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  • 1001.
    Aziz, Reuben
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    THE REDENOMINATIO OF THE GHANAIAN CURRENCY(2007)- A STUDY OF ITS IMPACT ON THE BUSINESS OF THE FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS IN GHANA2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract The cedi is Ghana’s official currency which was introduced on July 19, 1965. The loss in the value of the cedi since its introduction cannot be overestimated. Owing to the low values of the notes and coins(due to persistent loss in value), huge quantities had to be printed and minted resulting in huge cost to the central bank. Meanwhile commercial banks were facing high cash based transaction cost because relatively large quantities of notes were needed for transactions. There was also high risk involved in cash based transaction to the banks and their clients. Bank customers were becoming more uncomfortable carrying huge quantities of cash to and from the banks. These customers also had to spend more time at the banking halls to get served. These and other factors reduced the interest and confidence of the general public in the financial sector affecting banking businesses. The re denomination of the cedi was done in 2007, to deal with these ’huge dead-weight burden’ on the banks and the entire economy of Ghana. The objective of this study is to explore its impact on some variables affecting commercial banking businesses. These are cost, operational risk, deposit mobilization, ATM operations, and reliability and convenience of banking services. A pluralistic approach was adopted for this research and the results of both the quantitative and qualitative study done in analyzing my hypothesis reaffirmed each other and provided valuable findings and deeper understanding of the impact of the re denomination on the business of the financial institutions. The main findings showed the following: 1) The re denomination had not affected costs in banks, 2) The re denomination has generally reduced operational loss risks, 3) The re denomination has generally improved deposit mobilization, 4) The re denomination has improved the reliability and profitability of ATM s, 5) The re denomination has improved the reliability and convenience of banking services. With this study I hope to provide new insights on how re denomination affects the business of financial institutions who are key partners to the central banks in the successful implementation of such exercise. I also hope to provide valuable recommendations on how banks can deal with the challenges that may be presented by a re denomination

  • 1002.
    AZIZ, YASSAR
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    ASLAM, MUHAMMAD NAEEM
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Traffic Engineering with Multi-Protocol Label Switching, Performance Comparison with IP networks2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic Engineering (TE) is the stage which deals with geometric design planning and traffic operation of networks, network devices and relationship of routers for the transportation of data. TE is that feature of network engineering which concentrate on problems of performance optimization of operational networks. It involves techniques and application of knowledge to gain performance objectives, which includes movement of data through network, reliability, planning of network capacity and efficient use of network resources. This thesis addresses the problems of traffic engineering and suggests a solution by using the concept of Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS). We have done simulation in Matlab environment to compare the performance of MPLS against the IP network in a simulated environment. MPLS is a modern technique for forwarding network data. It broadens routing according to path controlling and packet forwarding. In this thesis MPLS is computed on the basis of its performance, efficiency for sending data from source to destination. A MATLAB based simulation tool is developed to compare MPLS with IP network in a simulated environment. The results show the performance of MPLS network in comparison of IP network.

  • 1003.
    Azizi, Rokneddin
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Amiryousefi, Hossein
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Estimating of Work Hardening in Bent Sheet Metal Products at an Early Stage of Virtual Product Development2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis has two aims: firstly, to investigate the influence of work hardening due to forming simulation on test simulation. The investigated question was also: Is it worth the effort to include work hardening effect into test simulation? The second aim was, to propose a quicker method to estimate work hardening without forming simulation. The first aim was investigated by two methods. In Method A, forming simulation was carried out on the steel blank sheet and followed by test simulation. In Method B, test was simulated by using just the CAD geometry of the same component with virgin properties. The 2D and 3D test simulation were performed and it was found that result of method A is about 30% higher than method B, which suggests that it is essential to include work hardening. The problem is that at an early stage of product development the data of the forming process is not available. To solve this problem in the thesis an approach is proposed based on estimation of the hardening effect using analytical approach to calculate the strain just by geometrical parameters. This calculated so called postulated strain was then transferred to test simulation (Method C). The validation of results of test simulation with method C against ones obtained from Method A showed that they were almost identical. The results of the study showed that the proposed quick method to include forming history in test simulation can be used instead of very complex and time consuming FEM simulations of forming process.

  • 1004.
    Azuma, Chieko
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Coletinha, Elvio
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Villoch, Pablo
    An Exploratory Journey into Sustainability Changemakers Learning Programs2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Humanity is facing highly complex challenges at a global scale. A new sort of conscious sustainability changemakers is needed to face the sustainability challenge. However the mainstream entrepreneurship education tends to focus on business as usual skills, with a significant lack of comprehensive understanding of the whole system and the inner work needed to face the mental barriers to become sustainability changemakers. While the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development was used as a structured approach to the topic, the research design was based on a dynamic research interactive model. Theory U guided the data gathering process that included participatory observation, dialogues with the organizers and participants through the seven progressive schools in Europe. The research aims to identify the common assumptions that guide the design of leading edge learning programs for sustainability changemakers. Building on the findings, the authors present a prototype of a learning tool in a form of self-reflection card game with the intention of helping the next generation of changemakers in their learning journey towards sustainability. Conclusions detail specific guidelines to design a learning program of changemakers towards sustainability.

  • 1005.
    Baan, Christopher
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Long, Phil
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Pearlman, Dana
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Cultivating personal leadership capacities to facilitate collaboration in Strategic Sustainable Development2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The complex, multi-faceted sustainability challenge that society faces calls for a strategic approach to sustainable development. Strategic planning processes towards sustainability in organisations and communities are oftentimes led by a facilitator or facilitative leader. We argue that planning processes of complex and transformational change, call for collaboration among stakeholders and for highly skilled facilitative leaders who are committed to the development of self, others and society. This thesis explores the ‘interior state’ of facilitative leaders as a high leverage point in moving society towards sustainability. We identify nine personal capacities that enable leaders to facilitate collaboration in Strategic Sustainable Development: (1) Being Present, (2) Whole Self-Awareness, (3) Suspension & Letting Go, (4) Compassion, (5) Intention Aligned with Higher Purpose, (6) Whole System Awareness, (7) Personal Power, (8) Sense of Humour, and (9) Holding Dualities and Paradoxes. We identify a range of personal and collective practices that help develop these personal capacities. We propose these capacities are the foundation for a more holistic and authentic facilitation approach applied to strategic sustainable development.

