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  • 1. Basile, George
    et al.
    Broman, Göran
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    A Systems-based Strategic Approach to Sustainable Enterprise: requirements, utility and limits2011In: The business of sustainability: trends, policies, practices, and stories of success / [ed] McNall, Scott G.; Hershauer, James C.; Basile, George, Praeger Publishers , 2011Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In today's business environment, "garbage" isn't simply worthless refuse to be disposed of anymore; it often represents a material with monetary value. The human population is using up about 30 percent more natural resources in one year than the earth can regenerate. Because businesses constitute half of the world's largest economies, there can be no sustainability without sustainable businesses. The Business of Sustainability: Trends, Policies, Practices, and Stories of Success is a foundation set that effectively captures and articulates the why, what, who, and how of sustainability and business. Volume I covers the scientific, economic, and social underpinnings of sustainability and identifies the challenges facing business leaders.

  • 2.
    Borén, Sven
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Nurhadi, Lisiana
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Ny, Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköpings Tekniska Högskola.
    A strategic approach to sustainable transport system development - Part 2: the case of a vision for electric vehicle systems in Southeast Sweden2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 140, no Part 1, 62-71 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric vehicles seem to offer a great potential for sustainable transport development. The Swedish pioneer project GreenCharge Southeast is designed as a cooperative action research approach that aims to explore a roadmap for a fossil-free transport system by 2030 with a focus on electric vehicles. In the first paper of this tandem publication, the authors propose a new generic process model embedding the Framework of Strategic Sustainable Development. The purpose of applying it in an action-research mode as described in this paper was twofold: (i) to develop a vision for sustainable regional transport and a coarse roadmap towards that vision, and, while doing so, (ii) get additional empirical experiences to inform the development of the new generic process model. Experts from many sectors and organizations involved in the GreenCharge project provided vital information and reviewed all planning perspectives presented in Paper 1 in two sequential multi-stakeholder seminars. The results include a sustainable vision for electric vehicle systems in southeast Sweden within a sustainable regional transport system within a sustainable global society, as well as an initial development plan towards such a vision for the transport sector. The vision is framed by the universal sustainability principles, and the development plan is informed by the strategic guidelines, of the above-mentioned framework. Among other things, the vision and plan imply a shift to renewable energy and a more optimized use of areas and thus a new type of spatial planning. For example, the vision and plan implies a lower built-in demand for transport, more integrated traffic modes, and more multi-functional use of areas for energy and transport infrastructures, for example. Some inherent benefits of electric vehicles are highlighted in the vision and plan, including near-zero local emissions and flexibility as regards primary energy sources. The vision and plan also imply improved governance for more effective cross-sector collaboration to ensure coor- dinated development within the transport sector and between the transportation sector and other relevant sectors. Meanwhile, the new generic process model was refined and is ready to be applied and further tested in the GreenCharge project and in other projects within the transport sector as well as other sectors. The study confirmed that the new generic process model suggested in support of sus- tainable transport system and community development is helpful for giving diverse stakeholders, with various specialties and perspectives, a way of working that is goal-oriented and builds on effective, iterative learning loops and co-creation. 

  • 3.
    Bratt, Cecilia
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Sophie, Hallstedt
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Procurement as driver of sustainable product-service innovation2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current patterns of production and consumption need to change and they need to do so radically. For this shift sustainability-oriented product-services are highly potential contributors. Product-services have been described as a market proposition that extends the functionality of a product beyond the traditional view by inclusion of additional services into the product-service system. From a producer perspective this opens up for a differentiation from competitors and thereby for strategic market opportunities. For the customer this means the possibility to be released from responsibilities linked to asset ownership, more differentiated options and increased function availability .For society at large it means the possibility to gain sustainability achievements. However, the market adoption of product-services or functional products brings with it significant challenges. The demand side is still hesitant to ownerless consumption and the supply side faces economical and company culture-related challenges. The challenges also include customer-related challenges and the development of product-services will require joint efforts of a number of actors along the value chain, actors that traditionally have been outside the buyer-seller relationship. Product-services need to be developed on a case-by-case basis and involve the users perspective from initial need phase until end-of-life in a collaborative process that is not practice today. This paper explores the strategic position of a procurer in this development. It aims at providing guidelines for procurement processes on how to successively and systematically utilize its potential as drivers for sustainability-oriented product-service solutions. Three procurement cases are studied for which a movement from a traditional product-oriented process to a functional-oriented process was the selection criteria. These cases were used to gain a deepened understanding of drivers and barriers for function-oriented procurement processes. A template for sustainable product development is used as a base for the development. The result from the cases is used to adapt the guidelines to current procurement processes and to meet the procurers where they are today.

  • 4. Bratt, Cecilia
    et al.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Broman, Göran
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    Oldmark, Jonas
    Assessment of Eco-labelling Criteria Development from a Strategic Sustainability Perspective2011In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, Vol. 19, no 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To turn current patterns of consumption and production in a sustainable direction, solid and understandable market information on the socio-ecological performance of products is needed. Eco-labelling programmes have an important role in this communication. The aim of this study is to investigate what gaps there may be in the current criteria development processes in relation to a strategic sustainability perspective and develop recommendations on how such presumptive gaps could be bridged. First a previously published generic framework for strategic sustainable development is described and applied for the assessment of two eco-labelling programmes. Data for the assessment is collected from literature and in semi-structured interviews and discussions with eco-labelling experts. The assessment revealed that the programmes lack both an operational definition of sustainability, and a statement of objectives to direct and drive the criteria development processes. Consequently they also lack guidelines for how product category criteria might gradually develop in any direction. The selected criteria mainly reflect the current reality based on a selection of negative impacts in ecosystems, but how this selection, or prioritization, is made is not clearly presented. Finally, there are no guidelines to ensure that the criteria developers represent a broad enough competence to embrace all essential sustainability aspects. In conclusion the results point at deficiencies in theory, process and practice of eco-labelling, which hampers cohesiveness, transparency and comprehension. And it hampers predictability, as producers get no support in foreseeing how coming revisions of criteria will develop. This represents a lost opportunity for strategic sustainable development. It is suggested that these problems could be avoided by informing the criteria development process by a framework for strategic sustainable development, based on backcasting from basic sustainability principles.

  • 5.
    Bratt, Cecilia
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Robèrt, Karl Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Oldmark, Jonas
    Assessment of criteria development for public procurement from a strategic sustainability perspective2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 52, 309-316 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Green public procurement has emerged as a policy instrument with a significant potential to steer procurers' and producers' decisions in a sustainable direction. The purpose of this study is to assess the process for development of green public procurement criteria at a Swedish governmental expert body from a strategic sustainability perspective, i.e. to identify strengths and weaknesses from such a perspective as a basis for making this process more supportive of sustainable product and service innovation. A previously published framework for strategic sustainable development is used for the assessment. The assessment shows that the criteria development process is transparent, well-documented and that it encourages a high level of participation by the members of the working groups. However, the assessment also points to several weaknesses of the process. These include, e.g., a limited impact perspective and lack of a clear definition of sustainability objectives. The development process therefore results in criteria which mainly concern a selection of current environmental impacts outside the context of long-term objectives and consequently there are no strategies to prepare for future processes. The conclusion is that the current process may result in improvements as regards some known environmental problems, but to allow for a strategic approach that could more significantly promote innovative product-service system solutions in support of sustainable development, process changes are needed. Essential process changes are proposed in this paper.

  • 6. Broman, Göran
    Computational Engineering2003Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book is the main course literature in the course Computational Engineering, which comprises 22,5 ECTS (European Credit Transfer System), within the programme of Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering with emphasis on Structural Mechanics at Blekinge Institute of Technology. The book starts with rather simple numerical methods for ordinary differential equations and ends with advanced topics such as finite element procedures for systems of transient, non-linear and coupled partial differential equations. Several topics from physics and engineering are included to support the study of the numerical methods.

