kunskapssyner hade de deltagande företagen? Kan vi förstå kunskapsförhandlingar genom att utgå från två samexisterande kunskapsperspektiv: teoretisk kunskap och praktisk kunskap? Hur förhöll sig högskolan respektive de deltagande företagen till dessa perspektiv? Den andra blicken riktar vi oss mot kunskapsnätverkens stabilitet. Hur stabila är de existerande kunskapsnätverken? Vad innebär stabilitet? Har nätverkens ursprungliga mål och innehåll förändrats under tidens gång? Är stabilitet alltid något eftersträvansvärt eller kan det finnas negativ stabilitet? Vi syftar till att genom de lokala tillämpningarna kunna förstå på vilket sätt samarbete mellan akademin och företagen kan växa fram så att samarbetet kan bli givande för bägge parter. Vi syftar också till att synliggöra de kritiska punkterna för samarbetet mellan akademin och företagen. Parallellt med detta syftar vi också till att se vilka faktorer som kan bidra till att samarbetet blir meningsfullt och kraftfullt.

  • 5. Dittrich, Yvonne
    et al.
    Ekelin, Annelie
    Elovaara, Pirjo
    Eriksén, Sara
    Hansson, Christina
    Making e-Government Happen. Everyday co-development of services, citizenship and technology.2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a joint research project concerning the use and design of IT in public services, we are using a simple figure of on-going, design-oriented interactions to highlight shifting foci on relationships of codevelopment of services, citzenship and technology. We bring together a number of concrete examples of this on-going everyday co-development, presented from the different perspectives that we, as researchers from different disciplines and traditions, represent in the project. The article explores and discusses wokring relations of technology production and use that we see as central to what is actually making e-government happen - or not happen. The main challenge in this area, as we see it, concerns making visible, and developing supportive infrastructures for, the continuing local adaptation, development and design in use of integrated IT and public services.

  • 6. Ekelin, Annelie
    et al.
    Elovaara, Pirjo
    Eriksén, Sara
    Dittrich, Yvonne
    Hansson, Christina
    Landén, Sölve
    Larsson, Anita
    Olén, Ida
    Winter, Jeff
    KomInDu: A Small Project about Big Issues2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this short paper, we present glimpses from an interdisciplinary research and development project aimed at enhancing local democracy by developing ICT support for the consultation process around the comprehensive plan of a municipality. For the participating researchers, the project offered the opportunity of combining and comparing approaches and methods from two different design traditions that share democratic ideals and ambitions of nurturing citizen/user participation in design processes. This proved to be more challenging than we had originally anticipated. Differences in perspective gave different interpretations of the design context as well as of how participatory the processes actually were.

  • 7. Elovaara, Pirjo
    Angels in Unstable Sociomaterial Relations: Stories of Information Technology2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    I have explored spaces, where negotiations of border transgressions take place and where issues of technology and politics mingle. We meet a diversity of actors in the world of information technology (IT): political texts, people and technology participating in numerous sociomaterial relations. Time is the end of the 1990s and the beginning of the new millennium, 2000. Years, when IT occupied the western world and created its own fuzzy discourse. Years, when IT stole the biggest newspaper headlines and years, when IT became a mundane everyday part of our work practices. Years, when we learned to live in heterogeneous worlds. Actor-Network Theory (ANT) and Actor-Network Theory and After (ANTa) provide analytical and methodological perspectives when working with the empirical material. I present a chronological exposé of some of the key concepts of ANT and ANTa. I also discuss how the classical ANT perspective has changed during the last few years from being a theory of networks to become a methodological and analytical approach to other kinds of spaces such as fluid and fire. The heart of the thesis consists of six empirical cases. My aim of writing stories of information technology has been to investigate the black box of information technology. Investigating includes also efforts of opening. Concepts that are taken for granted, such as the very notion of information technology in my case, can be explored, questioned, transgressed, blurred and opened up. Each of the diffracted stories is specific and unique, with its own actors, context, location and situatedness. But the stories are also connected through ANT, and feminist technology and technoscience studies. Case number one, ‘Discourses and Cracks – A Case Study of Information Technology and Writing Women in a Regional Context ’, is about a project, where questions concerning discourses of information society with a special focus on citizenship are discussed and where global and national politics are translated to local and situated practices. Case number two, ‘Translating and Negotiating Information Technology ’, consists of two main parts. The fi rst one is about a regional library project. The analysis of the project is based on the classical Actor Network Theory (ANT) approach that invites the study of the heterogeneous and negotiable shaping of IT. The second part is about librarians developing web-based services. The analysis is inspired by the later development of ANT (called ANTa in the thesis) in order to include more invisible actors, relations and negotiations. Case number three, ‘Negotiating Information Technology: Politics and Practices of The Public Sector Web Production’, is about work practices of a municipal web developer, through which creation of sociotechnical relations of everyday information technology practices is analysed and also mirrored to national and local IT politics. Case number four, ‘Making e-Government Happen – Everyday Co-Development of Services, Citizenship and Technology’, is presenting the same web developer as in the third case, but now his everyday practices are connected with an expanded and wider circuit of co-constructors of information technology. The text is a co-production of a multidisciplinary research group aiming to describe, analyse and problematise connections when creating practices, where technology and society collaborate. Case number fi ve, ‘Citizenship at the Crossroads of Multiple Layers of Sociotechnical Relations’, enrols technology as an active actor in the construction of citizenship in an IT context in Sweden. The perspective emphasising the active agency of non-humans both enhances and challenges the Scandinavian approach of systems development by suggesting a direction towards a cyborgian approach towards technology design. Case number six, ‘Between Stability and Instability – a Project about e-Democracy ’, takes its point of departure from a small-scale project having as its goal the development of e-democracy in a municipal context. In the text the focus is on the stabilisation processes in shaping the technology (‘e’) and democracy parts of the project. I also discuss what kinds of spaces exist in between (the hyphen in e-democracy) and ask if integration between technology and democracy is possible as a whole. Finally, my intention is to step further into stories and practices not yet existing. Inspired by the French philosopher Michel Serres, I introduce the fi guration of an angel as a cartographer, intermediator and (co-) constructor of sociomaterial relations. Angels are needed to sew the separate fi elds of technology, politics and everyday practices to a rich seamless tapestry. They are the ‘artful integrators’ (Suchman).

