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  • 1.
    Auer, Florian
    et al.
    University of Innsbruck, AUT.
    Felderer, Michael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Lenarduzzi, Valentina
    Tampere University of Technology, FIN.
    Towards defining a microservice migration framework2018Ingår i: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Association for Computing Machinery , 2018, Vol. Part F147763Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Microservices are more and more popular. As a result, some companies started to believe that microservices are the solution to all of their problems and rush to adopt microservices without sufficient knowledge about the impacts. Most of the time they expect to decrease their maintenance effort or to ease the deployment process. However, re-architecting a system to microservices is not always beneficial. In this work we propose a work-plan to identify a decision framework that supports practitioners in the understanding of possible migration based benefits and issues. This will lead to more reasoned decisions and mitigate the risk of migration. © 2018 Copyright held by the owner/author(s).

  • 2.
    Beer, Armin
    et al.
    BVA and Beer Test Consulting, AUT.
    Felderer, Michael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Measuring and improving testability of system requirements in an industrial context by applying the goal question metric approach2018Ingår i: Proceedings - International Conference on Software Engineering, IEEE Computer Society , 2018, s. 25-32Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Testing is subject to two basic constraints, namely cost and quality. The cost depends on the efficiency of the testing activities as well as their quality and testability. The author's practical experience in large-scale systems shows that if the requirements are adapted iteratively or the architecture is altered, testability decreases. However, what is often lacking is a root cause analysis of the testability degradations and the introduction of improvement measures during software development. In order to introduce agile practices in the rigid strategy of the V-model, good testability of software artifacts is vital. So testability is also the bridgehead towards agility. In this paper, we report on a case study in which we measure and improve testability on the basis of the Goal Question Metric Approach. © 2018 ACM.

  • 3.
    Doležel, Michal
    et al.
    Vysoká škola ekonomická v Praze, CZE.
    Felderer, Michael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Organizational patterns between developers and testers: Investigating testers' autonomy and role identity2018Ingår i: ICEIS 2018 - Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems / [ed] Filipe J.,Camp O.,Smialek M.,Filipe J.,Hammoudi S., SciTePress , 2018, Vol. 2, s. 336-344Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with organizational patterns (configurations, set-ups) between developers/programmers and testers. We firstly discuss the key differences between these two Information Systems Development (ISD) occupations. Highlighting the origin of inevitable disagreements between them, we reflect on the nature of the software testing field that currently undergoes an essential change under the increasing influence of agile ISD approaches and methods. We also deal with the ongoing professionalization of software testing. More specifically, we propose that the concept of role identity anchored in (social) identity theory can be applied to the profession of software testers, and their activities studied accordingly. Furthermore, we conceptualize three organizational patterns (i.e. isolated testers, embedded testers, and eradicated testers) based on our selective literature review of research and practice sources in Information Systems (IS) and Software Engineering (SE) disciplines. After summarizing the key industrial challenges of these patterns, we conclude the paper by calling for more research evidence that would demonstrate the viability of the recently introduced novel organizational models. We also argue that especially the organizational model of "combined software engineering", where the roles of programmers and testers are reunited into a single role of "software engineer", deserves a closer attention of IS and SE researchers in the future. © 2018 by SCITEPRESS - Science and Technology Publications, Lda.

  • 4.
    Felderer, Michael
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Gurov, Dilian
    KTH, SWE.
    Huisman, Marieke
    University of Twente, NLD.
    Lisper, Björn
    Mälardalens högskola, SWE.
    Schlick, Rupert
    Austrian Institute of Technology, AUT.
    Formal methods in industrial practice: Bridging the gap (track summary)2018Ingår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) / [ed] Margaria T.,Steffen B., Springer Verlag , 2018, Vol. 11247, s. 77-81Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Already for many decades, formal methods are considered to be the way forward to help the software industry to make more reliable and trustworthy software. However, despite this strong belief, and many individual success stories, no real change in industrial software development seems to happen. In fact, the software industry is moving fast forward itself, and the gap between what formal methods can achieve, and the daily software development practice does not seem to get smaller (and might even be growing). © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018.