  • 1006.
    Babaeeghazvini, Parinaz
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    EEG enhancement for EEG source localization in brain-machine speller2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) is a system to communicate with external world through the brain activity. The brain activity is measured by Electro-Encephalography (EEG) and then processed by a BCI system. EEG source reconstruction could be a way to improve the accuracy of EEG classification in EEGbased brain–computer interface (BCI). In this thesis BCI methods were applied on derived sources which by their EEG enhancement it became possible to obtain a more accurate EEG detection and brought a new application to BCI technology that are recognition of writing letters imagery from brain waves. The BCI system enables people to write and type letters by their brain activity (EEG). To this end, first part of the thesis is dedicated to EEG source reconstruction techniques to select the most optimal EEG channels for task classification purposes. Due to this reason the changes in EEG signal power from rest state to motor imagery task was used, to find the location of an active single equivalent dipole. Implementing an inverse problem solution on the power changes by Multiple Sparse Priors (MSP) method generated a scalp map where its fitting showed the localization of EEG electrodes. Having the optimized locations the secondary objective was to choose the most optimal EEG features and rhythm for an efficient classification. This became possible by feature ranking, 1- Nearest Neighbor leave-one-out. The feature vectors were computed by applying the combined methods of multitaper method, Pwelch. The features were classified by several methods of Normal densities based quadratic classifier (qdc), k-nearest neighbor classifier (knn), Mixture of Gaussians classification and Train neural network classifier using back-propagation. Results show that the selected features and classifiers are able to recognize the imagination of writing alphabet with the high accuracy.

  • 1007.
    Babar, Shahzad
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Mehmood, Aamer
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Enhancing Accessibility of Web Based GIS Applications through User Centered Design2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Web Accessibility emerged as problem when disabled and elder people started interaction with web contents soon after the inception of World Wide Web. When web based GIS applications appeared on the scene of web and users of these kinds of applications increased, these applications faced the similar problem of accessibility. The intensity of web accessibility problems in GIS based applications has increased rapidly during recent years due to extensive interaction of user with maps. Web Accessibility problems faced by users of GIS applications are identified by content evaluation and user interaction. Users are involved in identification of accessibility problems because guidelines and automated tools are not sufficient for that purpose. User Centered Approach is used to include users in the development process and this has also helped in identification of accessibility problems of the users at early stages. The thesis report identify the accessibility issues in Web based GIS application by content evaluation and user interaction evaluation. MapQuest, a web based GIS application, is taken as a case study to identify the web accessibility problems in GIS applications. This thesis report has also studied that how accessibility of the web based GIS applications can be enhanced by using UCD approach in development process of GIS applications.

  • 1008. Baca, Dejan
    Automated static code analysis: A tool for early vulnerability detection2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Software vulnerabilities are added into programs during its development. Architectural flaws are introduced during planning and design, while implementation faults are created during coding. Penetration testing is often used to detect these vulnerabilities. This approach is expensive because it is performed late in development and any correction would increase lead-time. An alternative would be to detect and correct vulnerabilities in the phase of development where they are the least expensive to correct and detect. Source code audits have often been suggested and used to detect implementations vulnerabilities. However, manual audits are time consuming and require extended expertise to be efficient. A static code analysis tool could achieve the same results as a manual audit but at fraction of the time. Through a set of cases studies and experiments at Ericsson AB, this thesis investigates the technical capabilities and limitations of using a static analysis tool as an early vulnerability detector. The investigation is extended to studying the human factor by examining how the developers interact and use the static analysis tool. The contributions of this thesis include the identification of the tools capabilities so that further security improvements can focus on other types of vulnerabilities. By using static analysis early in development possible cost saving measures are identified. Additionally, the thesis presents the limitations of static code analysis. The most important limitation being the incorrect warnings that are reported by static analysis tools. In addition, a development process overhead was deemed necessary to successfully use static analysis in an industry setting.

  • 1009.
    Baca, Dejan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Developing Secure Software: in an Agile Process2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Software developers are facing increased pressure to lower development time, release new software versions more frequent to customers and to adapt to a faster market. This new environment forces developers and companies to move from a plan based waterfall development process to a flexible agile process. By minimizing the pre development planning and instead increasing the communication between customers and developers, the agile process tries to create a new, more flexible way of working. This new way of working allows developers to focus their efforts on the features that customers want. With increased connectability and the faster feature release, the security of the software product is stressed. To develop secure software, many companies use security engineering processes that are plan heavy and inflexible. These two approaches are each others opposites and they directly contradict each other. Objective: The objective of the thesis is to evaluate how to develop secure software in an agile process. In particular, what existing best practices can be incorporated into an agile project and still provide the same benefit if the project was using a waterfall process. How the best practices can be incorporated and adapted to fit the process while still measuring the improvement. Some security engineering concepts are useful but the best practice is not agile compatible and would require extensive adaptation to integrate with an agile project. Method: The primary research method used throughout the thesis is case studies conducted in a real industry setting. As secondary methods for data collection a variety of approaches have been used, such as semi-structured interviews, workshops, study of literature, and use of historical data from the industry. Results: The security engineering best practices were investigated though a series of case studies. The base agile and security engineering compatibility was assessed in literature, by developers and in practical studies. The security engineering best practices were group based on their purpose and their compatibility with the agile process. One well known and popular best practice, automated static code analysis, was toughly investigated for its usefulness, deployment and risks of using as part of the process. For the risk analysis practices, a novel approach was introduced and improved. As such, a way of adapting existing practices to agile is proposed. Conclusion: With regard of agile and security engineering we did not find that any of the investigated processes was agile compatible. Agile is reaction driven that adapts to change, while the security engineering processes are proactive and try to prevent threats before they happen. To develop secure software in an agile process the developers should adopt and adapt key concepts from security engineering. These changes will affect the flexibility of the agile process but it is a necessity if developers want the same software security state as security engineering processes can provide.

  • 1010. Baca, Dejan
    Identifying Security Relevant Warnings from Static Code Analysis Tools through Code Tainting2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Static code analysis tools are often used by developers as early vulnerability detectors. Due to their automation they are less time-consuming and error-prone then manual reviews. However, they produce large quantities of warnings that developers have to manually examine and understand. In this paper, we look at a solution that makes static code analysis tools more useful as an early vulnerability detector. We use flow-sensitive, interprocedural and context-sensitive data flow analysis to determine the point of user input and its migration through the source code to the actual exploit. By determining a vulnerabilities point of entry we lower the number of warnings a tool produces and we provide the developer with more information why this warning could be a real security threat. We use our approach in three different ways depending on what tool we examined. First,With the commercial static code analysis tool, Coverity, we reanalyze its results and create a set of warnings that are specifically relevant from a security perspective. Secondly, we altered the open source analysis tool Findbugs to only analyze code that has been tainted by user input. Third, we created an own analysis tool that focuses on XSS vulnerabilities in Java code.