  • 7. Broman, Göran
    Implications of cavitation in individual grooves of spiral groove bearings2001In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part J, journal of engineering tribology, ISSN 1350-6501, Vol. 215, no J5, 417-424 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pressure distribution in a flat spiral groove thrust bearing obtained from a straightforward solution of the Reynolds equation includes subatmospheric pressure in part of the grooved area, This is masked in the common theory based on the assumption of an infinite number of grooves. Furthermore, the negative contribution to the load capacity from this area is usually small, which may explain why the presence of subatmospheric pressure has not been given much attention in connection with these bearings. Subatmospheric pressure is, however, necessary for liquid-lubricated flat spiral groove thrust bearings of conventional design to work at all at low numbers of grooves, which in turn requires a non-zero cavitation pressure. Cavitation within individual grooves implies non-linearity in, for example, the relation between load capacity and rotational speed of the bearing and limits the obtainable load capacity. This is more pronounced and important to consider at low numbers of grooves (wide grooves) than at high numbers of grooves (narrow grooves), and it is difficult to determine for what number of grooves that reliable prediction of bearing performance can be expected. It depends on the actual value of the cavitation pressure and other parameters that are usually unknown or difficult to account for. To avoid this disadvantage a modified design of liquid-lubricated flat spiral groove thrust bearings is suggested.

  • 8.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Miljöinslag i grundutbildningen vid Högskolan i Karlskrona/Ronneby1997Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Högskolan i Karlskrona/Ronneby grundades 1989, och är därmed en av Sveriges yngsta högskolor. Grundutbildning bedrivs inom ämnesområdena teknik, datavetenskap, arbetsvetenskap, ekonomi, språk och kultur. Antalet anställda är ca 220 och antalet studenter ca 2500. Utvecklingstakten är hög och fortfarande kännetecknas ledning och personal av pionjäranda och öppenhet för initiativ, vilket varit till glädje också för detta projekt. Tillämpad informationsteknologi ges hög prioritet och finns som ett naturligt inslag i hela högskolans verksamhet. En målsättning är att också integrera miljöaspekter. Genom anslag från Högskolans Grundutbildningsråd till detta projekt påbörjades 1994 miljöintegrering inom 120p-programmet i maskinteknik med inriktning mot utvecklingsteknik, vid Institutionen för Maskinteknik (IMA), och 180p-programmet i fysisk planering, vid Institutionen för Fysisk Planering och Byggteknik (IFB). Biblioteket deltog också från början för att ge stöd åt projektledning och lärare vid deras integreringsarb ete, samt för att miljöintegrera sin egen verksamhet som stöd för personal och studenter även fortsättningsvis. Ett delmål med projektet var att ge deltagande lärare och övrig personal sådana kunskaper om bärkraftig utveckling - och nödvändigheten därav - att de skulle känna engagemang och själva se möjligheterna till miljöinslag i sina respektive ämnen och övriga yrkesuppgifter. Stor vikt lades därför på personalutbildning, som genomfördes i form av en seminarieserie samt genom handledda fortsatta självstudier och deltagande i externa kurser, konferenser och studiebesök. Resultatet blev gott. Nästan alla lärare vid IMA och IFB fick ett ökat engagemang och deltog aktivt i miljöintegreringsarbetet. Engagemanget har också borgat för fortsatt lärande och automatiska kursförbättringar efter projektets slut, vilket var tanken. Synliga resultat är en vidareutvecklad miljögrundkurs, Miljögrunder 5p, obligatorisk i programmet maskinteknik med inriktning mot utvecklingsteknik och tillgänglig även för andra studenter s om fristående kurs, samt nya kursplaner i de ämnen miljöintegrering bedömts mest relevant i de båda programmen. Även i examination, projektrapporter och examensarbeten syns naturligtvis resultat av miljöintegreringen. Totalt har ca hälften av kurserna inom respektive utbildningsprogram direkt berörts av projektet. Genom följdeffekter har i någon mån även övriga delar av programmen påverkats. Studenterna framför vid kurs-utvärderingar och andra diskussioner att de upplever miljöintegreringen som mycket positiv för deras utbildning och ser den som en värdefull merit då de söker jobb. Miljöinslag har kunnat införas utan att de reguljära ämnena tagit skada - alltså i motsägelse till diskussionen om att värdefulla befintliga kunskaper måste trängas undan när någon "nymodighet" ska föras in i en utbildning. Miljöintegreringen har snarare gjort att studenternas motivation för de reguljära ämnena ökat. Denna tulipanaros har kunnat åstadkommas huvudsakligen genom att: - använda grundläggande kunskaper som reguljärt ingår i utbildningsprogrammen, t ex viss naturvetenskap, för att bygga upp en systemsyn genom vilken miljö- och resursproblemens orsaker och lösningar på principiell nivå blir tydliga. - använda denna systemsyn som ett ramverk i vilket detaljkunskaper som reguljärt ingår i utbildningsprogrammen kan inordnas och ges en övergripande mening, varigenom också sambanden mellan olika ämnen blir tydligare. - exemplifiera de reguljära ämneskunskaperna på ett delvis nytt sätt och visa på alternativa tillämpningar för att stimulera studenternas kreativitet beträffande hur deras yrkeskunskaper konkret kan användas för att lösa miljö- och resursproblemen. Den bärande idén med miljöintegreringen har just varit att med ovanstående som förutsättning, så är det främst genom att bli duktiga i klassiska ämnen för ingenjörer och fysiska planerare som ingenjörer och fysiska planerare kan göra den största insatsen för en bärkraftig utveckling. Att göra om dem till "miljöexperter" i traditionell mening vore inte fruktbart. Det Naturliga Stegets definition av bärkraftighet och modell för planering av bärkraftig utveckling, som visat sig så framgångsrik inom näringslivet, har visat sig lämplig även inom den högre utbildningen. Den har utgjort grunden för den systemsyn som använts i detta projekt enligt ovan. Projektet har troligen även bidragit som inspirationskälla, åtminstone som en av flera faktorer, till verksamheter utanför dess ram. Exakt hur mycket är naturligtvis svårt att bedöma. Ökade kunskaper och det allmänt ökade intresset för miljöfrågor har i varje fall lett till allt ifrån konkreta saker som införskaffande av institutionscykel för kortare ärenden och vindkraftverk och solpaneler som komplement till energiundervisningen, till deltagande i internationella miljöutbildningsprojekt, doktorandverksamhet i miljöanpassad produktutveckling, inrättandet av professurer med miljöprofil, och ansvar för högskolans miljöpolicy och miljöplan. Detta utgör naturligtvis omvänt också ett starkt stöd för underhåll och utveckling av miljöintegreringen. Den bedöms därför ha utmärkta förutsättningar att bli bestående vid IMA och IFB och förhoppningsvis sprida sig till övriga institutioner och utbildningsprogram.

  • 9.
    Broman, Göran
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Byggeth, Sophie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Integrating Environmental Aspects in Engineering Education2002In: International journal of engineering education, ISSN 0949-149X, Vol. 18, no 6, 717-724 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The key role of engineers for the transformation of society towards sustainability is a strong motivation for increasing the environmental knowledge within engineering education. Doing this by the concept of integration is presently considered more appropriate than to develop more new education programmes for environmental specialists. This paper describes the integration of environmental aspects into a mechanical engineering education programme. The Natural Step Framework has been used as a basis for this integration. It has been possible to include environmental knowledge without compromising the engineering quality of the programme.