  • 5.
    Felderer, Michael
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik. Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Herrmann, Andrea
    Herrmann & Ehrlich, DEU.
    Comprehensibility of system models during test design: A controlled experiment comparing UML activity diagrams and state machines2019Ingår i: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 27, nr 1, s. 125-147Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    UML activity diagrams and state machines are both used for modeling system behavior from the user perspective and are frequently the basis for deriving system test cases. In practice, system test cases are often derived manually from UML activity diagrams or state machines. For this task, comprehensibility of respective models is essential and a relevant question for practice to support model selection and design, as well as subsequent test derivation. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to compare the comprehensibility of UML activity diagrams and state machines during manual test case derivation. We investigate the comprehensibility of UML activity diagrams and state machines in a controlled student experiment. Three measures for comprehensibility have been investigated: (1) the self-assessed comprehensibility, (2) the actual comprehensibility measured by the correctness of answers to comprehensibility questions, and (3) the number of errors made during test case derivation. The experiment was performed and internally replicated with overall 84 participants divided into three groups at two institutions. Our experiment indicates that activity diagrams are more comprehensible but also more error-prone with regard to manual test case derivation and discusses how these results can improve system modeling and test case design.

  • 6.
    Felderer, Michael
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Holmström Olsson, Helena
    Malmö universtitet, SWE.
    Rabiser, Rick
    Johannes Kepler Universitat, AUT.
    Introduction to the special issue on quality engineering and management of software-intensive systems2019Ingår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 149, s. 533-534Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 7.
    Felderer, Michael
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Marculescu, Bogdan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Gomes De Oliveira Neto, Francisco
    Chalmers Univ Technol, SWE.
    Feldt, Robert
    Chalmers, SWE.
    Torkar, Richard
    Chalmers, SWE.
    A testability analysis framework for non-functional properties2018Ingår i: 2018 IEEE 11TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOFTWARE TESTING, VERIFICATION AND VALIDATION WORKSHOPS (ICSTW), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, s. 54-58Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents background, the basic steps and an example for a testability analysis framework for non-functional properties.

  • 8.
    Felderer, Michael
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Pfahl, Dietmar
    University of Tartu, EST.
    Special Section: Automation and Analytics for Greener Software Engineering2018Ingår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 95, s. 106-107Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 9.
    Garousi, Vahid
    et al.
    Wageningen University, NLD.
    Felderer, Michael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik. Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Karapıçak, Çağrı Murat
    Middle East Technical, University (METU), Ankara, TUR.
    Yılmaz, Uğur
    Hacettepe University, Ankara, TUR.
    Testing embedded software: A survey of the literature2018Ingår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 104, s. 14-45Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context Embedded systems have overwhelming penetration around the world. Innovations are increasingly triggered by software embedded in automotive, transportation, medical-equipment, communication, energy, and many other types of systems. To test embedded software in an effective and efficient manner, a large number of test techniques, approaches, tools and frameworks have been proposed by both practitioners and researchers in the last several decades. Objective: However, reviewing and getting an overview of the entire state-of-the-art and the practice in this area is challenging for a practitioner or a (new) researcher. Also unfortunately, as a result, we often see that many companies reinvent the wheel (by designing a test approach new to them, but existing in the domain) due to not having an adequate overview of what already exists in this area. Method: To address the above need, we conducted and report in this paper a systematic literature review (SLR) in the form of a systematic literature mapping (SLM) in this area. After compiling an initial pool of 588 papers, a systematic voting about inclusion/exclusion of the papers was conducted among the authors, and our final pool included 312 technical papers. Results: Among the various aspects that we aim at covering, our review covers the types of testing topics studied, types of testing activity, types of test artifacts generated (e.g., test inputs or test code), and the types of industries in which studies have focused on, e.g., automotive and home appliances. Furthermore, we assess the benefits of this review by asking several active test engineers in the Turkish embedded software industry to review its findings and provide feedbacks as to how this review has benefitted them. Conclusion: The results of this review paper have already benefitted several of our industry partners in choosing the right test techniques / approaches for their embedded software testing challenges. We believe that it will also be useful for the large world-wide community of software engineers and testers in the embedded software industry, by serving as an "index" to the vast body of knowledge in this important area. Our results will also benefit researchers in observing the latest trends in this area and for identifying the topics which need further investigations.