  • 1011. Baca, Dejan
    et al.
    Boldt, Martin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    A Novel Security-Enhanced Agile Software Development Process Applied in an Industrial Setting2015In: Proceedings 10th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security ARES 2015, IEEE Computer Society Digital Library, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A security-enhanced agile software development process, SEAP, is introduced in the development of a mobile money transfer system at Ericsson Corp. A specific characteristic of SEAP is that it includes a security group consisting of four different competences, i.e., security manager, security architect, security master and penetration tester. Another significant feature of SEAP is an integrated risk analysis process. In analyzing risks in the development of the mobile money transfer system, a general finding was that SEAP either solves risks that were previously postponed or solves a larger proportion of the risks in a timely manner. The previous software development process, i.e., the baseline process of the comparison outlined in this paper, required 2.7 employee hours spent for every risk identified in the analysis process compared to, on the average, 1.5 hours for the SEAP. The baseline development process left 50% of the risks unattended in the software version being developed, while SEAP reduced that figure to 22%. Furthermore, SEAP increased the proportion of risks that were corrected from 12.5% to 67.1%, i.e., more than a five times increment. This is important, since an early correction may avoid severe attacks in the future. The security competence in SEAP accounts for 5% of the personnel cost in the mobile money transfer system project. As a comparison, the corresponding figure, i.e., for security, was 1% in the previous development process.

  • 1012. Baca, Dejan
    et al.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    Agile development with security engineering activities2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agile software development has been used by industry to create a more flexible and lean software development process, i.e making it possible to develop software at a faster rate and with more agility during development. There are however concerns that the higher development pace and lack of documentation are creating less secure software. We have therefore looked at three known Security Engineering processes, Microsoft SDL, Cigatel touchpoints and Common Criteria and identified what specific security activities they performed. We then compared these activities with an Agile development process that is used in industry. Developers, from a large telecommunication manufacturer, were interviewed to learn their impressions on using these security activities in an agile development process. We produced a security enhanced Agile development process that we present in this paper. This new Agile process use activities from already established security engineering processes that provide the benefit the developers wanted but did not hinder or obstruct the Agile process in a significant way.

  • 1013. Baca, Dejan
    et al.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    Lundberg, Lars
    Evaluating the Cost Reduction of Static Code Analysis for Software Security2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated static code analysis is an efficient technique to increase the quality of software during early development. This paper presents a case study in which mature software with known vul-nerabilities is subjected to a static analysis tool. The value of the tool is estimated based on reported failures from customers. An average of 17% cost savings would have been possible if the static analysis tool was used. The tool also had a 30% success rate in detecting known vulnerabilities and at the same time found 59 new vulnerabilities in the three examined products.

  • 1014.
    Baca, Dejan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Lundberg, Lars
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Improving software security with static automated code analysis in an industry setting2013In: Software, practice & experience, ISSN 0038-0644, E-ISSN 1097-024X, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 259-279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software security can be improved by identifying and correcting vulnerabilities. In order to reduce the cost of rework, vulnerabilities should be detected as early and efficiently as possible. Static automated code analysis is an approach for early detection. So far, only few empirical studies have been conducted in an industrial context to evaluate static automated code analysis. A case study was conducted to evaluate static code analysis in industry focusing on defect detection capability, deployment, and usage of static automated code analysis with a focus on software security. We identified that the tool was capable of detecting memory related vulnerabilities, but few vulnerabilities of other types. The deployment of the tool played an important role in its success as an early vulnerability detector, but also the developers perception of the tools merit. Classifying the warnings from the tool was harder for the developers than to correct them. The correction of false positives in some cases created new vulnerabilities in previously safe code. With regard to defect detection ability, we conclude that static code analysis is able to identify vulnerabilities in different categories. In terms of deployment, we conclude that the tool should be integrated with bug reporting systems, and developers need to share the responsibility for classifying and reporting warnings. With regard to tool usage by developers, we propose to use multiple persons (at least two) in classifying a warning. The same goes for making the decision of how to act based on the warning.

  • 1015.
    Baca, Dejan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Countermeasure graphs for software security risk assessment: An action research2013In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, Vol. 86, no 9, p. 2411-2428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software security risk analysis is an important part of improving software quality. In previous research we proposed countermeasure graphs (CGs), an approach to conduct risk analysis, combining the ideas of different risk analysis approaches. The approach was designed for reuse and easy evolvability to support agile software development. CGs have not been evaluated in industry practice in agile software development. In this research we evaluate the ability of CGs to support practitioners in identifying the most critical threats and countermeasures. The research method used is participatory action research where CGs were evaluated in a series of risk analyses on four different telecom products. With Peltier (used prior to the use of CGs at the company) the practitioners identified attacks with low to medium risk level. CGs allowed practitioners to identify more serious risks (in the first iteration 1 serious threat, 5 high risk threats, and 11 medium threats). The need for tool support was identified very early, tool support allowed the practitioners to play through scenarios of which countermeasures to implement, and supported reuse. The results indicate that CGs support practitioners in identifying high risk security threats, work well in an agile software development context, and are cost-effective.

  • 1016. Baca, Dejan
    et al.
    Petersen, Kai
    Prioritizing Countermeasures through the Countermeasure Method for Software Security (CM-Sec)2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software security is an important quality aspect of a software system. Therefore, it is important to integrate software security touch points throughout the development life-cycle. So far, the focus of touch points in the early phases has been on the identification of threats and attacks. In this paper we propose a novel method focusing on the end product by prioritizing countermeasures. The method provides an extension to attack trees and a process for identification and prioritization of countermeasures. The approach has been applied on an open-source application and showed that countermeasures could be identified. Furthermore, an analysis of the effectiveness and cost-efficiency of the countermeasures could be provided.

  • 1017. Baca, Dejan
    et al.
    Petersen, Kai
    Carlsson, Bengt
    Lundberg, Lars
    Static Code Analysis to Detect Software Security Vulnerabilities: Does Experience Matter?2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Code reviews with static analysis tools are today recommended by several security development processes. Developers are expected to use the tools' output to detect the security threats they themselves have introduced in the source code. This approach assumes that all developers can correctly identify a warning from a static analysis tool (SAT) as a security threat that needs to be corrected. We have conducted an industry experiment with a state of the art static analysis tool and real vulnerabilities. We have found that average developers do not correctly identify the security warnings and only developers with specific experiences are better than chance in detecting the security vulnerabilities. Specific SAT experience more than doubled the number of correct answers and a combination of security experience and SAT experience almost tripled the number of correct security answers.

  • 1018.
    Bachu, Rajesh
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    A framework to migrate and replicate VMware Virtual Machines to Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud: Performance comparison between on premise and the migrated Virtual Machine2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context Cloud Computing is the new trend in the IT industry. Traditionally obtaining servers was quiet time consuming for companies. The whole process of research on what kind of hardware to buy, get budget approval, purchase the hardware and get access to the servers could take weeks or months. In order to save time and reduce expenses, most companies are moving towards the cloud. One of the known cloud providers is Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2). Amazon EC2 makes it easy for companies to obtain virtual servers (known as computer instances) in a cloud quickly and inexpensively. Another advantage of using Amazon EC2 is the flexibility that they offer, so the companies can even import/export the Virtual Machines (VM) that they have built which meets the companies IT security, configuration, management and compliance requirements into Amazon EC2.

    Objectives In this thesis, we investigate importing a VM running on VMware into Amazon EC2. In addition, we make a performance comparison between a VM running on VMware and the VM with same image running on Amazon EC2.

