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  • 1.
    Ny, Henrik
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Borén, Sven
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Nurhadi, Lisiana
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Schulte, Jesko
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    On Track for 2030: Roadmap for a fast transition to sustainable personal transport: English short version with foreword by Peter Newman2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The transport sector's dependence on fossil fuels is one of the biggest challenges in a shift towards a climate-neutral and sustainable society.

    This roadmap report aims to investigate how electric vehicle systems can contribute to a faster transition to sustainable passenger transport in Southeast Sweden, as well as to present a methodology for guidance of similar work for faster transitions in other regions and sectors.

    This work has been guided by a scientifically designed and proven Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD). Specifically, answers are given to four research questions structured in relation to the four subsystems 'Politics and instruments', 'Users and markets', 'Vehicles and infrastructure' and 'Energy and materials':

    1. What could a sustainable vision for passenger transport in Southeast Sweden look like?
    2. What could be a milestone goal for 2030?
    3. What is the current reality in relation to the 2030 goal and the vision?
    4. How could the gap between the present, 2030 and the vision be bridged?

    The report's results show that today's focus on fossil independence and measures against climate change must be broadened to cover the whole sustainability challengeso that other sustainability issues are addressed and so that solutions to some of the sustainability issues do not create new ones.

    The report also clarifies that it is necessary, practically possible and economically advantageous for Southeast Sweden to make a faster sustainability transition of passenger transportthan what has been proposed in previous studies and investigations. It is also likely that the same applies to the entire transport system and for the whole of Sweden and the world.

    Even geopolitical benefits are likely. A global transition to transport and energy systems based on energy from widely available flow resources like sun and wind instead of the limited fossil fuels would likely reduce the conflicts risks in the world.Restricted cobalt, lithium and platinum resources that battery and fuel cell cars depend on, and other metals needed for solar cells and wind turbines can, however, give rise to similar conflict risks. This roadmap report's recommendations on reduced transport needs and car dependency and its focus on resource efficiency counteract these conflict risks by striking against underlying resource-driving mechanisms. Should this roadmap be translated into practical policies, the forthcoming transition would therefore likely be made considerably more 'future-proof'.

  • 2.
    Schulte, Jesko
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Sustainability Risk Management in Product Development Companies - Motivating Change2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Both the ecological and social system are systematically degrading, resulting in decreasing capacities to support human civilization. Product development and manufacturing companies play a key role in driving society’s transition towards a sustainable path. Besides moral arguments, the motivation for companies can be expressed as a matter of smart risk management, i.e. avoiding threats and exploiting opportunities. Such sustainability risks can be related to, for example, brand and reputation, legislative change, or attracting top-talented employees. But, more importantly, it is about understanding changes that are inevitable on markets to come. Based on Maxwell’s interactive qualitative research approach and following the structure of the Design Research Methodology, this thesis aims to contribute (i) to knowledge by increasing the conceptual understanding of what sustainability risks are; and (ii) to practice by researching decision-support for how sustainability risks can be managed in a product development company context. The first study reviewed existing literature and identified characteristics of sustainability risks, which make them particularly difficult to manage. A following exploratory and descriptive study investigated companies’ current risk management practices and preconditions for sustainability integration. It showed that the effects of uncertainty from the sustainability transition need to be identified, assessed, and managed in relation to how they can affect objectives anchored in both internal and external stakeholder value creation. In parallel, the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development was applied as a lens to understand the implications of the sustainability transition for company risk management. This resulted in a new definition, stating that sustainability risks are threats and opportunities that are due to an organization’s contribution or counteraction to society’s transition towards strategic sustainable development. A questionnaire study then investigated some case companies’ challenges and preconditions to build sustainability capabilities. Finally, a workshop method is proposed that aims to support design teams in early sustainable product development. Future research will leverage on the findings to develop and test decision support for how product development companies can manage sustainability risks on different organizational levels in practice to increase competitiveness, while taking leadership in the transition towards a sustainable society.