  • 10.
    Garousi, Vahid
    et al.
    Information Technology Group, Wageningen University, NLD.
    Felderer, Michael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Mäntylä, Mika
    M3S, Faculty of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Oulu, FIN.
    Guidelines for including grey literature and conducting multivocal literature reviews in software engineering2019Ingår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 106, s. 101-121Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: A Multivocal Literature Review (MLR) is a form of a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) which includes the grey literature (e.g., blog posts, videos and white papers) in addition to the published (formal) literature (e.g., journal and conference papers). MLRs are useful for both researchers and practitioners since they provide summaries both the state-of-the art and –practice in a given area. MLRs are popular in other fields and have recently started to appear in software engineering (SE). As more MLR studies are conducted and reported, it is important to have a set of guidelines to ensure high quality of MLR processes and their results. Objective: There are several guidelines to conduct SLR studies in SE. However, several phases of MLRs differ from those of traditional SLRs, for instance with respect to the search process and source quality assessment. Therefore, SLR guidelines are only partially useful for conducting MLR studies. Our goal in this paper is to present guidelines on how to conduct MLR studies in SE. Method: To develop the MLR guidelines, we benefit from several inputs: (1) existing SLR guidelines in SE, (2), a literature survey of MLR guidelines and experience papers in other fields, and (3) our own experiences in conducting several MLRs in SE. We took the popular SLR guidelines of Kitchenham and Charters as the baseline and extended/adopted them to conduct MLR studies in SE. All derived guidelines are discussed in the context of an already-published MLR in SE as the running example. Results: The resulting guidelines cover all phases of conducting and reporting MLRs in SE from the planning phase, over conducting the review to the final reporting of the review. In particular, we believe that incorporating and adopting a vast set of experience-based recommendations from MLR guidelines and experience papers in other fields have enabled us to propose a set of guidelines with solid foundations. Conclusion: Having been developed on the basis of several types of experience and evidence, the provided MLR guidelines will support researchers to effectively and efficiently conduct new MLRs in any area of SE. The authors recommend the researchers to utilize these guidelines in their MLR studies and then share their lessons learned and experiences. © 2018

  • 11.
    Garousi, Vahid
    et al.
    Wageningen University, NLD.
    Felderer, Michael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik. Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Nur Kılıçaslan, Feyza Nur
    Hacettepe Üniversitesi, TUR.
    A survey on software testability2019Ingår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 108, s. 35-64Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Software testability is the degree to which a software system or a unit under test supports its own testing. To predict and improve software testability, a large number of techniques and metrics have been proposed by both practitioners and researchers in the last several decades. Reviewing and getting an overview of the entire state-of-the-art and state-of-the-practice in this area is often challenging for a practitioner or a new researcher. Objective: Our objective is to summarize the body of knowledge in this area and to benefit the readers (both practitioners and researchers) in preparing, measuring and improving software testability. Method: To address the above need, the authors conducted a survey in the form of a systematic literature mapping (classification) to find out what we as a community know about this topic. After compiling an initial pool of 303 papers, and applying a set of inclusion/exclusion criteria, our final pool included 208 papers (published between 1982 and 2017). Results: The area of software testability has been comprehensively studied by researchers and practitioners. Approaches for measurement of testability and improvement of testability are the most-frequently addressed in the papers. The two most often mentioned factors affecting testability are observability and controllability. Common ways to improve testability are testability transformation, improving observability, adding assertions, and improving controllability.Conclusion: This paper serves for both researchers and practitioners as an "index" to the vast body of knowledge in the area of testability. The results could help practitioners measure and improve software testability in their projects. To assess potential benefits of this review paper, we shared its draft version with two of our industrial collaborators. They stated that they found the review useful and beneficial in their testing activities. Our results can also benefit researchers in observing the trends in this area and identify the topics that require further investigation.