  • 10. Broman, Göran
    et al.
    Hermann, Madeleine
    Jönsson, Anders
    Modelling Bellows Expansion Joints by Standard Beam Finite Elements2000Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A procedure for modelling bellows expansion joints by the standard beam finite elements of I-DEAS Master Series 6 is presented. It is shown that the bellows dynamic behaviour can be modelled by beam elements by manipulating certain element parameters. The method will work in any software in which these parameters can be set by the user. Compared to a shell elements model the model size is reduced by at least a factor of 100. This is especially advantageous when the bellows is only a part of a system to be optimised with respect to overall design parameters. In comparison to existing "semi-analytical" methods the beam finite elements have the advantages of considering axial, bending and torsion degrees of freedom simultaneously and that the interaction between the bellows and the rest of the system, also modelled by beam or shell finite elements, is easily facilitated. The procedure is verified by experimental results from other investigators.

  • 11.
    Broman, Göran
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Hermann, Madeleine
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Jönsson, Anders
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Modelling Flexible Bellows by Standard Beam Finite Elements1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A procedure for modelling flexible metal bellows by the standard beam finite elements in I-DEAS Master Series 6 is presented. In spite of the geometry of the bellows being far from a beam, it is shown that the bellows dynamic behaviour can be modelled by beam elements with the suggested procedure. The model size is reduced by a factor of 100-1000 compared to a shell elements model. This is especially advantageous when the bellows is only a part of for example an exhaust system to be optimised with respect to overall design parameters. In comparison to existing "semi-analytical" methods the standard beam finite elements have the advantages that axial, bending and torsion degrees of freedom are included simultaneously and that the interaction between the bellows and the rest of the system, also modelled by beam or shell finite elements, is easily facilitated. The procedure is verified by experimental results from other investigators.

  • 12. Broman, Göran
    et al.
    Holmberg, John
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    Simplicity Without Reduction: Thinking Upstream Towards the Sustainable Society2000In: Interfaces, ISSN 0092-2102, E-ISSN 1526-551X, Vol. 30, no 3, 13-25 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The natural-step framework is used by over 100 organizations, including many global corporations in Europe and the United States, to provide strategic direction for their sustainability initiatives. The framework is built on the concept of simplicity without reduction. Out of respect for complexity we designed it to provide a compass, a guide for strategic direction. The framework consists of a backcasting planning process for sustainable development based on four principles (system conditions) for sustainability. The framework does not prescribe detailed actions. Once an organization understands the framework it identifies and specifies the detailed means by which to achieve the strategy, because it knows its business best. The steps in the planning process are understanding and discussing the system conditions for sustainability, describing and discussing how the company relates to the system conditions in today's situation, creating a vision of how the company will fulfill its customers' needs in the futur e while complying with the system conditions, and specifying a program of actions that will take the company from today's situation to the future vision.

  • 13. Broman, Göran
    et al.
    Jönsson, Anders
    The Nonlinear Behavior of a Rammer Soil Compactor Machine2000Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A theoretical model of a rammer compactor machine is described and its dynamic behaviour is analysed. The differential equations of the model are solved numerically by using standard software. Simulation results are presented as time series, phase plane diagrams, mappings and bifurcation diagrams. The results show that the system is highly nonlinear and indicates that harmonic, subharmonic and chaotic behaviour is present for the parameter variations used. This parameter sensitivity emphasizes the need for this kind of simulations in the product development process.

  • 14. Broman, Göran
    et al.
    Jönsson, Anders
    Hermann, Madeleine
    Determining Dynamic Characteristics of Bellows by Manipulated Beam Finite Elements of Commercial Software2000In: International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, ISSN 0308-0161, Vol. 77, no 8, 445-453 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A procedure for determining dynamic characteristics of bellows by manipulating certain parameters of the beam finite elements of I-DEAS Master Series 6 is presented. The method will work in any software in which these parameters can be set by the user. Compared to a shell elements model the model size is reduced by at least a factor of 100. This is especially advantageous when the bellows is only a part of a system to be optimised with respect to overall design parameters. Stress in the bellows cannot be predicted by this method, but when the dynamic behaviour is known it can be used as input for stress calculations, if desired. In contrast to existing "semi-analytical" methods this method has the potential of considering axial, bending and torsion degrees of freedom simultaneously, and it facilitates the interaction between the bellows and the rest of the system, also modelled by beam or shell finite elements. The procedure is verified by experimental results from other investigators.

  • 15. Broman, Göran
    et al.
    Jönsson, Anders
    Wall, Johan
    Englund, Thomas
    Introductory Optimisation Study of a Rammer Soil Compactor Machine2001Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rammer compactor machines perform dynamic soil compaction. The complexity of this machine type makes design optimisation through traditional prototype testing impractical. This has pointed to the need for a theoretical model and simulation procedure for prediction of the dynamic behaviour of the machine and a procedure for optimisation as design parameters are changed during product development. In this paper a theoretical model of the rammer machine in combination with a soil model is described. This multi-body dynamics system is solved numerically. The system is non-linear and chaotic behaviour is possible. This parameter sensitivity emphasises the need for this kind of simulations in the product development process. A fairly regular behaviour is necessary for a predictable and safe operation. Parameter combinations giving too irregular behaviour are non-feasible. The energy transfer rate from the rammer machine into the soil is used as the objective function for optimisation. Multi-start Sequential Quadratic Programming for optimum search is used. To cover the design space well a Uniform Experimental Design is used for selection of starting points. This procedure proves to work well for the problem of this introductory study. The study shows a significant potential for improved compaction capacity although considering only the three design parameters that are most easily changed in practice. Approximately the same optimum is obtained both for operation on soft soil and hard soil, so a good all-round design seems possible. Including this theoretical support in the product development process should make it much more effective in finding optimum designs, also for other machines of similar type.

  • 16.
    Broman, Göran
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Robèrt, Karl Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Collins, T. J.
    Basile, G.
    Baumgartner, R. J.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Huisingh, D.
    Science in support of systematic leadership towards sustainability2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 140, 1-9 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The un-sustainable course of our societies is the greatest threat humanity has ever confronted. The biophysical systems upon which we are totally dependent have not been challenged by human activities at the global scale before and our impacts upon those planetary systems, as well as upon our social systems, cannot be adequately addressed by ad hoc solutions. Science and leadership will be required to address this threat and transform our current societies into sustainable societies. This Special Volume presents an evolving, yet increasingly cohesive, science-based perspective on leadership towards sustainability. Examples of crucial, overall questions addressed by authors of articles in this Special Volume are: How can science help to clarify sustainability as a foundational platform for success for society's core institutions (e.g. business, governance and education), and how can this platform inform envisioning, planning, monitoring, communication and decision making to accelerate the needed transitions? The conceptual framing of sustainable development in this Special Volume is based upon the logic that it is only if we can define sustainability in a scientifically solid way, as a frame for any vision, that we can analyze current situations in relation to such sustainable visions, and design strategies to close the gap to such visions. In moving from current situations towards possible sustainable futures, specific support in the form of leadership concepts, methods, tools, and requirements are also essential, i.e. given clarity around what needs to be achieved, effective leadership then requires knowing how to achieve it. Both the what and the how questions are addressed in this Special Volume. The research described provides a foundation for moving from ad hoc activities to systemic, systematic and strategic transitions towards sustainability. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  • 17.
    Broman, Göran
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    A framework for strategic sustainable development2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 140, no Part 1, 17-31 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to give a comprehensive and cohesive description of the most recent version of the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD), and also to describe and discuss the overall method for developing the FSSD, elaborate on the general rational for and general benefits of a framework of this type, and Validate benefits of the FSSD through examples of its application. The purpose is also to point to pertinent future work. In preparation of this paper, we have reviewed previous publications and other documents related to the FSSD and reflected on the 25-year learning process between scientists and practitioners. We conclude that the FSSD has proven to aid organizations in thoroughly understanding and putting themselves in context of the global sustainability challenge, and to move themselves strategically towards sustainability, i.e., to stepwise reduce their negative impacts on ecological and social systems at large while strengthening the own organization through capturing of innovation opportunities, including new business models, exploration of new markets and winning of new market shares, and through reduced risks and operation costs. Specifically, we conclude that the FSSD aids more effective management of system boundaries and trade-offs, makes it possible to model and assess sustainable potentials for various materials and practices before investments are made, and offers the possibility for more effective collaboration across disciplines and sectors, regions, value-chains and stakeholder groups. We also conclude that the FSSD makes it possible to prevent damages, even from yet unknown problems, and not the least, to guide selection, development and combination of supplementary methods, tools, and other forms of support, which makes it possible to increase their utility for strategic sustainable development. Finally, we have shown that the FSSD is useful for structuring transdisciplinary academic education and research. Several examples of ongoing FSSD related research, as well as ideas for future work, are given. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 18.
    Broman, Göran
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Basile, George
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Baumgartner, Rupert
    Collins, Terry
    Huisingh, Donald
    Systematic leadership towards sustainability2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, Vol. 64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systematic leadership towards sustainability implies utilization of systems thinking for step-wise approaches to transformative changes towards sustainable societies. This ‘call-for-papers’ (CfPs) for a Special Volume of the Journal of Cleaner Production is focused upon what types of research are needed for us to make the necessary local, regional, national and global changes. This CfPs is for anyone who wishes to address these challenges seriously, that is, to utilize essential aspects of leadership to contribute strategically to the transition towards sustainable societies. To successfully address these challenges, people from different sectors and disciplines must work together in a coordinated and efficient way. We wish to explore the question: What support do such transformative endeavors require and how can science contribute?