  • 3.
    Schulte, Jesko
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Challenges and preconditions to build capabilities for sustainable product design2017In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED / [ed] Maier A.M.,Skec S.,Salustri F.A.,Fadel G.,Kim H.,Kokkolaras M.,Oehmen J.,Van der Loos M., Design Society , 2017, Vol. 1, no DS87-1, p. 1-10, article id DS87-1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable product innovation has previously been found to be positively correlated to competitiveness. However, in order to build capabilities for sustainability integration one must first understand companies' current state. The overall aim is therefore to identify common preconditions and challenges for sustainability integration in product innovation. A questionnaire study, targeting employees with roles in product development, was conducted at four medium-sized to large product development and manufacturing companies in Sweden. Results show that capabilities for sustainability integration are perceived as decisive for future company success, but are not considered to be correspondingly high prioritized today. Decision making is focused on material selection and energy efficiency, so no full socio-ecological sustainability perspective is covered. Formal decision support tools are only used by half of respondents and are a main area for improvement. Identified challenges include short-term economic thinking, lack of sustainability criteria and vague management commitment. Based on these findings, seven recommendations for companies are presented and validated.

  • 4.
    Schulte, Jesko
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Challenges for integrating sustainability in risk management-current state of research2017In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, The Design Society, 2017, no DS87-2, p. 327-336, article id DS87-2Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous examples have shown how environmental and social issues can affect companies to an existential level. In fact, today's most urgent business risks, e.g. brand value, legislative change, litigation, and supply chain disruptions, are directly linked to sustainability issues. These risks need to be systematically identified and strategically managed on both strategic company-and operational product development level in order for a company to be long-term competitive. Based on literature review and interviews at case companies, this paper investigates the current state for integrating a strategic sustainability perspective in risk management processes and related support tools. Results show that sustainability risks are not consciously identified and managed at the companies. Research is at an early stage and few frameworks and tools exist. Based on the findings, the study identifies and provides a comprehensive analysis of challenges for sustainability integration, which work as a foundation for future research. Finally, key steps to advance understanding and methods in sustainability risk management are suggested.

  • 5.
    Schulte, Jesko
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Company Risk Management in Light of the Sustainability Transition2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, article id 4137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many of the most important business and economic risks are directly linked to environmental and social issues. This includes both threats and opportunities, not only in relation to reputation, which is often mentioned in this context, but, even more importantly, in relation to innovation capability and legislative change on inevitably more and more sustainability-driven markets. It is, however, unclear through which mechanisms such sustainability risks currently affect companies and how they can be systematically identified and managed. Based on the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development, this study investigates the dynamics and implications of society’s sustainability transition from a company risk management perspective. In addition, exploratory and descriptive studies were conducted at two large product innovation companies to identify current risk management practices and preconditions for sustainability integration. The results reveal that a society moving closer towards a collapse of environmental and social systems leads to increasing sustainability-related threats for unsustainable businesses and increasing opportunities for sustainable businesses. Also, risk management is found to be a promising way for maneuvering in a smart zone between being too passive and being too pro-active in relation to sustainable innovation.The study participants at the case companies were knowledgeable about risk management in general but were largely unfamiliar with risks associated with sustainability and no processes or support tools exist to work systematically with such risks. Key steps to accomplishing an integration of a strategic sustainability perspective into risk management are proposed as: (i) identifying the effects of sustainability issues on internal and external stakeholder value; (ii) actively including sustainability in objective setting and cascading objectives across the levels of the organizational hierarchy; and (iii) developing concrete support for identifying, assessing, and managing economic sustainability risks. Thereby, companies can enhance their competitiveness while providing leadership in the sustainability transition.

  • 6.
    Schulte, Jesko
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Risk Management Practices in Product Development Companies2018In: Proceedings of Norddesign 2018, The Design Society, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Product development (PD) is inherently linked to taking and managing risks. For risk management (RM) to be truly effective, it cannot be treated in product development in isolation. Instead, a holistic perspective is required that recognizes and leverages the communication and connections between RM sub-disciplines across the organizational hierarchy, including e.g. enterprise-, portfolio-, project-, and product RM. Therefore, the purpose of this study is (i) to investigate current RM practices on the strategic, tactical, and operational levels, and (ii) to increase the understanding of how RM sub-disciplines are connected and interact. To answer these questions, semi-structured interviews were conducted at two large multinational PD and manufacturing companies in Sweden. Also, based on previous research, a novel self-assessment tool was developed and tested to map areas of strength and identify improvement potential. The results show that RM processes are mostly formalized and systematic, but there is variation in the quality of performed RM activities. Qualitative support tools are dominating. The tools themselves are considered to be helpful, however, the challenge is to make people use them in value-adding ways. Other challenges and success factors include competence and awareness, culture, top-down demand for high quality RM activities and deliverables, a dedicated role with clear responsibility, and working early and continuously with RM. The importance of experience is stressed, however, no systematic way to work with lessons learned and knowledge sharing is in place at the companies. Risks are found to be primarily escalated bottom-up. The corresponding top-down flow constitutes of objectives, which ideally are cascaded all the way from company vision and strategy into product requirements. Through these findings, the contribution of this study is (i) providing detailed insight into current RM practices, not limited to the PD function, but considering a broader organizational context; and (ii) clarifying the role of goals and objectives for connecting RM on different levels.