  • 12.
    Garousi, Vahid
    et al.
    Wageningen University, NLD.
    Giray, Görkem
    Kokteyl A, , TUR.
    Tuzun, Eray
    Bilkent Üniversitesi, TUR.
    Catal, Cagatay
    Wageningen University, NLD.
    Felderer, Michael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Closing the Gap Between Software Engineering Education and Industrial Needs2019Ingår i: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    According to different reports, many recent software engineering graduates often face difficulties when beginning their professional careers, due to misalignment of the skills learnt in their university education with what is needed in industry. To address that need, many studies have been conducted to align software engineering education with industry needs. To synthesize that body of knowledge, we present in this paper a systematic literature review (SLR) which summarizes the findings of 33 studies in this area. By doing a meta-analysis of all those studies and using data from 12 countries and over 4,000 data points, this study will enable educators and hiring managers to adapt their education / hiring efforts to best prepare the software engineering workforce. IEEE

  • 13.
    Garousi, Vahid
    et al.
    Wageningen University and Research Centre, NLD.
    Giray, Görkem
    Independent Researcher, TUR.
    Tüzün, Eray
    Bilkent Üniversitesi, TUR.
    Catal, Cagatay
    Wageningen University and Research Centre, NLD.
    Felderer, Michael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Aligning software engineering education with industrial needs: A meta-analysis2019Ingår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 156, s. 65-83Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: According to various reports, many software engineering (SE) graduates often face difficulties when beginning their careers, which is mainly due to misalignment of the skills learned in university education with what is needed in the software industry. Objective: Our objective is to perform a meta-analysis to aggregate the results of the studies published in this area to provide a consolidated view on how to align SE education with industry needs, to identify the most important skills and also existing knowledge gaps. Method: To synthesize the body of knowledge, we performed a systematic literature review (SLR), in which we systematically selected a pool of 35 studies and then conducted a meta-analysis using data extracted from those studies. Results: Via a meta-analysis and using data from 13 countries and over 4,000 data points, highlights of the SLR include: (1) software requirements, design, and testing are the most important skills; and (2) the greatest knowledge gaps are in configuration management, SE models and methods, SE process, design (and architecture), as well as in testing. Conclusion: This paper provides implications for both educators and hiring managers by listing the most important SE skills and the knowledge gaps in the industry. © 2019 Elsevier Inc.

  • 14.
    Garousi, Vahid
    et al.
    Wageningen Univ, NLD.
    Kucuk, Baris
    Proven Informat Technol, TUR.
    Felderer, Michael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    What We Know About Smells in Software Test Code2019Ingår i: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 36, nr 3, s. 61-73Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Test smells are poorly designed tests and negatively affect the quality of test suites and production code. We present the largest catalog of test smells, along with a summary of guidelines, techniques, and tools used to deal with test smells.