  • 8. Elovaara, Pirjo
    Between Stability and Instability – a Project about e-Democracy2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to present, analyse and diffract a project called ‘KomInDu’ in in south-eastern Sweden. The project was defined as an e-democracy project with the focus on spatial planning with an interest on activating citizens to communicate and interact with the municipality via the web site. I will discuss the process of constructing the web site for the project. The focus is on how the concerns of the communication and interaction were interpreted during the project. The overall theme of the first part of the article is how the project was striving towards stability and how this stability was constructed in ongoing negotiations during the project time. Then I will discuss how the word ‘democracy’ worked and was worked with during the project. I want to explore what kind of contribution the notions of stability and instability can make to the democracy negotiations of the project. The final discussion concerns the hyphen between the letter ‘e’ and the word ‘democracy’. I will ask in what way the project was able to bring together the two parts of the project (e and democracy). I conclude the article with the question: was the project able to stabilise and integrate the two themes. Does the hyphen suggest that the ‘artful integration’ (Suchman, 2002) is necessary and also possible? How does it then become possible?

  • 9. Elovaara, Pirjo
    Between Stability and Instability: a Project about e-Democracy2008In: The electronic city / [ed] Finka, Ulrike &; , Berlin: Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag , 2008, p. 153-175Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10. Elovaara, Pirjo
    Between Stability and Instability: Using ANT and ANTa as analytical perspectives telling information technology stories2007In: International Journal of Feminist Technosciences, ISSN 1654-6792, Vol. 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article has its background in the criticism, initiated above all by Bruno Latour and John Law in the end of the 1990s, against the current state of Actor-Network Theory (ANT). The first aim of the article is to see how the ANT approach relates to the notions of stability and instability when taking the starting point from the network construction and using the network based vocabulary in analysing the empirical material. What is empirically possible to tell by using ANT? Are there limitations and limits of the ANT based narratives? The second aim of the article is to see how the later development of ANT, sometimes called Actor-Network Theory and After (ANTa) , responds to the ANT criticism and if it can offer an alternative analytical approach to the traditional ANT. Are ANTa stories different than ANT stories? Can the ANTa perspective resolve the possible limits and limitations of ANT? How does the ANTa perspective discuss and relate to the issues of stability and instability? I will make an effort to bring together the same empirical material as in the ANT based analysis and in a reflexive manner analyse the same empirical material.

  • 11. Elovaara, Pirjo
    Heterogeneous hybrids: Information Technology in Texts and Practices2001Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How could one understand and interpret the phenomenon of information technology, is the overall research question of this licentiate dissertation. The point of departure is the way some official texts in Sweden define the concept of information technology. It is possible to identify two dominating discourses; the technical and the social. In the first paper, empirical material from the Women Writing on the Net-project is mirrored against these dominating discourses. In the second paper, the focus is on how the dominating discourses are translated into librarians´ work practices and how librarians shape and transform information technology. How could one understand librarians´ ways of talking about information technology where the two separate discourses of information technology identified in the official texts do not seem to be identified as pure and separable phenomena? Feminist theories, feminist technoscientific studies and ´actor-network theory´ offer epistemological and analytical frames and screens necessary to understand information technology as a hybrid involving numerous heterogeneous elements. Introduction to the Papers Paper One, Discourses and Cracks - A Case Study of Information Technology and Writing Women in a Regional Context, is the first paper where empirical material from a local IT project is used and discussed and where it is mirrored against the dominating discourses of information technology. The first part of this paper discusses information technology as a political and practical discourse which is in part shaped by the repetition of an exalted rhetoric. This repetitive discursive model can be distinguished in global, regional and local contexts and reflects an optimistic belief in technology as an independent power that automatically furthers democratic development. Is it really this simple? The analysis includes a discussion of the concept of ´universal citizenship´ in a context of women's experiences in Sweden. The second part of the paper presents empirical material and experiences from the Women Writing on the Net-project (this is included in the framework of the DIALOGUE project, which was partly funded by ISPO/EU). The aim was to create a virtual space for women on the Internet and to explore the writing process in terms of aim, tool and method. The method of approach incorporated reflections and discussions about empowerment, democracy and representation of women. This created a more complex understanding of the values of the predominant IT discourses, and revealed the "cracks" in, and possibilities of feminist redefinitions of these values. In Paper Two, Translating and Negotiating Information Technology: Discourses and Practices, I continue exploration of my overall research question "What is information technology?" I study the dominating discourses of information technology; these I call "the technical suit" and the "social suit." In my empirical field studies among librarians in southeast Sweden I explore how the two faces of information technology - the technical and the social - are translated into librarians´ work practices. I study a project which was defined by the librarians themselves as an information technology project. I investigate how this project complies with the social/societal definitions of information technology, and how it complies with the technical definitions of information technology. In my second empirical study, I use two case studies with librarians involved in constructing web sites on the Internet. The Internet and the web are often seen in part as an open and undefined landscape in which new actors can move freely and build new partnerships, and partly as a shadow landscape of existing structures and relationships which can close up new openings. In the concluding discussion, I state that information technology seems to be both an amoeba and a chameleon. One minute it is a very pure and complicated technical story told by technicians. The next minute, it changes and turns into a financial story told by business people. It subsequently turns out to be an educational story told by teachers. It is also, however, a household story told by computer people. I suggest that information technology is impure. It is a hybrid. Inspired by Donna Haraways´s technoscientific metaphor of cyborg I claim that information technology is a cyborg in itself. In the third paper, From Networks to Fluids and Fires - A Prelude to Actor-Network Theory, I discuss a method of analysis I have tried to apply to my empirical material. I explore the notions of Actor-Network Theory (ANT), and Actor-Network Theory and After (ANTA). My point of departure is the way some official texts in Sweden define the concept of information technology by stressing the technical aspects of IT; at the same time they present information technology as a motor and a driving force for many sectors of society. In my research, I have discussed with librarians how they shape and transform information technology in their own work practices. The problems of analysing this empirical material started when the librarians started to talk about people, machines and money all in one breath. How could one understand their way of talking about information technology where the two separate lines of information technology identified in the official texts did not seem to be identified as pure and separable phenomena? How was it possible to understand the concept of information technology as it was used by the librarians, who seemed to involve all kinds of different heterogeneous elements which at first sight were very far away from information technology? It was when asking these questions that I discovered ANT and ANTA. In this paper, I present some basic ideas about these two research approaches by reading and analysing articles published between 1980 and the year 2000. In addition to the ANT and ANTA perspectives, I also introduce my own research questions: story telling and epistemological problematisations closely connected with feminist theories are, for example, closely intertwined in this paper.