  • 19.
    Broman, Göran
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Rudenko, Oleg
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Instability of water jet: Aerodynamically induced acoustic and capillary waves2012In: Acoustical Physics, ISSN 1063-7710, E-ISSN 1562-6865, Vol. 58, no 5, 537-541 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-speed water jet cutting has important industrial applications. To further improve the cutting performance it is critical to understand the theory behind the onset of instability of the jet. In this paper, instability of a water jet flowing out from a nozzle into ambient air is studied. Capillary forces and compressibility of the liquid caused by gas bubbles are taken into account, since these factors have shown to be important in previous experimental studies. A new dispersion equation, generalizing the analogous Rayleigh equation, is derived. It is shown how instability develops because of aerodynamic forces that appear at the streamlining of an initial irregularity of the equilibrium shape of the cross-section of the jet and how instability increases with increased concentration of gas bubbles. It is also shown how resonance phenomena are responsible for strong instability. On the basis of the theoretical explanations given, conditions for stable operation are indicated.

  • 20. Broman, Göran
    et al.
    Rudenko, Oleg
    Submerged Landau jet: exact solutions, their meaning and application2010In: Physics Uspekhi, ISSN 1063-7869, E-ISSN 1468-4780, Vol. 53, no 1, 91-98 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exact hydrodynamic solutions generalizing the Landau submerged jet solution are reviewed. It is shown how exact inviscid solutions can be obtained and how boundary layer viscosity can be included by introducing parabolic coordinates. The use of exact solutions in applied hydrodynamics and acoustics is discussed. A historical perspective on the discovery of a class of exact solutions and on the analysis of their physical meaning is presented.

  • 21. Broman, Göran
    et al.
    Östholm, Stefan
    Mathcad in Teaching Rotor and Structural Dynamics1997In: International journal of engineering education, ISSN 0949-149X, Vol. 13, no 6, 426-432 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes how Mathcad is used to deepen understanding of fundamental aspects in the field of rotor and structural dynamics in two of the undergraduate courses in the education programme of Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering with emphasis on Product Development at the University of Karlskrona/Ronneby, Karlskrona, Sweden. Integrating this mathematical software has clearly given an improved interest for mathematics as well as mechanics among the students.

  • 22. Byggeth, Sophie
    et al.
    Broman, Göran
    Environmental Aspects in Product Development: an Investigation among Small and Medium Sized Enterprises2000Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small- and Medium sized Enterprises (SMEs) represent a large part of industry. Environmental considerations during product development in SMEs therefore imply a large potential for reducing society's environmental impact. Implementing environmentally adapted product development among SMEs has been considered difficult and is uncommon. Our approach is to develop a qualitative Method for Sustainable Product Development (MSPD) that relates both to a framework for sustainability and to the ordinary product development process. The aim is to guide the user to avoid problems related to social and ecological non-sustainability without demanding extensive expertise knowledge. Two surveys in ten Swedish SMEs have been carried out. An initial survey registered their product development procedures and environmental work as well as desired characteristics of a new suggested method for integrating environmental aspects into the product development process. A second survey registered additional desired characteristics and improvement suggestions when testing an early version of our MSPD. The surveys and the structure of our MSPD are presented, and the desired characteristics for a workable method in SMEs, found in our investigation and in literature, are discussed.

  • 23.
    Byggeth, Sophie
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Holmberg, John
    Lundqvist, Ulrika
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    A Method for Sustainable Product Development In Small and Medium Sized Enterprises2000Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A qualitative Method for Sustainable Product Development (MSPD) is presented. It consists of three tools: an Integrated Product Development Model (IPDM), a strategic planning process based on backcasting (ABCD-analysis), and a matrix containing hierarchically ordered and guiding questions. This Sustainability Product Analysis (SPA) matrix has conditions for sustainability along one axis and the life cycle of the product along the other axis. The SPA-matrix is used in the ABCD-analysis, which in turn is used in the IPDM. Integrating the tools in this way and using overall conditions for sustainability is unique compared to many other tools and methods for design for the environment. The MSPD is being developed in discussions with ten small- and medium sized enterprises.

  • 24.
    Byggeth, Sophie
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Lundqvist, Ulrika
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Holmberg, John
    An Approach to Sustainability Product Analysis in Product Development2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Byggeth, Sophie
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    A method for sustainable product development based on a modular system of guiding questions2007In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 15, no 1, 1-11 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a Method for Sustainable Product Development (MSPD) with the aim of integrating social and ecological aspects of sustainability with a strategic business perspective in product development. The method applies backcasting from basic principles for sustainability, which allows a strategic approach, and it includes a modular system of guiding questions that are derived by considering these principles and the product life cycle. Initial testing in Swedish companies indicates that the suggested MSPD promotes a ‘bird’s eye’ perspective and encourage and aid development of products that support society’s transformation towards sustainability. Furthermore, it is concluded that the modular system provides flexibility and user-friendliness.

  • 26.
    Byggeth, Sophie
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Ny, Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Wall, Johan
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Introductory Procedure for Sustainability-Driven Design Optimization2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In response to the increasingly competitive global market, there is a growing interest in design optimization. Being able to include aspects of socio-ecological sustainability in product design should aid companies to both improve current competitiveness and to identify viable long-term investment paths and new business opportunities in the evolving sustainability-driven market. A case study of a water jet cutting machine is used to illustrate a new iterative optimization procedure that combines a technical assessment with a sustainability assessment. Sustainability assessment methods/tools are first used to identify prominent sustainability problems from present-day flows and practices (“societal indicators”) and to generate ideas of long-term solutions and visions. Based on this, preliminary ideas about likely desirable changes in machine properties are obtained. Technical investigations are then performed to assess if/how these particularly desirable changes in machine properties could in principle be realized through changes in design variables. After that, obtainable changes are fed back to a new and more refined sustainability assessment to find out the societal implications of these changes. This may in turn result in other desirable design changes, which may call for a new and more refined technical assessment, etcetera. The experience from the case study indicates that the suggested integrated and iterative working procedure should be able to add information about socio-ecological impacts of product properties and influence design criteria used in prioritisation situations during product development.