  • 15.
    Garousi, Vahid
    et al.
    Wageningen University and Research Centre, NLD.
    Pfahl, Dietmar
    University of Tartu, EST.
    Fernandes, Joao
    Universidade do Minho, PRT.
    Felderer, Michael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Mäntylä, Mika
    University of Oulu, FIN.
    Shepherd, David
    ABB Group, USA.
    Arcuri, Andrea
    University of Luxembourg, LUX.
    Coşkunçay, Ahmet
    Ataturk University, TUR.
    Tekinerdogan, Bedir
    Wageningen University and Research Centre, NLD.
    Characterizing industry-academia collaborations in software engineering: evidence from 101 projects2019Ingår i: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 24, nr 4, s. 2540-2602Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research collaboration between industry and academia supports improvement and innovation in industry and helps ensure the industrial relevance of academic research. However, many researchers and practitioners in the community believe that the level of joint industry-academia collaboration (IAC) projects in Software Engineering (SE) research is relatively low, creating a barrier between research and practice. The goal of the empirical study reported in this paper is to explore and characterize the state of IAC with respect to industrial needs, developed solutions, impacts of the projects and also a set of challenges, patterns and anti-patterns identified by a recent Systematic Literature Review (SLR) study. To address the above goal, we conducted an opinion survey among researchers and practitioners with respect to their experience in IAC. Our dataset includes 101 data points from IAC projects conducted in 21 different countries. Our findings include: (1) the most popular topics of the IAC projects, in the dataset, are: software testing, quality, process, and project managements; (2) over 90% of IAC projects result in at least one publication; (3) almost 50% of IACs are initiated by industry, busting the myth that industry tends to avoid IACs; and (4) 61% of the IAC projects report having a positive impact on their industrial context, while 31% report no noticeable impacts or were “not sure”. To improve this situation, we present evidence-based recommendations to increase the success of IAC projects, such as the importance of testing pilot solutions before using them in industry. This study aims to contribute to the body of evidence in the area of IAC, and benefit researchers and practitioners. Using the data and evidence presented in this paper, they can conduct more successful IAC projects in SE by being aware of the challenges and how to overcome them, by applying best practices (patterns), and by preventing anti-patterns. © 2019, The Author(s).

  • 16.
    Molléri, Jefferson Seide
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Felderer, Michael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för datalogi och datorsystemteknik. Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Reasoning about Research Quality Alignment in Software EngineeringIngår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Research quality is intended to assess the design and reporting of studies. It comprises a series of concepts such as methodological rigor, practical relevance, and conformance to ethical standards. Depending on the perspective, different views of importance are given to the conceptual dimensions of research quality.

    Objective: We aim to better understand what constitutes research quality from the perspective of the empirical software engineering community. In particular, we intend to assess the level of alignment between researchers with regard to a conceptual model of research quality.

    Method: We conducted a mixed methods approach comprising an internal case study and a complementary focus group. We carried out a hierarchical voting prioritization based on the conceptual model to collect relative values for importance. In the focus group, we also moderate discussions with experts to address potential misalignment.

    Results: We provide levels of alignment with regard to the importance of quality dimensions in the view of the participants. Moreover, the conceptual model fairly expresses the quality of research but has limitations with regards the structure and description of its components.

    Conclusion: Based on the results, we revised the conceptual model and provided an updated version adjusted to the context of empirical software engineering research. We also discussed how to assess quality alignment in research using our approach, and how to use the revised model of quality to characterize an assessment instrument.

  • 17.
    Molléri, Jefferson Seide
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för datalogi och datorsystemteknik. Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Felderer, Michael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Aligning the Views of Research Quality in Empirical Software EngineeringIngår i: ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology, ISSN 1049-331X, E-ISSN 1557-7392Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Research quality is intended to assess the design and reporting of studies. It comprises a series of concepts such as methodological rigor, practical relevance, and conformance to ethical standards. Depending on the perspective, different views of importance are given to the conceptual dimensions of research quality.

    Objective: We intend to assess the level of alignment between researchers with regard to a conceptual model of research quality. This includes aligning the definition of research quality and reasoning on the relative importance of quality characteristics.

    Method: We conducted a mixed methods approach comprising an internal case study and a complementary focus group. We carried out a hierarchical voting prioritization based on the conceptual model to collect relative values for importance. In the focus group, we also moderate discussions with experts to address potential misalignment.

    Results: The alignment at the research group level was higher compared to that at community level. Moreover, the interdisciplinary conceptual quality model was seeing to express fairly the quality of research, but presented limitations regarding its structure and components' description, which resulted in an updated model. 

    Conclusion: The interdisciplinary model used was suitable for the software engineering context. The process used for reflecting on the alignment of quality with respect to definitions and priorities was working well. 