  • 12. Elovaara, Pirjo
    Information Technology: Are Women Outsiders and/or Insiders?2003In: How do we make a difference?: Information technology, transnational democracy and gender / [ed] Mörtberg, Christina; Elovaara, Pirjo; Lundgren, Agneta, Luleå: Gender and Technology, Luleå University of Technology , 2003, p. 21-28Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden public images of information technology and gender often focus on women´s absence in education and professions in the IT sector. These presentations are numerous in campaigns and projects with the aim of encouraging women to engage in computer science and the IT sector. In my paper I create other images and representations by the use of two feminist figurations - Rosi Braidotti´s cartography and Donna J.Haraway´s diffraction. My point of departure is taken in librarians´ everyday practices when I create another map as well as other meanings than those based on women´s absence. There is a predominance of women working in libraries in Sweden. The inclusion of librarians makes sense of the image of the IT sector, but are they insiders or outsiders?

  • 13. Elovaara, Pirjo
    Informationsteknik: är kvinnorna innanför och/eller utanför?2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    55 Hur definieras informationsteknik i Sverige? Jag har tagit denna fråga med mig till tre officiella svenska dokument: Regeringens proposition 1995/1996 "Åtgärder för att bredda och utveckla användningen av informatiosteknik", Regeringens proposition 1999/2000 "Informationssamhälle för alla" samt Jämits (Jämställdhetsrådet för transporter och IT) delrapport från oktober 2000 (SOU 2000:58) "Jämställdhet och IT". Fokus i det offentliga samtalet har legat på frånvaron av kvinnor. Som ett exempel på denna fokusering vill jag citera Jämits delrapport: "Andelen kvinnor är låg inom vissa IT-branscher och det finns få kvinnor i ledande positioner i börsnoterade IT-företag. Det finns få kvinnor med hög utbildning inom IT-branschen. Fler män än kvinnor har ADB och systemvetenskaplig examen. Fler män än kvinnor har civilingenjör – datateknisk examen."(s.12). Jämit har hämtat innebörden av begreppet informationsteknik från ett tidigare statligt dokument, nämligen från regeringspropositionen 1999/00. I dessa dokument definieras IT som "ett vitt begrepp som används om teknik för att samla in, överföra, lagra, bearbeta och presentera ljud, bild och text i stora mängder oberoende av avståndet. IT är en kombination av datorer och telekommunikation. Ett äktenskap mellan mikroprocessorn och telefonen". (SOU 2000:58) Vad dessa officiella texter vill visa är att informationsteknik är ett tekniskt fält. Detta fält är i könsmässig obalans om vi betraktar det utifrån jämställdhetsperspektiv. Då kan vi exempelvis fokusera på antalet kvinnor som studerar inom de sk IT-områden och därmed också på antalet kvinnor som har sk tekniska yrken. Det finns dock andra berättelser och bilder av informationsteknik. Bibliotekarier är en intressant grupp i diskussioner om jämställdhet och informationsteknik. I Sverige är ca 80 % av alla bibliotekarier kvinnor. Denna profession har traditionellt haft två kärnor, nämligen strukturering av information samt sammanförandet av information och människor. Under de senaste åren har många bibliotekarier initierat sk IT-projekt inom sina egna organisationer. I denna artikel vill jag återge berättelser om tre bibliotekarier och deras IT-praktiker. Vilka teman växer fram utifrån dessa berättelser? Inledningsvis berättar jag hur den informationsteknik som bibliotekarier skapar kan se ut. Är till exempel dikotomin utvecklare/användare relevant? En fråga om expertis är också av intresse i detta sammanhang när bibliotekariernas praktiker speglas gentemot de officiella texternas syn på vilka är informationsteknikens aktörer. Avslutningsvis kommer jag tillbaka till temat informationsteknik, exkluderingar och inkluderingar och använder metaforen "den svarta lådan" som min förståelseram. Beroende hur vi konstruerar den svarta lådan påverkar också vad/vilka vi ser i den svarta lådan Vi skapar också olika och ibland motstridiga förståelser av om/hur informationsteknik och jämställdhetsperspektivet kan vävas ihop och hur deras inbördes relationer ser ut. Keywords: Informationsteknik, IT, jämställdhet, IT-politik