    Methods A Case study research has been done to select a persistent method to migrate VMware VMs to Amazon EC2. In addition an experimental research is conducted to measure the performance of Virtual Machine running on VMware and compare it with same Virtual Machine running on EC2. We measure the performance in terms of CPU, memory utilization as well as disk read/write speed using well-known open-source benchmarks from Phoronix Test Suite (PTS).

    Results Investigation on importing VM snapshots (VMDK, VHD and RAW format) to EC2 was done using three methods provided by AWS. Comparison of performance was done by running each benchmark for 25 times on each Virtual Machine.

    Conclusions Importing VM to EC2 was successful only with RAW format and replication was not successful as AWS installs some software and drivers while importing the VM to EC2. Migrated EC2 VM performs better than on premise VMware VM in terms of CPU, memory utilization and disk read/write speed.

  • 1019. Bachu, Yashwanth
    Packaging Demand Forecasting in Logistics using Deep Neural Networks2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Logistics have a vital role in supply chain management and those logistics operations are dependent on the availability of packaging material for packing goods and material to be shipped. Forecasting packaging material demand for a long period of time will help organization planning to meet the demand. Using time-series data with Deep Neural Networks for long term forecasting is proposed for research. Objectives: This study is to identify the DNN used in forecasting packaging demand and in similar problems in terms of data, data similar to the available data with the organization (Volvo). Identifying the best-practiced approach for long-term forecasting and then combining the approach with identified and selected DNN for forecasting. The end objective of the thesis is to suggest the best DNN model for packaging demand forecasting. Methods: An experiment is conducted to evaluate the DNN models selected for demand forecasting. Three models are selected by a preliminary systematic literature review. Another Systematic literature review is performed in parallel for identifying metrics to evaluate the models to measure performance. Results from the preliminary literature review were instrumental in performing the experiment. Results: Three models observed in this study are performing well with considerable forecasting values. But based on the type and amount of historical data that models were given to learn, three models have a very slight difference in performance measures in terms of forecasting performance. Comparisons are made with different measures that are selected by the literature review. For a better understanding of the batch size impact on model performance, experimented three models were developed with two different batch sizes. Conclusions: Proposed models are performing considerable forecasting of packaging demand for planning the next 52 weeks (∼ 1 Year). Results show that by adopting DNN in forecasting, reliable packaging demand can be forecasted on time series data for packaging material. The combination of CNN-LSTM is better performing than the respective individual models by a small margin. By extending the forecasting at the granule level of the supply chain (Individual suppliers and plants) will benefit the organization by controlling the inventory and avoiding excess inventory.

  • 1020.
    Backlund, Malin
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Health.
    Fransson, Caroline
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Health.
    Kvinnors upplevelser av vardagen i det icke akuta skedet efter en hjärtinfarkt - En litteraturstudie2015Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Hjärtinfarkt är en av de vanligaste dödsorsakerna i världen bland kvinnor. Det finns faktorer som visar på att kvinnor har lättare att drabbas av både psykisk och fysisk ohälsa efter en hjärtinfarkt. En orsak skulle kunna vara att en del kvinnor upplever diffusa symtom vid insjuknandet, vilket kanske skulle kunna leda till rädsla att inte kunna tolka om en ny hjärtinfarkt skulle uppstå. En annan orsak till varför kvinnor kan uppleva ohälsa efter en hjärtinfarkt skulle kunna vara det högre krav som ställs på kvinnor idag. Då de ofta både arbetar heltid och samtidigt sköter hemmet, skulle det kunna leda till att kvinnor kan uppleva försämrad livskvalitet då de inte längre klarar av att nå upp till de krav som samhället ställer på dem. Syfte: Att belysa kvinnors upplevelser av vardagen i det icke akuta skedet efter en hjärtinfarkt. Metod: Litteraturstudie som baserades på sju vetenskapliga artiklar som redogjorde för kvalitativ ansats. Vid kvalitetsgranskningen av de vetenskapliga artiklarna användes Olsson och Sörensens bedömningsmall för kvalitativa studier. För att analysera de vetenskapliga artiklarna användes Granheim och Lundmans tolkning av analysmetod. Resultat: I studiens resultat framkom det att kvinnorna upplevde en ändrad vardag efter hjärtinfarkten där livsstilsförändringar upplevdes svåra att utföra och bibehålla trots att de kände motivation. Kvinnorna upplevde även olika begränsningar, vilket utgav sig i känslomässiga reaktioner. Något annat som kvinnorna belyste var känslan av att ha varit nära döden, där de både kände rädsla över hur skört livet är och tacksamhet över att vara vid liv. Slutsats: Kvinnorna hade svårigheter med att anpassa sig till livet efter hjärtinfarkten. Med uteblivet stöd och otillräcklig kunskap blev det svårt för kvinnorna att hantera den nya livssituationen, vilket resulterade i både psykisk och fysisk ohälsa. Även om de var tacksamma över att ha överlevt upplevde kvinnorna svårigheter med att hantera det nya livet. Med större kunskap om kvinnors upplevelse i det icke akuta skedet efter en hjärtinfarkt skulle sjuksköterskan kunna tillämpa en bättre omvårdnad i ett tidigare skede.

  • 1021.
    Backman, Elin
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    Ronnerhall, Josefine
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    Finansieringsresonemang: en studie av fyra småföretag2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka hur småföretag väljer mellan olika finansieringsformer. Metod: För att uppfylla uppsatsens syfte så har vi tillämpat en kvalitativ metod, där en studie genomförts genom semistrukturerade intervjuer med företagare i fyra utvalda småföretag. Slutsatser: Denna undersökning visar på att småföretag bland olika finansieringsalternativ har mest kunskap om bankfinansiering, varför metoden känns trygg och således ofta tillämpas av småföretagare. Kunskapen om andra finansieringsalternativ är bristfällig, och det anses för tid- och kostnadskrävande att skaffa sig kunskap tillräcklig djup nog för att kunna förankra finansieringsbeslut i.

  • 1022. Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Determinants of self-employment among commuters and non-commuters2016In: Papers in regional science (Print), ISSN 1056-8190, E-ISSN 1435-5957, Vol. 95, no 4, p. 755-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse the determinants of self-employment and focus on the contextual environment. By distinguishing between commuters and non-commuters we are able to analyse the influence from the work and home environment, respectively. Our results indicate a significant difference between non-commuters and commuters in terms of the role of networks for becoming self-employed. Our results indicate that it is the business networks where people work, rather than where they live that exerts a positive influence on the probability of becoming self-employed. These effects are further robust over educational and occupational categories. © 2015 RSAI.

