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  • 1.
    Danielsson, Max
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Grahn, Håkan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Sievert, Thomas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Rasmusson, Jim
    Sony Mobile Communications AB, SWE.
    Comparing Two Generations of Embedded GPUs Running a Feature Detection AlgorithmManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Graphics processing units (GPUs) in embedded mobile platforms are reaching performance levels where they may be useful for computer vision applications. We compare two generations of embedded GPUs for mobile devices when run- ning a state-of-the-art feature detection algorithm, i.e., Harris- Hessian/FREAK. We compare architectural differences, execu- tion time, temperature, and frequency on Sony Xperia Z3 and Sony Xperia XZ mobile devices. Our results indicate that the performance soon is sufficient for real-time feature detection, the GPUs have no temperature problems, and support for large work-groups is important.

  • 2. Danielsson, Max
    et al.
    Sievert, Thomas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Grahn, Håkan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Rasmusson, Jim
    Sony Mobile Communications AB.
    Feature Detection and Description using a Harris-Hessian/FREAK Combination on an Embedded GPU2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    GPUs in embedded platforms are reaching performance levels comparable to desktop hardware, thus it becomes interesting to apply Computer Vision techniques. We propose, implement, and evaluate a novel feature detector and descriptor combination, i.e., we combine the Harris-Hessian detector with the FREAK binary descriptor. The implementation is done in OpenCL, and we evaluate the execution time and classification performance. We compare our approach with two other methods, FAST/BRISK and ORB. Performance data is presented for the mobile device Xperia Z3 and the desktop Nvidia GTX 660. Our results indicate that the execution times on the Xperia Z3 are insufficient for real-time applications while desktop execution shows future potential. Classification performance of Harris-Hessian/FREAK indicates that the solution is sensitive to rotation, but superior in scale variant images.

  • 3.
    Ludwig Barbosa, Vinícius
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Sievert, Thomas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Rasch, Joel
    Molflow, SWE.
    Carlström, Anders
    RUAG Space AB, SWE.
    Pettersson, Mats
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Vu, Viet Thuy
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Evaluation of Ionospheric Scintillation in GNSS Radio Occultation Measurements and Simulations2019In: Radio Science, ISSN 0048-6604, E-ISSN 1944-799XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Like any other system relying on trans-ionospheric propagation, GNSS Radio Occultation (GNSS-RO) is affected by ionospheric conditions during measurements. Regions of plasma irregularities in F-region create abrupt gradients in the distribution of ionized particles. Radio signals propagated through such regions suffer from constructive and destructive contributions in phase and amplitude, known as scintillations. Different approaches have been proposed in order to model and reproduce the wave propagation through ionospheric irregularities. We present simulations considering an one-component inverse power-law model of irregularities integrated with Multiple Phase Screen (MPS) propagation. In this work, the capability of the scintillation model to reproduce features in the signal amplitude of low latitude MetOp measurements in the early hours of DOY 76, 2015 (St. Patrick’s Day geomagnetic storm) is evaluated. Power spectral density (PSD) analysis, scintillation index, decorrelation time and standard deviation of neutral bending angle are considered in the comparison between the simulations and RO measurements. The results validate the capability of the simulator to replicate an equivalent total integrated phase variance in cases of moderate to strong scintillation.

  • 4.
    Sievert, Thomas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    GNSS Radio Occultation Inversion Methods and Reflection Observations in the Lower Troposphere2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    GNSS Radio Occultation (GNSS-RO) is an opportunistic Earth sensing technique where GNSS signals passing through the atmosphere are received in low Earth orbit and processed to extract meteorological parameters. As signals are received along an orbit, the measured Doppler shift is transformed to a bending angle profile (commonly referred to as bending angle retrieval), which, in turn, is inverted to a refractivity profile. Thanks to its high vertical resolution and SI traceability, GNSS-RO is an important complement to other Earth sensing endeavors. In the lower troposphere, GNSS-RO measurements often get degraded and biased due to sharp refractive gradients and other complex structures. The main objective of this thesis is to explore contemporary retrieval methods such as phase matching and full spectrum inversion to improve their performance in these conditions. To avoid the bias caused by the standard inversion, we attempt to derive additional information from the amplitude output of the examined retrieval operators. While simulations indicate that such information could be found, it is not immediately straightforward how to achieve this with real measurements. The approach chosen is to examine reflected signal components and their effect on the amplitude output.

