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  • 1.
    Becker, Christoph
    et al.
    University of Toronto, CAN.
    Fagerholm, Fabian
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Mohanani, Rahul
    Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology, IND.
    Chatzigeorgiou, Alexander
    University of Macedonia, GRE.
    Temporal discounting in technical debt: How do software practitioners discount the future?2019Inngår i: Proceedings - 2019 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Technical Debt, TechDebt 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, s. 23-32Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Technical Debt management decisions always imply a trade-off among outcomes at different points in time. In such intertemporal choices, distant outcomes are often valued lower than close ones, a phenomenon known as temporal discounting. Technical Debt research largely develops prescriptive approaches for how software engineers should make such decisions. Few have studied how they actually make them. This leaves open central questions about how software practitioners make decisions. This paper investigates how software practitioners discount uncertain future outcomes and whether they exhibit temporal discounting. We adopt experimental methods from intertemporal choice, an active area of research. We administered an online questionnaire to 33 developers from two companies in which we presented choices between developing a feature and making a longer-term investment in architecture. The results show wide-spread temporal discounting with notable differences in individual behavior. The results are consistent with similar studies in consumer behavior and raise a number of questions about the causal factors that influence temporal discounting in software engineering. As the first empirical study on intertemporal choice in SE, the paper establishes an empirical basis for understanding how software developers approach intertemporal choice and provides a blueprint for future studies. © 2019 IEEE.

  • 2.
    Fagerholm, Fabian
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Becker, Christoph
    University of Toronto, CAN.
    Chatzigeorgiou, Alexander
    Panepistimion Makedonias, GRE.
    Betz, Stefanie
    Hochschule Furtwangen, DEU.
    Duboc, Leticia
    La Salle Univ., ESP.
    Penzenstadler, Birgit
    Lappeenrannan Teknillinen Yliopisto, FIN.
    Mohanani, Rahul
    Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology, IND.
    Venters, Colin C.
    University of Huddersfield, GBR.
    Temporal Discounting in Software Engineering: A Replication Study2019Inngår i: International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement, IEEE Computer Society, 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Many decisions made in Software Engineering practices are intertemporal choices: trade-offs in time between closer options with potential short-term benefit and future options with potential long-term benefit. However, how software professionals make intertemporal decisions is not well understood. Aim: This paper investigates how shifting time frames influence preferences in software projects in relation to purposefully selected background factors. Method: We investigate temporal discounting by replicating a questionnaire-based observational study. The replication uses a changed-population and -experimenter design to increase the internal and external validity of the original results. Results: The results of this study confirm the occurrence of temporal discounting in samples of both professional and student participants from different countries and demonstrate strong variance in discounting between study participants. We found that professional experience influenced discounting. Participants with broader professional experience exhibited less discounting than those with narrower experience. Conclusions: The results provide strong empirical support for the relevance and importance of temporal discounting in SE and the urgency of targeted interdisciplinary research to explore the underlying mechanisms and their theoretical and practical implications. The results suggest that technical debt management could be improved by increasing the breadth of experience available for critical decisions with long-term impact. In addition, the present study provides a methodological basis for replicating temporal discounting studies in software engineering. © 2019 IEEE.

  • 3.
    Graziotin, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Stuttgart, Germany.
    Fagerholm, Fabian
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Happiness and the Productivity of Software Engineers2019Inngår i: Rethinking Productivity in Software Engineering / [ed] Caitlin Sadowski, Thomas Zimmermann, Springer, 2019, s. 109-124Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Software companies and startups often follow the idea of flourishing happiness among developers. Perks, playground rooms, free breakfast, remote office options, sports facilities near the companies, company retreats, you name it. The rationale is that happy developers should be more productive and also retained.

    But is it the case that happy software engineers are more productive? Moreover, are perks the way to go to make developers happy? Are developers happy at all? What are the consequences of unhappiness among software engineers?

    These questions are important to ask both from the perspective of productivity and from the perspective of sustainable software development and well-being in the workplace. Managers, team leaders, as well as team members should be interested in these concerns.