  • 27.
    Carlsson, Liesel
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Callaghan, Edith
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Morley, Adrian
    Manchester Metropolitan University, GBR.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Food system sustainability across scales: A proposed local-to-global approach to community planning and assessment2017In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, no 6, 1061Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interest in food systems sustainability is growing, but progress toward them is slow. This research focuses on three interrelated challenges that hinder progress. First, prevailing visions lack a concrete definition of sustainability. Second, global level conceptions fail to guide responses at the local level. Third, these deficiencies may lead to conflicting initiatives for addressing sustainable food systems at the community level that slow collective progress. The purpose of this article is to (1) describe the development of a framework for assessing food system sustainability which accommodates local-level measurement in the context of broader national and global scale measures; and (2) to propose a process that supports community determinacy over localized progress toward sustainable food systems. Using a modified Delphi Inquiry process, we engaged a diverse, global panel of experts in describing "success" with respect to sustainable food systems, today's reality, and identifying key indicators for tracking progress towards success. They were asked to consider scale during the process in order to explore locally relevant themes. Data were analyzed using the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD) to facilitate a comprehensive and systematic exploration of key themes and indicators. Key results include a framework of indicator themes that are anchored in a concrete definition of sustainability, stable at national and global scales while remaining flexible at the local scale to accommodate contextual needs. We also propose a process for facilitating community-level planning for food system sustainability that utilizes this indicator framework. The proposed process is based on insights from the research results, as well as from previous research and experience applying the FSSD at a community level; it bears promise for future work to support communities to determine their own pathways, while contributing to a more coordinated whole. © 2017 by the author.

  • 28. Djuric Ilic, Danica
    et al.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Trygg, Louise
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Introduction of large-scale biofuel production in a district heating system: an opportunity for reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions2014In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, Vol. 64, 552-561 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, cooperation between Stockholm's transport and district heating sectors is analysed. The cooperation concerns the integration of biofuel polygeneration production. A MODEST optimisation model framework is used, assuming various energy market and transport sector scenarios for the year 2030. The scenarios with biofuel production and increased biofuel use in the region are compared with reference scenarios where all new plants introduced into the district heating sector are combined heat and power plants, and the share of biofuel used in the transport sector is the same as today. The results show that the cooperation implies an opportunity to reduce fossil fuel consumption in the sectors by between 20% and 65%, depending on energy market conditions and assumed transport sector scenarios. If we consider biomass an unlimited resource, the potential for greenhouse gas emissions reduction is significant. However, considering that biomass is a limited resource, the increase of biomass use in the district heating system may lead to a decrease of biomass use in other energy systems. The potential for reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions is thus highly dependent on the alternative use of biomass. If this alternative is used for co-firing in coal condensing power plants, biomass use in combined heat and power plants would be more desirable than biofuel production through polygeneration. On the other hand, if this alternative is used for traditional biofuel production (without co-production of heat and electricity), the benefits of biofuel production through polygeneration from a greenhouse gas emissions perspective is superior. However, if carbon capture and storage technology is applied on the biofuel polygeneration plants, the introduction of large-scale biofuel production into the district heating system would result in a reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions independent of the assumed alternative use of biomass.

  • 29. Englund, Thomas
    et al.
    Wall, Johan
    Ahlin, Kjell
    Broman, Göran
    Automated updating of simplified component models for exhaust system dynamics simulations2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To facilitate overall lay-out optimisation simplified component models for dynamics simulations of automobile exhaust systems are desired. Such optimisation could otherwise be computationally expensive, especially when non-linear analyses are necessary. Suggestions of simplified models of the mufflers and the catalyst are given. To account for the flexibility at the connections between those components and the pipes short beam elements with individual properties are introduced at these locations. An automated updating procedure is developed to determine the properties of these beam elements. Results from an experimental modal analysis are used as the reference. The theoretical model of the exhaust system is built in the finite element software ABAQUS. The updating procedure uses the sequential quadratic programming algorithm included in the Optimization Toolbox of the software MATLAB to minimise the sum of the differences between experimentally and theoretically obtained natural frequencies. Constraints are used on the correlation between the experimentally and theoretically obtained mode shapes by considering the MAC-matrix. Communication between the two software packages is established by an in-house MATLAB script. The correlation between results from the updated theoretical model and the experimental results is very good, which indicates that the updating procedure works well.

  • 30. Englund, Thomas
    et al.
    Wall, Johan
    Ahlin, Kjell
    Broman, Göran
    Dynamic characteristics of a combined bellows and liner flexible joint2004In: Journal of Automobile Engineering, ISSN 0954-4070 , Vol. 218, no 5, 485-493 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A bellows combined with an inside liner and an outside braid is commonly used as a flexible joint in automobile exhaust systems to reduce transmission of engine movements to the exhaust system. It greatly influences the dynamics of the complete system. Understanding of its dynamic characteristics and a modelling method that facilitates systems simulation are therefore desired. This has been obtained in earlier works for the bellows itself. In this work an approach to the modelling of the combined bellows and liner joint is suggested and experimentally verified. Simulations and measurements show that the liner adds significant non-linearity and makes the characteristics of the joint complex. Results are presented for the axial and the bending load cases. In torsion, influence of the liner is negligible. Peak responses are significantly reduced when the excitation level approximately corresponds to the friction limit of the liner. The complexity of the combined bellows and liner joint is important to know of and consider in exhaust system design and proves the necessity of including a model of the liner in the theoretical joint model when this type of liner is present in the real joint to be simulated.

  • 31. Englund, Thomas
    et al.
    Wall, Johan
    Ahlin, Kjell
    Broman, Göran
    Significance of non-linearity and component-internal vibrations in an exhaust system2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To facilitate overall lay-out optimisation inexpensive dynamics simulation of automobile exhaust systems is desired. Identification of possible non-linearity as well as finding simplified component models is then important. A flexible joint is used between the manifold and the catalyst to allow for the motion of the engine and to reduce the transmission of vibrations to the rest of the exhaust system. This joint is significantly non-linear due to internal friction, which makes some kind of non-linear analysis necessary for the complete exhaust system. To investigate the significance of non-linearity and internal vibrations of other components a theoretical and experimental modal analysis of the part of a typical exhaust system that is downstream the flexible joint is performed. It is shown that non-linearity in this part is negligible. It is also shown that shell vibrations of the catalyst and mufflers as well as ovalling of the pipes are negligible in the frequency interval of interest. The results implies, for further dynamics studies, that the complete system could be idealised into a linear sub-system that is excited via the non-linear flexible joint, that the pipes could be modelled with beam elements and that the other components within the linear sub-system could also be modelled in a simplified way. Such simplified component models are suggested. The agreement between theoretical and experimental results is very good, which indicates the validity of the simplified modelling.

  • 32. Franca, Cesar-Levy
    et al.
    Broman, Göran
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Systematic Guidance for How to Integrate a Strategic Sustainability Perspective in Core Business Decision Systems2009In: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Engineering Design, 2009, 385-396 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability integration in core business and product development has been a challenge, even if many supporting methods, tools and concepts are available today. However, these are mainly focusing on specific environmental aspects and are often failing to serve companies in integrating sustainability thinking into their strategic decision processes, and consequently into their core business and product development. In this study a previous proposal for an approach to assessing the current state of sustainability integration in company decision systems was used at two case companies, ABB High Voltage Cables and Hammarplast AB. The purpose was to develop this approach further so that it can better assist decision makers (when initial assessment points to such gaps) to integrate sustainability thinking into the strategic decision processes, i.e. align vision, management system and tools to help prioritize actions in a backcasting plan for a sustainable company within a sustainable society. The developed approach includes a SWOT analysis supported strategic capability assessment, and genericguidelines for how to identify appropriate targets, which can also serve as a basis for development of indicators – all informed by a framework for strategic sustainable development.

