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  • 1.
    Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Aurum, Aybueke
    Barney, Hamish
    Software quality trade-offs: A systematic map2012In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 54, no 7, p. 651-662Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Software quality is complex with over investment, under investment and the interplay between aspects often being overlooked as many researchers aim to advance individual aspects of software quality. Aim: This paper aims to provide a consolidated overview the literature that addresses trade-offs between aspects of software product quality. Method: A systematic literature map is employed to provide an overview of software quality trade-off literature in general. Specific analysis is also done of empirical literature addressing the topic. Results: The results show a wide range of solution proposals being considered. However, there is insufficient empirical evidence to adequately evaluate and compare these proposals. Further a very large vocabulary has been found to describe software quality. Conclusion: Greater empirical research is required to sufficiently evaluate and compare the wide range of solution proposals. This will allow researchers to focus on the proposals showing greater signs of success and better support industrial practitioners.

  • 2. Berander, Patrik
    et al.
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    Evaluating two Ways of Calculating Priorities in Requirements Hierarchies: an Experiment on Hierarchical Cumulative Voting2009In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212 , Vol. 82, no 5, p. 836-850Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When developing large-scale software systems, there is often a large amount of requirements present, and they often reside on several hierarchical levels. In most cases, not all stated requirements can be implemented into the product due to different constraints, and the requirements must hence be prioritized. As requirements on different abstraction levels shall not be compared, prioritization techniques that are able to handle multi-level prioritization are needed. Different such techniques exist, but they seem to result in unfair comparisons when a hierarchy is unbalanced. In this paper, an empirical experiment is presented where an approach that compensate for this challenge is evaluated. The results indicate that some form of compensation is preferred, and that the subjects’ preference is not influenced by the amount of information given.

  • 3.
    Betz, Stefanie
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Moss, Andrew
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Afzal, Wasif
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    An Evolutionary Perspective on Socio-Technical Congruence:The Rubber Band Effect2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conway’s law assumes a strong association between the system’s architecture and the organization’s communication structure that designs it. In the light of contemporary software development, when many companies rely on geographically distributed teams, which often turn out to be temporarily composed and thus having an often changing communication structure, the importance of Conway’s law and its inspired work grows. In this paper, we examine empirical research related to Conway’s law and its application for cross-site coordination. Based on the results obtained we conjecture that changes in the communication structure alone sooner or later trigger changes in the design structure of the software products to return the sociotechnical system into the state of congruence. This is further used to formulate a concept of a rubber band effect and propose a replication study that goes beyond the original idea of Conway’s law by investigating the evolution of socio-technical congruence over time.

  • 4. Davidsson, Paul
    et al.
    Johansson, Stefan J.
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    Characterization and Evaluation of Multi-Agent System Architectural Styles2006In: Software Engineering for Multi-Agent Systems IV, Springer , 2006, p. 179-188Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5. Davidsson, Paul
    et al.
    Johansson, Stefan J.
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    Characterization and Evaluation of Multi-Agent System Architectural Styles2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6. Davidsson, Paul
    et al.
    Johansson, Stefan J.
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process for Evaluating Multi-Agent System Architecture Candidates2006In: Agent-Oriented Software Engineering VI: 6th Internaitonal Workshop, AOSE 2005, Revised and Invited Papers, 2006, p. 205-217Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although much effort has been spent on suggesting and implementing new architectures of Multi-Agent Systems (MAS), the evaluation and comparison of these has often been done in a rather ad-hoc fashion. We believe that the time has come to start doing this in a more systematic way using established methods. For instance, we argue that it is important to evaluate the architecture candidates for a particular application according to several quality attributes relevant to that application. The architecture that provides the most appropriate balance between these attributes should then be selected. As a case study we investigate the problem of load balancing and overload control of Intelligent Networks and present four MAS architectures that can be used to handle this task. We instantiate each of these and define metrics for the selected quality attributes. The instantiations are studied in simulation experiments and measurements of the metrics are recorded. The measurements are then analyzed using the Analytic Hierarchy Process, which is a basic approach to select the most suitable alternative from a number of alternatives evaluated with respect to several criteria. We illustrate how such analyzes can be used for deciding which architecture candidate is the most appropriate in different situations.