    This chapter provides an overview of our studies on the happiness of software developers. You will learn why it is important to make software developers happy, how happy they really are, what makes them unhappy, and what is expected regarding happiness and productivity while developing software.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 4.
    Graziotin, Daniel
    et al.
    Universitat Stuttgart, DEU.
    Fagerholm, Fabian
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Wang, Xiaofeng
    Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, ITA.
    Abrahamsson, Pekka
    Jyvaskylan Yliopisto, FIN.
    What happens when software developers are (un)happy2018Inngår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 140, s. 32-47Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing literature on affect among software developers mostly reports on the linkage between happiness, software quality, and developer productivity. Understanding happiness and unhappiness in all its components – positive and negative emotions and moods – is an attractive and important endeavor. Scholars in industrial and organizational psychology have suggested that understanding happiness and unhappiness could lead to cost-effective ways of enhancing working conditions, job performance, and to limiting the occurrence of psychological disorders. Our comprehension of the consequences of (un)happiness among developers is still too shallow, being mainly expressed in terms of development productivity and software quality. In this paper, we study what happens when developers are happy and unhappy while developing software. Qualitative data analysis of responses given by 317 questionnaire participants identified 42 consequences of unhappiness and 32 of happiness. We found consequences of happiness and unhappiness that are beneficial and detrimental for developers’ mental well-being, the software development process, and the produced artifacts. Our classification scheme, available as open data enables new happiness research opportunities of cause-effect type, and it can act as a guideline for practitioners for identifying damaging effects of unhappiness and for fostering happiness on the job. © 2018

  • 5.
    Hoffmann, Marco
    et al.
    QualityMinds GmbH, Germany.
    Mendez, Daniel
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Fagerholm, Fabian
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Luckhardt, Anton
    The Technical University of Munich (TUM), Germany.
    The human side of Software Engineering Teams: an investigation of contemporary challenges2023Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 49, nr 1, s. 211-225Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There have been numerous recent calls for research on the human side of software engineering and its impact on project success. An analysis of which challenges in software engineering teams are most relevant and frequent is still missing. As teams are more international, it is more frequent that their members have different personal values as well as different communication habits. Additionally, virtual team setups (working geographically separated, remote communication using digital tools and frequently changing team members) are increasingly prevalent. We designed a survey instrument and asked respondents to assess the frequency and criticality of a set of challenges, both within teams as well as between teams and clients. For the team challenges, we asked if mitigation measures were already in place to tackle the challenge. Respondents were also asked to provide information about their team setup. The survey included an instrument to measure Schwartz human values. The survey was first piloted and then distributed to professionals working in software engineering teams. In this article, we report on the results obtained from 192 survey respondents. We present a set of challenges that takes the survey feedback into account and introduce two categories of challenges; inter-personal and intra-personal. We found no evidence for links between personality values and challenges. We found some significant links between the number of distinct nationalities in a team and certain challenges. We found evidence that a higher degree of virtualization leads to an increase of the frequency of some human challenges. We present a set of human challenges in software engineering that can be used for further research on causes and mitigation measures, which serves as our starting point for a theory about causes of contemporary human challenges in software engineering teams. Our findings warrants further research on human challenges in software engineering and gather more evidence and test countermeasures, such as whether the employment of virtual reality software incorporating facial expressions and movements can help establish a less detached way of communication. IEEE

