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  • 101.
    McNeil, Jenna
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Propfe, Dirk
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Schwarzin, Oskar
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Teal Organizations and Strategic Sustainable Development: A promising apprach to transition businesses towards sustainability2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 102.
    Michel, Caroline
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Kamalaldin, Anmar
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Sweet, Kelly
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Cultivating the Future: Sustainability Education and the International Baccalaureate Programme2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With an introduction to the Sustainability Challenge and Sustainable Development this paper discusses the role of education as an important strategy in the transition towards sustainability. It argues that Sustainability Education (SE) should be infused into the curricula, especially at the adolescence stage. The research uses the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development as an approach for backcasting from the envisioned future: the ideal secondary school graduate equipped to meet the Sustainability Challenge.By conducting a meta-analysis of literature, the research develops the Criteria for Analysing Sustainability Education (CASE). In terms of Knowledge, it advises developing awareness of Sustainable Development, Economy, Environment and Society. With regard to Skills, it includes Cognitive Thinking Skills, Practical and Functional Skills, and Interpersonal Skills. In relation to Attitudes, it comprises Attitudes about Self and Attitudes about People and Planet.The paper then evaluates the International Baccalaureate (IB) Programme, using the CASE and interviews with practitioners, with focus on curriculum design of the Middle Years Programme, Diploma Programme, and Learner Profile. It concludes that the IB generally aligns with the criteria for quality SE, but some gaps exist. The paper suggests recommendations that can further improve the IB with regard to SE.

  • 103.
    Milletorp, Eva
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development. eva@blevant.se.
    Busiku, Christopher
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Candiotti Bustamente, Jean Pierre
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Fostering Sustainable Entrepreneurship by Governmental Entrepreneurship Agencies: The Case of Almi Blekinge2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of entrepreneurship for economic growth has long been recognized. It is also widely agreed that we are facing a sustainability challenge, which, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, is largely created by the economic activities of the industrialized society. Corporate social responsibility and other global initiatives have not been sufficient in changing industry processes to more sustainable activities. Governments regulate activities in society through laws and guidelines, thus there is a clear role of governments in regulating the quality and outcomes of entrepreneurial initiatives in order to advance a sustainable development of society. The researchers´purpose was to understand how the governmental entrepreneurship promotion agency, Almi is fostering sustainable entrepreneurship and to recommend improvements. With a qualitative research method, the case of Almi Blekinge was studied. The research shows that Almi has the possibility to shape the entrepreneurial outcomes by adjusting the current mechanism with planetary socio-eco boundaries of sustainability. The recommendation is that Almi should steer their advising services towards a coaching dynamic where contributions to the socio-ecological system are assessed with the ultimate goal for companies to contribute to sustainable growth.

  • 104.
    Missimer, Merlina
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Social Sustainability within the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A common criticism of the sustainability field is that definitions are vague and that the vast amount of different tools, methods and concepts leads to confusion. In response to this challenge, for the past 25 years a group of scientists has explored the possibility to develop an overarching and unifying framework that would allow for a structured overview of other concepts, methods and tools and therefore allow for concrete, strategic planning for sustainability. Over this 25-year period the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD) has been tested in learning loops between scientists and practitioners and has continuously been developed. The aim of this research is to contribute specifically to the social sustainability definition of this framework, which has been found lacking both in theory and practice.

    The research first establishes exactly in which ways the social dimension is underdeveloped, both from a theoretical and from a practitioner’s perspective. In addition, the research explores the general field of social sustainability in order to understand the larger field, but also to gather inspiration and understand similar approaches. This exploration leads to the conclusion that also the larger field of social sustainability is also under-developed and underscores the importance of this research.

    Based on this conclusion, a new approach to social sustainability within the FSSD is created based on a systems approach to the social system. Various aspects of the social system are identified to be essential for sustainability, namely trust, common meaning, diversity, capacity for learning and capacity for self-organization. Then, overriding mechanisms by which these aspects of the social system can be degraded are identified. Based on the understanding of the essential aspects of the social system and the identified overriding mechanisms of degradation of these, a hypothesis for a definition of social sustainability by basic principles is presented. The proposed principles are, that in a socially sustainable society, people are not subject to structural obstacles to: (1) health, (2) influence, (3) competence, (4) impartiality and (5) meaning-making. These aim to function as exclusion criteria for re-design for social sustainability. The research then presents two evaluations of this new approach, one based on workshops and interviews with FSSD practitioners and one via an FSSD-analysis of ISO 26000. Both evaluations support this new approach as useful and workable, and also contribute to suggestions for further improvement. 

    Overall, the research contributes with a hypothesis for a definition of social sustainability, which is general enough to be applied irrespective of spatial and temporal constraints, but concrete enough to guide decision-making and monitoring. This is a contribution to systems science in the sustainability field, and it is a step towards creating an enhanced support for strategic planning and innovation for sustainability.

  • 105.
    Missimer, Merlina
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    A Strategic Approach to Social Sustainability - Part 2: A Principle-based Definition2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 140, no Part 1, p. 42-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The vast and growing array of concepts, methods and tools in the sustainability field imply a need for a structuring and coordinating framework, including a unifying and operational definition of sustainability. One attempt at such framework began over 25 years ago and is now widely known as the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development. However, as with the larger sustainability field, the social dimension of this framework has been found to not be sufficiently science-based and operational and thus in need of further development. In this two-part series an attempt at a science-based, operational definition of social sustainability is presented. In part 1 a systems-based approach to the social system was presented, based on extensive literature studies as well as conceptual modelling sessions using the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development as the guiding structure. The focus of that study was on the essential aspects of the social system that need to be sustained, namely trust, common meaning, diversity, capacity for learning and capacity for self-organization. The aim of this second paper is to identify and present overriding mechanisms by which these aspects of the social system can be degraded, thereby finding exclusion criteria for re-design for sustainability. Further literature studies, conceptual modelling sessions and initial testing of this prototype with partners in academia, business and NGOs were performed. Based on the understanding of the essential aspects of the social system and the identified overriding mechanisms of degradation of these, a hypothesis for a definition of social sustainability by basic principles is presented. The proposed principles are that in a socially sustainable society, people are not subject to structural obstacles to: (1) health, (2) influence, (3) competence, (4) impartiality and (5) meaning-making. Overall, the two papers aim to provide a hypothesis for a definition of social sustainability, which is general enough to be applied irrespective of spatial and temporal constraints, but concrete enough to guide decision-making and monitoring. It is also a further development of the social dimension of the FSSD, which practitioners and researchers have requested for some time and can act as a support towards better integration of social sustainability in many other fields, e.g., sustainable product innovation, sustainable supply chain management, sustainable transport system development, and others.

  • 106.
    Missimer, Merlina
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    A Strategic Approach to Social Sustainability -Part 1: Exploring the Social System2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 140, no Part 1, p. 32-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The vast and growing array of concepts, methods and tools in the sustainability field imply a need for a structuring and coordinating framework, including a unifying and operational definition of sustainability. One attempt at such framework began over 25 years ago and is now widely known as the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development. However, as with the larger sustainability field, the social dimension of this framework has been found to not be sufficiently science-based and operational and thus in need of further development. In this two-part series an attempt at a science-based, operational definition of social sustainability is presented. In this paper (part one), a systems-based approach to the social system is presented, as a basis for presenting a zero-hypothesis of principles for social sustainability in part two. Extensive literature studies as well as conceptual modeling sessions were performed and the social system was examined from various angles – complex adaptive system studies, human needs theory and other social sciences, and insights from these fields were woven together. The whole work was structured and guided by the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development. The focus of the study was on the essential aspects of the social system that need to be sustained (that cannot be systematically degraded) for it to be possible for people to meet their needs. These essential aspects were found to be trust, common meaning, diversity, capacity for learning and capacity for self-organization. Trust seems to be generally acknowledged to be the overriding aspect of a vital social system. A sense of common meaning is also stated by several authors as an important part of social capital and something that helps to keep a group or society together. Diversity is acknowledged as essential for resilience; in the human social system this can be interpreted as, e.g., diversity of personalities, ages, gender, skills. Capacity for learning and self-organization are also motivated from a resilience point of view by several authors. These results form a basis for the hypothesis for a definition of social sustainability presented in paper 2, which in turn is a step towards creating an enhanced support for strategic planning and innovation for sustainability.

  • 107.
    Missimer, Merlina
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    A Systems Perspective on ISO 260002014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since its publication in 2010, ISO 26000 has become the de-facto standard of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). While not a certifiable standard in ISO terms, but rather a guidance document, it has become the document many corporations use as their basis for CSR work. ISO 26000 claims that the objective of social responsibility is to contribute to sustainable development, using the Brundtland definition – development, which meets the needs the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs – as the basis for sustainable development. However, the Brundtland definition, while commonly referred to, is not sufficiently concrete to give guidance for strategic planning and action in businesses, municipalities and society at large. Therefore it is helpful to supplement the Brundtland definition with a framework that allows for this concrete and strategic planning, e.g. the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD). The FSSD is based on a principled definition of sustainability, defining social and ecological sustainability in more operational terms, and includes guidelines for how to contribute systematically and strategically to fulfillment of this definition. It is a transdisciplinary framework built on insights from systems thinking and has been continuously developed as well as used and improved in organizations all over the world for the last two decades. A particular recent development focus has been the social dimension of sustainability, with new insights based on the application of systems thinking to social systems having been recently presented. In this paper, these new insights are used to analyze and evaluate ISO 26000´s contribution to sustainability, highlighting both benefits and shortcomings of ISO 26000 from a social systems and strategic sustainable development perspective. Main points include that, while ISO 26000 is comprehensive in it´s scope and provides a vast achievement in terms of international consensus building around the essential issues in CSR, it is not based on a scientific understanding of social and ecological systems and is therefore a document highlighting current societal expectations rather than a document allowing organizations to innovate, plan, act and monitor long-term for sustainability. The paper further points out examples of aspects of sustainability that are likely to become issues in the future, but that are currently not covered by the ISO guidance. Finally, the paper points at research needed to explore more in detail in which ways ISO 26000 can support strategic working towards sustainability, and in which areas other tools are necessary.