  • 7. Davidsson, Paul
    et al.
    Johansson, Stefan J.
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process for Evaluating Multi-Agent System Architecture Candidates2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8. Dzamashvili-Fogelström, Nina
    et al.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    Needs Oriented Framework for Producing Requirements Decision Material: NORM2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The need of understanding and supporting requirements engineering decisions in market-driven product development is motivated by the complexity and economical impact of these decisions. While being a key for success, correct and timely decisions are dependent on the availability and the quality of decision material (requirements, business cases, costvalue estimations etc). This paper presents a needsoriented framework (NORM) for identifying and assuring the creation of appropriate decision material for RE decisions. NORM is based on analysis of the applied RE process and characteristics of separate RE decisions, focusing mainly on pre-project activities. The framework is developed in close cooperation with industry with the intention to ensure that resources are spent on producing just-the-necessary information at the right time and to be able to monitor and control this production effort.

  • 9. Dzamashvili-Fogelström, Nina
    et al.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    Olsson, PeO
    The Impact of Agile Principles on Market-Driven Software Product Development2010In: Software Process: Improvement and Practice, ISSN 1077-4866, E-ISSN 1099-1670, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 53-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agile development methods such as XP, SCRUM, Lean Software Development and others have gained much popularity during the last years. Agile methodologies promise faster time-to-market, satisfied customers and high quality software. While these prospects are appealing, the suitability of agile practices to different domains and business contexts still remains unclear. In this paper we investigate the applicability of agile principles in the context of market-driven software product development (MDPD), focusing on pre-project activities. This paper presents results of a comparison between typical properties of agile methods to the needs of MDPD, as well as findings of a case study conducted at Ericsson, an early adopter of agile product development. The results show misalignment between the agile principles and needs of pre-project activities in market-driven development. This misalignment threatens to subtract from the positive aspects of agile development, but maybe more importantly, threaten the overall product development by disabling effective product management.

  • 10. Dzamashvili-Fogelström, Nina
    et al.
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    Gorschek, Tony
    Investigating impact of business risk on requirements selection decisions2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In market-driven software product development, requirements that can potentially go into a product or a product release represent different kinds of investments. Requirements differ in the type of value that they provide and level of risk associated to investing in them. In this paper we investigate how business risk associated with different requirement types is considered by the decision makers and how it affects requirement selection decisions. The results of the conducted case study indicate that due to lacking methods for handling the requirements business risk, requirements with low level of risk are preferred over other type of requirements such as innovations and architectural improvements.

  • 11. Gorschek, Tony
    et al.
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    Requirements Experience in Practice: Studies of Six Companies2005In: Engineering and Managing Software Requirements / [ed] Aurum, A.; Wohlin, C., Springer Verlag , 2005, p. 405-426Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 12. Gorschek, Tony
    et al.
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    Borg, Andreas
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Eriksson, Magnus
    Loconsole, AnnaBella
    Sandahl, Kristian
    A Controlled Empirical Evaluation of a Requirements Abstraction Model2007In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849 , Vol. 49, no 7, p. 790-805Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Requirement engineers in industry are faced with the complexity of handling large amounts of requirements as development moves from traditional bespoke projects towards market-driven development. There is a need for usable and useful models that recognize this reality and support the engineers in a continuous effort of choosing which requirements to accept and which to dismiss off hand using the goals and product strategies put forward by management. This paper presents an evaluation of such a model that is built based on needs identified in industry. The evaluation's primary goal is to test the model's usability and usefulness in a lab environment prior to large scale industry piloting, and is a part of a large technology transfer effort. The evaluation uses 179 subjects from three different Swedish Universities, which is a large portion of the university students educated in requirements engineering in Sweden during 2004 and 2005. The results provide a strong indication that the model is indeed both useful and usable and ready for industry trials.

  • 13. Gorschek, Tony
    et al.
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    Tejle, Kaarina
    Introduction and Application of a Lightweight Requirements Engineering Process2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of an adequate requirements specification is often blamed for the failure of many IT investments. Naturally, the requirements specification is the product of a requirements engineering process. Methods are required to evaluate the current requirements engineering process and identify where improvements are necessary making it possible to produce requirement specifications of high quality. Existing requirements engineering evaluation methods are often large, costly and time-consuming to use. Therefore we introduce a lightweight evaluation method, which we use to evaluate four industry projects. In this paper we outline the evaluation method, describe four industrial applications of the method and present an analysis of the findings. The results suggest that the proposed evaluation method is useful and the studied cases to a large extent have adequate requirements engineering processes although many important aspects are missing from their respective processes.

