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  • 1.
    Garro, Valeria
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Augmented Reality and 3D Printing for Archaeological Heritage: Evaluation of Visitor Experience2022In: Extended Reality: First International Conference, Part II / [ed] De Paolis, L.T., Arpaia, P., Sacco, M., Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2022, Vol. 13446, p. 360-372Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Augmented Reality (AR) and 3D printing have increasingly been used in archaeological and cultural heritage to make artifacts and environments accessible to the general public. This paper presents the case study of the Ljungaviken dog, an archaeological find of dog skeleton remains dated around 8000 years ago. The dog remains have been digitized using 3D scanning and displayed in an AR application. A physical replica has also been created with 3D printing. Both the AR application and the 3D printed copy have been shown in a temporary museum exhibition. In this paper, we present the visitors’ experience evaluation based on a study with 42 participants. Aspects being evaluated are related to the realism, enjoyment, and easiness of use of the AR application. Moreover, the two media are compared in terms of understanding, visual quality, and experience satisfaction. The results show an overall positive experience for both the display solutions, with slightly higher scores for the AR application in the comparison. When asked about overall preference, the participants reported similar results between both media. Due to issues of displaying fragile objects in a museum setting, as well as recent restrictions following pandemic closures and availability, the results presented in this paper show a positive alternative towards using digital artifacts to showcase our cultural heritage. © 2022, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

  • 2.
    Garro, Valeria
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Panoptic Visual Analytics of Eye Tracking Data2022In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 17TH INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON COMPUTER VISION, IMAGING AND COMPUTER GRAPHICS THEORY AND APPLICATIONS (IVAPP), VOL 3 / [ed] Hurter, C, Purchase, H, Bouatouch, K, SciTePress, 2022, no 17th International Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications (VISIGRAPP) / 13th International Conference on Information Visualization Theory and Applications (IVAPP), p. 171-178Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In eye tracking data visualization, areas of interest (AOIs) are widely adopted to analyze specific regions of the stimulus. We propose a visual analytics tool that leverages panoptic segmentation to automatically divide the whole image or frame video in semantic AOIs. A set of AOI-based visualization techniques are available to analyze the fixation data based on these semantic AOIs. Moreover, we propose a modified version of radial transition graph visualizations adapted to the extracted semantic AOIs and a new visualization technique also based on radial transition graphs. Two application examples illustrate the potential of this approach and are used to discuss its usefulness and limitations.

  • 3.
    Garro, Valeria
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Pose and visual attention: Exploring the effects of 3D shape near-isometric deformations on gaze2020In: Computer Science Research Notes, Vaclav Skala Union Agency , 2020, Vol. 2020, no 2020, p. 153-160Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research in 3D shape analysis focuses on the study of visual attention on rendered 3D shapes investigating the impact of different factors such as material, illumination, and camera movements. In this paper, we analyze how the pose of a deformable shape affects visual attention. We describe an eye-tracking experiment that studied the influence of different poses of non-rigid 3D shapes on visual attention. The subjects free-viewed a set of 3D shapes rendered in different poses and from different camera views. The fixation maps obtained by the aggregated gaze data were projected onto the 3D shapes and compared at vertex level. The results indicate an impact of the pose for some of the tested shapes and also that view variation influences visual attention. The qualitative analysis of the 3D fixation maps shows high visual focus on the facial regions regardless of the pose, coherent with previous works. The visual attention variation between poses appears to correspond to geometric salient features and semantically salient parts linked to the action represented by the pose. © 2020, Vaclav Skala Union Agency. All rights reserved.

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    Pose and visual attention
  • 4.
    Garro, Valeria
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Navarro, Diego
    A review of current trends on visual perception studies in virtual and augmented reality2020In: SIGGRAPH Asia 2020 Courses, SA 2020, Association for Computing Machinery, Inc , 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the development of novel algorithms and techniques in virtual and augmented reality (VR/AR), it is crucial to take human visual perception into account. For example, when hardware resources are a restraining factor, the limitations of the human visual system can be exploited in the creation and evaluation of new effective techniques. Over the last decades, visual perception evaluation studies have become a vital part of the design, development, and evaluation of immersive computer graphics applications. This course aims at introducing the attendees to the basic concepts of visual perception applied to computer graphics and it offers an overview of recent perceptual evaluation studies that have been conducted with head-mounted displays (HMDs) in the context of VR and AR applications. During this course, we call attention to the latest published courses and surveys on visual perception applied to computer graphics and interaction techniques. Through an extensive search in the literature, we have identified six main areas in which recent visual perceptual evaluation studies have been focused on: Distance perception, avatar perception, image quality, interaction, motion perception, and cybersickness. Trends, main results, and open challenges are discussed for each area and accompanied with relevant references offering the attendees a wide introduction and perspective on the topic. © 2019 Owner/Author.