  • 108.
    Missimer, Merlina
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Lessons from the field:A first evaluation of working with the elaborated social dimension of the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development2014In: Relating Systems Thinking and Design 2014 Symposium Proceedings / [ed] Birger Sevaldson and Peter Jones, Oslo, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arguably, sustainability is the most complex challenge humanity has faced to date. Not only are the impacts of our behavior resulting in more and more sever repercussions, but we are also realizing that the causes of unsustainability are deeply embedded in the design of many of the systems we rely on. This means, of course, also, that solutions to the problem cannot be one-off ideas, but that strategic and systematic transformation of many of our systems is needed. Because of the necessity of the re-design of our economic and other man-made systems, it has been suggested that sustainability science should be considered a “science of design” (Miller 2011). Perhaps it can be considered one of the most “wicked” cases of design, as it needs to aim both for significant impact and a participatory approach to solve the challenge.

     

    One framework that approaches the sustainability challenge from a design angle is the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD). Specifically, it is based on the idea of strategically and step-wise designing sustainability out of the systems we currently rely on. The FSSD is a trans-disciplinary framework built on insights from systems thinking and has been continuously developed for the last two decades. Its core is built on backcasting from principles of re-design for sustainability, which allows for wide-spread agreement on what sustainability means and allows for creativity within these constraints, so that each group or organization can create their own path towards sustainability within these constraints. The FSSD has been used in organizations all over the world to create real transformation towards sustainability.

     

    A particular recent development focus has been the social dimension of sustainability. Following the idea of sustainability as a design science, the development was based on a design research methodology (e.g Blessing and Chakrabarti 2009), which included a suggested new ‘prototype’ for the approach to social sustainability within the FSSD. Based on a systems approach to the social system, five new principles of social sustainability have been proposed (Missimer 2013, Missimer et al. 2013a, 2013b). This paper aims to contribute to the evaluation stage of the prototype and presents preliminary results of an evaluation based on field-work with the new social sustainability principles. Overall, a clearer definition of social sustainability is not just for theoretical purposes, but because without a clear theoretical concept, it is hard to strategically work towards social sustainability in practice.

    The data for evaluation comes from workshops that were run with sustainability professionals (also called practitioners) who use the FSSD in their work. In three workshops, the authors, as well as groups of sustainability professionals, used the new social sustainability principles to assess projects on their contribution to social sustainability. The workshops were followed by reflections by and interviews with the professionals assessing the usability of the new principles.

     

    Preliminary results indicate that it is indeed possible to use the newly proposed social sustainability principles in the manner intended and that the approach yields results that are valuable to the professional and the potential clients of these professionals. Integration with existing tools commonly used by the practitioners was possible, although further refinement of the designed tool prototypes will be needed.

     

    Practitioners reflected that the earlier approach to social sustainability lacked in clarity and the ability to structure other tools and concepts in the field. They reported that most practitioners designed their own way of working with social sustainability, which lead to confusion and undermined a common approach. They appreciated the more thorough and scientific approach to the social aspects presented in the new approach, which allowed for a common language and a more thorough assessment of contributions to un-sustainability. The practitioners also reported new insights regarding the use and connection to other tools and concepts in the field of social sustainability.

     

    However, challenges were expressed as regards the somewhat more difficult nature of the science behind the new approach and how this impacted the ease of working with the framework for practitioners. The paper ends with some reflections by the authors. In further research this preliminary evaluation will be expanded and built upon to facilitate continuous improvement and applicability of the FSSD.

  • 109.
    Missimer, Merlina
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Valente, Marco
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Meisterheim, Tracy
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Johnson, Pierre
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Creating a learning environment for transformation: A case study of a course in sustainability leadership2013In: Leading Transformative Higher Education / [ed] Hampson, Gary P; Rich-Tolsma, Matthew, Olomouc: Palacký University , 2013Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For over 50 years, scientists and other thought leaders have been trying to call attention to the degradation of the foundation of human civilization through unsustainable behaviour (Carson 1962, Meadows et al. 1972, IGBP. 2004, Millenium Ecosystem Assessment 2005, Stern 2007, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2007, Rockström et al. 2009). The United Nations’ Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) has recently put renewed focus on not only what we need to learn and teach in the field of sustainable development, but also how we learn and teach about sustainable development. Pedagogical methods such as lifelong learning, social learning, problem-based learning, dialogue education, and transformational learning in Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) have been put forward. Transformative or transformational learning seems especially relevant to ESD as deep transformational change on a personal level might be one of the key aspects needed to facilitate a larger societal transformation. The chapter presents research on transformational learning and the components necessary for it, and provides a case study of a course that works specifically with transformational learning for sustainability. The Advanced Societal Leadership course is a 10-week course of the 10-month Masters in Strategic Leadership towards Sustainability programme at the Blekinge Institute of Technology. This course aims at providing learners with critical insights into how large-scale societal transformation for sustainability might occur, and explores several topics for social transformation. The chapter discusses the pedagogical design of the course as well as some of the challenges and questions that the staff has experienced over the last 9 years in imbedding transformational learning and personal transformational change in a traditional university setting.

  • 110.
    Nekeman, Iris
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Straver, Roy
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Tobón, Francisco
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Strategic Leadership towards Sustainable Public Procurement2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The understanding of the role of the contracting authority in public procurement is important to understand the underused potential of public procurement to contribute to the sustainable development of society. In particular, the concept of public-private cooperation was suggested to increase this potential, but not enough is known about how the interaction has to take place in order to address the behavioural factors that cause the barriers to sustainable public procurement. The results of this research showed that the leading role of the contracting authority could facilitate sustainable procurement by increasing engagement, interaction and collaboration. A strategic planning approach to support the public-private cooperation in the procurement process is needed. Based on the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development, a support for the contracting authority was designed to guide the strategic planning of the procurement process. The suggested design of Support for Strategic Sustainable Procurement was evaluated and found likely to support the contracting authority in strategically leading the public procurement process to leverage the potential of public procurement on the transition towards a sustainable society.

  • 111.
    Nguyen, Trang
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Dirks, Robin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Woolner, Robin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Looking in The Mirror - Social Labs and Evaluation in Complexity2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social Innovation Laboratories, or short, social labs, represent an emerging field of lab-based inquiry to sustainability transitions, which emphasize learning through experimentation to find new ways of addressing highly complex challenges. Yet, a key challenge for these initiatives is on one hand to know whether they are “on track”, on the other hand, to evaluate their contribution to addressing a complex challenge. Our hypothesis was that adaptive capacity could serve as a lens for the evaluation of a social labs impact to building social resilience and hence in building capacities necessary for a transition towards sustainability. The aim of this research was firstly to gain a better understanding of the evaluation practices of social labs and secondly to find out how the adaptive capacity of a social lab could be evaluated and might, more generally, point towards a novel approach of evaluating in complexity for strategic sustainable development.

    Our results suggest that adaptive capacity could support evaluations by providing a mirror for the essential features of a social lab to be resilient. We propose three key aspects to evaluate: systems thinking, trust and prototyping capacity. Yet, this is only a first stepping stone toward an evaluation framework, which will require field testing and further research.

  • 112.
    Nicolo, Francesca
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Cardoso, Elissa
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Ramos Puente, Julia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Strategic Sustainable Development for transparent, accountable and participatory governments2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the last century, the world has faced unprecedented challenges relating to the degradation of the socio-ecological system. In light of this, governments play an important role to help tackle these issues. This thesis identifies the Open Government Partnership (OGP) organisation, as an initiative that can support governments in addressing these challenges. In particular, the potential to address these issues relates to OGP’s vision of strengthening governance by increasing transparency, accountability and participation.

    Therefore, the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD) was used to analyse the results from the semi-structured interviews, literature review and document analysis, in order to identify the strengths and limitations of OGP’s planning approach. Based on these results, recommendations call for the utilisation of the ABCD strategic planning process to assist OGP member governments and stakeholders to develop a concrete definition of sustainability, and a strategic planning approach that can support society in moving towards sustainability.

  • 113.
    Nikulina, Varvara
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development. Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Need for speed: towards urban planning for rapid transitioning to sustainable personal mobility2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Paris Agreement, the recent Special Report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and the Sustainable Development Goals are examples of United Nation’s facilitated calls for urgent climate action and more generally for a rapid transition of society towards sustainability. Since urban personal mobility is a significant contributor to society’s current sustainability challenges, and considering current trends of population growth and urbanisation, there is a strong need to develop enhanced support for urban planning for rapid transitioning to sustainable personal mobility.

    This thesis is part of a wider effort to develop methodological support for such planning and action. The aim of the thesis is to provide a partial foundation for that wider effort by: (i) identifying and organising prominent research themes related to the above topic; and since previous research points to benefits of a transdisciplinary, multisectoral and multicultural approach, (ii) exploring and addressing the complexity of co-production processes in such contexts; and (iii) analysing the appropriateness of some prominent planning approaches for the desired planning support.

    The aim is pursued through a systematic literature review, including bibliometric analyses, and two empirical case studies, including workshops, interviews, field studies and feasibility studies. One of the case studies included participants from several countries in the Southern Baltic region and the other case study tested the usefulness of different planning approaches in the local context of Kisumu, Kenya and Gothenburg, Sweden, respectively.

