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  • 1.
    Ali, Nauman bin
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Engström, Emelie
    Lund University, SWE.
    Taromirad, Masoumeh
    Halmstad University, SWE.
    Mousavi, Muhammad Raza
    Halmstad University, SWE.
    Minhas, Nasir Mehmood
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Helgesson, Daniel
    Lund University, SWE.
    Kunze, Sebastian
    Halmstad University, SWE.
    Varshosaz, Mahsa
    Halmstad University, SWE.
    On the search for industry-relevant regression testing research2019In: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 2020-2055Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regression testing is a means to assure that a change in the software, or

    its execution environment, does not introduce new defects. It involves the expensive

    undertaking of rerunning test cases. Several techniques have been proposed

    to reduce the number of test cases to execute in regression testing, however, there

    is no research on how to assess industrial relevance and applicability of such techniques.

    We conducted a systematic literature review with the following two goals:

    rstly, to enable researchers to design and present regression testing research with

    a focus on industrial relevance and applicability and secondly, to facilitate the industrial

    adoption of such research by addressing the attributes of concern from the

    practitioners' perspective. Using a reference-based search approach, we identied

    1068 papers on regression testing. We then reduced the scope to only include papers

    with explicit discussions about relevance and applicability (i.e. mainly studies

    involving industrial stakeholders). Uniquely in this literature review, practitioners

    were consulted at several steps to increase the likelihood of achieving our aim of

    identifying factors important for relevance and applicability. We have summarised

    the results of these consultations and an analysis of the literature in three taxonomies,

    which capture aspects of industrial-relevance regarding the regression

    testing techniques. Based on these taxonomies, we mapped 38 papers reporting

    the evaluation of 26 regression testing techniques in industrial settings.

  • 2.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Usman, Muhammad
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Minhas, Nasir Mehmood
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    A quasi-experiment to evaluate the impact of mental fatigue on study selection process2017In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Association for Computing Machinery , 2017, p. 264-269Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Existing empirical evidence indicates that loss of alertness associated with mental fatigue is highly correlated with fluctuations in the performance of people carrying out auditory tasks. In software engineering research, mental fatigue may affect the results of study selection (an auditory task) when conducting secondary studies such as systematic literature reviews or systematic mapping studies. However, to date there is no empirical study that reports an in-depth investigation about the relationship between mental fatigue and researchers' selection decisions during study selection process. Objective: The main objective of this paper is to report the design and preliminary results of an investigation about the impact of mental fatigue on the study selection process of secondary studies. Method: We designed and piloted a quasi-experiment. Results: The preliminary results do not indicate that mental fatigue negatively impacts the correctness of selection decision and confidence. However, it is important to note that the preliminary results are only based on six subjects. Conclusion: This paper brings awareness about the role of mental fatigue in the conduction of secondary studies. Although the preliminary results do not indicate any meaningful relationship, we believe that it is worthwhile to continue the research, by adding more subjects, and also revising the design of the reported quasi-experiment. © 2017 ACM.

  • 3.
    Minhas, Nasir Mehmood
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Regression Testing Challenges and Solutions: An Industry-Academia Perspective2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Software quality assurance (QA) is an essential activity in the software development lifecycle. Among the different QA activities, regression testing is a challenging task for large-scale software development. Regression testing is a well-researched area, and a large number of techniques have been proposed to fulfill the needs of industry. Despite the extensive research, the adoption of proposed regression testing techniques in the industry is limited. Studies show that there is a visible gap between research and practice.

    Objective: This work aims at reducing the gap between industry and academia in regression testing. To fulfill this aim we have the following objectives:

    1) Understanding the practitioners' goals regarding regression testing.

    2) Understanding the current state of regression testing practice and challenges in the industry.

    3) Investigating the testing research applicable in an industrial context.

    Method: We conducted multiple studies using different methods.

    To explore the industry perspective on regression testing we used focus group and interview-based studies. To explore solutions from the literature, we used the systematic literature review and systematic mapping study.