  • 6.
    Kettunen, Petri
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, FIN.
    Laanti, Maarit
    Nitor Delta, FIN.
    Fagerholm, Fabian
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Mikkonen, Tommi
    University of Helsinki, FIN.
    Agile in the Era of Digitalization: A Finnish Survey Study2019Inngår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) / [ed] Franch X.,Mannisto T.,Martinez-Fernandez S., Springer , 2019, Vol. 11915, s. 383-398Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Agile software development has been applied since the early 2000s. It is now mainstream industrial practice in information and communication technology (ICT) companies and IT organizations. However, recently increasing and even disruptive digitalization has brought new drivers and needs for agility both in software organizations as well as in traditional companies, which are becoming more and more software-intensive. Following that line of developments, based on our recent survey conducted in Finland in 2018, in this paper we explore the current state of the affairs with respect to how different organizations currently address agility and agile development in both IT and non-software industrial sectors. The results show that operative goals (productivity, quality) are considered the most important ones to achieve by agile means. Scrum, Kanban and DevOps are the most frequently reported methods, and SAFe is the dominant scaling model. Lead time metrics are the most typically followed measurements. The operative goals as well as responsiveness are also the most highly ranked future aims. The impacts of digitalization are considered substantial but agile developments are seen to address them well. As a conclusion of this survey study, there is no “one agile way” for all. Different organizations seem to emphasize multiple aspects of agility when they develop, adapt and even transform themselves. Yet, also many commonalities were indicated. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019.

  • 7.
    Kettunen, Petri
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, FIN.
    Laanti, Maarit
    Nitor Delta, FIN.
    Fagerholm, Fabian
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Mikkonen, Tommi
    University of Helsinki, FIN.
    Mannisto, Tomi
    University of Helsinki, FIN.
    Finnish Enterprise Agile Transformations: A Survey Study2019Inngår i: AGILE PROCESSES IN SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AND EXTREME PROGRAMMING - WORKSHOPS / [ed] Hoda, R, SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG , 2019, s. 97-104Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern large software-intensive development organizations are nowadays more and more often believed to transform their structures and operations towards large-scale agility in search for higher performances. Based on a survey conducted in Finland in 2018, in this paper we explore the current state of the affairs with respect to how extensively organizations are actually transforming themselves, in what ways this takes place in practice and for what goals. Most of the respondents were in large organizations. The results show that the majority of the surveyed respondents indicated that their organizations have conducted agile transformations or are currently doing so. Different strategies and tactics have been used in the transformations, but markedly the respondents reported most that the company has had external consultants (subcontracting) to assist in the change. The most important goals aimed to be achieved with agile means were productivity and quality (operative) and responsiveness to customer/market changes (new features). Notably only very few respondents reported their organizations to be currently non-agile (do not use at all agile methods in software development).

  • 8.
    Ouriques, Raquel
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Fagerholm, Fabian
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik. Aalto University, Finland.
    Mendez, Daniel
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik. Fortiss, Germany.
    Bern, Baldvin Gislason
    Axis Communications.
    An investigation of causes and effects of trust in Boundary Artefacts2023Inngår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 158, artikkel-id 107170Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Boundary Artefacts (BAs) support software development activities in many aspects because it carries lots of information in the same object that can be used and interpreted by several social groups within an organisation. When the BAs are inconsistent regarding their content, such as many meanings or lack of contextual information, their efficiency is reduced because stakeholders will not trust them. Objective: This study aimed to understand the implications of differences in the perception of trust on software projects and their influence on stakeholders' behaviour. Methods: We conducted an exploratory case study to observe the creation and utilisation of one specific BA and the implications of differences in trust and their influence on stakeholders' behaviour. Results : Our investigation has shown that practitioners adding and adjusting existing content do not entirely understand the stakeholders' needs. Together with the partial management of the content, trust is impacted. When the content of BAs does not meet the trust factors, specifically reliability and predictability, the stakeholders cannot execute their tasks appropriately, and several implications affect the software development project. Additionally, they create workarounds to supply their needs. Conclusion: The differences in trust in BAs affect software projects in different areas of the organisation and interfere with the task execution of various stakeholders. The decrease in trust results from inconsistencies in the content associated with the lack of management of the BA. A structured strategy for representing and managing a BA's content seems appropriate to increase trust levels and efficiency.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 9.
    Ouriques, Raquel
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Fagerholm, Fabian
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Mendez, Daniel
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Gislason Bern, Baldvin
    Axis Communications.
    Preliminary Guideline for Creating Boundary Artefacts in Software EngineeringManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Software development benefits from having Boundary Artefacts (BAs),as a single artefact can supply stakeholders with different boundaries, facilitatingcollaboration among social worlds. When those artefacts display inconsistencies,such as incorrect information, the practitioners have decreased trust in the BA. Astrust is an essential factor guiding the utilisation of BAs in software projects, it isnecessary to understand which principles should be observed when creating them.