  • 14. Gorschek, Tony
    et al.
    Tejle, Kaarina
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    A Study of the State of Requirements Engineering in Four Industry Cases2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Niyizamwiyitira, Christine
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Lundberg, Lars
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Evaluation of Voice-driven Web Application Architecture2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper quantifies the implications and trade-offs of three different architectures for voice driven web application, architectures are implemented as prototypes. The prototypes differ from each other by either using recording, or Text To Speech (TTS) as server based, or TTS as client based to process output speech. A typical application used in this paper, is the most dynamic weather information source which is presented as web feeds or Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feeds. The evaluated quality attributes are performance, maintainability, and development effort. The empirical results show that, each system's architecture has a different quality profile, for instance, one architecture has the lowest development time but the highest maintainability cost, and another has the lowest bandwidth requirements but the highest development cost. Finally, suggestions about optimal choice of system architecture according to the quality requirements of the final system are drawn.

  • 16.
    Silvander, Johan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    A Systematic Literature Review on Intent-Driven SystemsIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: The aim of intent-driven systems is to capture stakeholders’ intents and transform these into a form that enables computer processing of the intents. Only then are different computer- based agents able to negotiate with each other on behalf of their respective stakeholders and their intents, and suggest a mutually beneficial agreement. This requires a separation of concerns between the parts of the system used to execute the stakeholder business, and the parts which are used to design the business based on stakeholder intents.

    Objective: The aim is to find out which methods/techniques as well as enabling aspects, useful for an intent-driven system, that are covered by research literature.

    Method: As a part of a design science study, a Systematic Literature Review is conducted.

    Results: The existence of methods/techniques which can be used as building blocks to construct intent-driven systems exist in the literature. How these methods/techniques can interact with the aspects needed to enabling flexible realizations of intent-driven systems is not evident in the existing literature.

    Conclusion: The synthesis shows a need for further research regarding semantic interchange of information, actor interaction in intent-driven systems, and the governance of intent-driven systems.

  • 17.
    Silvander, Johan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Towards Executable Business Rules2017Other (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context:  In today's implementations of business support systems, business rules are configured in different places of the system, and in different formats. This makes it hard to have a common view of what is defined, and to execute the same logic in different parts of systems. It is desired to have a common governance structure and a standardized way of handling the business rules.

    Objective: To investigate if it is possible to support visual and logical verification of business rules and to generate executable business rules.

    Method: Together with practitioners we conducted an experiment.

    Results: We have implemented a machine learning pipe-line which supports visual and logical verification of business rules, and the generation of executable business rules. From a machine learning perspective, we have added the possibility for the ID3 algorithm to use continuous features.

    Conclusion: The experiment shows that it is possible to support visual and logical verification of business rules, and to generate executable business rules with the help of a machine learning pipe-line.

  • 18.
    Silvander, Johan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Uncover and Assess Rule Adherence Based on Decisions2018In: Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing / [ed] Shishkov B., Springer Verlag , 2018, Vol. 319, p. 249-259Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Decisions taken by medical practitioners may be based on explicit and implicit rules. By uncovering these rules, a medical practitioner may have the possibility to explain its decisions in a better way, both to itself and to the person which the decision is affecting. Objective: We investigate if it is possible for a machine learning pipe-line to uncover rules used by medical practitioners, when they decide if a patient could be operated or not. The uncovered rules should have a linguistic meaning. Method: We are evaluating two different algorithms, one of them is developed by us and named “The membership detection algorithm”. The evaluation is done with the help of real-world data provided by a hospital. Results: The membership detection algorithm has significantly better relevance measure, compared to the second algorithm. Conclusion: A machine learning pipe-line, based on our algorithm, makes it possibility to give the medical practitioners an understanding, or to question, how decisions have been taken. With the help of the uncovered fuzzy decision algorithm it is possible to test suggested changes to the feature limits. © Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018.