  • 7.
    Schulte, Jesko
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Self-Assessment Method for Sustainability Implementation in Product Innovation2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 12, article id 4336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Companies, striving towards an effective and systematic integration of a strategic sustainability perspective in product innovation, need to treat the implementation of necessary processes and tools, as well as their continuous improvement, as a project in itself. An efficient way to measure the current sustainability implementation level in the organization, as well as guidance for progression, is required. To meet this need, a novel self-assessment was developed, which provides companies with a tool to assess and visualize their current capabilities in relation to key elements for successful sustainability integration in the product innovation process. It includes a scale of different sustainability implementation levels to support building a roadmap for systematic implementation, and to measure progress over time. This research is based on results from previous descriptive work within the area of sustainable product development and learning from applying strategic and tactical assessment tools for eco-design and sustainability maturity. Besides the contribution to practice, this study also contributes to knowledge by specifying detailed aspects for each key element that must be considered to guide sustainability integration. Also, insights from applying different existing tools in real cases are provided. The newly-developed self-assessment method was applied and validated at two case companies. Independent and continuous use of it by the companies beyond this particular study indicate the practical value of the method.

  • 8.
    Schulte, Jesko
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Workshop Method for Early Sustainable Product Development2018In: DS 92: Proceedings of the DESIGN 2018 15th International Design Conference, The Design Society, 2018, p. 2751-2762Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is in the early phases of product development that most of a product’s life-cycle sustainability impact is determined. This study presents a workshop method that has the purpose to support multi-disciplinary teams in sustainable product development, focusing on early phases. The workshop method aims to map the sustainability challenges and opportunities of a concept at an overarching level, utilizing backcasting from sustainability principles in three steps: create vision, assess current state, derive strategies. Testing and validation was done at two companies and with one academic group.

  • 9.
    Schulte, Jesko
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Ny, Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Electric road systems: Strategic stepping stone on the way towards sustainable freight transport?2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 4, article id 1148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrification of the transport sector has been pointed out as a key factor for tackling some of today's main challenges, such as global warming, air pollution, and eco-system degradation. While numerous studies have investigated the potential of electrifying passenger transport, less focus has been on how road freight transport could be powered in a sustainable future. This study looks at Electric Road Systems (ERS) in comparison to the current diesel system. The Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development was used to assess whether ERS could be a stepping stone on the way towards sustainability. Strategic life-cycle assessment was applied, scanning each life-cycle phase for violations against basic sustainability principles. Resulting sustainability "hot spots" were quantified with traditional life-cycle assessment. The results show that, if powered by renewable energy, ERS have a potential to decrease the environmental impact of freight transport considerably. Environmental payback times of less than five years are achievable if freight traffic volumes are sufficiently high. However, some severe violations against sustainability principles were identified. Still, ERS could prove to be a valuable part of the solution, as they drastically decrease the need for large batteries with high cost and sustainability impact, thereby catalyzing electrification and the transition towards sustainable freight transport. © 2018 by the authors.

  • 10.
    Villamil, Carolina
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Nylander, Johanna
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Schulte, Jesko
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Watz, Matilda
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Additive manufacturing from a strategic sustainability perspective2018In: Proceedings of International Design Conference, DESIGN / [ed] Marjanović D., Štorga M., Škec S., Bojčetić N., Pavković N., Dubrovnik, Croatia: The Design Society, 2018, Vol. 3, p. 1381-1392Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are high expectations of additive manufacturing (AM) as a technology to improve manufacturing efficiency and reduce material waste. This study aims to clarify the sustainability advantages and challenges of AM technologies used in industry by testing and applying a strategic sustainability life cycle assessment in the early development stage. The result showed possibilities from using the tool and some areas of certain interest regarding improvement potentials of the AM technologies, i.e. value chain management, concept design, optimized material usage, and social sustainability

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