    The thesis provides a map of some prominent research themes and discusses their relevance to the field of urban planning for rapid transitioning to sustainable personal mobility. The analysis of the identified themes and their development over the past ten years shows that there has been a shift in mobility planning from ’predict and provide’ towards participatory visionary approaches. This, in turn, has led to new challenges, related to, for example, epistemic communities, language and culture. Furthermore, it is seen that sustainability considerations have become increasingly pronounced in the urban mobility planning literature. However, different dimensions of sustainability are often considered individually (e.g. the ecological and social dimensions) and coordinated approaches to sustainable mobility planning are virtually lacking.

    At the methodological level, the thesis provides a preliminary conceptual framework for analysing complexity in co-production processes with regard to epistemic communities, language and culture, as well as a discussion of the usefulness of four specific planning approaches for the desired planning support, namely the backcasting, transdisciplinary co-production of knowledge, foresighting and SymbioCity approaches.

    The overall conclusion is that there is a need for research that would show how mobility actors can contribute to resolve pressing issues related to climate change fast enough without compromising other aspects of sustainability, including how temporary trade-offs can be addressed in a strategic way.

  • 114.
    Nikulina, Varvara
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development. Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Baumann, Henrikke
    Chalmers University of Technology, SWE.
    Simon, David
    Mistra Urban Futures, SWE.
    Sprei, Frances
    Chalmers University of Technology, SWE.
    Sustainable Transport Futures: Analysis of the Selected Methodologies Supporting the Planning Process Towards Achieving Goal 11 Sustainable Cities and Communities2018In: Handbook of Sustainability Science and Research / [ed] W. Leal Filho, Springer, 2018, p. 473-488Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A quarter of energy-related greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) originate from the transportation sector. Continuously increasing demand for transportation services worldwide is one of the main urban challenges addressed by Sustainable Development Goal 11, target 2. One way to address this issue is to develop an integrated transportation system that can ensure confidence and comfort for the passengers. This will contribute not only to the customers’ experience but also to operators and authorities through sustainable, cost-effective, and profitable services. Conversely, the lack of such a system or a poorly managed system prevents the economy and society from realizing its potential. In the transition towards sustainability, the planning process of complex systems such as transportation often requires supportive tools and methods, such as futures methodologies that assist decision-making by providing information about possible futures. In today’s rapidly changing environment, forecasting tools do not always provide the expected outcomes since it is difficult to predict all the unexpected events. Therefore, there is a demand for alternative methods that not only grasp the constant changes but also create additional value (for example, meeting the needs of multisectoral collaboration and creation of common vision). The present article investigates the usefulness of three such methodologies, namely backcasting, foresighting, and SymbioCity, for the planning process of the bus park and railway station in Kisumu, Kenya, and Centralen in Gothenburg, Sweden. The paper’s contribution is a description of the Kenyan transportation system (which has not been studied in detail before), planning process, and pertinent issues related to the stations both in Kisumu and Gothenburg, located in the sharply contrasting contexts of global South and global North, respectively. On the basis of field research, interviews, and feasibility study of futures methodologies, the paper concludes that backcasting is the most suitable of the methodologies for both places, since it can be applied at a small scale, and provides creative solutions and has a high level of integration of stakeholders. Furthermore, the paper examines the application of the futures methodologies in multisectoral urban transitions apart from transportation and draws conclusion on what can be learnt from it.

  • 115.
    Nikulina, Varvara
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development. Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Larson Lindal, Johan
    Mistra Urban Futures, SWE.
    Baumann, Henrikke
    Chalmers, SWE.
    Simon, David
    Mistra Urban Futures, SWE.
    Ny, Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Lost in translation: a framework for analysing complexity of co-production settings in relation to epistemic communities, linguistic diversities and culture2019In: Futures, ISSN 0016-3287, Vol. 113Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Planning in modern urban environments requires skills to address complexity in order to move towards sustainability. Co-production of knowledge in transdisciplinary groups was found to be a useful tool in such contexts. Using the concepts of multilingualism, epistemic communities and culture, the article proposed a conceptual framework for analysing complexity of co-production settings, as an indispensable means of managing complex challenges. The framework was evaluated based on inclusiveness, cross-sectoral understanding, applicability in different contexts and time perspectives. Moreover, it was compared to other studies. Based on the framework, several suggestions to maintain were put forth for a process leader (facilitator) when preparing for a co-production process: linguistic equality between participants, disciplinary integrity, a working culture of mutual respect, simultaneous mitigation and informed facilitation. Finally, the article suggested possible future research questions, related to development of the framework: identification of levels of complexity and mapping specific tools to address complexity at each level; integration of other factors of diversity, such as gender, age, as well as political and institutional contexts.

  • 116.
    Nikulina, Varvara
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development. Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Simon, David
    Mistra Urban Futures, SWE.
    Ny, Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Baumann, Henrikke
    Chalmers, SWE.
    Context-adapted urban planning for rapid transitioning of personal mobility towards sustainability: a systematic literature review2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 1007Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability related challenges in mobility planning have been recognised at the international level and the urgency for change has been widely discussed among scholars. However, there seems to be no general agreement on the best ways of pursuing such change. To seek answers to the question of how to pursue change, this study analysed the development of the broad research fields of mobility, urban planning and transitions, and the overlap of these bodies of literature. Both academic and non-academic literatures were covered. By means of a systematic literature review, as well as bibliometric studies, several prominent research themes that address change from planning and transition perspectives were identified. Moreover, these themes describe different viewpoints and challenges in mobility planning. These include planning and policy for sustainable mobility and accessibility, backcasting and scenario planning, indicators in planning, modes of transport, decision-making, studies of global North and global South, as well as overarching themes of equity, equality and justice, roles of institutions, and co-production of knowledge. Strategies for staying up to date with these fields were also identified. In the literature covered, the temporal dimension in mobility planning was described in four different ways, but little was found about how accelerated transitions towards sustainable mobility can be achieved. Further knowledge gaps were identified in relation to behavioural change, policy development, institutionalisation of planning capacity and social sustainability in mobility planning. This created an outline for possible future studies.

  • 117.
    Nordström, Lina
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Runesson, Lars
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Warnecke, Helena
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Light a Spark! Addressing Barriers and Enablers to Increase Demand of Electric Vehicles in Southeast Sweden2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Personal Transportation System safeguards peoples’ cultural understanding of freedom: to move individually without being dependent on others. However, the increasing number of private vehicles driven on fossil fuels contributes to unsustainability and one of the most urgent issues, climate change. The authors explored electric vehicles as an alternative to fossil fuel driven vehicles as a way of moving strategically towards sustainability in the Personal Transportation System. In order to increase demand of electric vehicles, barriers need to be overcome. The authors identified perceived barriers and enablers through literature review, interviews with automobile dealers and other stakeholders of the EV sector in Southeast Sweden, as well as through an electronic survey of individuals living in this region. The outcome of the thesis is a pilot strategy using behavior change tools from Community-Based Social Marketing in order to address the perceived barriers and enablers on the demand side of the electric vehicle market. With highly positive attitudes towards electric vehicles in Southeast Sweden, the strategy may be successful in the region; however, it needs to be combined with further measures on the supply side of the market which cannot be addressed with behavior change tools.

  • 118.
    Nurhadi, Lisiana
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    An Approach to Business Modeling for Sustainable Personal Road Transport2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Between 1950 and 2013 the total amount of Swedish travelling has increased from about 20 billion to about 140 billion passenger kilometers. This included an increase in travelling with private cars from about 3 billion to about 105 billion passenger kilometers, and in bus travelling from about 2.5 billion to about 5 billion passenger kilometers. The European commission has indicated that public transportation (if powered by clean fuels) is a suitable way to reduce environmental and health problems.

     

    This thesis focuses on sustainable personal road transport, and aims to develop and test a new approach to examining the economic and socio-ecological sustainability effects of various road vehicles for private travelling and related business models. A special focus is set on comparing various bus systems for public transport and ways (business models) for private people to access cars. The main comparison parameters are the total cost of ownership and carbon dioxide emissions of different energy carriers for buses and cars. The Design Research Methodology is used to guide the research approach. The approach also builds on the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development, which includes, for example, principles that define any sustainable future and a strategic planning process. The approach first employs Strategic Life Cycle Assessment to give a quick overview of sustainability challenges in each bus life cycle stage from raw materials to end of life. Several analysis tools such as Life Cycle Costing, Life Cycle Analysis, Product Service System, and Business Model Canvas mapping are then iteratively used to ”dig deeper” into identified prioritized challenges. Literature reviews, interviews, and simulations are used as supporting methods.

     

    The results from a first theoretical test of the new approach suggest that a shift from diesel buses to electric buses (powered by renewable energy) could significantly lower carbon dioxide emissions, while also significantly lowering the total cost of ownership. The theoretical calculations were followed up by testing of electric buses in real operation in eight Swedish municipalities. The tests verified the theoretical results, and showed that electric buses are better than diesel buses both from a sustainability point of view and a cost point of view, and also that electric bus operation is a practically viable alternative for public transport. The new approach was tested also by comparing a variety of business models for private car travelling. The results indicate, among other things, that only people who travel more than 13.500 kilometers per year would benefit from owning a car.

     

    In all, the thesis suggests a simultaneous shift from diesel buses to electric buses in public transport and, for the majority of the car drivers that drive less than 13.500 kilometers per year, switching from car ownership to car use services would be favourable for an affordable transition of the transport sector towards sustainability. 

  • 119.
    Nurhadi, Lisiana
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Borén, Sven
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Ny, Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    A sensitivity analysis of total cost of ownership for electric public bus transport systems in Swedish medium sized cities2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To reach Swedish national climate change reduction targets, organizations collaborate for a sustainable development to improve energy efficiency, reducing pollution and noise in public bus transport. This follow-up study continues to strengthen the previous study by deepen the economic comparisons of two electric buses with different driving range and different type of chargers. The study aims to emphasize on sensitivity analysis for the total cost of ownership (TCO) to reduce uncertainty by identifying which factors of interest that most likely cause the estimated cost values for the electric bus. The result shows that the percentage change of line distance (km/year), operational years, and investment cost would be the most influential and significant factors on TCO.