  • 19.
    Silvander, Johan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Uncovering Implicit Rules in Medicine DiagnosisIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context:  Decisions taken by experts may be based on explicit and implicit rules. By uncovering the implicit rules the expert may have the possibility to explain its decisions in a better way, both for itself and the person which the decision is affecting. In the area of medicine, laws are enforcing the expert to be able to explain its decision when a patient is complaining about a decision. Another vital aspect is the ability of the expert to explain to the patient why a certain decision is taken, and the risks associated with the decision.

    Objective: To investigate if it is possible for a machine learning pipe-line to find implicit rules used by experts, when they decide if a patient could be operated or not.

    Method: We conduct an analysis of a data set, containing information about patients and the decision if an operation should be performed or not.

    Results: We have implemented a machine learning pipe-line which supports detection of implicit rules in a data set. The detection of the implicit rules are supported by an algorithm which implements an agglomerative merging of feature values. We have improved the original algorithm by showing the boarders of the feature values of a discretization bin.

    Conclusion: The analysis of the data set shows it is possible to find implicit rules used by the experts with the help of an agglomerative merging of feature values.

  • 20.
    Silvander, Johan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wilson, Magnus
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Supporting Continuous Changes to Business Intents2017In: International journal of software engineering and knowledge engineering, ISSN 0218-1940, Vol. 27, no 8, p. 1167-1198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Software supporting an enterprise’s business, also known as a business support system, needs to support the correlation of activities between actors as well as influence the activities based on knowledge about the value networks in which the enterprise acts. This requires the use of policies and rules to guide or enforce the execution of strategies or tactics within an enterprise as well as in collaborations between enterprises. With the help of policies and rules, an enterprise is able to capture an actor’s intent in its business support system, and act according to this intent on behalf of the actor. Since the value networks an enterprise is part of will change over time the business intents’ life cycle states might change. Achieving the changes in an effective and efficient way requires knowledge about the affected intents and the correlation between intents.

    Objective: The aim of the study is to identify how a business support system can support continuous changes to business intents. The first step is to find a theoretical model which serves as a foundation for intent-driven systems.

    Method: We conducted a case study using a focus group approach with employees from Ericsson. This case study was influenced by the spiral case study process.

    Results: The study resulted in a model supporting continuous definition and execution of an enterprise. The model is divided into three layers; Define, Execute, and a com- mon governance view layer. This makes it possible to support continuous definition and execution of business intents and to identify the actors needed to support the business intents’ life cycles. This model is supported by a meta-model for capturing information into viewpoints.

    Conclusion: The research question is addressed by suggesting a solution supporting con- tinuous definition and execution of an enterprise as a model of value architecture compo- nents and business functions. The results will affect how Ericsson will build the business studio for their next generation business support systems.

  • 21. Svahnberg, Mikael
    A Study on Agreement between Participants in an Architecture Assessment2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When conducting an architecture evaluation it is important that the right persons participate, so that as many views and aspects as possible of the architecture candidates are examined before development begins. At the same time, it is not cost efficient to include all stakeholders that might possibly have an opinion about the system. In this paper we investigate the amount of agreement between participants in an architecture assessment. The purpose of this s to identify which participants will provide unique views during a discussion and which participants share a similar view.

  • 22. Svahnberg, Mikael
    Supporting Software Architecture Evolution2003Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today it is more a rule than an exception that software systems have a lifecycle of more than several years. Hence, software evolution is inevitable. During the life span of a software system the domain in which the system is working evolves and changes. This causes changes to the software system, and the software system may also be evolved to satisfy new markets. The ability to evolve gracefully, and thus the long-term success of a software system, is to a large extent governed by its software architecture and the ability of the software architecture to fulfil requirements on quality attributes and to adapt to evolving requirements. In this thesis we study evolution of software architectures and what can be done to support this evolution. We focus on three particular aspects of evolution support: how to ensure that the correct blend of quality attributes is met (architecture selection), the technical means available for supporting changes in the software system (variability), and what types of changes that are likely to occur during evolution (categories of evolution). We introduce a method for architecture evaluation and selection that focus on ensuring that the selected software architecture is the architecture candidate with the most potential for fulfilling a particular blend of quality attributes. The method is based on quantification of expert opinions and focused discussions where these expert opinions differ. The architecture evaluation and selection method is studied in both an academic and in an industry setting. We also introduce a taxonomy of techniques for realising variability in a software system and study how the techniques in this taxonomy are applied in different evolution situations. The taxonomy is based on several industry case studies. Two industry cases are studied in further detail and the evolution of these systems are followed over a number of releases and generations. During this evolution it is shown how variability mechanisms are used to also support evolution, and that there are typical cases of evolution that a software system can be prepared to cope with. The contribution of this thesis is that it increases the understanding of how evolution occurs in a software system, how to create software that is flexible enough to support evolution and how to evaluate and select a software architecture that meets a particular blend of quality attributes. Together this ensures that a software system is based on a software architecture that fits the current quality requirements and that is flexible in the right places so that it is able to evolve gracefully.