    Results: This thesis presents the practitioners' specific regression testing goals. The identified goals are confidence, controlled fault slippage, effectiveness, efficiency, and customer satisfaction. The challenges identified in the thesis are of two categories, 1) management related challenges and 2) technical challenges. Technical challenges relate to test suite maintenance, test case selection, test case prioritization, evaluation of regression testing.

    We have mapped 26 empirically evaluated regression testing techniques to the context, effect, and information taxonomies, and provided a guide to the practitioners regarding the adoption of the techniques in an industrial setting. We have also classified 56 model-based test case generation techniques regarding their strengths/limitations, input/intermediate models used, and relevance to the industrial context.

    Conclusions: The challenges identified in this study are not new for research and practice. There could be two reasons regarding the presence of recurring challenges: 1) regression testing techniques proposed in the literature do not fit the companies’ context, 2) or, companies are not aware of the availability of the techniques that could be suitable for their context. To support the adoption of existing research on regression testing in the industry, we have presented three taxonomies. These taxonomies, allow the characterization of regression testing techniques and enable to determine which of these techniques might be suitable in a given context. Furthermore, the identification of information needs for these techniques would be helpful to learn the implications regarding the cost of adoption. Regarding the support in test case generation, we conclude that current research on interaction model-based test case generation techniques did not illustrate the use of rigorous methodology, and currently, model-based test case generation techniques have low relevance for the industrial problems.

  • 4.
    Minhas, Nasir Mehmood
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Masood, Sohaib
    UIIT PMAS Arid Agriculture University, PAK.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Nadeem, Aamer
    Capital University of Science and Technology, PAK.
    A Systematic Mapping of Test Case Generation Techniques Using UML Interaction Diagrams2018In: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Testing plays a vital role for assuring software quality. Among the activities performed during testing process, test cases generation is a challenging and labor intensive task. Test case generation techniques based on UML models are getting the attention of researchers and practitioners. This study provides a systematic mapping of test case generation techniques based on interaction diagrams. The study compares the test case generation techniques, regarding their capabilities and limitations, and it also assesses the reporting quality of the primary studies. It has been revealed that UML interaction diagrams based techniques are mainly used for integration testing. The majority of the techniques are using sequence diagrams as input models, while some are using collaboration. A notable number of techniques are using interaction diagram along with some other UML diagram for test case generation. These techniques are mainly focusing on interaction, scenario, operational, concurrency, synchronization and deadlock related faults.

    From the results of this study, we can conclude that the studies presenting test case generation techniques using UML interaction diagrams failed to illustrate the use of rigorous methodology, and these techniques did not demonstrate the empirical evaluation in an industrial context. Our study revealed the need for tool support to facilitate the transfer of solutions to industry.

  • 5.
    Minhas, Nasir Mehmood
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Ali, Nauman bin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Regression testing goals: View of practitioners and researchers2017In: 24th Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference Workshops (APSECW), IEEE, 2017, p. 25-32Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Regression testing is a well-researched area. However, the majority regression testing techniques proposed by the researchers are not getting the attention of the practitioners. Communication gaps between industry and academia and disparity in the regression testing goals are the main reasons. Close collaboration can help in bridging the communication gaps and resolving the disparities.Objective: The study aims at exploring the views of academics and practitioners about the goals of regression testing. The purpose is to investigate the commonalities and differences in their viewpoints and defining some common goals for the success of regression testing.Method: We conducted a focus group study, with 7 testing experts from industry and academia. 4 testing practitioners from 2companies and 3 researchers from 2 universities participated in the study. We followed GQM approach, to elicit the regression testing goals, information needs, and measures.Results: 43 regression testing goals were identified by the participants, which were reduced to 10 on the basis of similarity among the identified goals. Later during the priority assignment process, 5 goals were discarded, because the priority assigned to these goals was very low. Participants identified 47 information needs/questions required to evaluate the success of regression testing with reference to goal G5 (confidence). Which were then reduced to10 on the basis of similarity. Finally, we identified measures to gauge those information needs/questions, which were corresponding to the goal (G5).Conclusions: We observed that participation level of practitioners and researchers during the elicitation of goals and questions was same. We found a certain level of agreement between the participants regarding the regression testing definitions and goals.But there was some level of disagreement regarding the priorities of the goals. We also identified the need to implement a regression testing evaluation framework in the participating companies.