  • 1023.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping International Buiness School, SWE.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Entrepreneurship and Age Across Time and Space2017In: Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie, ISSN 0040-747X, E-ISSN 1467-9663Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies confirm an inverted U-shaped relationship between age and entrepreneurship. This paper deepens the understanding of this relationship by analysing how the relationship varies across time and across different types of regions, aspects often overlooked in the current literature. An individual perspective is taken, and the probability of starting a firm is expected to increase as individuals' age but at a decreasing rate. The results show significant differences in the relationship between the age of individuals and the rate of entrepreneurship across time and space. The age-entrepreneurship profile has shifted to the left over time such that individuals are younger when they start firms. © 2017 Royal Dutch Geographical Society KNAG.

  • 1024.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jonkoping Int Business Sch, SWE.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Location of New Firms: Influence of Commuting Behaviour2017In: Growth and Change, ISSN 0017-4815, E-ISSN 1468-2257, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 682-699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the entrepreneurship literature, it is generally assumed that an individual establishes a new firm in a location in which they have strong ties, normally in the municipality of residence or employment. We scrutinise this general assumption and show that firm location depends on individual characteristics, such as the commuting experience. Our results show that commuting influences the firm location choice. The probability of establishing a firm in the work municipality increases if the entrepreneur is a commuter, holding constant the type of region and unobservable and observable individual features.

  • 1025.
    Backström, Eva
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Petersson, Martin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Kommunikationens betydelse i mötet mellan sjuksköterska och en patient med diagnosen stroke2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Varje år insjuknar ca 25-30 000 människor i stroke i Sverige. Sjuksköterskan måste ha i beaktande att dessa patienter kan ha kommunikationssvårigheter av olika grad. Syftet med studien var att undersöka och beskriva hur sjuksköterskan ska gå till väga när hon ska kommunicera med en patient som har fått diagnosen stroke. Resultatet visar att sjuk-sköterskorna ofta saknar kunskap i hur hon ska agera och bete sig när hon kommunicerar med en patient som fått diagnosen stroke. Brist på tid är också ett vanligt förekommande problem som gör att sjuksköterskan helt enkelt inte hinner lägga den tid som krävs för att kommunicera med den individ som insjuknat i stroke. Till följd av det känner sjuksköterskan att hon inte kan sköta sitt jobb på ett korrekt och tillfredsställande sätt. Slutsatsen av vår studie visar att det bl.a. behöver läggas mer tid på att utveckla sjuksköterskornas kommunikativa kunskaper så att en god och trygg relation kan skapas med den som insjuknat i stroke. Studien är en litteraturstudie med kvalitativ utgångspunkt och Joyce Travelbee´s omvårdnadsteori har använts som teoretisk referensram. Travelbee påtalar vikten av kommunikationen mellan sjuksköterska och patient. Polit & Hunglers modell för litteratursökning har använts och vi har blivit inspirerade av Graneheim & Lundmans sammanställning av analysmetod när vi har analyserat vetenskapliga artiklar.

  • 1026.
    Bacou, Patrick
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Lönnberg, Oskar
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Att vårda patienter med HIV/AIDS: Sjuksköterskors upplevelser2012Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) och Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) är en obotlig sjukdom där prevalensen har ökat de senaste åren. Sjukdomen angriper immunförsvarets celler och utan behandling leder den till en säker död. Sjukdomen sprider rädsla och är förknippad med stigmatisering och diskriminering runt om i världen. Studier visade att patienter kände sig diskriminerade av vårdpersonal, samtidigt som andra studier visade att sjuksköterskor upplevde sig rädda och hade en ovilja att vårda. I en god vård och vårdrelation skall sjuksköterskor värna om patientens välbefinnande. Syfte: Syftet var att beskriva sjuksköterskors upplevelser av att vårda patienter med HIV/AIDS. Metod: Studien baserades på en kvalitativ litteraturstudie av nio artiklar. Resultat: Resultatet delades in i tre kategorier och sju underkategorier. Kategorierna som framkom i resultatet var; att vara känslomässigt involverad, erfarenhet ökade förståelsen och rädsla för smitta. I studien framkom det olika upplevelser som påverkade vårdrelationen både negativt och positivt. Slutsats: Sjuksköterskorna upplevde ett starkt engagemang i vårdandet av patienter med HIV/AIDS. Det var även viktigt att bilda en god relation till patienterna för att möjliggöra en god vård. Den nära relationen kunde ge upphov till lidande då patienter blev svårt sjuka eller avled. Sjuksköterskor upplevde även att erfarenhet ökade deras kunskap och attityd mot sjukdomen. Upplevelser av rädsla framkom och gav upphov till sämre vård.

  • 1027. Badampudi, Deepika
    Decision-making support for choosing among different component origins.2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 1028.
    Badampudi, Deepika
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Factors Affecting Efficiency of Agile Planning: A Case Study2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Planning in software projects is a difficult problem due to the uncertainty associated with it. There are many factors that cause difficulty in formulating a plan. Not many factors that influence the efficiency of planning are identified in the previous studies. The literature focuses only on technical aspects such as requirements selection and estimation in order to plan a release or iteration. Objectives. The objective of this study is to identify factors that affect planning efficiency. The context in which the objective is achieved is large scale complex projects that are distributed across multiple teams, in multiple global sites. The motivation for selecting large scale context is because most of the existing releases planning approaches discussed in the literature were investigated in small scale projects. Hence this context will allow studying the planning process in large scale industry. Methods. A case study was conducted at Siemens’ Development Centre in Bangalore, India. A total of 15 interviews were conducted to investigate the planning process adopted by Siemens. To achieve triangulation, process documents such as release planning documents are studied and direct observation of the planning meeting is performed. Therefore multiple sources are used to collect evidences. Results. The identified challenges are grouped into technical and non-technical category. In total 9 technical factors and 11 non-technical factors are identified. The identified factors are also classified based on the context in which they affect the planning. In addition 6 effects of the factors are identified and improvements perceived by the participants are discussed in this study.

  • 1029.
    Badampudi, Deepika
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Reporting Ethics Considerations in Software Engineering Publications2017In: 11TH ACM/IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON EMPIRICAL SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AND MEASUREMENT (ESEM 2017), IEEE , 2017, p. 205-210Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethical guidelines of software engineering journals require authors to provide statements related to the conflict of interest and the process of obtaining consent (if human subjects are involved). The objective of this study is to review the reporting of the ethical considerations in Empirical Software Engineering - An International Journal. The results indicate that two out of seven studies reported some ethical information however, not explicitly. The ethical discussions were focussed on anonymity and confidentiality. Ethical aspects such as competence, comprehensibility and vulnerability of the subjects were not discussed in any of the papers reviewed in this study. It is important to not only state that consent was obtained however, the procedure of obtaining consent should be reported to improve the accountability and trust.

  • 1030.
    Badampudi, Deepika
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Towards decision-making to choose among different component origins2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: The amount of software in solutions provided in various domains is continuously growing. These solutions are a mix of hardware and software solutions, often referred to as software-intensive systems. Companies seek to improve the software development process to avoid delays or cost overruns related to the software development.  