  • 23. Svahnberg, Mikael
    Variability in Evolving Software Product Lines2000Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Software reuse is perceived as the key to successful software development because of the potential for shortened time to market, increased quality and reduced costs. In recent years software product lines have emerged as a promising way to achieve large scale software reuse. Challenges against successful reuse when developing in a software product line involves management of the differences between products, and the differences between different releases of the products. In this thesis we present the experiences from a series of case studies within four software companies. Based on these we present a taxonomy of the technical solutions to manage product differences, a historical essay of how components in a software product line can evolve and what mechanisms that are used to support this evolution. From this we elaborate on the connection between evolution and variability, i.e. the ability of the software architecture and components to support the differences between products. We argue that evolution is strongly connected to variability, and that by foreseeing the evolution, the software can be instrumented with appropriate variability mechanisms accordingly. Moreover, we argue that some types of evolution are more frequent than others, and that the efforts should mainly go in the direction of foreseeing and instrumenting for these types of evolution.

  • 24. Svahnberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Wohlin, Claes
    Using Students as Subjects: an Empirical Evaluation2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important task in Requirements Engineering is to select which requirements that should go into a specific release of a system. This is a complex decision that requires balancing multiple perspectives against each other. In this article we investigate what students imagine is important to professionals in requirements selection. The reason for this is to understand whether the students are able to picture what industry professionals value, and whether the courses provided to them allow them to picture the state of industry practice. The results indicate that students have a good understanding of the way industry acts in the context of requirements selection, and students may work well as subjects in empirical studies in this area.

  • 25. Svahnberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Bengtsson, PerOlof
    Software Product Lines from Customer to Code2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of establishing a software product line and instantiating products from it is motivated, not only by technical reasons, but also by business reasons. The customer perspective reveals the importance of the basic function of the products and helps us distinguish between product lines and product families. One single feature is never the only difference between two products, but instead we can identify products on different feature levels. When designing the product we identify that it is important to separate between conceptual components of the domain and factual components that are part of the solution. Product lines must eventually lead to implementation and source code. In order to achieve this, a wide range of implementation techniques is available. Which combination of tech-niques that is the most appropriate is very much dependent on if the product is part of a product line or a product family, and how the factual component relate to the other factual components. Hence, to be successful in developing software product lines requires the application of knowledge about both the customer and the code.

  • 26. Svahnberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Bosch, Jan
    A Case Study on Product Line Architecture Evolution1999Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Product-line architectures present an important approach to increasing software reuse and reducing development cost by sharing an architecture and set of reusable components among a family of products. However, evolution in product-line architectures is more complex than in traditional software development since new, possibly conflicting, requirements originate from the existing products in the product-line and new products that are to be incorporated. In this paper, we present a case study of product-line architecture evolution. Based on the case study, we develop categorizations for the evolution of requirements, the product-line architecture and product-line architecture components. Subsequently, we analyze and present the relations between these categorizations.

  • 27. Svahnberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Bosch, Jan
    A Study of Evolution Impact in Software Product Lines2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Product-line architectures, i.e. a software architecture and component set shared by a family of products, represents a promising approach to achieving reuse of software. Several companies are initiating or have recently adopted a product-line architecture. However, little experience is available with respect to the evolution of the products, the software components and the software architecture. Due to the higher level of interdependency between the various software assets, software evolution is a more complex process. In this paper, we discuss the results of two case studies concentrating on the evolution of software assets in two swedish organizations that have employed the product-line architecture approach for several years. Based on these two cases, we discuss the commonalities, presented as categorizations of the evolution of the requirements, the software architecture and the software components, and also the differences between the two cases.