  • 120.
    Nurhadi, Lisiana
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Borén, Sven
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Ny, Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Competitiveness and Sustainability Effects of Cars and their Business Models in Swedish Small Town Regions2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 140, no Part 1, p. 333-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to develop and test a new approach for comparing sustainability effects (mainly approximated through CO2 emissions) and the total cost of ownership of various business models (Regular Purchasing, Car Pooling, Car Leasing, and Taxiing) applied to private cars with different energy carriers (Biogas, Ethanol, Gasoline, Plug-in Hybrid, and Electric). The results indicate that, out of all of the vehicles, electric vehicles are the most competitive—from both an ecological and economic perspective. Moreover, of all of the business models, Car Pooling is the most competitive when driving short to medium distances, reducing CO2 emissions by 20-40% compared with Regular Purchasing. Meanwhile, Car Leasing emits the same amount of CO2 emissions as Regular Purchasing if both are driven the same number of kilometers per year. The results also indicate that, from a cost effectiveness perspective, people who travel less than 2000 km per year should primarily consider using Taxis or similar services, while Car Pooling is most cost effective for those who travel from 2000 to 8500 km. For those who travel between 8500 and 13500 km per year, Car Leasing is the most cost effective, and Regular Purchasing is the best option above 13500 km per year. If most car owners were to accept and adapt to this identified need for a market move towards Car Pooling with Electric Vehicles, necessary transportation could be ensured while significantly reducing the number of cars on the road, whether from Regular Purchasing or Car Leasing, as well as those that run on fossil fuel. This, in turn, would result in less fossil fuel use, fewer emissions, and decreased negative effects on human health.

  • 121.
    Ny, Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    GreenCharge Sydost - Elfordon i småstadsregioner: Slutrapport2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Overarching project goal

    From 1 april 2013 to its end in 2015 the project shall support Southeast Sweden towards a fossilfuel independent transport system by 2030 through the promotion of regional sustainable market introduction of electric vehicles that run on regional renewable energy.

    The project's contribution

    1. Development of an electric vehicle system (vehicles, charging infrastructure, renewable electricity, IT support, etc) and a supporting business network in small town regions.2. Research Methods for the development of customer-focused product and service systems for electric vehicles and identification of their economic, environmental and social sustainability implications.3. A comprehensive roadmap for sustainable and profitable development of a fossilfuel independent regional transportation system 2030.

    Results until 20150630 (goals 20150331 – extended to 20150930)

    530+ Electric vehicles (200)204+ charging spots (200)25 pilot municipalities (25)70+ business stakeholders (50)1 charging demo park (1)

  • 122.
    Ny, Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    GreenCharge Sydost: Lägesrapport2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I ansökan specificerades projektmålen från 2012 till 2014 till:

    1. Demonstration 1: Ge underlag för marknadsintroduktion av elfordonssystem i 15-20 pilotkommuner i Småland Blekinge (fordon, laddstolpar, IT-stöd, etc)2. Demonstration 2: Starta en regional affärssamverkan för ökad tillväxt på en växande elfordonsmarknad3. Använda ett systematiskt kommunikations- och spridningsarbete för förbättrat hållbarhetsanseende för regionala företag4. Bidra till forskningsfronten med metoder för utveckling av produkt- och servicesystem (PSS) samt identifiering och optimering av deras hållbarhetseffekter5. Resultera i en färdplan för ’grön tillväxt’ och uppskalning av ett elfordonssystem som en del av en regional fossilfri fordonsflotta 2030.

    Hittills har vi nått följande framsteg i förhållande till projektmålen:

    1. Demo 1. Greencharge Sydosts har haft fyra länsvisa kick-offs och projektgruppen har rest runt och ordnat många aktiviteter för att påskynda den regionala förankringen av projektet Detta har lett till att vi har kunnat överträffa förväntningarna med involvering av hittills ett tjugotal företag, 24 kommuner, alla fyra länsstyrelser och regionförbund, samt två av fyra Landsting. Dessutom har vi blivit kontaktade av andra regioner i Sverige som Dalarna, Skåne och Sundsvallsområdet och samarbete har inletts. Internationella företag som BMW, Hertz och Volkswagen är nu också involverade. För att öka tempot i regionen och hjälpa kommunerna så har vi inom projektet under våren och sommaren 2013 kört ”Green Charge Roadshow med elfordon” – en turné med marknadens utbud av elfordon där vi besökte flertalet kommuner som då var medlemmar i projektet. Projektets styrning och regionala förankring förtydligades i och med att man 12 april 2013 kopplade till sig en mer permanent och formaliserad styrgrupp. Hösten 2013 har projektledningen sammanställt en uppföljning mot samtliga kommuners framsteg och ev hinder i införskaffande av bilar och laddinfrastruktur. Energideklarationer har också tagits fram för projektets samtliga kommuners som visar att det i princip utan extra kostnad går att fasa in 90% elfordon i bilflottorna. I början av 2014 fanns det ca 250 elbilar i projektregionen och alltför få uppkopplade laddstolpar. Därför genomförde vi i mars och april 2014 Sveriges hittills största roadshow för elfordon som besökte Norge och Danmark och samtliga 24 projektkommuner i syfte att påskynda utvecklingen. Kommunuppföljningen, energideklarationerna och en utredning över lämplig omfattning och placering av snabbladdare var viktiga komponenter i roadshowens informationspaket. I slutet av december 2014 fanns det mer än 350 elfordon i projektregionen och det totala projektmålet för detta och kompletterande projekt på 300 elfordon hade därmed överträffats. Dock släpar laddinfrastrukturen fortfarande efter och därför fokuserdes insatserna där under projektets avslutsskede. Detta arbete fortsätter i kompletterande projekt. 2. Demo 2. Affärsnätverket initierades via en stor regional kick-off i Växjö under hösten 2012 och ett par personer i projektgruppen har nu fått ansvar för att nätverket utvecklas på bästa sätt. Projektet fick också under 2013 en ny projektledare för affärsnätverket som förstärker projektteamet med teknisk kompetens. Ett antal nätverksträffar utfördes under mars 2013 för att kunder och leverantörer ska kunna mötas och hitta och undanröja hinder för snabba framsteg. Fokus låg på vissa delar av elfordonssystemet vid varje nätverksträff (laddstolpar, bilar, etc). Greencharge har i år fastlagt ett antal nya samarbetsavtal med partners inom nätverket. Samarbetet med ingenjörsutbildningarna på BTH har under våren 2013 lett till att flera studentprojekt kunnat påbörjas för att snabbt ute hos våra partners kunna utreda angelägna frågeställningar och på sätt få fart på arbetet mot projektmålen. Under hösten 2013 och under hela 2014 har arbetet tagits upp igen i leverantörsgrupperna för laddinfrastruktur, bilar och energi. Speciellt fokus har legat på att påskynda kommunernas inköp av rätt sorts intelligenta laddstolpar och att få dem inkopplade i CGIs IT-system CiMS.

    3. Kommunikations- och spridningsarbete. En kommunikationsansvarig har utsetts och en kommunikationsplan fastställdes under hösten 2013. En reklambyrå genomförde den 6 dec 2013 en strategisk workshop med projektledningen kring vad projektet ska kommunicera. Hemsidan www.greencharge.se kvarstår som central informationskanal projektledning och forskningsorganisation men kompletteras nu mer tydligt av av facebook, twitter och youtube. Vi har där lagt upp logotyper för alla kommuner och landsting som är medlemmar i GreenCharge Sydost samt för offentliga finansiärer. Projektlednings- och forskningsorganisation deltar också aktivt i konferenser och evenemang inom elfordonsområdet. T.ex. BTH framhåller Greencharge som ett ’flaggskeppsprojekt’ när skolan under åren presenterat sig för politiker i Almedalen, vid frukostseminarier i Riksdagen och på plats på BTH. Forskarna från BTH deltog i januari 2013 vid Energisystemdagarna i Linköping där viktiga nätverkskontakter kunde tas. En stor nationell elfordonsdag utfördes också tillsammans med IKEA i Älmhult den 21 mars 2013 och Kungen träffade Greencharge i samband med Karlskronabesöket den 6 april. Forskningsgruppen har i en annan Greencharge-demonstration (som finansieras av energimyndigheten) vid flera konferenser presenterat miljö- och kostnadsjämförelser för elbussar och andra busstyper. Parallellt med projektaktiviteterna tar också forskargruppen fram kurser och ett nytt högskoleingenjörsprogram (Energisystem för hållbar utveckling) med fokus på förnybar energi, smarta energinät och elfordon. Här ska vi kunna sprida projektresultat och forskningsrön till många studenter som får lära sig nära praktiken ute i företagen. Studenterna deltog aktivt i den road show som genomfördes under mars och april 2014. De gjorde enkäter och undersökningar mot den testande allmänheten och testade själva samt spred erfarenheterna via egna social nätverk. Under Almedalsveckan 2014 arrangerade projektet en workshop för att sprida kunskap om projektets resultat som bl.a. av Vindkrafttidningen blev utnämnd till den bästa i Almedalen. Allt detta förväntas också på sikt ge nya regionala arbetstillfällen inom det starkt växande området hållbara transport- och energisystem.