    Objective: The overall goal of this thesis is to improve the software development/building process to provide timely, high quality and cost efficient solutions. The objective is to select the origin of the components (in-house, outsource, components off-the-shelf (COTS) or open source software (OSS)) that facilitates the improvement. The system can be built of components from one origin or a combination of two or more (or even all) origins. Selecting a proper origin for a component is important to get the most out of a component and to optimize the development. 

    Method: It is necessary to investigate the component origins to make decisions to select among different origins. We conducted a case study to explore the existing challenges in software development.  The next step was to identify factors that influence the choice to select among different component origins through a systematic literature review using a snowballing (SB) strategy and a database (DB) search. Furthermore, a Bayesian synthesis process is proposed to integrate the evidence from literature into practice.  

    Results: The results of this thesis indicate that the context of software-intensive systems such as domain regulations hinder the software development improvement. In addition to in-house development, alternative component origins (outsourcing, COTS, and OSS) are being used for software development. Several factors such as time, cost and license implications influence the selection of component origins. Solutions have been proposed to support the decision-making. However, these solutions consider only a subset of factors identified in the literature.   

    Conclusions: Each component origin has some advantages and disadvantages. Depending on the scenario, one component origin is more suitable than the others. It is important to investigate the different scenarios and suitability of the component origins, which is recognized as future work of this thesis. In addition, the future work is aimed at providing models to support the decision-making process.

  • 1031.
    Badampudi, Deepika
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Britto, Ricardo
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Modern code reviews - Preliminary results of a systematic mapping study2019In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Association for Computing Machinery , 2019, p. 340-345Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reviewing source code is a common practice in a modern and collaborative coding environment. In the past few years, the research on modern code reviews has gained interest among practitioners and researchers. The objective of our investigation is to observe the evolution of research related to modern code reviews, identify research gaps and serve as a basis for future research. We use a systematic mapping approach to identify and classify 177 research papers. As preliminary result of our investigation, we present in this paper a classification scheme of the main contributions of modern code review research between 2005 and 2018. © 2019 Association for Computing Machinery.

  • 1032.
    Badampudi, Deepika
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Claes, Wohlin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Kai, Petersen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Software Component Decision-making: In-house, OSS, COTS or Outsourcing: A Systematic Literature Review2016In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 121, p. 105-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Component-based software systems require decisions on component origins for acquiring components. A component origin is an alternative of where to get a component from. Objective: To identify factors that could influence the decision to choose among different component origins and solutions for decision-making (For example, optimization) in the literature. Method: A systematic review study of peer-reviewed literature has been conducted. Results: In total we included 24 primary studies. The component origins compared were mainly focused on in-house vs. COTS and COTS vs. OSS. We identified 11 factors affecting or influencing the decision to select a component origin. When component origins were compared, there was little evidence on the relative (either positive or negative) effect of a component origin on the factor. Most of the solutions were proposed for in-house vs. COTS selection and time, cost and reliability were the most considered factors in the solutions. Optimization models were the most commonly proposed technique used in the solutions. Conclusion: The topic of choosing component origins is a green field for research, and in great need of empirical comparisons between the component origins, as well of how to decide between different combinations of them.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-11-01 12:16
  • 1033.
    Badampudi, Deepika
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Moreno, Ana
    Perspectives on Productivity and Delays in Large-Scale Agile Projects2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many large and distributed companies run agile projects in development environments that are inconsistent with the original agile ideas. Problems that result from these inconsistencies can affect the productivity of development projects and the timeliness of releases. To be effective in such contexts, the agile ideas need to be adapted. We take an inductive approach for reaching this aim by basing the design of the development process on observations of how context, practices, challenges, and impacts interact. This paper reports the results of an interview study of five agile development projects in an environment that was unfavorable for agile principles. Grounded theory was used to identify the challenges of these projects and how these challenges affected productivity and delays according to the involved project roles. Productivity and delay-influencing factors were discovered that related to requirements creation and use, collaboration, knowledge management, and the application domain. The practitioners’ explanations about the factors' impacts are, on one hand, a rich empirical source for avoiding and mitigating productivity and delay problems and, on the other hand, a good starting point for further research on flexible large-scale development.

  • 1034.
    Badampudi, Deepika
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Franke, Ulrik
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, SWE.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalens högskola, SWE.
    A decision-making process-line for selection of software asset origins and components2018In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 135, p. 88-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selecting sourcing options for software assets and components is an important process that helps companies to gain and keep their competitive advantage. The sourcing options include: in-house, COTS, open source and outsourcing. The objective of this paper is to further refine, extend and validate a solution presented in our previous work. The refinement includes a set of decision-making activities, which are described in the form of a process-line that can be used by decision-makers to build their specific decision-making process. We conducted five case studies in three companies to validate the coverage of the set of decision-making activities. The solution in our previous work was validated in two cases in the first two companies. In the validation, it was observed that no activity in the proposed set was perceived to be missing, although not all activities were conducted and the activities that were conducted were not executed in a specific order. Therefore, the refinement of the solution into a process-line approach increases the flexibility and hence it is better in capturing the differences in the decision-making processes observed in the case studies. The applicability of the process-line was then validated in three case studies in a third company. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-01-01 12:19
  • 1035.
    Badampudi, Deepika
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Bayesian Synthesis for Knowledge Translation in Software Engineering: Method and Illustration2016In: 2016 42th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications (SEAA), IEEE, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systematic literature reviews in software engineering are necessary to synthesize evidence from multiple studies to provide knowledge and decision support. However, synthesis methods are underutilized in software engineering research. Moreover, translation of synthesized data (outcomes of a systematic review) to provide recommendations for practitioners is seldom practiced. The objective of this paper is to introduce the use of Bayesian synthesis in software engineering research, in particular to translate research evidence into practice by providing the possibility to combine contextualized expert opinions with research evidence. We adopted the Bayesian synthesis method from health research and customized it to be used in software engineering research. The proposed method is described and illustrated using an example from the literature. Bayesian synthesis provides a systematic approach to incorporate subjective opinions in the synthesis process thereby making the synthesis results more suitable to the context in which they will be applied. Thereby, facilitating the interpretation and translation of knowledge to action/application. None of the synthesis methods used in software engineering allows for the integration of subjective opinions, hence using Bayesian synthesis can add a new dimension to the synthesis process in software engineering research.

  • 1036.
    Badampudi, Deepika
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Contextualizing research evidence through knowledge translation in software engineering2019In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Association for Computing Machinery , 2019, p. 306-311Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Usage of software engineering research in industrial practice is a well-known challenge. Synthesis of knowledge from multiple research studies is needed to provide evidence-based decision-support for industry. The objective of this paper is to present a vision of how a knowledge translation framework may look like in software engineering research, in particular how to translate research evidence into practice by combining contextualized expert opinions with research evidence. We adopted the framework of knowledge translation from health care research, adapted and combined it with a Bayesian synthesis method. The framework provided in this paper includes a description of each step of knowledge translation in software engineering. Knowledge translation using Bayesian synthesis intends to provide a systematic approach towards contextualized, collaborative and consensus-driven application of research results. In conclusion, this paper contributes towards the application of knowledge translation in software engineering through the presented framework. © 2019 Association for Computing Machinery.