  • 28. Svahnberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Bosch, Jan
    Characterizing Evolution in Product Line Architectures1999Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Product-line architectures present an important approach to increasing software reuse and reducing development cost by sharing an architecture and set of reusable components among a family of products. However, evolution in product-line architectures is more complex than in traditional software development since new, possibly conflicting, requirements originate from the existing products in the product-line and new products that are to be incorporated. In this paper, we present a case study of product-line architecture evolution. Based on the case study, we develop categorizations for the evolution of requirements, the product-line architecture and product-line architecture components. Subsequently, we analyze and present the relations between these categorizations.

  • 29. Svahnberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Bosch, Jan
    Evolution in software product lines: Two cases1999In: Journal of Software Maintenance: Research and Practice, ISSN 1040-550X, E-ISSN 1096-908X, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 391-422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discuss the results of two case studies from a technical perspective, concentrating on the evolution of software assets in two Swedish organizations that have employed a product-line architecture approach for several years. This paper describes and analyses the commonalities and differences of these two cases, emphasising categories of the evolution of the requirements, of the software architecture and of the software components. This paper concludes with three types of lessons learned about evolution in software product lines: three evolution categories are predominant, three other categories are less significant but still common, and seven guidelines for software product-line evolution emerge. Copyright (C) 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 30.
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    A model for assessing and re-assessing the value of software reuse2017In: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 29, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Software reuse is often seen as a cost avoidance rather than a gained value. This results in a rather one-sided debate where issues such a resource control, release schedule, quality, or reuse in more than one release are neglected. Aims: We propose a reuse value assessment framework, intended to provide a more nuanced view of the value and costs associated with different reuse candidates. Method: This framework is constructed based on findings from an interview study at a large software development company. Results: The framework considers the functionality, compliance to standards, provided quality, and provided support of a reuse candidate, thus enabling an informed comparison between different reuse candidates. Furthermore, the framework provides means for tracking the value of the reused asset throughout subsequent releases. Conclusions: The reuse value assessment framework is a tool to assist in the selection between different reuse candidates. The framework also provides a means to assess the current value of a reusable asset in a product, which can be used to indicate where maintenance efforts would increase the utilized potential of the reusable asset.

  • 31. Svahnberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Eriksson, Magnus
    Borg, Andreas
    Sandahl, Kristian
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Loconsole, AnnaBella
    Perspectives on Requirements Understandability: for Whom Does the Teacher's Bell Toll?2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software development decision makers use many different information sources as a basis for their decisions. One of these sources is the requirements specification, which is used in a large number of processes throughout the software development cycle. In order to make good decisions, the quality and completeness of the available information is important. Hence, requirements must be written in a way that is understandable for the different decision makers. However, requirements are rarely written with an explicit perception of how to make them understandable for different target usages. In this study we investigate the implicit assumptions of current and future requirements engineers and their teachers regarding which usages they perceive as most important when creating requirements. This is contrasted with industrial viewpoints of the relative importance of different requirements usages. The results indicate that the teachers and future requirements engineers have a strong focus towards in-project perspectives, and very little in common with the perspectives of industry managers. Thus, we are training students to serve as software developers, and not software engineering managers.