  • 14. Elovaara, Pirjo
    Negotiating Information Technology: Politics and Practices of a Web Site2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I investigate municipal web production activities in a Swedish context. I implement Gärtner & Wagners suggestion about thinking through three different arenas when studying design processes: Arena A for individual projects, Arena B for organisational layer and Arena C for the national arena. The arena C, in my case National politics, I regard as the dominating information political discourse, which draws up the ideological scene of the topics, which are available for the information technology translations at the local level. The Arena B is a municipal political IT-vision document. The arena A is an analysis of an interview with a municipal web developer. I implement the analytical tools and vocabulary of the actor-network theory (ANT). I suggest that the web design process is a network of negotiations, where political documents, web producers, private companies, software, and time meet. The messy mixture of actors reinforces the idea of understanding information technology as a hybrid of humans and non-humans, and technology and society. By understanding the complexity of the design process also enables us to think about why the everyday work sometimes seems to be complex, vulnerable and unstable.

  • 15.
    Elovaara, Pirjo
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Planning and Media Design.
    Ordering Messiness? – Diffracting an ICT-Project in Rwanda2012In: Empowering Women Through ICT / [ed] Wamala, Caroline, Stockholm: Spider - The Swedish Program for ICT in Developing Regions , 2012, p. 45-54Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 16. Elovaara, Pirjo
    et al.
    Ekelin, Annelie
    Discourses and Cracks: A Case Study of Information Technology and Writing Women in a Regional Context2000In: Women, Work and Computerization: Charting a Course to the Future / [ed] Smith, Ellen Balka & Richard, Boston & Dordrecht & Lonfon: Kluwer Academic Publilshers , 2000, p. 199-207Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses information technology as political and practical discourse. The repetitive discursive model can be distinguished in global, regional and local contexts and contains an optimistic belief in technology as an independent power that automatically furthers democratic development. The second part of the paper presents empirical material and experiences from the ´Women Writing on the Net´ project. The aim was to build up a virtual space for women and use writing as aim, tool and method. This created a more complex understanding of the values of the predominant IT discourses and revealed the ´cracks´ and possibilities for feminist definitions of these values.

  • 17. Elovaara, Pirjo
    et al.
    Eriksén, Sara
    Ekelin, Annelie
    Hansson, Christina
    Nilsson, Monica E
    Winter, Jeff
    Educational programs in e-government: An active, practice- and design-oriented network?2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the autumn of 2004, two higher educational programs in e-government will be starting up at Blekinge Institute of Technology in Southern Sweden. One of these is a Master’s level program, while the other is a more basic, two-year vocational education. Each will be the first of its kind in Scandinavia, and both will be offered as net-based distance education. The interdisciplinary group of researchers/teachers now developing the courses for these educational programs, in co-operation with several other research groups in Scandinavia, see this co-construction of distance education as the beginning of an active Scandinavian network of competence around higher education and ongoing research and development in the e-government area. We are currently exploring the possibilities of using distance education in this area as a way of networking around on-going e-government research and competence enhancement in Scandinavia. The Scandinavian tradition of Participatory Design, as well as ideas about e-government as constantly ongoing co-construction, have inspired us in our work with developing the new educational programs. A reference group consisting of representatives from a number of municipalities and various government agencies plays an important role in this work.

  • 18.
    Elovaara, Pirjo
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Gustavsson, Kerstin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Hallgren, Elin
    Paxling, Linda
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Trojer, Lena
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Gender Budgeting, Human Resources, Organisational Culture -Development of Methods2015Other (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    GENISLAB, is a four year project (2011 - 2014) within the 7th Framework Programme for research and technology. The aim of the project is to promote organizational change in six European scientific organizations. Each partner develops its own Tailored Action Plan based on three dimensions, Gender Budgeting, Human Resources (HR) Management and Gender and Organisational Culture and Stereotypes. This report presents results of quantitative and qualitative data on Gender Budgeting and HR management as well as comments on organizational culture.

  • 19. Elovaara, Pirjo
    et al.
    Haikola, Lars
    Trojer, Lena
    Research Management/Organization Development at the National University of Rwanda for Sida/SAREC supported programmes2007Report (Other academic)
  • 20. Elovaara, Pirjo
    et al.
    Hultén, Annika
    Säker och sökande: den flexibla folkbildningens vardag2008Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I skriften Säker och sökande intervjuas sex folkbildare; pedagoger och bibliotekarier. De berättar om utmaningarna som it-tekniken medför i deras vardagspraktik. Arbeta som lärare/bibliotekarie i dag, är det samma sak som att arbeta som lärare/bibliotekarie i morgon?

  • 21. Elovaara, Pirjo
    et al.
    Igira, Faraja Teddy
    Mörtberg, Christina
    Whose Participation? Whose Knowledge?2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we discuss two Participatory Design (PD) projects, one in Tanzania-Zanzibar and the other one in Sweden. In both countries the design process was done through the analysis of work practices involving both designers and users. The discussion focuses on a number of factors such as location, time and scene. We also ask how different projects can be that it is still possible to talk about PD as an overall participation and design approach. If PD is not a singular, definite, closed and fixed approach on the explicit layers, so how do these projects relate to each other when focusing on methods embracing the ambiguities of participation? The paper ends with a discussion of differences and similarities considering participation in the projects.