  • 33.
    França, Cesar-Levy
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Basile, George
    Arizona State University, USA.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linkoping University, SWE.
    An approach to business model innovation and design for strategic sustainable development2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 140, 155-166 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Successful business is increasingly about understanding the challenges and opportunities linked to society's transition towards sustainability and, e.g., being able to innovate, design and build business models that are functional in this context. However, current business model innovation and design generally fails to sufficiently embrace the sustainability dimension. Typically, the business case of sustainability is not understood profoundly enough; the planning horizon and system scope are insufficient; the competence to bring together people into systematic ventures towards sustainable business is too low. A unifying framework for sustainability analyses, planning, cross-disciplinary and cross-sector cooperation, and cohesive use of the myriad sustainability tools, methods and concepts has been developed: the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD). Similarly, a generic approach to business model design has been put forward: the Business Model Canvas (BMC). In this paper we explore how the FSSD could inform business model innovation and design by combining it with the BMC and supplementary tools, methods and concepts such as creativity techniques, value network mapping, life-cycle assessment, and product-service systems. The results show that the FSSD-BMC combination can support business model innovation and design for strategic sustainable development, as well as strengthen each supplementary tool, method and concept in its own primary purpose. We apply the combined approach, for the purpose of initial testing and presentation, to a real case of business model evolution. Based on our findings we propose a new approach to business model innovation and design for strategic sustainable development. The new approach facilitates, e.g., business scalability and risk avoidance and clarifies the interplay between classical business model development and strategic sustainability thinking. The new approach highlights the opportunity for novel business model design for future sustainable success.

  • 34.
    França, Cesar-Levy
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development. BTH.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Trygg, Louise
    Sustainability Self-Assessment and Business Model Design2012In: Proceedings of the 17th Sustainable Innovation Conference, 2012, 89-100 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The business case of sustainability has been argued for by many authors (Willard, 2005; McNall et al., 2011). There is a large degree of consensus regarding the potential business impact of sustainability. However, most companies either are not acting or are falling short on execution (MIT Sloan, 2009). Relatively few companies consider innovation for sustainability substantially rewarding. Suggested solution for this includes better access to frameworks for understanding sustainability and value creation and the business cases thereof (MIT Sloan, 2009). Furthermore, it is well-known that support for generation and selection of ideas and for formulating goals and strategies is especially essential to have during the early phases of the innovation process (Roozenburg & Eekels, 1995).

     

    The usual absence of an operational definition of sustainability is still a major barrier to corporate strategic sustainable development (Holmberg & Robèrt, 2000). A sustainability definition that can guide assessment of the current situation and stimulate generation of ideas for upstream solutions and strategic guidelines that can aid prioritization of early smart actions are among the most promising leverage points. A framework including those features is being developed in an international consensus process since twenty years (see, e.g., Robèrt et al., 2012). Among other things, this framework for strategic sustainable development FSSD, clarifies the self-interest in sustainability work and thus supports more widespread and proactive sustainable innovation. 

    In this study, the FSSD is used as the main basis for a new tool to be used in early phases of the innovation process for self-assessment of an organization’s current maturity and performance from an overall strategic sustainability point of view and for stimulating generation of ideas for business models design. We present a prototype version of such a tool and results from initial tests of this tool performed in four organizations. We study in particular whether the outlined tool is perceived by the organizations to be: (i) easy to comprehend, (ii) relevant, (iii) capable of differentiating the organizations in a comprehensive way, (iv) helpful for discovering insufficiencies that the organizations are not already aware of and (v) helpful for generation and selection of ideas for upstream solutions, business model innovation and for formulation of goals, and strategies. 

  • 35.
    Fredin, Johan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Jönsson, Anders
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Holistic methodology using computer simulation for optimisation of machine tools2012In: Computers & industrial engineering, ISSN 0360-8352, E-ISSN 1879-0550, Vol. 63, no 1, 294-301 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual machine concepts supporting optimisation of machine tools have been developed in earlier work. The virtual machine concept is a tool that can describe the behaviour of a machine tool while considering the interaction between mechanics of the machines and the control system. Considerable amount of work has been done proving the concept and showing the potential of such a design tool in different contexts. Several studies have shown the potential of using the virtual machine concept, although, no work has been found that is exploring the potential of a full optimisation study. The aim of this work is to show the potential of the virtual machine concept in an optimisation study of the complete machine tool, including the mechanical system, parameters in the control system, the NC-code as well as choice of servo and drive systems. An efficient optimisation strategy is presented, making it possible to solve the complex optimisation problem within a reasonable amount of time. A combination of optimisation algorithms is used to achieve a fast and accurate way of solving the complex task to optimise the complete machine tool. Genetic algorithms, gradient based algorithms and more traditional hands on engineering are used for solving the optimisation problem. Post processing and data mining is suggested as a way of extracting as much information as possible from optimisation results with the aim to increase the knowledge about the studied system. An important conclusion is that the virtual machine should support the decision making in product development, not replace the product developers as regards decision making.

  • 36.
    Gould, Rachael
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Lagun Mesquita, Patricia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Bratt, Cecilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Why choose one sustainable design strategy over another: A decision-support prototype2017In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED / [ed] Van der Loos M.,Salustri F.,Oehmen J.,Fadel G.,Kokkolaras M.,Maier A.M.,Skec S.,Kim H., The Design Society, 2017, Vol. 5, 111-120 p., DS87-5Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable design strategies provide tangible ways for integrating sustainability into early phaseproduct design work. Examples include design for remanufacturing and design for the base of thepyramid. There are many such strategies and it is difficult to choose between them. Sustainable productdesign activities also need to be tailored to business priorities. We therefore designed a decision-supportprototype to aid project teams to choose strategies based on relevance to the project in terms of bothbusiness and sustainability value. To design the prototype, we first identified potential strategies fromsustainable product development literature. We then used literature on each of six selected strategies toidentify potential business and sustainability benefits. We developed a way to compare sustainabilityvalue based on a scientifically established definition of sustainability and a lifecycle perspective. Theprototype is designed to be usable by practitioners who are not necessarily sustainable design experts.The prototype was created to enable future work to test ways to integrate the selection of sustainabledesign strategies into the early phases of product design.

  • 37. Hallstedt, Sophie
    et al.
    Ny, Henrik
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    Broman, Göran
    An approach to assessing sustainability integration in strategic decision systems for product development2010In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, Vol. 18, no 8, 703-712 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to explore a new approach to assess company decision systems regarding sustainability-related communication and decision support between senior management and product development levels. The assessment approach was developed in theory and its applicability was directly tested in action research in two small and medium-sized companies and two large companies. The results were validated against experiences made by two management consultancies. Our study indicates that successful companies should: (i) integrate sustainability into business goals and plans, backed up by suitable (ii) internal incentives and disincentives and (iii) decision support tools. Our study also indicates that the new assessment approach can be used as a template to assess the current state of sustainability integration in company decision systems.

