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  • 1.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Massimo, Panarotto
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Christian, Johansson
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Tobias, Larsson
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Expanding Value Driven Design to meet Lean Product Service Development2015In: 7TH INDUSTRIAL PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEMS CONFERENCE: IPSS, INDUSTRY TRANSFORMATION FOR SUSTAINABILITY AND BUSINESS / [ed] Xavier Boucher and Daniel Brissaud, Elsevier, 2015, Vol. 30, p. 197-202Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a discussion about gaps and opportunities for cross-pollination between Value Driven Design and Lean Product Service Development to promote the use of value-driven method and tools since the preliminary design stages. In particular the paper discusses how methods and tools developed in Value Driven Design have the potential to be applied in the preliminary design stage in the context of Lean Product Service Development. The paper concludes by defining a research area on Value Innovation method and tools for preliminary Lean Product Service Development.

  • 2.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Marco, Bertoni
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Massimo, Panarotto
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Christian, Johansson
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Value-driven product service systems development: Methods and industrial applications2016In: CIRP - Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology, ISSN 1755-5817, E-ISSN 1878-0016, Vol. 15, p. 42-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent times a service-dominant logic is permeating the design of complex systems. However, in spite of their appeal, initiatives such as Product Service Systems (PSS) have not become mainstream, and methods are lacking to support this transition. This paper argues that methodological guidance, as well as tools for decision support, may be found in the research field of Value Driven Design (VDD), which originates in the realm of Systems Engineering. The paper objective is to elaborate on gaps and opportunities for cross-pollination between VDD and PSS. The results of a systematic review of methods and tools for design decision support highlight the opportunity for introducing optimization models derived from VDD in the PSS design process, while the latter can enrich VDD research with a more qualitative value assessment logic. The paper summarizes this integration in a methodological approach, and exemplifies its application in case studies mainly from the aerospace and road construction equipment sector.

  • 3.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Panarotto, Massimo
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Jonsson, Pontus
    Dynapac Compaction Equipment AB, SWE.
    Value-driven engineering design: lessons learned from the road construction equipment industry2017In: DS87-1 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 21ST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING DESIGN (ICED 17), VOL 1: RESOURCE SENSITIVE DESIGN, DESIGN RESEARCH APPLICATIONS AND CASE STUDIES / [ed] Maier A.M.,Skec S.,Salustri F.A.,Fadel G.,Kim H.,Kokkolaras M.,Oehmen J.,Van der Loos M., The Design Society, 2017, Vol. 1, p. 319-328, article id DS87-1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Value models, in form of economical optimization functions, are often proposed to frontload engineering design activities. However, literature argues that, when qualitative data and assumptions prevail, a qualitative assessment of the ‘goodness’ of a design is preferable against a numerical (and monetary-based) encoding of preferences. This paper explores how a model-based approach can support deliberation about value in cross-functional design teams. Emerging from case studies in the road compaction equipment industry, the paper analyzes preferences for value modelling support when it comes to iteratively translate customer desires into terms meaningful for engineering design decision-making. It further prescribes a framework for value-driven engineering design that considers the need to update the value model definition as far as new information become available in the process, moving from qualitative to quantitative. The findings highlight the role the proposed chain of value models plays in terms of providing a shared reference to stimulate value discussions across functions and organizational roles, which is something that does not naturally happen in the organization today.

  • 4.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Panarotto, Massimo
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Boundary objects for PSS design2016In: PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEMS ACROSS LIFE CYCLE / [ed] Cavalieri, S; Ceretti, E; Tolio, T; Pezzotta, G, Elsevier, 2016, Vol. 47, p. 329-334Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In PSS design, hardware and service developers often have different objectives. Lacking to communicate and negotiate them across boundaries might lead to solutions unable to generate market shares and long-term profitability. This paper aims to contribute to the definition of ‘boundary objects’ that facilitate the sharing of knowledge between members of cross-functional teams engaged in PSS conceptual design activities. Empirical data are gathered from three case studies in the Swedish manufacturing industry to reveal how servitization affects early stage design decision-making, and how hardware vs. service trade-offs are negotiated and solved. The analysis of the findings points to four main trends to be considered when designing such objects in the realm of PSS. These are: an underlying model-based logic, the use of metrics based on customer value, the ability to quickly generate and assess scenarios, the use of non linear relationships to map PSS features vs. customer value.

  • 5.
    Johansson, Christian
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Wall, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Panarotto, Massimo
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Chalmers University of Technology.
    Maturity of models in a multi-model decision support system2017In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED / [ed] Salustri F.,Skec S.,Maier A.M.,Kim H.,Kokkolaras M.,Oehmen J.,Fadel G.,Van der Loos M., The Design Society, 2017, Vol. 6, p. 237-246, article id DS87-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To reduce uncertainty in decisions, engineers experiment with models, such as, exploring what-if scenarios, and thus increase knowledge. Still, because modelling is an idealisation of reality, there is often substantial uncertainty involved, and this decision makers less confident to lean onto models alone when making decisions. The aim of this paper is to conceptualize a design support for improving confidence and validity in models, by communicating uncertainties from modelling and simulation to relevant stakeholders. The paper reports on empirical data from a research profile workshop. The findings illustrate the importance of communicating uncertainties from models between relevant stakeholders in order to drive action. The paper then presents an approach to visualize model maturity levels as well as impact levels in relation to one or several aggregated models. With this approach, focus can move to discuss the knowledge about the knowledge that is created from modelling, and to facilitate discussions on a meta-level about the modelling and simulation. This is exemplified by a test scenario where a multi-disciplinary modelling and simulation of an asphalt roller is presented.