  • 18.
    Santoso, Ario
    et al.
    University of Innsbruck, AUT.
    Felderer, Michael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Specification-driven predictive business process monitoring2019Ingår i: Software and Systems Modeling, ISSN 1619-1366, E-ISSN 1619-1374Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Predictive analysis in business process monitoring aims at forecasting the future information of a running business process. The prediction is typically made based on the model extracted from historical process execution logs (event logs). In practice, different business domains might require different kinds of predictions. Hence, it is important to have a means for properly specifying the desired prediction tasks, and a mechanism to deal with these various prediction tasks. Although there have been many studies in this area, they mostly focus on a specific prediction task. This work introduces a language for specifying the desired prediction tasks, and this language allows us to express various kinds of prediction tasks. This work also presents a mechanism for automatically creating the corresponding prediction model based on the given specification. Differently from previous studies, instead of focusing on a particular prediction task, we present an approach to deal with various prediction tasks based on the given specification of the desired prediction tasks. We also provide an implementation of the approach which is used to conduct experiments using real-life event logs. © 2019, The Author(s).

  • 19.
    Sauerwein, Clemens
    et al.
    University of Innsbruck, AUT.
    Pekaric, Irdin
    University of Innsbruck, AUT.
    Felderer, Michael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Breu, Ruth
    University of Innsbruck, AUT.
    An Analysis and Classification of Public Information Security Data Sources used in Research and Practice2019Ingår i: Computers & security (Print), ISSN 0167-4048, E-ISSN 1872-6208, Vol. 82, s. 140-155Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to counteract today’s sophisticated and increasing number of cyber threats the timely acquisition of information regarding vulnerabilities, attacks, threats, countermeasures and risks is crucial. Therefore, employees tasked with information security risk management processes rely on a variety of information security data sources, ranging from inter-organizational threat intelligence sharing platforms to public information security data sources, such as mailing lists or expert blogs. However, research and practice lack a comprehensive overview about these public information security data sources, their characteristics and dependencies. Moreover, comprehensive knowledge about these sources would be beneficial to systematically use and integrate them to information security processes. In this paper, a triangulation study is conducted to identify and analyze public information security data sources. Furthermore, a taxonomy is introduced to classify and compare these data sources based on the following six dimensions: (1) Type of information, (2) Integrability, (3) Timeliness, (4) Originality, (5) Type of Source,and (6) Trustworthiness. In total, 68 public information security data sources were identified and classified. The investigations showed that research and practice rely on a large variety of heterogeneous information security data sources, which makes it more difficult to integrate and use them for information security and risk management processes.

  • 20.
    Schlick, Rupert
    et al.
    Austrian Institute of Technology, AUT.
    Felderer, Michael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Majzik, Istvan
    Budapest University of Technology and Economics, HUN.
    Nardone, Roberto
    Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, ITA.
    Raschke, Alexander
    Universitat Ulm, DEU.
    Snook, Colin
    University of Southampton, GBR.
    Vittorini, Valeria
    Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, ITA.
    A proposal of an example and experiments repository to foster industrial adoption of formal methods2018Ingår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), Springer Verlag , 2018, Vol. 11247, s. 249-272Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Formal methods (in a broad sense) have been around almost since the beginning of computer science. Nonetheless, there is a perception in the formal methods community that take-up by industry is low considering the potential benefits. We take a look at possible reasons and give candidate explanations for this effect. To address the issue, we propose a repository of industry-relevant example problems with an accompanying open data storage for experiment results in order to document, disseminate and compare exemplary solutions from formal model based methods. This would allow potential users from industry to better understand the available solutions and to more easily select and adopt a formal method that fits their needs. At the same time, it would foster the adoption of open data and good scientific practice in this research field. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018.

  • 21.
    Sulaman, Sardar Muhammad
    et al.
    Lund University, SWE.
    Beer, Armin
    Beer Test Consulting, AUT.
    Felderer, Michael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Höst, Martin
    Lund University, SWE.
    Comparison of the FMEA and STPA safety analysis methods: a case study2019Ingår i: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 27, nr 1, s. 349-387Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As our society becomes more and more dependent on IT systems, failures of these systems can harm more and more people and organizations. Diligently performing risk and hazard analysis helps to minimize the potential harm of IT system failures on the society and increases the probability of their undisturbed operation. Risk and hazard analysis is an important activity for the development and operation of critical software intensive systems, but the increased complexity and size puts additional requirements on the effectiveness of risk and hazard analysis methods. This paper presents a qualitative comparison of two hazard analysis methods, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) and system theoretic process analysis (STPA), using case study research methodology. Both methods have been applied on the same forward collision avoidance system to compare the effectiveness of the methods and to investigate what are the main differences between them. Furthermore, this study also evaluates the analysis process of both methods by using a qualitative criteria derived from the technology acceptance model (TAM). The results of the FMEA analysis were compared to the results of the STPA analysis, which were presented in a previous study. Both analyses were conducted on the same forward collision avoidance system. The comparison shows that FMEA and STPA deliver similar analysis results.

