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  • 1.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Eklund, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Thulin, Per
    KTH, SWE.
    Taxes, the tax administrative burden and the entrepreneurial life cycle2019In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a modified version of the entrepreneurial choice model, where it is shown that the expected utility of becoming an entrepreneur is decreasing in both the levels of taxes and the tax administrative burden. We extend previous empirical findings by examining how these variables influence entrepreneurs at different stages in the entrepreneurial life cycle. Our findings imply that the effect of the tax administrative burden varies over the entrepreneurial life cycle from strongly negative to insignificant. The most pronounced negative effects appear in the early stages of entrepreneurship. We conclude that a 10% reduction in the tax administrative burden increases the propensity for new business establishments by 4%. Our findings support the idea that tax simplification is one way to encourage entrepreneurship, without any reduction in tax revenues. © 2019, The Author(s).

  • 2.
    Button, Kenneth J.
    et al.
    George Mason Univ, USA.
    Eklund, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Are there inherent biases in applying cost-benefit analysis?2018In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 461-464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article extends discussions of potential biases that can exist in applying cost-benefit analysis. While there is extensive evidence that capture can result in stakeholder manipulation of inputs, there are also claims that the analysis is inherently theoretically bias in favour of over acceptance. The article shows that, contrary to these latter claims, treating projects in isolation is unlikely to produce such bias; indeed, it is as likely as not to lead to suboptimally low acceptance rates. The reason for excessive acceptance of projects therefore is largely due to institutional capture of the analysis for either self-interest or natural human over-optimism.

  • 3.
    Eklund, Johan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Lappi, Emma
    Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum, SWE.
    Persistence of profits in the EU: How competitive are EU member countries?2018In: Empirica, ISSN 0340-8744, E-ISSN 1573-6911, ISSN 0340-8744, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 327-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Profits that persist above or below the norm for prolonged periods of time reveal a lack of competition and imply a systematic misallocation of resources. Competition, if unimpeded, should restore profits to normal levels within a relatively short time frame. The dynamics of profits can thus reveal a great deal about the competitiveness of an economy. This paper estimates the persistence of profits across the European Union (EU), which adds to our understanding of the competitiveness of 18 EU member states. By using a sample of approximately 4700 firms with 51,000 observations across the time period of 1995–2013, we find differences in the persistence of short-run profits, implying that there are differences in competitiveness across the EU. The Czech Republic and Greece are among the countries with the highest profit persistence, whereas the United Kingdom is among those with the lowest persistence of profits. Furthermore, we provide evidence that there are significant permanent rents present in the EU across countries as well as in the different broad sectors across the EU. © 2018 The Author(s)

  • 4.
    Eklund, Johan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Lappi, Emma
    Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum, SWE.
    Product regulations and persistence of profits: OECD evidence2018In: Journal of Regulatory Economics, ISSN 0922-680X, E-ISSN 1573-0468, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 147-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In competitive markets, profits deviating from the norm will not persist for extended periods. If unimpeded, entry and exit of firms should restore profits to competitive levels. This dynamic process is influenced by regulations that temporarily or permanently impede competition. We study how product market regulations (PMR)—as measured by the OECD—affect competition by their impact on the profit persistence (Wölfl et al. in Ten years of product market reform in OECD countries-insights from a revised PMR indicator, 2009, Product market regulation: extending the analysis beyond OECD countries, 2010). To examine profit dynamics, we follow the methodology developed by Mueller (Economica 44(176):369–380, 1977), which measures both the short run persistence of profits and the long run permanent rents. The method can be used to measure: (1) short run transitory rents; (2) long run permanent rents. To this end we use firm level data from 30 OECD countries over the period 1998–2013. Results show that PMR increase the permanent rents of firms but we find no significant effect on short run profit persistence. We conclude that PMR negatively influence competition and increase permanent rents, resulting in misallocation of resources. © 2018, The Author(s).

  • 5.
    Eklund, Johan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Lars, Pettersson
    Jönköpings universitet, SWE.
    Högskola i otakt2017 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige har aldrig haft så många högutbildade i arbetskraften som idag, men arbetsmarknaden fungerar allt sämre. Frågan är vilka ekonomiska utfall högskoleexpansionen har bidragit till.

    Slutsatser är att högre utbildning i Sverige inte främjar ekonomisk utveckling och välfärd. Det som bestämmer studenternas val och lärosätenas utformning av utbildningar anpassas inte efter behoven på arbetsmarknaden.

    Utbildning är kostnadsfri för studerande och finansieras via skatteuttag, samtidigt som utbildningspremien och den privatekonomiska avkastningen, tillhör världens lägsta.

    Detta bidrar inte till att lösa matchningsproblem på arbetsmarknaden. Istället finns en risk att utbildning ses som konsumtion snarare än investering i kunskap.

    Resultatet riskerar bli en högskola som går i otakt med det omgivande samhället och framförallt näringslivet.

  • 6.
    Eklund, Johan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Levratto, Nadine
    Universite Paris Nanterre, FRA.
    Ramello, Giovanni Battista
    Universita degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale Amedeo Avogadro, ITA.
    Entrepreneurship and failure: two sides of the same coin?2018In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper attempts to shed light on the nexus of relationships existing between failure, bankruptcy, institutional context, and local characteristics on one hand and entrepreneurship, firm survival, and performance on the other. The aim is to provide a larger vantage point from which to read the research included in this issue with the overall ambition to contribute to a better understanding of our entrepreneurial societies and the role of failure within markets. In this respect, the focus here is mainly on the institutions governing the bankruptcy procedures which do much more than simply regulating the exit of insolvent firms and protecting creditors’ investments, minimizing the social cost of failures. They set up the revolving doors through which creditors can reinvest the recovered capital in new entrepreneurial projects and failed entrepreneurs can bring back to the market their skills and their entrepreneurial spirit for fostering new and hopefully successful ventures. Therefore, by managing bankruptcy, the institutions are not only protecting the economy. Instead, they have become a tool of economic policy, devoted to the delicate issue of regulating a physiological event to the market while avoiding too much waste of resources. In a more positive perspective, managing insolvency and failure is also a mean to strengthen competitiveness and growth, making it possible to stimulate the market in reshuffling skills and resources into new activities. A deeper understanding can in turn contribute to the implementation of better and more efficient policies by integrating bankruptcy as a natural component of firm and market life. © 2018 The Author(s)

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