  • 6.
    Massimo, Panarotto
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Wall, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Simulation-driven design for assessing strategic decisions in the conceptual design of circular PSS business models2017In: Procedia CIRP: The 9th CIRP IPSS Conference: Circular Perspectives on Product/Service-Systems, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 64, p. 25-30Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to ever increasing challenges faced by our global society, circular design and the idea of product-service systems (PSS) isgaining traction within businesses. However, ‘predicting’ the value of a future PSS solution in the early design phases is difficult,since it requires the ability to balance long term potential with short term decisions. Modelling and simulation is believed to beable to support this challenging task. A simulation framework for circular design of PSS is presented. The simulation processenables the comparison between functional and non-functional performances and their life cycle contributions depending on adefined PSS-like business model strategy. Such integrated simulation framework is intended to exploit engineering modelsoutside their specific discipline, enabling cross-functional collaboration and help decision makers understand how a design cancontribute in satisfying customer and stakeholders needs during the lifecycle of a PSS.

  • 7.
    Massimo, Panarotto
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Åsa, Ericson
    Tobias, Larsson
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Intangibles in Design of PSS Value Propositions2013In: The Philosopher's Stone for Sustainability / [ed] Yoshiki, Shimomura; Koji, Kimita, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer , 2013, p. 85-90Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Product-service systems (PSS), or value propositions, are foreseen to bring about challenges in product development. Traditionally, engineers normally manage tangible elements in relation to products, and are lacking approaches to deal with the intangibles incorporated in PSS development. The purpose of the paper is to elaborate on and propose a framework for value assessment and a simulation approach. Conceptual examples are used to discuss the proposed framework, and a contribution of the paper is that it exemplifies the reasons why intangible value have to be addressed more directly in industry in general and in PSS in particular.

  • 8.
    Panarotto, Massimo
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    A Model-Based Methodology for Value Assessment in Conceptual Design2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Panarotto, Massimo
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Capturing Value in Conceptual PSS Design: Perspectives from the Automotive Supply Chain2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing companies have traditionally focused their design and development activities on realizing technical and engineered aspects of physical artifacts based on performance requirements. The ever-changing business climate, with its increased pace during the past decades, has forced industries to continuously innovate their approach toward the development of new products. Pressured also by global competition, manufacturing companies need to reconsider the traditional concept of realizing value via goods production, and shift towards realizing value through product-service combinations. Companies have begun to recognize that gaining competitive advantage and expanding market shares is not achievable purely through continuous technical improvements. Rather, it is necessary to develop a closer relationship to the customer to gain a deeper understanding of expectations, needs, and perceived value. From a development perspective, the overarching problem within complex systems such as those in which cars, aircraft, and excavators are manufactured, or healthcare is provided, is that the focus on customer value is likely to become blurred since it is difficult to understand the impact a change in any single component in the overall system has on value, and to determine a new function’s impact on future scenarios. The main goals of this thesis are to provide an understanding of key challenges when considering the value different design alternatives provide in the conceptual phases of product development taking the automotive industry as case study, and to explore how to support a multi-disciplinary design team in making value-conscious decisions when dealing with new product-service offerings. The research approach has involved data collection through participation in, and facilitation of, product-service design workshops in the automotive industry. Also, it has involved follow-up meetings and interviews, as well as a review of literature on state-of-the-art methods in early conceptual design phases, which describes the advantages and disadvantages of the different frameworks. The primary finding of the study is that determination of the impact of different PSS design options on customer value becomes more challenging since new elements are introduced (e.g., new business models and services). The design team requires more holistic competences in order to more fully understand changing contexts; and new methods and tools are needed in order to establish a base to define, discuss and assess what “uncontested customer value” is, and link it to the different product-service elements of the system. Secondly, this thesis proposes a conceptual approach for value simulation and assessment of different design options, where the iterative use of personas and scenario generation is combined with value modeling and computer-based simulation techniques, enabling a quick “what-if” analysis of the various options, facilitating the identification of promising combinations of product and service elements that provide higher customer value.

  • 10.
    Panarotto, Massimo
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Experimenting the use of value models as boundary objects in conceptual PSS design2016In: PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEMS ACROSS LIFE CYCLE / [ed] Cavalieri, S; Ceretti, E; Tolio, T; Pezzotta, G, Elsevier, 2016, Vol. 47, p. 370-375Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents the results of experimental activities aiming at investigating the role of ‘value models’ as ‘boundary objects’ that facilitate cross-functional discussions in the PSS conceptual design phase. The experiment featured 6 separate sessions involving a total of 22 students in the final year of three different Master Programmes. In the sessions participants were asked to redesign an asphalt compactor and to use different types of design decision support for this task, namely value models vs. requirements checklists. The recordings from the experiment were analysed using protocol analysis to compare the behaviour of teams. The results confirm the hypothesis that, compared to traditional requirement checklists, value models emphasizes activities related to the clarification (1) of the problem domain and needs and (2) of the lifecycle aspects of a solution concept. Both results suggest that value models have the ability to facilitate cross-boundary discussion in the early phases of the PSS design process, and to act as boundary objects that provide a common platform for knowledge sharing within the cross-functional team.