  • 32. Svahnberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Feldt, Robert
    Torkar, Richard
    Saleem, S.B
    Shafique, M.U.
    A systematic review on strategic release planning models2010In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 237-248Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strategic release planning (sometimes referred to as road-mapping) is an important phase of the requirements engineering process performed at product level. It is concerned with selection and assignment of requirements in sequences of releases such that important technical and resource constraints are fulfilled. Objectives: In this study we investigate which strategic release planning models have been proposed, their degree of empirical validation, their factors for requirements selection, and whether they are intended for a bespoke or market-driven requirements engineering context. Methods: In this systematic review a number of article sources are used, including Compendex, Inspec, IEEE Xplore, ACM Digital Library, and Springer Link. Studies are selected after reading titles and abstracts to decide whether the articles are peer reviewed, and relevant to the subject. Results: Twenty four strategic release planning models are found and mapped in relation to each other, and a taxonomy of requirements selection factors is constructed. Conclusions: We conclude that many models are related to each other and use similar techniques to address the release planning problem. We also conclude that several requirement selection factors are covered in the different models, but that many methods fail to address factors such as stakeholder value or internal value. Moreover, we conclude that there is a need for further empirical validation of the models in full scale industry trials. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 33.
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Nguyen, Thi Than Loan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Nguyen, Mai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Uni-REPM: Validated and Improved2013In: Requirements Engineering, ISSN 0947-3602, E-ISSN 1432-010X, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 85-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software products are usually developed for either a specific customer (bespoke) or a broader market (market-driven). Due to their characteristic, bespoke and market-driven development face different challenges, especially concerning requirements engineering. Many challenges are caused by an inadequate requirements engineering process, and hence there is a need for process improvement frameworks based on empirical research and industry needs. In a previous article we introduced Uni-REPM, a lightweight requirements engineering process assessment framework based on a review of empirically motivated practices in market-driven and bespoke requirements engineering literature. In this article, we validate this framework in academia as well as industry, in order to prepare Uni-REPM for widespread industry use. We conduct two validations; a static validation based on interviews with seven academic experts and a dynamic validation where Uni-REPM is applied in four industrial organisations. Uni-REPM is refined according to the feedback obtained in the validations. The study shows that Uni-REPM is a quick, simple, and cost-effective solution to assess the maturity level of the requirements engineering process of projects. Moreover, the assessment method using checklists is highly usable and applicable in various international development environments.

  • 34.
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Nguyen, Thi Than Loan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Nguyen, Mai Huong
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Uni-REPM: a framework for requirements engineering process assessment2015In: Requirements Engineering, ISSN 0947-3602, E-ISSN 1432-010X, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 91-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been shown that potential business benefits could be achieved by assessing and improving the requirements engineering (RE) process. However, process assessment models such as CMMI and ISO9000 only cover RE shallowly. Tailored models such as REGPG and REPM, on the other hand, do not cover market-driven requirements engineering. Other attempts such as MDREPM covers market-driven requirements engineering, but correspondingly neglects bespoke requirements engineering. Moreover, the area itself has evolved so practices that once were cutting edge are now commonplace. In this article, we develop and evaluate a unified requirements engineering process maturity model (Uni-REPM) that can be used in a market-driven as well as a bespoke context. This model is based on REPM, but has evolved to reflect contemporary requirements engineering practices. Uni-REPM is primarily created based on a systematic literature review of market-driven requirements engineering practices and a literature review of bespoke practices. Based on the results, Uni-REPM is formulated. The objective of Uni-REPM is twofold. Firstly, it is expected to be applicable for assessing the maturity of RE processes in various scenarios where an organisation would use different development approaches. Secondly, it instructs practitioners about which RE practices to perform and their expected benefits. As an assessment instrument, Uni-REPM provides a simple and low-cost solution for practitioners to identify the status of their RE process. As a guidance tool, Uni-REPM lessens the gap between theoretical and practical worlds by transferring the available RE technologies from research to industry practice.

  • 35. Svahnberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Gurp, Jilles van
    Bosch, Jan
    A Taxonomy of Variability Realization Techniques2005In: Software - Practice & Experience, ISSN 0038-0644 , Vol. 35, no 8, p. 705-754Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36. Svahnberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Gurp, Jilles van
    Bosch, Jan
    On the Notion of Variability in Software Product Lines2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Software product lines are used in companies to provide a set of reusable assets for related groups of software products. Generally a software product line provides a common architecture and reusable code for software product developers. In this article we focus on mechanisms that help developers vary the architecture and behavior of a software product line to create individual products. We provide the reader with a framework of terminology and concepts that help understand the concept of variability better. In addition, we present a number of variability mechanisms in the context of this framework. Finally, we provide a method for incorporating variability into software product lines.