  • 38. Ilic, Danica Djuric
    et al.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Trygg, Louise
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Integration of biofuel production into district heating - part I: an evaluation of biofuel production costs using four types of biofuel production plants as case studies2014In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, Vol. 69, 176-187 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates the effects on profitability of biofuel production if biofuel producers would sell the waste heat from the production to a local district heating system. All analyses have been performed considering four different technology cases for biofuel production. Two technology cases include ethanol production which is followed by by-production of raw biogas. This biogas can be upgraded and sold as biofuel (the first technology case) or directly used for combined heat and power production (the second technology case). The third and the fourth technology cases are Fischer-Tropsch diesel and dimethyl ether production plants based on biomass gasification. Two different district heating price levels and two different future energy market scenarios were considered. The sensitivity analyses of the discount rate were performed as well. In the case of energy market conditions, the profitability depends above all on the price ratio between biomass (used as the feedstock for biofuel production) and crude oil (used as the feedstock for fossil diesel and gasoline production). The reason for this is that the gate biofuel prices (the prices on which the biofuel would be sold) were calculated assuming that the final prices at the filling stations are the same as the prices of the replaced fossil fuel. The price ratios between biomass and district heating, and between biomass and electricity, also have an influence on the profitability, since higher district heating and electricity prices lead to higher revenues from the heat/electricity by-produced. Due to high biofuel (ethanol + biogas) efficiency, the ethanol production plant which produces upgraded biogas has the lowest biofuel production costs. Those costs would be lower than the biofuel gate prices even if the support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources were not included. If the raw biogas that is by-produced would instead be used directly for combined heat and power production, the revenues from the electricity and heat would increase, but at the same time the biofuel efficiency would be lower, which would lead to higher production costs. On the other hand, due to the fact that it has the highest heat efficiency compared to the other technologies, the ethanol production in this plant shows a high sensitivity to the district heating price level, and the economic benefit from introducing such a plant into a district heating system is most obvious. Assuming a low discount rate (6%), the introduction of such a plant into a district heating system would lead to between 28% and 52% (depending on the district heating price level and energy market scenario) lower biofuel production costs. Due to the lower revenues from the heat and electricity co-produced, and higher capital investments compared to the ethanol production plants, Fischer-Tropsch diesel and dimethyl ether productions are shown to be profitable only if high support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources is included.

  • 39. Ilic, Danica Djuric
    et al.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Trygg, Louise
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Integration of biofuel production into district heating Part II: an evaluation of the district heating production costs using Stockholm as a case study2014In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, Vol. 69, 188-198 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofuel production through polygeneration with heat as one of the by-products implies a possibility forcooperation between transport and district heating sectors by introducing large-scale biofuel production into district heating systems. The cooperation may have effects on both the biofuel production costs and the district heating production costs. This paper is the second part of the study that investigates those effects. The biofuel production costs evaluation, considering heat and electricity as by-products, was performed in the first part of the study. In this second part of the study, an evaluation of how such cooperation would influence the district heating production costs using Stockholm's district heating system as a case study was performed. The plants introduced in the district heating system were chosen depending on the future development of the transport sector. In order to perform sensitivity analyses of different energy market conditions, two energy market scenarios were applied. Despite the higher revenues from the sale of by-products, due to the capital intense investments required, the introduction of large-scale biofuel production into the district heating system does not guarantee economic benefits. Profitability is highly dependent on the types of biofuel production plants and energy market scenarios. The results show that large-scale biogas and ethanol production may lead to a significant reduction in the district heating production costs in both energy market scenarios, especially if support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources is included. If the total biomass capacity of the biofuel production plants introduced into the district heating system is 900 MW, the district heating production costs would be negative and the whole public transport sector and more than 50% of the private cars in the region could be run on the ethanol and biogas produced. The profitability is shown to be lower if the raw biogas that is by-produced in the biofuel production plants is used for combined and power production instead of being sold as transportation fuel; however, this strategy may still result in profitability if the support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources is included. Investments in Fischer-ropsch diesel and dimethyl ether production are competitive to the investments in combined and power production only if high support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources is included.

  • 40.
    Josefsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Ahlin, Kjell
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Bias errors due to leakage effects when estimating frequency response functions2012In: Shock and Vibration, ISSN 1070-9622, E-ISSN 1875-9203, Vol. 19, no 6, 1257-1266 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Frequency response functions are often utilized to characterize a system's dynamic response. For a wide range of engineering applications, it is desirable to determine frequency response functions for a system under stochastic excitation. In practice, the measurement data is contaminated by noise and some form of averaging is needed in order to obtain a consistent estimator. With Welch's method, the discrete Fourier transform is used and the data is segmented into smaller blocks so that averaging can be performed when estimating the spectrum. However, this segmentation introduces leakage effects. As a result, the estimated frequency response function suffers from both systematic (bias) and random errors due to leakage. In this paper the bias error in the H_1 and H_2-estimate is studied and a new method is proposed to derive an approximate expression for the relative bias error at the resonance frequency with different window functions. The method is based on using a sum of real exponentials to describe the window's deterministic autocorrelation function. Simple expressions are derived for a rectangular window and a Hanning window. The theoretical expressions are verified with numerical simulations and a very good agreement is found between the results from the proposed bias expressions and the empirical results.

  • 41. Josefsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Berghuvud, Ansel
    Ahlin, Kjell
    Broman, Göran
    Performance of a Wave Energy Converter with Mechanical Energy Smoothing2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A wave energy converter which uses a power balancing mechanism for turning intermittent and irregular wave motion input to smoothed continuous electrical power output is studied by combined scale-model testing and numerical simulation. The studied concept consists of a moored floating device together with a moving mass which is used to store instantaneous incoming power and deliver a controllable load to an electric generator over a unidirectional rotating shaft. A mathematical model describing the vertical dynamics of the wave energy converter is presented. The wave-body interaction is modelled with linear potential theory and a nonlinear rigid-body model describes the power take-off system. Experimental data from a scale-model test is utilized to validate and update the linear hydrodynamic model. A simulation study is then carried out in order to investigate the performance characteristics of the coupled hydrodynamic and mechanical system. An efficient time-domain algorithm is developed in order to simulate the discontinuous nonlinear characteristics of the combined system in non-deterministic wave situations. The simulation result provides a prediction of the absorbed power and capture ratio which can be used to evaluate the performance in different wave situations. The developed analysis procedure demonstrates its capability to produce computationally efficient performance predictions suitable for design evaluation and optimisation.

  • 42.
    Josefsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Magnevall, Martin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Ahlin, Kjell
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Spatial location identification of structural nonlinearities from random data2012In: Mechanical systems and signal processing, ISSN 0888-3270, E-ISSN 1096-1216, Vol. 27, no 1, 410-418 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With growing demands on product performance and growing complexity of engineering structures, efficient tools for analyzing their dynamic behavior are essential. Linear techniques are well developed and often utilized. However, sometimes the errors due to linearization are too large to be acceptable, making it necessary to take nonlinear effects into account. In many practical applications it is common and reasonable to assume that the nonlinearities are highly local and thus only affect a limited set of spatial coordinates. The purpose of this paper is to present an approach to finding the spatial location of nonlinearities from measurement data, as this may not always be known beforehand. This information can be used to separate the underlying linear system from the nonlinear parts and create mathematical models for efficient parameter estimation and simulation. The presented approach builds on the reverse-path methodology and utilizes the coherence functions to determine the location of nonlinear elements. A systematic search with Multiple Input/Single Output models is conducted in order to find the nonlinear functions that best describe the nonlinear restoring forces. The obtained results indicate that the presented approach works well for identifying the location of local nonlinearities in structures. It is verified by simulation data from a cantilever beam model with two local nonlinearities and experimental data from a T-beam experimental set-up with a single local nonlinearity. A possible drawback is that a relatively large amount of data is needed. Advantages of the approach are that it only needs a single excitation point that response data at varying force amplitudes is not needed and that no prior information about the underlying linear system is needed.