    4. Forskning mot projektets demonstrationer. Vi har anställt två doktorander och forskargruppen har påbörjat litteraturstudier och skisser på hur vår metodik för PSS-modellering och hållbarhetsanalys ska kunna vidareutvecklas och anpassas till att kunna göra systematiska kartläggningar och jämförelser av kostnads- och hållbarhetsprestanda för fordonssystem. Slutanvändaren finns i fokus under detta arbete. I en annan Greencharge-demonstration (som finansieras av energimyndigheten) har denna metodik testats i jämförelser mellan eldrivna och andra bussar i landsbygdstrafik i Karlskrona, Jönköping och Sundsvall. Detta kommer framöver även detta projekt till del när prestanda för olika bilar och affärsmodeller för bilägande ska jämföras. Dessa nya jämförelser är i full gång. Ovannämnda energideklarationer för kommunernas bilflottor utgör en grund.

    5. Forskning mot färdplanen. Erfarenheterna från de praktiska elfordonsdemonstrationerna och forskningens analyser integreras här i färdplansscenarier. Vi har som en förberedelse deltagit i nationella satsningar för att ta fram färdplaner till fossiloberoende och mer hållbara transport- och energisystem. Vårt eget arbete påbörjades på allvar under första kvartalet 2014 med två seminarier för att tillsammans med ledande aktörer från elfordonsbranschen ta fram en brett förankrad vision om hur elfordon kan bidra till ett hållbart samhälle – bortom den fossiloberoende fordonsflottan 2030. Under resten av året tar vi fram scenarier för hur olika viktiga delsystem (användare, fordon, infrastruktur, bränslen, energi samt regler och styrmedel) ska kunna utvecklas parallellt till det fossiloberoende systemet 2030. Efter en inledning i lägre takt än planerat skruvades forskningsgruppens arbetsinsats upp under 2014. Förstärkningsrekrytering av flera deltidsforskare till forskargruppen har därför genomförts under hela året. Forskningen drivs härnäst också vidare i kompletterande projekt.

  • 123.
    Ny, Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Teaching for 'intersystems analysis': How to create company-specific adaptions of a generic sustanability2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strategic sustainable development is a key research and teaching area at Blekinge institute of technology (BTH). This area involves a generic Framework for strategic sustainable development (FSSD) that helps sustainability practition-ers to structure tools and concepts according to their ability to support strategic sustainability planning at five levels: (i) system understanding, (ii) principled suc-cess definition, (iii) strategic guidelines, (iv) actions and (v) supporting tools. This structuring capability has been a key element of BTH sustainability courses for several years. Another related key ability of sustainability practitioners is to create ’intersystem’ planning frameworks or to adapt the FSSD to a specific organization or context. In 2011 we replaced a tools and concept focused assignment with a new ‘intersystems’ assignment in the BTH course introduction to strategic sus-tainable development (MI2407). This paper intended to assess the internal con-sistency and logics behind the development of the new assignment. It also intend-ed to follow up whether the students who went through the new assignment in 2011 could demonstrate the desired ability to create adapted planning frame-works. If possible this paper was also meant to check to what degree the MI2407 students would still be able to structure tools and concepts on the levels of the FSSD, now that they got less specific training on that skill. We found a clear in-ternal consistency and constructive alignment in how the new intersystems as-signment was put together. We also found indications that the students that went through the new assignment, in the MI2407 course in 2011, gained the intended ability to create adapted frameworks, while still gaining an ability to structure tools and concepts on the levels of the FSSD comparable to previous years. If these initial indicative learning outcomes are to be substantiated by further studies then the new intersystems assignment could also become a basis for new consul-tancy services that The Natural Step and other consultancies could pick up and spread to the business world. This would be much in line with our department’s and BTH’s general ambition to help sustainability practitioners to improve their strategic sustainability planning capabilities and to promote sustainable growth.

  • 124.
    Ny, Henrik
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Borén, Sven
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Nurhadi, Lisiana
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Schulte, Jesko
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Robèrt, Karl Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Vägval 2030: Färdplan för snabbomställning till hållbara persontransporter - kortversionen2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Transportsektorns beroende av fossila bränslen är en av de största utmaningarna ien omställning till ett klimatneutralt och hållbart samhälle.

    Denna färdplansrapport syftar till att undersöka hur elfordonssystem kan bidra tillen snabbomställning till hållbara persontransporter i Småland och Blekinge, samttill att presentera en metodik för vägledning av liknande snabbomställningsarbetei andra regioner och samhällssektorer.

    Detta arbete har övergripande vägletts av en vetenskapligt framtagen och beprövadmetodik för strategisk hållbar utveckling (eng. Framework for Strategic SustainableDevelopment – FSSD). Specifikt ges svar på fyra forskningsfrågor som struktureras irelation till de fyra delsystemen ’Politik och styrmedel’, ’Användare och marknad’,’Fordon och infrastruktur’ samt ’Energi och material’:

    1. Hur skulle en hållbar vision för persontransporter i Småland och Blekinge kunnase ut?

    2. Hur skulle ett etappmål för år 2030 kunna se ut?

    3. Hur ser nuläget ut i förhållande till 2030-målet och visionen?

    4. Hur skulle gapet mellan nuläget, 2030-målet och visionen kunna överbryggas?

    Rapportens resultat visar att dagens fokus på fossilfrihet och klimatåtgärder måstebreddas till hela hållbarhetsfrågan så att även andra hållbarhetsproblemadresseras och så att inte lösningar på vissa hållbarhetsproblem skapar nya.

    Rapporten tydliggör också att det är nödvändigt, praktiskt möjligt och ekonomisktfördelaktigt för Sydostregionen att göra en snabbare hållbarhetsomställning avpersontransporterna än vad som har föreslagits i tidigare studier och utredningar.Det görs även troligt att detsamma gäller för hela transportsystemet och för helaSverige och världen.

    Även geopolitiska fördelar är troliga. En global övergång till transport- ochenergisystem som baseras på energi från fritt tillgängliga flödesresurser som soloch vind istället för fossila bränslen skulle därför sannolikt minska konfliktriskernai världen. Begränsade tillgångar av litium och platina som batteri- ochbränslecellselbilar är beroende av, och andra metaller som behövs till solceller ochvindkraftverk, kan dock ge motsvarande konfliktproblematik. Denna rapportsrekommendationer om minskat transportbehov och bilberoende och dess fokus påresurseffektivitet motverkar detta genom att slå mot bakomliggande resursdrivandemekanismer. Skulle denna färdplan omsättas i praktisk politik så borde alltså denkommande omställningen som ändå är på gång bli betydligt mer ’framtidssäker’.

  • 125.
    Ny, Henrik
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Borén, Sven
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Nurhadi, Lisiana
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Schulte, Jesko
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    On Track for 2030: Roadmap for a fast transition to sustainable personal transport: English short version with foreword by Peter Newman2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The transport sector's dependence on fossil fuels is one of the biggest challenges in a shift towards a climate-neutral and sustainable society.

    This roadmap report aims to investigate how electric vehicle systems can contribute to a faster transition to sustainable passenger transport in Southeast Sweden, as well as to present a methodology for guidance of similar work for faster transitions in other regions and sectors.

    This work has been guided by a scientifically designed and proven Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD). Specifically, answers are given to four research questions structured in relation to the four subsystems 'Politics and instruments', 'Users and markets', 'Vehicles and infrastructure' and 'Energy and materials':

    1. What could a sustainable vision for passenger transport in Southeast Sweden look like?
    2. What could be a milestone goal for 2030?
    3. What is the current reality in relation to the 2030 goal and the vision?
    4. How could the gap between the present, 2030 and the vision be bridged?

    The report's results show that today's focus on fossil independence and measures against climate change must be broadened to cover the whole sustainability challengeso that other sustainability issues are addressed and so that solutions to some of the sustainability issues do not create new ones.

    The report also clarifies that it is necessary, practically possible and economically advantageous for Southeast Sweden to make a faster sustainability transition of passenger transportthan what has been proposed in previous studies and investigations. It is also likely that the same applies to the entire transport system and for the whole of Sweden and the world.

    Even geopolitical benefits are likely. A global transition to transport and energy systems based on energy from widely available flow resources like sun and wind instead of the limited fossil fuels would likely reduce the conflicts risks in the world.Restricted cobalt, lithium and platinum resources that battery and fuel cell cars depend on, and other metals needed for solar cells and wind turbines can, however, give rise to similar conflict risks. This roadmap report's recommendations on reduced transport needs and car dependency and its focus on resource efficiency counteract these conflict risks by striking against underlying resource-driving mechanisms. Should this roadmap be translated into practical policies, the forthcoming transition would therefore likely be made considerably more 'future-proof'.

  • 126.
    Ny, Henrik
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Lööf, Jonas
    Miljöfordon Syd, SWE.
    Nilsson, Stefan
    Miljöfordon Syd, SWE.
    Utredning av IT-system för laddning av elfordon2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Om E-mission

    E-mission är ett EU-finansierat (Interreg) projekt för att sprida kunskap om elfordon hos allmänhet, politiker och näringsliv i Öresundsregionen. Målet är att få fler att köra elbil, inte minst de som pendlar mellan de båda länderna. Medverkande parter är Köpenhamns kommun, Region Hovedstaden, Malmö stad, Helsingborgs stad, Öresundskraft och Region Skåne.

    Om de aktuella delprojekten

    I E-mission ingår olika delprojekt, bland annat ett om utveckling av laddinfrastruktur för elfordon i Öresundregionen och ett om stakeholder network, alltså nätverk för intresserade operatörer/leverantörer (betallösningar). Det är inom dessa delprojekt detta uppdrag och rapport genomförs och tas fram.