  • 5.
    Garro, Valeria
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Sandahl, Christoffer
    Blekinge Museum, SWE.
    Impact of Location, Gender and Previous Experience on User Evaluation of Augmented Reality in Cultural Heritage: The Mjallby Crucifix Case Study2022In: Heritage, E-ISSN 2571-9408, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 1988-2006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, a growing number of museums have adopted digital media, both as an enhancement of exhibitions of real artifacts and as an alternative to traditional display methods. The digital acquisition of artifacts generates accurate 3D replicas that can be displayed via different digital media. With an increase in immersive technologies in the cultural heritage (CH) domain, it is common to see digital artifacts presented in Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR). This paper presents two user studies conducted in different locations evaluating the use of an AR application in the portrayal of the Mjallby Crucifix artifact. This paper presents the overall results from both user studies evaluating and discussing the AR application on a number of different aspects on a 7-point Likert scale: (1) understanding the artifact, (2) ease of use, (3) object feeling part of reality, (4) perceived visual quality of the object, (5) overall satisfaction experience, and (6) willingness to download the AR application. The results have been compared between genders, age groups, and previous experience with AR. Potential benefits and disadvantages of AR experiences in the context of a museum exhibition were also gathered in free text from the visitors.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6.
    Navarro, Diego
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Garro, Valeria
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Electrodermal Activity Evaluation of Player Experience in Virtual Reality Games: A Phasic Component Analysis2022In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 17TH INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON COMPUTER VISION, IMAGING AND COMPUTER GRAPHICS THEORY AND APPLICATIONS (HUCAPP), VOL 2 / [ed] Paljic, A, Ziat, M, Bouatouch, K, SciTePress, 2022, no 17th International Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications (VISIGRAPP) / 6th International Conference on Human Computer Interaction Theory and Applications (HUCAPP), p. 108-116Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrodermal activity (EDA) is considered to be an effective metric for measuring changes in the arousal level of people. In this paper, the phasic component of EDA data from players is analyzed in relation to their reported experience from a standardized questionnaire, when interacting with a couple of virtual reality games that featured two different input devices: the HTC Vive and Leap Motion controllers. Initial results show that there are no significant differences in the phasic component data, despite having significant differences in their respective player experience. Furthermore, no linear correlations are found between the phasic component data and the evaluated experience variables, with the only exception of negative affect which features a weak positive correlation. In conclusion, the phasic component of EDA data has here shown a limited correlation with player experience and should be further explored in combination with other psychophysiological signals.

  • 7.
    Navarro, Diego
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Garro, Valeria
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    The Electrodermal Activity of Player Experience in Virtual Reality Games: An Extended Evaluation of the Phasic Component2023In: Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications: 17th International Joint Conference, VISIGRAPP 2022, Virtual Event, February 6–8, 2022, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] A. Augusto de Sousa, Kurt Debattista, Alexis Paljic, Mounia Ziat, Christophe Hurter, Helen Purchase, Giovanni Maria Farinella, Petia Radeva, Kadi Bouatouch, Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2023, Vol. 1815, p. 203-221Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thanks to its effectiveness, electrodermal activity (EDA) has been previously included as an evaluation metric, within analyses of user experience. In this study, the phasic component of participants’ EDA data is examined in relation to their reported experiences when playing a set of virtual reality games, that featured the HTC Vive and Leap Motion controllers for input. Two models are used in the analysis of the phasic component: a deconvolution model and a convex optimization model. Despite having significant differences in their player experiences, results indicate that there are not many significant differences in the phasic component data. Even if some weak correlations were found, the majority of results show no linear correlations between the phasic component data and the reported experience variables. This shows that the phasic component of EDA data should be further investigated in conjunction with other psychophysiological signals because it has only recently demonstrated a weak link with player experience. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