  • 22. Elovaara, Pirjo
    et al.
    Mörtberg, Christina
    Attaching people and technology – between e and government2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we will discuss performance of e-government, gender, skills, learning and technology with the use of various stories of the transformation or modernisation process of Swedish public sector. Swedish public sector is involved in an overwhelming change process aiming towards the strong political hope to create a good service society with information technology. The transformation process is united under the overall concept e-government and it is also characterised as a modernisation process with the use of concepts such as rationalisation, efficiency and effectiveness. This is the grand narrative or the dominating discourse of Swedish society Another discourse is the silences of employees’ agencies, their participation in the development of services, and also the public sector as a dominating labour market for women. The modernisation or the implementation of IT will probably change the working conditions and practices radically for civil servants. Based on the earlier implementations of IT in the public sector there should be great concerns about how skills, experiences and gender intersect but also how they could and should influence the transformation processes; a process that again seems to be dominated by a technological determinism and a strong belief on IT as a driving force in the modernisation of the public sector. But as always there also exist other initiatives and stories. One is about a net based higher education study programme and courses in the field of e-government at Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden. Very few low-educated women employed in the public sector enrolled in the training although they were the explicit target group and there were articulated hopes about creating e-government training also including the daily practices and experiences of the civil servants. The low number of female students and also women´s absence in the national e-government and IT policies was the starting point for our research project From government to e-government: gender, skills, learning and technology. Women working at various sectors in four municipalities in Blekinge participated in the project between November 2005 and June 2007. In the project we developed and used a repertoire of methods sensitive to everyday practices in order to create space and time for women and their individual and collaborative stories. That is, narratives full of certainties, uncertainties and possibilities.

  • 23. Elovaara, Pirjo
    et al.
    Mörtberg, Christina
    Cartographic Mappings – Participative Methods2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we discuss and reflect on participative methods used in a research project conducted in a south-eastern part of Sweden. With participatory design and feminist science and technology studies as the frame of reference we explore diverse and multiple experiences and knowledge created in work practices. We conclude the article by telling about the method we worked with, which we chose to call cartographies and how the method made visible everyday performances and practices in a municipal administrative office.

  • 24. Elovaara, Pirjo
    et al.
    Mörtberg, Christina
    Design of Digital Democracies – Staging and Performing Citizenship, Gender and Information Technology2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the project is to explore how the ideas of democracy, citizenship, agency and gender can be connected to the notion of design of information technology. One of the reasons to focus on democracy and citizenship is to be found in the growing interest in e-government that is currently launched, politically and technologically, not only in Europe, but world wide. IT policies on a national as well as EU level express wishes to create an information society for all. How are then relations between democracy/citizenship and IT articulated in different practices? How are relations performed by the citizens as users and how is the staging of democracy/citizenship being inscribed in the design by systems designers? The intention of firs empirical part of the study is to investigate a number of spaces/places and practices for (re)negotiating democracy, citizenship, gender and IT. By spaces/places and practices we mean heterogeneous sociomaterial relations between human and non-human actors. Neither citizenship, gender and IT thus understood as fixed or closed categories, but are constantly reinforced, reshaped and (re)produced. Our initial research questions are: - How are dreams and visions of the good democratic lives articulated in a variety of spaces/places and practices by heterogeneous actors? Meanings connected to democracy, citizenship, gender and IT – how are they performed - What are the tensions and contradictions to be founded? - What are the dominating discourses and what are the concurring ones? The second part of the study focuses on the issue of design. Possible research questions to be addressed are: Are the multiple voices kept alive in the design process? How could they be kept alive in the whole design process from an idea to a product - artefact or running the IT-system? Do some methodologies and methods support heterogeneity better than others? Why and how do some perspectives win over others in design processes? How do asymmetrical power relations (gender, ethnicity, age, sexuality etc) intervene in designers definitions of actors involved in systems design? How do designers inscribe their visions of the worlds in the artefacts and systems? We are interested to see if the study can find methodological inspiration and support from a combination of various systems design approaches (participatory design, experimental design), feminist technoscience and Actor-Network-Theory.

  • 25. Elovaara, Pirjo
    et al.
    Mörtberg, Christina
    DESIGN OF DIGITAL DEMOCRACIES: Performances of citizenship, gender and IT2007In: Information, Communication and Society, ISSN 1468-4462 , Vol. 10, no 3, p. 404-423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract The point of departure for this article is several Swedish IT policies that articulate goals for further development of the welfare state, which demand and enable active citizenship as well as enrolment of IT in the performance of this active citizenship. This article also examines the performance of active citizenship in a variety of sociotechnical arenas where people and technology coexist. Does the notion of active citizenship turn out a number of performances when translated into materialized technologies, such as Internet portals and web-based services? The authors juxtapose the policies with a construction of agencies in the story of citizens' design. In the last section, the discussions taking place in the parliament of things are summarized and related to the problematizations of citizenship, gender and IT.