  • 37. Svahnberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Henningsson, Kennet
    Consolidating Different Views of Quality Attribute Relationships2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, quality attributes have received increased attention as being critical for a software system's success or failure. Different classifications of quality attributes frequently mention many relations both positive and negative between quality attributes. However, the classifications and the quality attribute relations are often presented in such a way that they are not easily compared with each other, which means that it is difficult to confirm the relations found in one source with the relations found in another. In this article we triangulate between different sources where quality attribute relations have been (or can be) expressed. The contribution is a consolidated view of which quality attributes that are considered (by several sources) to have positive or negative relations with each other.

  • 38. Svahnberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Mattsson, Michael
    Conditions and Restrictions for Product Line Generation Migration.2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we describe a case study of a company in the domain of automatic guided vehicles (AGVs) that is in the process of migrating from a previous generation of a software product line, which has mainly been centered around hardware, into a new product-line generation which is software-centered. We describe the issues motivating this transition and the factors that complicate it. Moreover, we present a three-stage process for migrating to a new software product line. This process is currently being initiated in collaboration with the aforementioned company.

  • 39. Svahnberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    A Comparative Study of Quantitative and Qualitative Views of Software Architectures2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40. Svahnberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    An Investigation of a Method for Identifying a Software Architecture Candidate with respect to Quality Attributes2005In: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 149-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To sustain the qualities of a software system during evolution, and to adapt the quality attributes as the requirements evolve, it is necessary to have a clear software architecture that is understood by all developers and to which all changes to the system adheres. This software architecture can be created beforehand, but must also be updated to reflect changes in the domain, and hence the requirements of the software. The choice of which software architecture to use is typically based on informal decisions. There exist, to the best of our knowledge, little factual knowledge of which quality attributes are supported or obstructed by different architecture approaches. In this paper, we present an empirical study of a method that enables quantification of the perceived support different software architectures give for different quality attributes. This in turn enables an informed decision of which architecture candidate best fit the mixture of quality attributes required by a system being designed

  • 41. Svahnberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Consensus Building when Comparing Software Architectures2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When designing a software system it is beneficial to study and use architectural styles from literature, to ensure certain quality attributes. However, as the interpretation of literature may differ depending on the background and area of expertise of the person reading the literature, we suggest that structured discussions about different architecture candidates provides more valuable insight not only in the architectures themselves, but in peoples’ opinions of the architectures’ benefits and liabilities. In this paper, we propose a method to elicit the views of individuals concerning architecture candidates for a software system and pinpoint where discussions are needed to come to a consensus view of the architectures.

  • 42. Svahnberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Lundberg, Lars
    Mattsson, Michael
    A Method for Understanding Quality Attributes in Software Architecture Structures.2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43. Svahnberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Lundberg, Lars
    Mattsson, Michael
    A Quality-Driven Decision Support Method for Identifying Software Architecture Candidates2003In: International journal of software engineering and knowledge engineering, ISSN 0218-1940, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 547-573Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To sustain the qualities of a software system during evolution, and to adapt the quality attributes as the requirements evolve, it is necessary to have a clear software architecture that is understood by all developers and to which all changes to the system adheres. This software architecture can be created beforehand, but must also be updated as the domain of the software, and hence the requirements on the software system evolve. Creating a software architecture for a system or part of a system so that the architecture fulfils the desired quality requirements is often hard. We propose a decision-support method to aid in the understanding of different architecture candidates for a software system. We propose a method that is adaptable with respect to both the set of potential architecture candidates and quality attributes relevant for the system's domain to help in this task. The method creates a support framework, using a multicriteria decision method, supporting comparison of different software architecture candidates for a specific software quality attribute and vice versa, and then uses this support framework to reach a consensus on the benefits and liabilities of the different software architecture candidates and to increase the confidence in the resulting architecture decision.

  • 44.
    Torkar, Richard
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Uzair Akbar, Raja
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Kamran, Kashif
    Requirements Traceability: A Systematic Review and Industry Case Study2012In: International Journal of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering, ISSN 0218-1940, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 385-433Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Requirements traceability enables software engineers to trace a requirement from its emergence to its fulfillment. In this paper we examine requirements traceability definitions, challenges, tools and techniques, by the use of a systematic review performing an exhaustive search through the years 1997-2007. We present a number of common definitions, challenges, available tools and techniques (presenting empirical evidence when found), while complementing the results and analysis with a static validation in industry through a series of interviews.

1 - 44 of 44
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