  • 11.
    Panarotto, Massimo
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Towards Value Driven Simulation of Product-Service Systems: A Conceptual Scenario2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper discussed potentials and existing challenges of considering Value when designing a Product-Service System offering. The main problem has been identified on having new methods and tools that can help designers to consider every design option from a value perspective (possibly based on a longer timespan). Nowadays mainly revenue, costs and technical risks analysis are taken into consideration and boiled down into monetary terms in a rather short period. This often caused the “killing” of more radical ideas (that could potentially bring more benefits if seen in a longer time perspective) at the various decision gates during the project. So at the end, everybody talks about value, but actually money is what people look at in the end. The paper discussed how a Value simulation approach can provide benefits in terms of compared different design solutions from a Value perspective. With such an approach it is possible to take into consideration the value of aspects like intangibles perceived by the customer (provide the best customer experience as possible) or knowledge gained by the company during the business. An example has been presented in order to discuss how Value simulation can be effectively a strength when dealing with the wider design space that the PSS development implies. Another main benefit is that such a tool will enable engineers to have at least “reasoning” in order to sponsor more radical concepts. Thirdly, the tool can enable optimization and increase innovation, since the team can look at why the model has low value in a certain lever, and starting to brainstorm possible solutions of how to increase it. However, the approach is still in its infancy and future work needs to be done. First of all, the weighting phase is crucial since it will profoundly affect the model. Further research will focus how the design team can place define weights in a qualitative but effective way, in order to take the major benefits from a “lightweight” qualitative approach and the simulation based on mathematical equations. Secondly, work has to address how intangibles and knowledge can affect monetary parameters, such as the price of the offerings or costs (making the intangibles tangible, so to say). This will require further research, but it has been seen as a great opportunity of making a step further in the topic, since the uncovered areas realted intangibles and knowledge are still many.

  • 12.
    Panarotto, Massimo
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Larsson, Andreas
    Enhancing supply chain collaboration in automotive industry by value driven simulation2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a computer-based approach for conceptual design that aims to enhance collaborative supply chain development in the automotive sector when dealing with product-service development or radical innovations. The focus of the research has been to design a simulation approach that will enable designers and managers to simulate and evaluate the value of different design options for the different stakeholders involved in the development process and to have insights about the implications between business model innovation and the engineered aspects of the solutions early in the conceptual phase. The approach is presented using a case study within the current project, after following a team responsible for the car cockpit. Four possible scenario have been simulated and evaluated using a commercial simulation software. The main advantage of the proposed approach is to enhance the awareness among designers and managers of the value of different design options, and allow them to explore further how business and design aspects profoundly affect each other, in order to support early decision-making in the design process.

  • 13.
    Panarotto, Massimo
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Wall, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Jonsson, Pontus
    Dynapac Compaction Equipment AB, SWE.
    Value-driven simulation: thinking together through simulation in early engineering design2017In: DS87-4 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 21ST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING DESIGN (ICED 17), VOL 4: DESIGN METHODS AND TOOLS / [ed] Kim H.,Fadel G.,Skec S.,Van der Loos M.,Salustri F.,Oehmen J.,Maier A.M.,Kokkolaras M., The Design Society, 2017, Vol. 4, p. 513-522, article id DS87-4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The topic of ‘design for value’ has lately attracted a great deal of attention within the engineering design community. ‘Predicting’ the value of a future solution is however difficult, especially in early design phases. Modelling and simulation is believed to be able to support this challenging task.

    A simulation process for value-driven engineering design is presented. The performances of a design concept along the lifecycle are aggregated to a monetary system value function. The results of this multi-model simulation environment for value are displayed through a colour-coded CAD model for easier interaction.

    Verification activities indicate that enabling effective design space exploration and visualization of cause-effect relationships become important elements in order to ‘think together’ using a simulation driven design approach. Furthermore, the proposed multidisciplinary ‘value model’ fosters cross-functional knowledge sharing and collective deliberation about the value, forcing stakeholders to synthetize their perceptions about the value of a design and to discuss where conclusions differ.

  • 14.
    Tobias, Larsson
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Massimo, Panarotto
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Ola, Isaksson
    Andreas, Larsson
    Value simulation in conceptual phases of PSS design2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discuss the change in early design imposed by a Product-Service Systems (PSS) perspective onto the design and development phases of engineering design and how this affects the today de-facto standard of virtual modelling of product properties. The approach is exemplified via PSS situations related to aerospace and automotive industry in order to clarify “parameters of change” due to PSS reasoning, and challenges are displayed regarding early modelling and simulation.

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