  • 26. Elovaara, Pirjo
    et al.
    Mörtberg, Christina
    From Government to e-Government: Gender, Skills, Learning and Technology2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Detta projekt "From Government to e-Government: Gender, Skills, Learning and Technology" (KS/LearnIT/GLIT) tar sin början i den snabba IT-utvecklingen och i de höga förhoppningarna till IT/IKT inom den svenska offentliga sektorn inom vilken dock ett antal spänningsfält kan identifieras: • Ett antal politiska målsättningar finns formulerade: rationalisering och effektivitet som de viktigaste. Dessa målsättningar ska genomföras och förverkligas genom den nya teknologin • Samtidigt diskuteras också om att erbjuda nya och bättre (e-)samhällstjänster till medborgarna. • Det finns dock en aspekt som de senaste politiska dokumenten i mindre grad talar om: de offentligt anställdas och deras inverkan och påverkan av dessa förändringsprocesser. • Det finns dock alternativa och inkluderande vägar att utveckla teknologier: Participatory Design (Användarmedverkan i systemutveckling). Denna tradition har haft två huvudmål: att påverka demokratisering av arbetslivet samt demokratisera designprocesser. • Den svenska jämställdhetsdiskussionen fokuserar på det låga antalet kvinnor inom IT. • Å andra sidan finns det forskning som berättar om kvinnors aktiva deltagande framförallt i den lokala IT-utvecklingen, som till exempel berättelser om bibliotekarier. • Det diskuteras om kunskapssamhälle med fokus på livslångt lärande, utan vilka kunskaper eller färdigheter som är önskvärda i formandet av våra framtider • Många av de idéer och tankar om lärande och kunskap som fått genomslag har sina rötter i den feministiska pedagogiken med sina nyckelord: ”empowerment, reflexivity, power, and participation” (Goodman et al, 2003). Syfte med projektet är att: • Studera lärande- och kunskapsprocesser hos kvinnor anställda inom den svenska offentliga sektorn i förändring • Utveckla och testa olika former av stöd för lärande och kunskapsprocesser relaterade till arbetet och utveckling av digitala tjänster inom den offentliga sektorn • Projektet syftar till att skapa en arena för lokala omförhandlingar om IKT och genus • Väva ihop dessa med design, lärande, kunskapsprocesser inom e-government • Utforska varför kvinnor inte var intresserade av att delta i e-governmentkurser vid BTH • Skapa nya samverkansformer för att utveckla nya utbildningsaktiviteter Genomförande • Intervjuer • Studie- och forskningscirkel • Designworkshops • Kurs

  • 27. Elovaara, Pirjo
    et al.
    Mörtberg, Christina
    Information technology at the crossroad of2007In: Kurrswechsel: Zeitskrift fur geschellschafts-, wirtschafts- und umweltpolitische Alternativen, ISSN 1016-0419, Vol. 3, p. 47-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we will discuss how citizenship emerges in Swedish IT-policies and IT-related projects. In order to understand the basis of agency in a Nordic welfare society, like Sweden, using IT both as a means and goal there is a need to study how the Swedish government has defined and framed the space and borders of citizenship. The policies will be confronted with the enactment of agencies in the stories of citizens’ own design of IT in their everyday lives. We will discuss also how the societal changes connected to new technologies intervene and get intertwined in the everyday work of employees in the public sector. We will present some examples from our ongoing research project »From government to e-government : gender, skills, learning and technology« exploring the boundary crossings between IT and government. We will close the article by asking what the challenging and troublesome questions for the future digital society might and should be.

  • 28. Elovaara, Pirjo
    et al.
    Mörtberg, Christina
    Mellan teknik och människor: kunskap och lärande i den kommunala vardagen2009In: Samhälle, teknik och lärande / [ed] Karlsohn, Thomas, Stockholm: Carlssons , 2009, p. 86-103Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Detta kapitel har sin utgångspunkt i forskningsprojektet From government till e-Government: gender, skills, learning and technology (2005-2007) . Det övergripande syftet med projektet var att studera hur vardagens kommunala arbetspraktiker skulle kunna relateras till de politiska förändringsprocesser som genomsyrar svensk offentlig förvaltning. Det som speciellt intresserade oss var hur den starka fokuseringen på informationsteknologi som artikuleras i svenska policydokument omsätts i praktiker i svenska kommuner, där majoriteten av anställda är kvinnor. Vi frågade initialt: hur mycket handlings- och förhandlingsutrymme finns det i den kommunala vardagen när nationella IT-mål översätts till lokala praktiker? Innebär övergången till elektronisk förvaltning nya kunskapskrav? Erbjuds det möjligheter till lärande och utveckling av nya kompetenser? Hur förhåller sig de nya teknikintensiva arbetssätten till redan befintliga erfarenheter och kunskaper? Vårt mål var också att särskilt studera om offentliga berättelser om kvinnornas frånvaro från IT-relaterade arbeten återskapades i lokala praktiker eller om vi skulle kunna höra andra, som bland annat berättas av genusforskare.