    Om uppdraget

    Uppdraget handlar om att gå igenom vilka förutsättningar som krävs för att elbilsanvändare ska kunna ladda sin bil på båda sidor Öresund efter modellen HITTA-BOKA-LADDA-BETALA. I samband med en utredning om laddinfrastruktur som görs av Trivector har E-mission träffat en rad olika aktörer och diskuterat förutsättningarna för en interaktiv laddkarta för de båda länderna – och gärna även för Norge. Emission har identifierat att det finns ett antal system på marknaden och en rad olika laddkartor, men inte några heltäckande samverkande interaktiva lösningar. Emission vill därför ta reda på hur de olika systemen kan samverka så att användaren (=elbilsförarna) upplever det som en samlad interaktiv laddkarta. Emission inser samtidigt att de vägar som föreslås kan vara påverkade av vilken it-leverantör som presenterar dem och vilket it-system som förordas.

    Uppdragsbeskrivning

    - Beskriva och bedöma det system som tagits fram av Logica.- Beskriva och bedöma det norska systemet Nobil.- Övergripande beskriva övriga system på marknaden (finns bl.a. i befintlig rapport från Trivector).- Identifiera problemen i dagsläget.- Föreslå och beskriva vad som behöver göras (lösning) för att uppnå funktionen hitta-boka-ladda-betala, dvs.

    a. en gemensam laddkarta som innehåller interaktiv data från samtliga system på marknaden,b. identifiering av elbilsägaren vid bokning, laddning och betalning,c. smidiga betalströmmar mellan berörda intressenter.

    - Sammanfatta en slutsats som kan ligga till grund för ett genomförande.

  • 127.
    Ny, Henrik
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Sven, Borén
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Lisiana, Nurhadi
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Schulte, Jesko
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Robèrt, Karl Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Vägval 2030: färdplan för snabbomställning till hållbara persontransporter2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Transportsektorns beroende av fossila bränslen är en av de största utmaningarna ien omställning till ett klimatneutralt och hållbart samhälle.

    Denna färdplansrapport syftar till att undersöka hur elfordonssystem kan bidra tillen snabbomställning till hållbara persontransporter i Småland och Blekinge, samttill att presentera en metodik för vägledning av liknande snabbomställningsarbetei andra regioner och samhällssektorer.

    Detta arbete har övergripande vägletts av en vetenskapligt framtagen och beprövadmetodik för strategisk hållbar utveckling (eng. Framework for Strategic SustainableDevelopment – FSSD). Specifikt ges svar på fyra forskningsfrågor som struktureras irelation till de fyra delsystemen ’Politik och styrmedel’, ’Användare och marknad’,’Fordon och infrastruktur’ samt ’Energi och material’:

    1. Hur skulle en hållbar vision för persontransporter i Småland och Blekinge kunnase ut?

    2. Hur skulle ett etappmål för år 2030 kunna se ut?

    3. Hur ser nuläget ut i förhållande till 2030-målet och visionen?

    4. Hur skulle gapet mellan nuläget, 2030-målet och visionen kunna överbryggas?

    Rapportens resultat visar att dagens fokus på fossilfrihet och klimatåtgärder måstebreddas till hela hållbarhetsfrågan så att även andra hållbarhetsproblemadresseras och så att inte lösningar på vissa hållbarhetsproblem skapar nya.

    Rapporten tydliggör också att det är nödvändigt, praktiskt möjligt och ekonomisktfördelaktigt för Sydostregionen att göra en snabbare hållbarhetsomställning avpersontransporterna än vad som har föreslagits i tidigare studier och utredningar.Det görs även troligt att detsamma gäller för hela transportsystemet och för helaSverige och världen.

    Även geopolitiska fördelar är troliga. En global övergång till transport- ochenergisystem som baseras på energi från fritt tillgängliga flödesresurser som soloch vind istället för fossila bränslen skulle därför sannolikt minska konfliktriskernai världen. Begränsade tillgångar av litium och platina som batteri- ochbränslecellselbilar är beroende av, och andra metaller som behövs till solceller ochvindkraftverk, kan dock ge motsvarande konfliktproblematik. Denna rapportsrekommendationer om minskat transportbehov och bilberoende och dess fokus påresurseffektivitet motverkar detta genom att slå mot bakomliggande resursdrivandemekanismer. Skulle denna färdplan omsättas i praktisk politik så borde alltså denkommande omställningen som ändå är på gång bli betydligt mer ’framtidssäker’.

  • 128.
    Odiniya, Agenyi Benjamin
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Fofuleng, Babila Julius
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Vong, Pheakavoin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Strategic Sustainable Development as an Approach to Conflict Prevention in Conflict-Prone Societies2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Conflict is a complex phenomenon and a major part of sustainability challenges and therefore requires holistic approach for its prevention. This thesis argues that integrating Strategic Sustainable Development (SSD) at the structural level of conflict prevention can provide long term solutions to conflict escalation around the world. SSD provides a holistic approach for addressing the sustainability challenges and complexity of conflict prevention. Sustainability issues (social and ecological) were identified to be at the heart of many conflicts. Both the social (human needs) and ecological (environmental) dimensions are always violated in each conflict. The mechanisms for these violations are embedded in the structures (Political, Economic, Social and environmental) and institutional arrangements that are inherent in conflict-prone societies. Addressing these structural factors has potentials to provide long term solutions to conflict escalation. The connections between conflict and sustainability might not always be easily seen. Using the FSSD as an analytical tool in conjunction with other conflict analysis tools has greater capacity to bring to limelight previously unrecognized risk factors of conflict escalation while at the same time revealing known factors as sustainability challenges. The thesis described the links between conflict,structural conflict prevention, sustainability and Strategic Sustainable Development. Keywords: Conflict, Conflict Prevention, Conflict prone-societies, Structural Prevention, Sustainability, and Strategic Sustainable Development.

  • 129.
    Ohlander, Lisa
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Willems, Miranda
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Leistra, Paul
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Damstra, Simon
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Biomimicry Toolbox, a strategic tool for generating sustainable solutions?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this thesis is to understand how the Biomimicry Toolbox (BT), a practical tool for applying biomimicry, currently supports strategic thinking in order to create sustainable solutions. A pragmatic qualitative research approach was used, in which the BT was analysed through the lens of the Five Level Framework (5LF), a tool for planning and analysing in complex systems and the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development, the application of the 5LF for sustainability endeavours. Interviews were conducted with people experienced with the BT. Results show that the BT has several aspects of strategic thinking. It supports the application of a systems perspective, provides a success goal to move towards and offers tools for a strategic process to follow. The authors conclude that the BT could benefit from including understanding of the patterns and structures of the social system in relation with the earth system. Also, it can benefit from including a section on upstream thinking helping users of the BT consider root causes. Lastly, it could benefit from a strategic approach for evaluating how sustainable solutions are and include a simple and clear prioritisation process. The improvements can make the BT more impactful in supporting societies transition towards sustainability.

  • 130.
    Pedersen, Rebecca Laycock
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Lam, David P. M.
    Leuphana Univ, DEU.
    Comment on 'The climate mitigation gap: education and government recommendations miss the most effective individual actions'2018In: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 13, no 6, article id 068001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wynes and Nicholas (2017a Environ. Res. Lett. 12 1-9) recently published an article that reviewed academic and grey literature to identify the most impactful individual actions for reducing carbon emissions in developed countries, identifying having 'one fewer child' as by far the most impactful action. This action was recommended with little context considering its controversial nature. We argue that there are three issue-areas that Wynes and Nicholas should have engaged with to improve the clarity of their recommendations and reduced the potential for misunderstanding, which are (1) the extent to which individual actions in one's private life can address climate change in relation to collective actions and actions in the professional sphere (2) the role of overconsumption in driving climate change and (3) the extent to which family planning is a human right. We also suggest that engagement with these issue-areas are a step towards a better practice in academic writing on population as an environmental issue.

  • 131.
    Ploeg, Pieter
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Revald Dorph, Jesper
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Harvey, Nicole
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Planetary Boundaries and Sustainability Principles: An integrated approach in the context of agriculture.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores how the Planetary Boundaries (PBs), as derived from the Planetary Boundary Framework (PBF), and the Sustainability Principles (SPs), as derived from the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD), can be integrated. It presents and discusses how the PBs and SPs intersect and provide additive value, with the purpose to inform the development of strategic guidelines towards sustainability. Agriculture was used as a case context due to its significant contribution to the sustainability challenge. The methods include the development of a matrix, populated with agricultural contributions to SP violations and PB transgressions, and a series of qualitative interviews with sustainability experts to validate the matrix and provide further insight into how an integrated approach can be used in practice. Results show that intersects exist on both driver and impact levels, and that the matrix provides an enhanced understanding of the system. Researchers conclude that there are various benefits from integrating the SPs and PBs, including aspects such as easing communication, informing prioritisation of urgent issues, and the development of strategic transformation approaches. Integrating SPs and PBs provides an enhanced definition of sustainability, from which explicit goals, criteria and strategic guidelines can be developed towards solving the sustainability challenge. 

  • 132.
    Rasmussen, Tomas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Analys och optimering av värmesystemet vid centrallasarettet i Karlskrona, för att möjliggöra en ekonomisk och hållbar drift vid låg last2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Commissioned by the Blekinge County Council, I have been tasked to investigate the possibilities for optimizing the hospital in Karlskrona systems for hot water and steam production based on what is economically beneficial and environmentally sustainable in the summer period 15 May to 30 September. Today, the production of hot water and steam is provided by a wood chip boiler during winter, spring and autumn and with the combination of an electrical boiler and district heating during the summer due to the wood chip boiler not being able to be fired toward the low loads that occur during the warmer months. The combined production of both the electric boiler and district heating, has proven to be considerably more expensive than if the production could have been done with the wood chip boiler, due to the high electricity- and district heating prices. Blekinge County Council wishes to examine what measures could be taken for a more sustainable and economical production during the warmer months. The measures that have been investigated in this report is the application of an absorption chiller for increased heating surface, a small additional chip boiler and the cost of district heating at a possible cessation of steamproduction. The report shows that the proposed solutions are possible options for an economically beneficial and environmentally sustainable production during the warmer months. All solutions resulting reportedly in a cheaper and more sustainable production of hot water and steam, and with repayment periods that are lower than the depreciation and economic life. The solution that in short terms proves more profitable, in terms of cost per MWh and paybacktime, is the application of an absorption chiller. The report shows, however, that a greater cooling load than what has been investigated in the report is desired for  optimized sustainability. A small additional chip boiler also results in a lower productioncost than today, albeit with a longer paybacktime due to a higher investment cost. Advantages of an additional chip boiler, which is mentioned in the report, is that this option also results in a more sustainable and cheaper supplement at the tip of the loads during the colder months. Continued production with district heating alone is a third option which is being investigated, and that could be seen as advantageous if the hospital would choose to settle the central steam system. This work shows that the proposed solutions would be approximately 140-279 kronor cheaper per MWh during the solutions economical lifetime and with the current prices an installment periods of 0-24 years.