  • 1037.
    Badampudi, Deepika
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Guidelines for Knowledge Translation in Software EngineeringIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1038.
    Badampudi, Deepika
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Experiences from Using Snowballing and Database Searches in Systematic Literature Studies2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Systematic literature studies are commonly used in software engineering. There are two main ways of conducting the searches for these type of studies; they are snowballing and database searches. In snowballing, the reference list (backward snowballing - BSB) and citations (forward snowballing - FSB) of relevant papers are reviewed to identify new papers whereas in a database search, different databases are searched using predefined search strings to identify new papers. Objective: Snowballing has not been in use as extensively as database search. Hence it is important to evaluate its efficiency and reliability when being used as a search strategy in literature studies. Moreover, it is important to compare it to database searches. Method: In this paper, we applied snowballing in a literature study, and reflected on the outcome. We also compared database search with backward and forward snowballing. Database search and snowballing were conducted independently by different researchers. The searches of our literature study were compared with respect to the efficiency and reliability of the findings. Results: Out of the total number of papers found, snowballing identified 83% of the papers in comparison to 46% of the papers for the database search. Snowballing failed to identify a few relevant papers, which potentially could have been addressed by identifying a more comprehensive start set. Conclusion: The efficiency of snowballing is comparable to database search. It can potentially be more reliable than a database search however, the reliability is highly dependent on the creation of a suitable start set.

  • 1039.
    Badea, Adrian
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Bradea, Florentina
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    FinTech in emerging markets: a case study for Romania and Financial Technologies2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to describe the cultural, socio-demographic, technologic, financial and regulatory factors in Romania and analyze how these factors influence the adoptionof FinTech in the Romanian market.

    Design/methodology/approach. Using a case study as a research method, we have gained comprehensive information from various data sources. Furthermore, we have distributed a detailed questionnaire and attempted to gauge the influence of various factors over the respondents’ usage of FinTech.

    Contribution. This study attempts to improve a theoretical framework regarding the main factorsinfluencing the Fintech adoption in emerging economies. The paper contributes to the literature by describing how the interrelation of different factors contributes to the adoption of a new technologyin an emerging country which has a relatively conservative society.

    Major Findings. The results of the study generally confirmed the findings in the global literatureon this topic. Some global findings could not be confirmed, partially due to the inherent bias in thesample selection. The biggest new factor found to influence FinTech adoption was the users’ priorexperience with a non-banking financial services provider, followed by their breadth of usage of various IT&C services and the time they spent online.

  • 1040.
    Badin, Iulia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Perfektionism, emotion och kreativ problemlösning2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kreativiteten är mångfacetterad och intensivt studerad, med processerna involverade i kreativ problemlösning traditionellt undersökta inom kognitionen. Perfektionismen är ett personlighetsdrag som påverkar alla områden i individernas liv. Ändå är perfektionismens påverkan över kreativ problemlösning otillräckligt utforskat. Därför var syftet med föreliggande studie att undersöka perfektionismens effekter över kreativ problemlösning samt att undersöka hur perfektionism tillsammans med känslor påverkar förmågan att lösa kreativa problem. Genom en webbaserad enkät samlades data in från 96 deltagare genom självskattningsinstrument för perfektionism och för känslotillstånd, ett test för kognitiv reflektion och ett insiktsproblem där svarstiderna registrerades. Inom perfektionism delades deltagarna in i tre grupper: icke-perfektionister, adaptiva perfektionister och maladaptiva perfektionister. Resultatet indikerade att det finns vissa skillnader mellan maladaptiva perfektionister och de andra två grupperna, men inte mellan adaptiva perfektionister och icke-perfektionister när sättet att lösa problemet på undersöktes i relation till tiden de ägnade åt uppgiften. Känslornas roll har inte fastställts och behöver ytterligare forskning.

  • 1041. Badoi, Cornelia-Ionela
    et al.
    Croitoru, Victor
    Popescu, Adrian
    IPSAG Cognitive Radio Routing Protocol: Models and Performance2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper is about performance evaluation of IP Spectrum Aware Geographic routing protocol (IPSAG). IPSAG is an opportunistic cognitive routing protocol which determines a source-destination route in a hop by hop manner, based on both global and local information. Simulation results are reported for a particular case of IPSAG, where the cognitive radio (CR) nodes are uniformly distributed inside the cognitive radio network (CRN), and a two-dimensional random walk model is used to model the mobility of CR nodes. The results show that the IPSAG protocol is performing well in the case of a highly mobile CRN and that the source-destination path is successfully found in the majority of the cases, especially when the network is highly populated.

  • 1042.
    Bafana, Ramzi
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Applied Signal Processing.
    Zulfiqar, Zain
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Applied Signal Processing.
    Solar Energy2014Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about Photovoltaic (PV) cells and its stresses in various directions by calculating the power generated using solar cells under different conditions to improve its efficiency. Our research studies found that using multi-junction cells with larger substrates can increase the efficiency to some extent which in practice is limited to 43 percent. The experiment was conducted using ten solar cells each with an area of 20.9〖cm〗 ^2, where each cell gives 0.5 V and 0.4 A and a 1.25 Ω resistor was used. The cells were connected in series. Once, the PV cells were fixed horizontally and the other time tested in tilted position under same outdoor condition. The purpose of testing PV cells was to investigate the efficiency under above mentioned conditions. The data collected from the readings was used in calculation, and we have obtained from the calculations that horizontally fixed cells gave 4.8 percent efficiency whereas tilted cells gave 6.6 percent efficiency. Hence, the ratio showed that fixed cells produced 37.5 percent more power compared to horizontally fixed cells. Our other experiment consisted of testing PV cells under different temperature conditions that was done using a freezer and an oven for temperature variation and a tungsten bulb was used as a light source. The purpose of performing this experiment was to investigate how the efficiency of PV cells is affected under extreme conditions. Part of our thesis was also including studies and analysis of produced energy by the solar panel installed on the roof of “BTH” building in Karlskrona, Sweden. The data consisted of energy produced from February up to August 2014. The investigation also included finding the highest produced energy during these months. We have found that the highest energy was generated on the 1st of July which was 12.86 kWh. Furthermore, we went deep into investigation of the 1st of July to know exactly which hour of that day the highest energy was produced. The data showed that the highest produced energy was at 12:19 and 13:19 which was 2.03 kWh.