  • 29. Elovaara, Pirjo
    et al.
    Mörtberg, Christina
    Presentation från LearnIT2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Detta projekt "From Government to e-Government: Gender, Skills, Learning and Technology" (KKS/LearnIT/GLIT) tar sin början i den snabba IT-utvecklingen och i de höga förhoppningarna till IT/IKT inom den svenska offentliga sektorn inom vilken dock ett antal spänningsfält kan identifieras: • Ett antal politiska målsättningar finns formulerade: rationalisering och effektivitet som de viktigaste. Dessa målsättningar ska genomföras och förverkligas genom den nya teknologin • Samtidigt diskuteras också om att erbjuda nya och bättre (e-)samhällstjänster till medborgarna. • Det finns dock en aspekt som de senaste politiska dokumenten i mindre grad talar om: de offentligt anställdas och deras inverkan och påverkan av dessa förändringsprocesser. • Det finns dock alternativa och inkluderande vägar att utveckla teknologier: Participatory Design (Användarmedverkan i systemutveckling). Denna tradition har haft två huvudmål: att påverka demokratisering av arbetslivet samt demokratisera designprocesser. • Den svenska jämställdhetsdiskussionen fokuserar på det låga antalet kvinnor inom IT. • Å andra sidan finns det forskning som berättar om kvinnors aktiva deltagande framförallt i den lokala IT-utvecklingen, som till exempel berättelser om bibliotekarier. • Det diskuteras om kunskapssamhälle med fokus på livslångt lärande, utan vilka kunskaper eller färdigheter som är önskvärda i formandet av våra framtider • Många av de idéer och tankar om lärande och kunskap som fått genomslag har sina rötter i den feministiska pedagogiken med sina nyckelord: ”empowerment, reflexivity, power, and participation” (Goodman et al, 2003). Syfte med projektet är att: • Studera lärande- och kunskapsprocesser hos kvinnor anställda inom den svenska offentliga sektorn i förändring • Utveckla och testa olika former av stöd för lärande och kunskapsprocesser relaterade till arbetet och utveckling av digitala tjänster inom den offentliga sektorn • Projektet syftar till att skapa en arena för lokala omförhandlingar om IKT och genus • Väva ihop dessa med design, lärande, kunskapsprocesser inom e-government • Utforska varför kvinnor inte var intresserade av att delta i e-governmentkurser vid BTH • Skapa nya samverkansformer för att utveckla nya utbildningsaktiviteter Genomförande • Intervjuer • Studie- och forskningscirkel • Designworkshops • Kurs

  • 30. Elovaara, Pirjo
    et al.
    Sefyrin, JohannaÖhman, May-BrittBjörkman, Christina
    Travelling Thoughtfullness: feminist technoscience stories....for Christina2010Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 31. Eriksén, Sara
    et al.
    Ekelin, Annelie
    Elovaara, Pirjo
    Combining Research and Teaching in a Net-Based Learning Environment. Experiences from a net-based summer course on everyday IT: use and design2002Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem-based learning is emphasized in teaching as well as in research at the Blekinge Institute of Technology, where we come from. Students work in projects, often in collaboration with businesses and other organizations in the region. Cross-disciplinary course modules and co-operative projects are offered, involving students and staff from different subject areas. As far as possible, student projects are linked to on-going research projects, and research, too, is carried out in close cooperation with the surrounding society, the public sector and enterprises/industries in the region. Consequently, when we decided to offer a net-based summer course in 2002, an important aspect was how we could continue to link our on-going interdisciplinary research cooperation to the course in a constructive way, such that the students could be involved in problem-based learning of relevance to both their own situations and our research work. In this paper, we describe and reflect on some of the experiences from our first net-based summer course, in which we used three main themes and a combination of individual and group tasks to support reflection and dialogue around the literature and the students? own contributions to the course. The course was net-based, but also included F-2-F; three consecutive days of ?live? lectures and seminars at the university campus in Ronneby.

  • 32. Eriksén, Sara
    et al.
    Ekelin, Annelie
    Elovaara, Pirjo
    Dittrich, Yvonne
    Hansson, Christina
    Winter, Jeff
    What have we learned from the TANGO arena for regional cooperation in Southern Sweden?2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The TANGO e-government arena is a project in Southern Sweden, funded by the Innovative Actions of the European Regional Development Fund. The project is now nearing its end, and we are thus at the stage of reflectively reviewing what has actually been accomplished and how this relates to the original goals of the project. In July 2002, when the project began, the aim was to establish cooperation between the public sector, private enterprise and university-based research in designing public e-services. In cooperating around development of new, integrated services, catering to various categories of users as well as to a growing diversity of mobile technologies, we have aimed towards es-tablishing feedback channels between practice and theory, between use and design, and between different academic disciplines where we see a need to synchronize the models and methods we work with. Our research questions have focused on exploring and managing multi-perspectivity as a resource for design. In this paper we look at how we organized our cooperation around these goals, and attempt to address those basic summing-up-the-project questions; How well have we succeeded? What have we learned in the process?

  • 33. Gulbrandsen, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Elovaara, Pirjo
    Trojer, Lena
    Samverkansprocesser i Innovationssystem: teknovetenskaplig genusforskning som utvecklingsresurs2006Other (Other academic)
  • 34. Gulbrandsen, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Trojer, Lena
    Björkman, Christina
    Elovaara, Pirjo
    Genusforskning inom teknisk fakultet: en kunskapspolitisk utmaning2006In: Kvinnovetenskaplig tidskrift, ISSN 0348-8365, Vol. 27, no 2-3, p. 49-64Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35. Mörtberg, Christina
    et al.
    Björkman, Christina
    Elovaara, Pirjo
    Agential Realism – Something for Gender and IT Research?2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People´s everyday lives have changed and are continuously changing depending on the technologically mediated world we live in. Feminist researchers have explored the relationships between gender and information technology (IT), the gendering of IT and the co-construction of gender and IT. This research has contributed to and created critical approaches towards pluralistic understandings of the relationships between gender and (information) technology. There exists a body of knowledge concerning not only gender, but also epistemological and ontological issues. However, explorations are ongoing processes in order to “encourage us to do this differently.” (Schneider 2005:21) In this exploratory paper we will use Karen Barad’s agential realism together with Haraway’s diffraction to discuss systems development, the importance of materiality and its role in the development of IT-systems. While diffraction maps “where the effects of differences appear” (Haraway 1992:300), agential realism invites us to discuss systems development as material-discursive practices. The focus is moved from interactions between humans/non-humans to intra-actions (togetherness) in practices/doings/actions. We address the following questions: Does the approach of agential realism with intra-actions, apparatuses, and cuts help to find new fruitful understandings of gender and IT? Does the approach help feminist researchers in developing future directions of gender and IT, creating alternatives and acting accountably in the world of becoming, where agency remains at the heart of feminist practices? We are here in particular concerned with the design and construction of IT-systems and artefacts. In building these, different actors and practices can be involved, such as for example systems developers, programmers, specifications, design models, operating systems, programming languages, computers, protocols, managers, time, money, workplace culture, division of labour, gender and so on. In specific performances of material-discursive practices these are included or excluded. Those included constitute the specific apparatus involved in boundary-making in material-discursive practices. With a diffracted reading of various development practices we will map the chosen apparatus and how it comes to participate in and enact a particular world of becoming. Due to the particular apparatus, categories and classifications, such as subjects and objects, experts and non-experts, gender, information technology etc. are constituted. Consequently, what is included or excluded in the enactment orders the world differently since different realities (worlds) are sedimented out of particular practices/doings/actions. Being accountable means to ask if we need other kinds of practices and enactments, with new configurations of agency that work for change?