  • 133.
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Borén, Sven
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Ny, Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    A strategic approach to sustainable transport system development - Part 1: attempting a generic community planning process model2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 140, no Part 1, p. 53-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric vehicles seem to offer a great potential for sustainable transport development. The Swedish pioneer project GreenCharge Southeast is designed as a cooperative action research approach that aims to explore a roadmap for a fossil-free transport system by 2030 with a focus on electric vehicles. It is the following combination of objectives that puts demand on a new process model adapted for cross-sector and cross-disciplinary cooperation: (i) a fossil-free transport system in Sweden by 2030 and, to avoid sub-optimizations in the transport sector, (ii) assuring that solutions that support (i) also serve other aspects of sustainability in the transport sector and, to avoid that sustainable solutions in the transport sector block sustainable solutions in other sectors, (iii) assuring cohesive creativity across sectors and groups of experts and stakeholders. The new process model was applied in an action-research mode for the exploration of electric vehicles within a fully sustainable transport system to test the functionality of the model in support of its development. To deliver on the above combination of objectives, a framework was needed with principles for sustainability that are universal for any sector as boundary conditions for redesign, and with guidelines for how any organization or sector can create economically feasible step- by-step transition plans. The Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD) is designed to serve such purposes and therefore is embedded into the new process model. The exploration of this new model also helped to identify four interdependent planning perspectives (‘Resource base’, ‘Spatial’, ‘Technical’ and ‘Governance’) that should be represented by the respective experts and stakeholders using the model. In general, the new process model proved helpful by giving diverse stakeholders with various competences and representing various planning perspectives a common, robust, and easy-to- understand goal and a way of working that was adequate for each of their contexts. Furthermore, the evolving process model likely is relevant and useful not only for transport planning and electric vehicles, but for any other societal sector as well and thus for sustainable community planning in general. 

  • 134.
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development. Blekinge Inst Technol, Dept Strateg Sustainable Dev, S-37179 Karlskrona, Sweden..
    Prisoners' dilemma misleads business and policy making2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 140, no Part 1, p. 10-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prisoners' dilemma is a game-theoretical construct about trust. It can be seen as a simple version of the 'tragedy of the commons', which is often used in the sustainability context as a metaphor for the tension between responsibility for common resources and the perceived self-benefit to individual organizations, regions or nations who neglect such responsibility in the short term. However, other game theory and developments in sustainability science imply that the prisoners' dilemma mind-set is delusive and misleading for both business and policy making. It helps obscure an even more important aspect of proactive leadership for sustainability: the potential self-benefit of understanding the dynamics of major system change better than one's 'competitors'. The UN 1972,1992; and 2012 summits on sustainability, as well as the many summits on climate change, have been valuable milestones for influencing societal leadership at all levels. However, due to the prisoners' dilemma mind-set, they have also indirectly helped reinforce the idea that sustainability only pays off if the costs of achieving it are shared by all. That, in turn, has encouraged decision makers to believe that 'our organization's, region's or nation's sustainability activity must rely on policy making changing the rules of the game for everybody'. This focus on policy making as the only or main facilitator of sustainability efforts delays the needed transition of global society. By considering game theory such as tit-for-tat and modern systems science for sustainability, this paper illuminates major shortcomings of the prisoners' dilemma in the context of sustainability, and attempts to provide a more fruitful mind-set that can be motivated both theoretically and empirically. It is argued that a large part of the self-benefit of proactivity for sustainability is direct, i.e. independent of other actors' actions for the common good. In addition, it is argued that the self-benefit to businesses can be further increased through voluntary collaboration with other businesses to promote the common good, as well as through collaboration between proactive businesses and policy makers. Currently, none of this is intelligently and operationally part of mainstream leadership and public discourse on sustainability. The clarifications provided in this paper can lead to a much needed shift in mind-set among many leaders, not least political leaders, many of which seem to be trapped in simplistic prisoners' dilemma thinking and who act accordingly. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 135.
    Rodrigues, Ana Carolina
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Cubista, Joshua
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Simonsen, Rowan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Designing Labs for a Sustainable Future2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Through this thesis the authors explore how Labs can be designed in order to catalyze systemic sustainable change by A) contributing to systemic socio-ecological sustainability, B) providing an adaptive and experimental alternative to forecasting and traditional planning, and C) providing forums for collaboration, collective impact, capacity building, and the emergence of systemic solutions to local and global challenges. Through their research the authors performed a literature/field review, reviewed organizational documents, and analyzed a select set of Lab theories, processes, and cases. Additionally the authors interviewed leading experts in Lab design/facilitation, sustainability, the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD), systemic change, and transformative action. The synthesis of this research is offered to emerging Lab designers, practitioners, and facilitators interested in moving society toward a sustainable, regenerative, and thriving future.

  • 136.
    Rosengren, Anna
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Maher Elsayed, Mohamed
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Eklund, Niklas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Corporate leadership development programs towards sustainability2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the increasing level of complexity that leaders face today, represented in the accelerating pace of technology advancement and globalization, along with the climate change indicators reaching unprecedented levels, the need for good leadership quality has become more crucial than ever. The Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development provides a systems perspective, a principle-based definition and a way to strategically move towards sustainability, however still there is a need to specify what is required for leaders to lead organizations through this process.

    The aim of the thesis is to explore how corporate leadership development companies can develop the essential leadership competencies to address the sustainability challenge. The study used the Key Competences in Sustainability Framework as a base to interview six leadership development companies from different areas in the world. The findings revealed that there is an essential need for self-development for leaders to handle complexity, as well as the need from leaders to create the proper conditions for their organizations to utilize the competences from the KCSF. Furthermore the results also showcased the need for standard common definition regarding sustainability.

  • 137.
    Rota, Luca
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Zhou, Yanjun
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Paege, Svenja
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Sustainable Product-Service System Design from a strategic sustainable development perspective2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Although they lead to several potential sustainability benefits, product-service systems are not intrinsically sustainable. Therefore, this thesis investigates the factors designers should consider in order to ensure sustainable results. A systematic literature review on product-service system and sustainability is combined with three interviews with product-service system providers. The results are analysed through the application of the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development. The results of the systematic literature review show that there is no unified definition of sustainable product-service system and multiple approaches to address sustainability in product-service system design. By adopting the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development, a definition of sustainable product-service system and a list of design criteria are developed. This thesis suggests which overarching aspects product-service system designers should consider to integrate a strategic sustainability perspective. The outcome of this thesis supports designers in understanding what a sustainable product-service system could be and what elements it should embed. By combining the definition and the list of criteria, designers can apply a systematic and strategic approach to integrate sustainability in product-service system offerings.

  • 138.
    Rüdén, Annie
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Banihani, Batool
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Jukhadar, Rana
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    A Guide for citizen engagement when working with SDGs in municipal context2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is a growing belief that transitioning towards sustainable cities requires a wide citizen engagement, yet many local governments are not able to define how citizen engagement should be done. This research was conducted to assess municipalities’ effort in engaging citizens when working for sustainability. This study focuses on creating a strategic guide for municipalities to use when engaging citizens to work with the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). A systemic analysis approach was selected to examine the SDGs through the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development, followed by a Value Stream Analysis for the SDGs. Then a mapping method used, where each SDG was linked to a level of citizen engagement on Arnstein’s ladder for citizen engagement (1969). A group interview for practitioners was held in Karlskrona Municipality in Sweden for an evaluation purpose. The results revealed a risk of misalignment for some SDGs, a relational matrix map was created where each SDG was related to a level of Arnstein’s ladder in a graphic visual, which can be used by the municipality as guide to choose the level of engagement for each SDG. A set of insights were revealed concerning the enablers and barriers for citizen engagement in municipal context.

  • 139.
    Schulte, Jesko
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Sustainability Risk Management in Product Development Companies - Motivating Change2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Both the ecological and social system are systematically degrading, resulting in decreasing capacities to support human civilization. Product development and manufacturing companies play a key role in driving society’s transition towards a sustainable path. Besides moral arguments, the motivation for companies can be expressed as a matter of smart risk management, i.e. avoiding threats and exploiting opportunities. Such sustainability risks can be related to, for example, brand and reputation, legislative change, or attracting top-talented employees. But, more importantly, it is about understanding changes that are inevitable on markets to come. Based on Maxwell’s interactive qualitative research approach and following the structure of the Design Research Methodology, this thesis aims to contribute (i) to knowledge by increasing the conceptual understanding of what sustainability risks are; and (ii) to practice by researching decision-support for how sustainability risks can be managed in a product development company context. The first study reviewed existing literature and identified characteristics of sustainability risks, which make them particularly difficult to manage. A following exploratory and descriptive study investigated companies’ current risk management practices and preconditions for sustainability integration. It showed that the effects of uncertainty from the sustainability transition need to be identified, assessed, and managed in relation to how they can affect objectives anchored in both internal and external stakeholder value creation. In parallel, the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development was applied as a lens to understand the implications of the sustainability transition for company risk management. This resulted in a new definition, stating that sustainability risks are threats and opportunities that are due to an organization’s contribution or counteraction to society’s transition towards strategic sustainable development. A questionnaire study then investigated some case companies’ challenges and preconditions to build sustainability capabilities. Finally, a workshop method is proposed that aims to support design teams in early sustainable product development. Future research will leverage on the findings to develop and test decision support for how product development companies can manage sustainability risks on different organizational levels in practice to increase competitiveness, while taking leadership in the transition towards a sustainable society.