  • 43. Jönsson, Anders
    et al.
    Bathelt, Jens
    Broman, Göran
    Interacting with real time simulations – virtual reality in industry applications2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern manufacturing machines are highly multidisciplinary, and with demands on short time-to-market, product development based on traditional prototype testing has become impractical. By using virtual models, it is possible to test large numbers of variants and optimise the product with the aid of a minimum of physical prototypes. Due to the immense development of software and hardware for simulation and visualisation it should today be possible also for small and medium sized enterprises to use methods that just few years ago were too expensive and complicated. There is however still a great need for building knowledge and compe-tence. This work is an early step in a project aiming at a virtual water jet cutting machine to be used by the industrial partner for optimisation during the development process. The possibility of performing real-time simulations of this machine in a virtual environment, using a normal PC and commercial software, will be in-vestigated. Initially strongly simplified models of the system components are used and the focus is on the overall system model and the interaction between the operator and the virtual machine. It is shown that real-time interaction is possible with this system and with the obtained flexibility of the overall virtual model it should be easy to include more realistic component models for improved accuracy in future work. Preliminary results indicate however that to include, for example, flexibility within the mechanic structure, component modelling will be delicate. These models must describe relevant characteristics accurately enough while still being computationally effective enough for real-time interaction and systems optimisation to be possible. This will probably be a challenge in the continuation of the project, even with an expected continued strong devel-opment of computer capacity.

  • 44. Jönsson, Anders
    et al.
    Broman, Göran
    Experimental Investigation of a Rammer Soil Compactor Machine on Linear Spring Foundation2001Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rammer compactor machines perform impact soil compaction, which is very efficient compared to static compaction. They are often used in places where a high degree of compaction is needed and the space for operation is limited. The complexity of this machine type makes design optimisation through traditional prototype testing impractical. This has pointed to the need for a theoretical model and simulation procedure for prediction of the dynamic behaviour of the machine. To be useful for optimisation as design parameters are changed during product development the theoretical model and simulation procedure must be verified. By concurrently working with theoretical modelling, simulations, experimental verifications, and optimisation an efficient analysis support for product development is achieved. This co-ordination works both ways in an iterative manner. Experimental investigations are used to verify theoretical models and simulations. Theoretical models and simulations are used to design good experiments. This Complete Approach concept makes better decisions possible earlier in the development process, resulting in decreased time to market and improved quality. In this paper the Complete Approach concept is described. It is applied on a rammer soil compactor machine. An introductory iteration, with emphasis on the experimental part, is described. In the experimental set-up the rammer foot is attached to a linear spring foundation. This eliminates uncertainties related to soil modelling and makes a check of the model of the machine itself possible. The good agreement between theoretical and experimental results indicates that the theoretical model and simulation procedure should be useful for introductory optimisation studies. Reasons for the discrepancy are discussed and suggestions for improvements of both the theoretical model and the experimental set-up in coming iterations are given.

  • 45. Jönsson, Anders
    et al.
    Broman, Göran
    Bathelt, Jens
    Implications of modelling one-dimensional impact by using a spring and damper element2005In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Proceedings part K, journal of multi-body dynamics, ISSN 1464-4193, Vol. 219, no 7, 299-305 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A spring and damper contact force element is often used for modelling impact in multi-body dynamics. The related condition for transition between contact and non-contact is, however, inconsistently implemented in the literature and commercial software. This comparative study aims to clarify the implications of four commonly used transition conditions. Principal differences are discussed and, by simulation of a typical system, it is shown that there are significant differences in the dynamics of the system depending on the different conditions. Two of them give unrealistic contact forces and should imply incorrect prediction of system dynamics in most applications. This suggests that it is important to review results obtained from using these conditions and to eliminate them from commercial software. A discussion of the two other conditions culminates in a recommendation.

  • 46. Jönsson, Anders
    et al.
    Broman, Göran
    Engström, Anders
    Modelling of a Soil Compaction Tamping Machine using Simulink1999Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A theoretical model for the dynamic behaviour of a soil compaction tamping machine is derived. The Matlab toolbox Simulink is used to solve the equations of motion. Simulink is used because it is possible to combine the kinetic model of the machine with a more complex FE-model. The theoretical model has been verified experimentally, where the soil compaction tamping machine was run on a simulated soil material. The agreement between the simulation and the experiment is very good, which implies that this simplified model of the machine can be used for a more complete study of the total system, including a more correct soil model.

  • 47. Jönsson, Anders
    et al.
    Broman, Göran
    Östholm, Stefan
    Multidisciplinary Simulation of Active Control of Machine-Tool Vibration in Turning2000Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing computer power in modern manufacturing machines has given the possibility to integrate advanced computer based control systems. In this work a simulation model for active control of machine-tool vibration in turning operations is described. The model contains both the mechanical structure and the control system. The simulation is done with and without active control. The structure vibration is suppressed by simulating actuators. The simulation is done to get a first indication of the potentials of a proposed new tool holder design and to test the usability of such multidisciplinary simulations as a supporting tool for product development. The results show that it is possible to simulate the total system. The vibrations of the tool holder tip could be decreased significantly by using reasonable forces. The software used was found to be very user friendly and to be able to perform such coupled simulations in this way during product development must be considered to be a great advantage.

  • 48. Jönsson, Anders
    et al.
    Broman, Göran
    Östholm, Stefan
    Multidisciplinary Simulation of Active Control of Machine-Tool Vibration in Turning2000In: System and Control:Theory and Applications, ISSN 960-8052-11-4, 61-64 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing computer power in modern manufacturing machines has given the possibility to integrate advanced computer based control systems. In this work a simulation model for active control of machine-tool vibration in turning operations is described. The model contains both the mechanical structure and the control system. The simulation is done with and without active control. The structure vibration is suppressed by simulating actuators. The simulation is done to get a first indication of the potentials of a proposed new tool holder design and to test the usability of such multidisciplinary simulations as a supporting tool for product development. The results show that it is possible to simulate the total system. The vibrations of the tool holder tip could be decreased significantly by using reasonable forces. The software used was found to be very user friendly and to be able to perform such coupled simulations in this way during product development must be considered to be a great advantage.

  • 49. Jönsson, Anders
    et al.
    Wall, Johan
    Broman, Göran
    A Virtual Machine Concept for Real-Time Simulation of Machine Tool Dynamics2005In: International journal of machine tools & manufacture, ISSN 0890-6955, E-ISSN 1879-2170, Vol. 45, no 7, 795-801 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When designing CNC machine tools it is important to consider the dynamics of the control, the electrical components and the mechanical structure of the machine simultaneously. This paper describes the structure and implementation of a concept for real-time simulation of such machine tools using a water jet cutting machine as an application. The concept includes a real control system, simulation models of the dynamics of the machine and a virtual reality model for visualisation. The real-time capability of the concept, including the simulation of electrical and rather detailed mechanical component models is proofed. The validation process indicates good agreement between simulation and measurement, but suggests further studies on servo motor, connection and flexibility modelling. However, already from the initial simulation results presented in this paper it can be concluded that the influence of structural flexibility on manufacturing accuracy is of importance at desired feeding rates and accelerations. The fully automated implementation developed in this work is a promising base for dealing with this trade-off between productivity and accuracy of the manufacturing process through multidisciplinary optimisation.

  • 50.
    Lagun Mesquita, Patricia
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development. Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Analyzing Social LCA approaches through the lens of Strategic Sustainable Development2016In: Proceedings of ISPIM Conferences, 2016, 1-13 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years several approaches to Social LCA have been proposed. Despite recognized shortcomings of those, recent development has focused more on testing existing approaches and less on finding a unifying framework that can support Social LCA to deliver on its promise: to aid decision making regarding social issues related to product life cycles. This paper offers an analysis and evaluation of the potential contribution of the body of work on Social LCA to sustainable development using the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development. A number of strengths and weaknesses from a strategic sustainability perspective are identified and recommendations to improve the support for how to deal with social issues in the product innovation process are provided.

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