  • 5.
    Sievert, Thomas
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Rasch, Joel
    Molflow, SWE.
    Anders, Carlström
    RUAG Space AB, SWE.
    Pettersson, Mats
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Vu, Viet Thuy
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Determining the refractivity at the bottom of the atmosphere using radio occultation2017In: 2017 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), IEEE, 2017, p. 4433-4436Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High accuracy of impact height is important to get reliableRadio Occultation (RO) measurements of the atmosphere refractivity.We have made an investigation on how accuratelywe can measure the impact height at ground level using waveoptics simulations, realistic refractivity profiles, a realisticsimulator for an advanced RO instrument including noise,and using phase matching for the inversion. The idea of theinvestigation is to increase the measurement accuracy of impactheight at low altitudes and to give reliable measurementseven in cases of super-refractive layers. We present statisticson the accuracy and precision of the determination of theimpact height at ground, as well as the resulting accuracy andprecision in the measured refractivity.

  • 6.
    Sievert, Thomas
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Rasch, Joel
    Molflow, Gothenburg, SWE.
    Carlström, Anders
    RUAG Space AB, SWE.
    Pettersson, Mats
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Analysis of reflections in GNSS radio occultation measurements using the phase matching amplitude2018In: Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, ISSN 1867-1381, E-ISSN 1867-8548, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 569-580Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well-known that in the presence of super-refractive layers in the lower-tropospheric inversion of GNSSradio occultation (RO) measurements using the Abel trans-form yields biased refractivity profiles. As such it is problem-atic to reconstruct the true refractivity from the RO signal.Additional information about this lower region of the atmo-sphere might be embedded in reflected parts of the signal. Toretrieve the bending angle, the phase matching operator canbe used. This operator produces a complex function of theimpact parameter, and from its phase we can calculate thebending angle. Instead of looking at the phase, in this paperwe focus on the function’s amplitude. The results in this pa-per show that the signatures of surface reflections in GNSSRO measurements can be significantly enhanced when usingthe phase matching method by processing only an appropri-ately selected segment of the received signal. This signatureenhancement is demonstrated by simulations and confirmedwith 10 hand-picked MetOp-A occultations with reflectedcomponents. To validate that these events show signs of re-flections, radio holographic images are generated. Our resultssuggest that the phase matching amplitude carries informa-tion that can improve the interpretation of radio occultationmeasurements in the lower troposphere.

  • 7.
    Sievert, Thomas
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Rasch, Joel
    Molflow, SWE.
    Carlström, Anders
    RUAG Space AB, SWE.
    Pettersson, Mats
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Vu, Viet Thuy
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Comparing reflection signatures in radio occultation measurements using the full spectrum inversion and phase matching methods2018In: PROCEEDINGS VOLUME 10786; Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere XXIII / [ed] Comeron A.,Kassianov E.,Picard R.H.,Schafer K.,Weber K., SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2018, article id 107860AConference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global Navigation Satellite System Radio Occultation (GNSS-RO) is an important technique used to sound the Earth's atmosphere and provide data products to numerical weather prediction (NWP) systems as well as toclimate research. It provides a high vertical resolution and SI-traceability that are both valuable complements toother Earth observation systems. In addition to direct components refracted in the atmosphere, many received RO signals contain reflected components thanks to the specular and relatively smooth characteristics of the ocean. These reflected components can interfere the retrieval of the direct part of the signal, and can also contain meteorological information of their own, e.g., information about the refractivity at the Earth's surface. While the conventional method to detect such reflections is by using radio-holographic methods, it has been shown that it is possible to see reflections using wave optics inversion, specically while inspecting the amplitude of the output of phase matching (PM). The primary objective of this paper is to analyze the appearance of these reflections in the amplitude output from another wave optics algorithm, namely the much faster full spectrum inversion (FSI). PM and FSI are closely related algorithms - they both use the method of stationary phase to derive the bending angle from a measured signal. We apply our own implementation of FSI to the same GNSS-RO measurements that PM was previously applied to and show that the amplitudes of the outputs again indicate reflection in the surface of the ocean. Our results show that the amplitudes output from the FSI and PM algorithms are practically identical and that the reflection signatures thus appear equally well.

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