  • 22.
    Wagner, Stefan
    et al.
    Univ Stuttgart, DEU.
    Fernandez, Daniel Mendez
    Tech Univ Munich, DEU.
    Felderer, Michael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Vetro, Antonio
    Politecn Torino, ITA.
    Kalinowski, Marcos
    Pontifical Catholic Univ Rio de Janeiro, BRA.
    Wieringa, Roel
    Univ Twente, NLD.
    Pfahl, Dietmar
    University of Tartu, EST.
    Conte, Tayana
    Universidade Federal do Amazonas, BRA.
    Christiansson, Marie-Therese
    Karlstad Univ, SWE.
    Greer, Desmond
    Queens Univ Belfast, IRL.
    Lassenius, Casper
    Aalto Univ, FIN.
    Mannisto, Tomi
    Univ Helsinki, FIN.
    Nayebi, Maleknaz
    Univ Calgary, CAN.
    Oivo, Markku
    Univ Oulu, FIN.
    Penzenstadler, Birgit
    California State University, Long Beach, USA.
    Prikladnicki, Rafael
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio Grande do Sul, BRA.
    Ruhe, Guenther
    Univ Calgary, CAN.
    Schekelmann, Andre
    Hsch Niederrhein, DEU.
    Sen, Sagar
    Simula, Fornebu, NOR.
    Spinola, Rodrigo
    Salvador Univ UNIFACS, BRA.
    Tuzcu, Ahmed
    zeb.rolfes.schierenbeck.associates GmbH, DEU.
    De la Vara, Jose Luis
    Carlos III Univ Madrid, ESP.
    Winkler, Dietmar
    Tech Univ Wien, AUT.
    Status Quo in Requirements Engineering: A Theory and a Global Family of Surveys2019Ingår i: ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology, ISSN 1049-331X, E-ISSN 1557-7392, Vol. 28, nr 2, artikel-id 9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Requirements Engineering (RE) has established itself as a software engineering discipline over the past decades. While researchers have been investigating the RE discipline with a plethora of empirical studies, attempts to systematically derive an empirical theory in context of the RE discipline have just recently been started. However, such a theory is needed if we are to define and motivate guidance in performing high quality RE research and practice. We aim at providing an empirical and externally valid foundation for a theory of RE practice, which helps software engineers establish effective and efficient RE processes in a problem-driven manner. We designed a survey instrument and an engineer-focused theory that was first piloted in Germany and, after making substantial modifications, has now been replicated in 10 countries worldwide. We have a theory in the form of a set of propositions inferred from our experiences and available studies, as well as the results from our pilot study in Germany. We evaluate the propositions with bootstrapped confidence intervals and derive potential explanations for the propositions. In this article, we report on the design of the family of surveys, its underlying theory, and the full results obtained from the replication studies conducted in 10 countries with participants from 228 organisations. Our results represent a substantial step forward towards developing an empirical theory of RE practice. The results reveal, for example, that there are no strong differences between organisations in different countries and regions, that interviews, facilitated meetings and prototyping are the most used elicitation techniques, that requirements are often documented textually, that traces between requirements and code or design documents are common, that requirements specifications themselves are rarely changed and that requirements engineering (process) improvement endeavours are mostly internally driven. Our study establishes a theory that can be used as starting point for many further studies for more detailed investigations. Practitioners can use the results as theory-supported guidance on selecting suitable RE methods and techniques.

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