    Objective: This study aimed at develop and validate a preliminary guidelinesupport the creation of trustworthy BAs.

    Method: We followed a multi-step approach. We developed our guideline througha literature review and previous results from our case study. Second, we submittedthe guideline for an expert evaluation via two workshops and a survey. At last, weadjusted our guideline by incorporating the feedback obtained during the workshops.

    Results: We grouped the principles collected from a literature review into threecategories. The first category (Scope) focuses on the scope, displaying principlesreferring to defining each boundary’s target audience, needs, and terminology. Thesecond category (Structure) relates to how the artefact’s content is structured tomeet stakeholders’ needs. The third (Management) refers to principles that canguide the establishment of practices to manage the artefact throughout time. Theexpert validation revealed that the principles contribute to creating trustworthy BAsat different levels. Also, the relevance of the guideline and its usefulness.

    Conclusions: The guideline strengthen BA traits such as shared understanding,plasticity and ability to transfer. Practitioners can utilise the guideline to guide thecreation or even evaluate current practices for existing BAs

  • 10.
    Ouriques, Raquel
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Mendez, Daniel
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Fagerholm, Fabian
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Connecting the Dots of Knowledge in Agile Software DevelopmentManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the importance of managing knowledge as a resource due to its great potential to create economic value. We detail the types of knowledge resources, the challenges associated with their management, and potential solutions to maximise their utility. Our contribution is based on empirical studies performed in an industry context. 

  • 11.
    Zabardast, Ehsan
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Gonzalez-Huerta, Javier
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Alégroth, Emil
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Fagerholm, Fabian
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    A taxonomy of assets for the development of software-intensive products and services2023Inngår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 202, artikkel-id 111701Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context:Developing software-intensive products or services usually involves a plethora of software artefacts. Assets are artefacts intended to be used more than once and have value for organisations; examples include test cases, code, requirements, and documentation. During the development process, assets might degrade, affecting the effectiveness and efficiency of the development process. Therefore, assets are an investment that requires continuous management.

    Identifying assets is the first step for their effective management. However, there is a lack of awareness of what assets and types of assets are common in software-developing organisations. Most types of assets are understudied, and their state of quality and how they degrade over time have not been well-understood.

    Methods:We performed an analysis of secondary literature and a field study at five companies to investigate and identify assets to fill the gap in research. The results were analysed qualitatively and summarised in a taxonomy.

    Results:We present the first comprehensive, structured, yet extendable taxonomy of assets, containing 57 types of assets.

    Conclusions:The taxonomy serves as a foundation for identifying assets that are relevant for an organisation and enables the study of asset management and asset degradation concepts.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 12.
    Zabardast, Ehsan
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Gonzalez-Huerta, Javier
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Alégroth, Emil
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Fagerholm, Fabian
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Asset Management Taxonomy: A Roadmap2021Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing a software-intensive product or service can be a significant undertaking, associated with unique challenges in each project stage, from inception to development, delivery, maintenance, and evolution. Each step results in artefacts that are crucial for the project outcome, such as source-code and supporting deliverables, e.g., documentation.

    Artefacts which have inherent value for the organisation are assets, and as assets, they are subject to degradation. This degradation occurs over time, as artefacts age, and can be more immediate or slowly over a period of time, similar to the concept of technical debt. One challenge with the concept of assets is that it seems not to be well-understood and generally delimited to a few types of assets (often code-based), overlooking other equally important assets. 

    To bridge this gap, we have performed a study to formulate a structured taxonomy of assets. We use empirical data collected through industrial workshops and a literature review to ground the taxonomy. The taxonomy serves as foundations for concepts like asset degradation and asset management. The taxonomy can help contextualise, homogenise, extend the concept of technical debt, and serves as a conceptual framework for better identification, discussion, and utilisation of assets.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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