  • 36. Mörtberg, Christina
    et al.
    Elovaara, Pirjo
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Planning and Media Design.
    Attaching People and Technology: Between E and Government2010In: Gender Isssues in Learning and Working with Information Technology: Social Constructs and Cultural Contexts / [ed] Booth, Shirley; Goodman, Sara; Kirkup, Gill, Hershey, New York: Information Science Reference , 2010, p. 83-98Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish public sector is involved in an overwhelming change process aiming toward creating a good-service society based on information technology. Rationalisation, efficiency and effectiveness are the leading signs in the dominating discourse of Swedish society of today. This discourse is silent about public sector employees, their agencies, their participation, and how the public sector is the dominant labour market for women. Alternative stories of women’s presence in the creation of a good-service society are presented with a focus on performances of gender, skills, learning and technology. The empirical material was collected in municipalities in the south east of Sweden. Methods sensitive to everyday practices in order to create space and time for women and their stories were developed and used. The methodological approaches, feminist technoscience, provide opportunities to move beyond the dominating IT discourses in order to make visible other discourses where women are present.

  • 37. Mörtberg, Christina
    et al.
    Stuedahl, Dagny
    Elovaara, Pirjo
    Designing for Sustainable Ways of Living with Technologies2010In: Exploring Digital Design: Multi-disciplinary Design Practices / [ed] Wagner, Ina; Bratteteig, Tone; Stuedahl, Dagny, London: Springer , 2010, p. 261-282Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Olofsdotter Bergström, Annika
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Elovaara, Pirjo
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    8 women 8 rules2017In: Libro de Actas V Congresso Internacional Cidades Criativas / [ed] Alves, Luis M; Alves, P y García García, F, Porto: ICONO14 , 2017, p. 525-526Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    8 women in a dark Nordic winter forest, playing around with flashlights, accompanied by the echoing of a world famous Arabic singer from their mobile phones-

    what has this to do with creative and playful cities?

     

    This forest expedition was a part of a non-traditional participatory research and action project from southeastern Sweden. The project provides the empirical material for our reflective story. The overall aim of the project was to investigate, through playful explorations, how a diverse group of women can transform for us unfamiliar places, both concerning geographical, cultural, social aspects, and also how places in themselves can transform people. Ultimately the project also challenged the notion of citizenship not as a legal term but as an active and ongoing becoming. The core group of the project was created by academic scholars, municipality and a number of female immigrants from Syria.

     

    When we started to plan the project we were in need of theoretical guides that could support us in our playfulness, without losing the critical and situated understanding of our trajectory and hence we identified some key concepts provided by our epistemological companions, such as:  caring (de la Bellacasa, 2012), touching/becoming (de la Bellacasa, 2009), messiness (Law, 2004). To meet up these approaches we had to rely on and develop methods that could enable the exploratory playfulness; therefore, we turned to the artistic movements of Situationists and Surrealists.

     

    These choices demanded a sensitive awareness towards ourselves, each other and the places. We locate this project as a transdisciplinary framework of site-specific games, participatory design and feminist research.

  • 39. Petris, Linus de
    et al.
    Elovaara, Pirjo
    Hagert, Göran
    Participation in public: a reflection on the design of controversial things2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The experiment presented here was conducted within the R&D project X-Ovation, taking place in southeastern Sweden during 2009-2012 and financed by the European Union structural funds. The project owner is a science park and the other project participants are a technical university, a municipality and regional emergency services. The aim of the project is to try to find new ways for dialogue between government and citizens using digital social media and to explore social innovation in municipal services development. The project consist of several smaller activity teams located for example at the public library, the municipal department for business development and the one stop service. The project also initiates own experiments and interventions to explore and investigate possibilities and constraints for multiple ways to communicate within the municipality; mainly focusing on communication between citizens and representatives of the participating municipality. One of the figurations that the project group has adapted is the concept of park bench 2.0. A physical park bench, as an old but still existing symbol for informal meetings in open public spaces, with an idea of a digital open public space; two metaphors and also artifacts which together form an imagined park bench 2.0, aiming to encourage and enhance new forms for informal meetings. Firsthand, the experiment was done to expose different imaginings, expectations and desires on free speech, the public sphere and the dialogue between the public and government. Second, the experiment is a starting point for further exploration on the design of public controversial things, in this context dealing with the politics of artifacts in eGovernment processes and in the interplay between government and the public.

1 - 39 of 39
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