  • 8.
    Navarro, Diego
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Garro, Valeria
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Biofeedback Methods in Entertainment Video Games: A Review of Physiological Interaction Techniques2021In: Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction, ISSN 2573-0142, Vol. 5, no CHIPLAY, article id 268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The area of biofeedback interaction has grown over recent years, thanks to the release of more affordable and reliable sensor technology, and the accessibility offered by modern game development tools. This article presents a systematic literature review focusing on how different biofeedback interaction methods have been used for entertainment purposes in video games, between 2008 and 2020. It divides previous contributions in terms of a proposed interaction classification criteria and five different biofeedback methods (with a sixth category combining them): electroencephalography, electrocardiography, eye tracking, electrodermal activity, electromyography, and multi-modal interaction. The review describes the properties, sensor technologies, and the type of data gathered for every included biofeedback method, and presents their respective interaction techniques. It summarizes a set of opportunities and challenges for each included method, based on the results from previous work, and discusses these findings. It also analyzes how these interaction techniques are distributed between different common game genres. The review is beneficial for people interested in biofeedback methods and their potential use for novel interaction techniques in future video games. © 2021 ACM.

  • 9.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Boeva, Veselka
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Zepernick, Hans-Juergen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Goswami, Prashant
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Cheddad, Abbas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Tutschku, Kurt
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Grahn, Håkan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Casalicchio, Emiliano
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Fiedler, Markus
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Abghari, Shahrooz
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Hu, Yan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Garro, Valeria
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Chu, Thi My Chinh
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Lundberg, Lars
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Arlos, Patrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    HINTS: Human-Centered Intelligent Realities2023In: 35th Annual Workshop of the Swedish Artificial Intelligence Society SAIS 2023 / [ed] Håkan Grahn, Anton Borg and Martin Boldt, Linköping University Electronic Press, 2023, p. 9-17Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade, we have witnessed a rapiddevelopment of extended reality (XR) technologies such asaugmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR). Further, therehave been tremendous advancements in artificial intelligence(AI) and machine learning (ML). These two trends will havea significant impact on future digital societies. The vision ofan immersive, ubiquitous, and intelligent virtual space opensup new opportunities for creating an enhanced digital world inwhich the users are at the center of the development process,so-calledintelligent realities(IRs).The “Human-Centered Intelligent Realities” (HINTS) profileproject will develop concepts, principles, methods, algorithms,and tools for human-centered IRs, thus leading the wayfor future immersive, user-aware, and intelligent interactivedigital environments. The HINTS project is centered aroundan ecosystem combining XR and communication paradigms toform novel intelligent digital systems.HINTS will provide users with new ways to understand,collaborate with, and control digital systems. These novelways will be based on visual and data-driven platforms whichenable tangible, immersive cognitive interactions within realand virtual realities. Thus, exploiting digital systems in a moreefficient, effective, engaging, and resource-aware condition.Moreover, the systems will be equipped with cognitive featuresbased on AI and ML, which allow users to engage with digitalrealities and data in novel forms. This paper describes theHINTS profile project and its initial results. ©2023, Copyright held by the authors   

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    fulltext
  • 10.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Garro, Valeria
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    A Systematic Review of Visualization Techniques and Analysis Tools for Eye-Tracking in 3D Environments2022In: FRONTIERS IN NEUROERGONOMICS, ISSN 2673-6195, Vol. 3, article id 910019Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This systematic literature review presents an update on developments in 3D visualization techniques and analysis tools for eye movement data in 3D environments. With the introduction of affordable and non-intrusive eye-tracking solutions to the mass market, access to users' gaze is now increasingly possible. As a result, the adoption of eye-tracking in virtual environments using head-mounted displays is expected to increase since the trend is to incorporate gaze tracking as part of new technical solutions. The systematic literature review presented in this paper was conducted using the Scopus database (using the period 2017 to 17th of May 2022), which after analysis, resulted in the inclusion of 15 recent publications with relevance in eye-tracking visualization techniques for 3D virtual scenes. First, this paper briefly describes the foundations of eye-tracking and traditional 2D visualization techniques. As background, we also list earlier 3D eye-tracking visualization techniques identified in a previous review. Next, the systematic literature review presents the method used to acquire the included papers and a description of these in terms of eye-tracking technology, observed stimuli, application context, and type of 3D gaze visualization techniques. We then discuss the overall findings, including opportunities, challenges, trends, and present ideas for future directions. Overall the results show that eye-tracking in immersive virtual environments is on the rise and that more research and developments are needed to create novel and improved technical solutions for 3D gaze analysis.

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    fulltext
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