  • 6.
    Minhas, Nasir Mehmood
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Regression testing for large-scale embedded software development: Exploring the state of practice2018Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: A majority of the regression testing techniques proposed by the research have not been adopted in industry. To increase adoption rates, we need to better understand the practitioners' perspectives on regression testing.

    Objective: This study aims at exploring the regression testing state of practice in the large-scale embedded software development. The study has two objectives, 1) to highlight the potential challenges in practice, and 2) to identify the industry-relevant research areas regarding regression testing.

    Method: We conducted a qualitative study in two large-scale embedded software development companies, where we carried out semi-structured interviews with representatives from five software testing teams. We did conduct the detailed review of the process documentation of the companies to complement/validate the findings of the interviews.

    Results: Mostly, the practitioners run regression testing with a selected scope, the selection of scope depends upon the size, complexity, and location of the change. Test cases are prioritized on the basis of risk and critical functionality. The practitioners rely on their knowledge and experience for the decision making regarding selection and prioritization of test cases.The companies are using both automated and manual regression testing, and mainly they rely on in-house developed tools for test automation. The challenges identified in the companies are: time to test, information management, test suite maintenance, lack of communication, test selection/prioritization, lack of assessment, etc. The proposed improvements are in line with the identified challenges. Regression testing goals identified in this study are customer satisfaction, critical defect detection, confidence, effectiveness, efficiency, and controlled slip through of faults.

    Conclusions: Considering the current state of practice and identified challenges we conclude that there is a need to reconsider the regression test strategy in the companies. Researchers need to analyze the industry perspective while proposing new regression testing techniques. The industry-academia collaboration projects would be a good platform in this regard.

  • 7.
    Nasir, Nayla
    et al.
    Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, MYS.
    Minhas, Nasir Mehmood
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Implementing Value Stream Mapping in a Scrum-based project: An Experience Report2018In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, CEUR-WS , 2018, Vol. 2273, p. 38-43Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    —The value stream mapping is one of the lean practices, that helps to visualize the whole process and identifies any bottlenecks affecting the flow. Proper management of the value stream can significantly contribute towards waste elimination by categorizing process activities to be either value adding or non value-adding. Lean development focuses on the value through the elimination of waste. Adding value through embracing change and customer satisfaction are also the benefits of Scrum. This study reports our experience regarding the implementation of VSM with Scrum. We followed the action research method, with an objective to see if VSM can contribute to the identification and reduction of wastes in a Scrum-based project. We identified a noticeable amount of waste even with strict compliance to the Scrum practices. On the basis of identified waste, their root causes, and possible mitigation strategy we have proposed a future state map, that could help improve the productivity of the process. The results of our study are encouraging, and we suggest that adoption of VSM with Scrum could add more value to the Scrum-based projects. Copyright © 2018 for this paper by its authors.

  • 8.
    Usman, Muhammad
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Minhas, Nasir Mehmood
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Use of personality tests in empirical software engineering studies: A review of ethical issues2019In: PROCEEDINGS OF EASE 2019 - EVALUATION AND ASSESSMENT IN SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Association for Computing Machinery , 2019, p. 237-242Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a lot of research on personality and its impact on software engineering practice. These studies use different psychological tests to identify personality types of software practitioners. The administration of these tests requires expertise. As the humans are involved, other ethical issues, such as consent, also become important. In this study, we evaluated a small sample of 15 studies that used a psychological test Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) in a software engineering context with respect to different ethical issues related to informed consent, qualification of the test administrators and the use of appropriate tests. The results show that most of the studies in our sample seriously lack with respect to various ethical issues. © 2019 Association for Computing Machinery.

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