  • 1043.
    Baffour, Asare
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    The Compliance or Non-Compliance of the Internal Audit Department of Organisations with the Guidelines Specified by the Institute of Internal Auditors(IIA) A Case Study of Star Assurance Company Ltd.2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the compliance or non-compliance of organisations with the critical elements required for setting up and operating an internal audit department as expected by the Institute of Internal Auditors UK. Compliance with the Standards is mandated by the IIA for every individual who provides internal audit services The researcher used a case study to explain the relationship between the variables: the case of the internal audit department of Star Assurance Company. The researcher employed both primary and secondary data, qualitative and quantitative research methods were also used to examine the internal audit department of Star Assurance Company Ltd (SAC). A number of data collection methods were combined to verify the reliability and accuracy of the data as suggested by Yin(2003). The study used a combination of data collection tools; a Survey, Questionnaire, Relevant Corporate Documents and Observation.. Literature, which was relevant to the subject matter, was reviewed to determine the benchmarks for an effective internal audit department. The study discussed the key functions of an internal audit department and the major objectives of internal audits. The study also discussed the independence, organizational status and objectivity required for effective performance of the department. The study also discussed the role of internal auditors and the critical elements required of every effective internal audit department. The challenges faced by internal audit departments were also discussed. Useful insights were taken from the Institute of Internal Auditors guidelines and also the Sarbanes Oxley Act. A brief profile of the company, which was studied, was included in the work. The research revealed that the company had made significant efforts to comply with the requirements of the I.I.A. I concluded by making recommendations, which the company could adopt to enable them, comply more extensively with the IIA guidelines

  • 1044.
    Bagherpour, Farshid
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Hamsand, Philippe
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Senior citizen as a market segment for Swedish travel industry2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The senior tourism is getting more and more attention in many countries as the importance of this market segment becomes more evident. This is strengthened by political initiative/project, where generous financial aids are offered to develop promotion and communication activities to disseminate the transnational packages and raise awareness on the tourism offer for seniors (EU-Commission, 2013) could be interpreted as a possible under-served trend within tourism. This thesis aims to give insight into how the senior tourism is defined and how it is served by the Swedish main stream travel companies. Further in this thesis the authors are trying to find an answer if the market segmentation where senior citizens would be defined as a specific market segment, would benefit the companies.

  • 1045.
    Bahrieh, Sara
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Sensor Central / Automotive Systems2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    How to display objects which were detected from different devices in one coordinate system? Nowadays most vehicles are equipped with front and back sensors to help the driver in driving process. Companies who provide this technology need to have an application which enables them for easy data fusion from these sensors and recording the process. Besides sensor’s design, programming of them is an important aspect. BASELABS Connect has the solution in a user friendly way. Creating Sensor Central component for BASELABS Connect is the main goal of this thesis. Sensor Central from BASELABS Connect requires six variables of sensor’s position for each sensor to demonstrate the objects from all sensors to one unique coordinate system. In this thesis, it was intended to create such a component which was mounted between all the sensors and the charting component to convert the objects location from different sensor’s position to one coordinate system and to be usable from other vehicles too.

  • 1046.
    Bahta, Maria Teclemariam
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    Persson, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    Kreditkort och påverkan: Om påverkansfaktorer som leder till konsumenters agerande2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med uppsatsen är att lyfta fram hur säljare aktivt arbetar med påverkansfaktorerna auktoritet och skrämsel vid försäljning av kreditkort och på vilket sätt faktorerna skapar intresse hos kunder att skaffa ett kreditkort. Vi vill även undersöka ifall vi kan se vilken av de två påverkansfaktorerna som är mest effektiv vid kreditkortsförsäljning. Metod: Undersökningen är baserad på en kvalitativ studie och vi har genomfört intervjuer med fem duktiga säljare från de största bankerna. Slutsats: Slutsatsen som studien har påvisat är att det finns tydliga kopplingar mellan utvalda faktorer och kreditkortsförsäljning. Vår undersökning visar även att det finns likheter i säljargumenten som skickliga säljare inom kreditkortsbranschen använder och dessa argument har betydelse när kunder påverkas.

  • 1047. Bahtsevani, Christel
    et al.
    Khalaf, Azzam
    Willman, Ania
    Evaluating psychiatric nurses´awarness of evidence-based nursing publications.2005In: Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing, ISSN 1545-102X , Vol. 2, no 2, p. 196-207Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1048. Bahtsevani, Christel
    et al.
    Udén, Giggi
    Willman, Ania
    Outcomes of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines: A systematic review2004In: International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care, ISSN 0266-4623 , Vol. 20, no 4, p. 427-433Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1049. Bahtsevani, Christel
    et al.
    Willman, Ania
    Khalaf, Azzam
    Östman, Margareta
    Developing an instrument for evaluating implementation of clinical practice guidelines: a test-retest study2008In: Journal of Evaluation In Clinical Practice, ISSN 1356-1294, E-ISSN 1365-2753, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 839-846Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    this study focuses on the development of an instrument for the evaluation of clinical practice guidelines and is one part of a research project about the implementation and use of such guidelines among hospitals in the southern region of Sweden. The aim of the present paper was to investigate the test -retest reliability of a questionnaire. A questionnaire was designed to gather data about guidelines that have been implemented as well as information about factors, which, according to the promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS)-model, influence the success of implementation. Thirty-nine health professionals at one of the hospitals included in the survey completed the questionnaire on two occasions within a mean time of 5.5 weeks. The test-retest reliability was analysed by means of Cohen´s kappa and percentage concordance. Eight items had good agreement in terms of strength and high percentage concordance. With regard to the kappa values, 13 items show moderate and two fair agreement. The test-retest reliability scores show mainly acceptable results indicating a reasonable stability, thus suggesting the possibility of further developing the instrument. The factors described in the PARIHS-model seem relevant for use in evaluating implementation and use of guidelines. The instrument could benefit from a revision of the language in order to enhance clarity and make it less abstract.

  • 1050. Bahtsevani, Christel
    et al.
    Willman, Ania
    Stoltz, Peter
    Östman, Margareta
    Experiences of the implementation of clinical practice guidelines: interviews with nurse managers and nurses in hospital care2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 514-522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The implementation of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) has become an increasingly common element of clinical care, but little qualitative research has been conducted in real-life settings. The aim was to elucidate experiences and factors of importance for the implementation of CPGs in hospital care. Twenty interviews were conducted, audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. A manifest and latent content analysis was performed to interpret the text. A system of subcategories related to five categories and one overall theme were developed. the data reveal that the implementation of CPGs is continnuous processes of creating reliable and tenable routines that involve all staff members and expect to lead to better and safer patient care as well as to increased knowledge and confidence among staff. The process is initiated by internal or external demands and represents a way to keep abreast of knowledge development. Several factors facilitate the implementation and have influence on the use and compliance with CPGs. To increase support for and willingness to use the CPGs, it appears important to involve all staffs in the implementation process as well as to follow up and give feedback continuously to staff and management. It seems necessary toevaluate the process to supervise compliancewith CPGs and to balance priorities and costs. Evaluationcan also demonstrate importance of the application.

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