  • 140.
    Schulte, Jesko
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Challenges and preconditions to build capabilities for sustainable product design2017In: DS87-1 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 21ST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING DESIGN (ICED 17), VOL 1: RESOURCE SENSITIVE DESIGN, DESIGN RESEARCH APPLICATIONS AND CASE STUDIES / [ed] Maier A.M.,Skec S.,Salustri F.A.,Fadel G.,Kim H.,Kokkolaras M.,Oehmen J.,Van der Loos M., Design Society , 2017, Vol. 1, no DS87-1, p. 1-10, article id DS87-1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable product innovation has previously been found to be positively correlated to competitiveness. However, in order to build capabilities for sustainability integration one must first understand companies' current state. The overall aim is therefore to identify common preconditions and challenges for sustainability integration in product innovation. A questionnaire study, targeting employees with roles in product development, was conducted at four medium-sized to large product development and manufacturing companies in Sweden. Results show that capabilities for sustainability integration are perceived as decisive for future company success, but are not considered to be correspondingly high prioritized today. Decision making is focused on material selection and energy efficiency, so no full socio-ecological sustainability perspective is covered. Formal decision support tools are only used by half of respondents and are a main area for improvement. Identified challenges include short-term economic thinking, lack of sustainability criteria and vague management commitment. Based on these findings, seven recommendations for companies are presented and validated.

  • 141.
    Schulte, Jesko
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Challenges for integrating sustainability in risk management-current state of research2017In: DS87-2 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 21ST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING DESIGN (ICED 17), VOL 2: DESIGN PROCESSES, DESIGN ORGANISATION AND MANAGEMENT, The Design Society, 2017, no DS87-2, p. 327-336, article id DS87-2Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous examples have shown how environmental and social issues can affect companies to an existential level. In fact, today's most urgent business risks, e.g. brand value, legislative change, litigation, and supply chain disruptions, are directly linked to sustainability issues. These risks need to be systematically identified and strategically managed on both strategic company-and operational product development level in order for a company to be long-term competitive. Based on literature review and interviews at case companies, this paper investigates the current state for integrating a strategic sustainability perspective in risk management processes and related support tools. Results show that sustainability risks are not consciously identified and managed at the companies. Research is at an early stage and few frameworks and tools exist. Based on the findings, the study identifies and provides a comprehensive analysis of challenges for sustainability integration, which work as a foundation for future research. Finally, key steps to advance understanding and methods in sustainability risk management are suggested.

  • 142.
    Schulte, Jesko
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Company Risk Management in Light of the Sustainability Transition2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, article id 4137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many of the most important business and economic risks are directly linked to environmental and social issues. This includes both threats and opportunities, not only in relation to reputation, which is often mentioned in this context, but, even more importantly, in relation to innovation capability and legislative change on inevitably more and more sustainability-driven markets. It is, however, unclear through which mechanisms such sustainability risks currently affect companies and how they can be systematically identified and managed. Based on the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development, this study investigates the dynamics and implications of society’s sustainability transition from a company risk management perspective. In addition, exploratory and descriptive studies were conducted at two large product innovation companies to identify current risk management practices and preconditions for sustainability integration. The results reveal that a society moving closer towards a collapse of environmental and social systems leads to increasing sustainability-related threats for unsustainable businesses and increasing opportunities for sustainable businesses. Also, risk management is found to be a promising way for maneuvering in a smart zone between being too passive and being too pro-active in relation to sustainable innovation.The study participants at the case companies were knowledgeable about risk management in general but were largely unfamiliar with risks associated with sustainability and no processes or support tools exist to work systematically with such risks. Key steps to accomplishing an integration of a strategic sustainability perspective into risk management are proposed as: (i) identifying the effects of sustainability issues on internal and external stakeholder value; (ii) actively including sustainability in objective setting and cascading objectives across the levels of the organizational hierarchy; and (iii) developing concrete support for identifying, assessing, and managing economic sustainability risks. Thereby, companies can enhance their competitiveness while providing leadership in the sustainability transition.

  • 143.
    Schulte, Jesko
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Risk Management Practices in Product Development Companies2018In: Proceedings of Norddesign 2018, The Design Society, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Product development (PD) is inherently linked to taking and managing risks. For risk management (RM) to be truly effective, it cannot be treated in product development in isolation. Instead, a holistic perspective is required that recognizes and leverages the communication and connections between RM sub-disciplines across the organizational hierarchy, including e.g. enterprise-, portfolio-, project-, and product RM. Therefore, the purpose of this study is (i) to investigate current RM practices on the strategic, tactical, and operational levels, and (ii) to increase the understanding of how RM sub-disciplines are connected and interact. To answer these questions, semi-structured interviews were conducted at two large multinational PD and manufacturing companies in Sweden. Also, based on previous research, a novel self-assessment tool was developed and tested to map areas of strength and identify improvement potential. The results show that RM processes are mostly formalized and systematic, but there is variation in the quality of performed RM activities. Qualitative support tools are dominating. The tools themselves are considered to be helpful, however, the challenge is to make people use them in value-adding ways. Other challenges and success factors include competence and awareness, culture, top-down demand for high quality RM activities and deliverables, a dedicated role with clear responsibility, and working early and continuously with RM. The importance of experience is stressed, however, no systematic way to work with lessons learned and knowledge sharing is in place at the companies. Risks are found to be primarily escalated bottom-up. The corresponding top-down flow constitutes of objectives, which ideally are cascaded all the way from company vision and strategy into product requirements. Through these findings, the contribution of this study is (i) providing detailed insight into current RM practices, not limited to the PD function, but considering a broader organizational context; and (ii) clarifying the role of goals and objectives for connecting RM on different levels.

  • 144.
    Schulte, Jesko
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Self-Assessment Method for Sustainability Implementation in Product Innovation2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 12, article id 4336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Companies, striving towards an effective and systematic integration of a strategic sustainability perspective in product innovation, need to treat the implementation of necessary processes and tools, as well as their continuous improvement, as a project in itself. An efficient way to measure the current sustainability implementation level in the organization, as well as guidance for progression, is required. To meet this need, a novel self-assessment was developed, which provides companies with a tool to assess and visualize their current capabilities in relation to key elements for successful sustainability integration in the product innovation process. It includes a scale of different sustainability implementation levels to support building a roadmap for systematic implementation, and to measure progress over time. This research is based on results from previous descriptive work within the area of sustainable product development and learning from applying strategic and tactical assessment tools for eco-design and sustainability maturity. Besides the contribution to practice, this study also contributes to knowledge by specifying detailed aspects for each key element that must be considered to guide sustainability integration. Also, insights from applying different existing tools in real cases are provided. The newly-developed self-assessment method was applied and validated at two case companies. Independent and continuous use of it by the companies beyond this particular study indicate the practical value of the method.

  • 145.
    Schulte, Jesko
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Sustainability Risk Management for Product Innovation2018In: Proceedings of International Design Conference, DESIGN, The Design Society, 2018, Vol. 1, p. 655-666Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social and environmental issues are directly connected to many of the most important risks that productdevelopment companies are facing. Based on literature review and interviews, this study investigatesrisk management practices on the strategic, tactical, and operational levels of companies. The findingsare used to identify preconditions for integrating sustainability into risk management processes andsupport tools. The results show that sustainability risks need to be connected to company objectivesthrough internal and external stakeholder value creation.

  • 146.
    Schulte, Jesko
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Workshop Method for Early Sustainable Product Development2018In: DS 92: Proceedings of the DESIGN 2018 15th International Design Conference, The Design Society, 2018, p. 2751-2762Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is in the early phases of product development that most of a product’s life-cycle sustainability impact is determined. This study presents a workshop method that has the purpose to support multi-disciplinary teams in sustainable product development, focusing on early phases. The workshop method aims to map the sustainability challenges and opportunities of a concept at an overarching level, utilizing backcasting from sustainability principles in three steps: create vision, assess current state, derive strategies. Testing and validation was done at two companies and with one academic group.

  • 147.
    Schulte, Jesko
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Ny, Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Electric road systems: Strategic stepping stone on the way towards sustainable freight transport?2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 4, article id 1148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrification of the transport sector has been pointed out as a key factor for tackling some of today's main challenges, such as global warming, air pollution, and eco-system degradation. While numerous studies have investigated the potential of electrifying passenger transport, less focus has been on how road freight transport could be powered in a sustainable future. This study looks at Electric Road Systems (ERS) in comparison to the current diesel system. The Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development was used to assess whether ERS could be a stepping stone on the way towards sustainability. Strategic life-cycle assessment was applied, scanning each life-cycle phase for violations against basic sustainability principles. Resulting sustainability "hot spots" were quantified with traditional life-cycle assessment. The results show that, if powered by renewable energy, ERS have a potential to decrease the environmental impact of freight transport considerably. Environmental payback times of less than five years are achievable if freight traffic volumes are sufficiently high. However, some severe violations against sustainability principles were identified. Still, ERS could prove to be a valuable part of the solution, as they drastically decrease the need for large batteries with high cost and sustainability impact, thereby catalyzing electrification and the transition towards sustainable freight transport. © 2018 by the authors.

  • 148.
    Shapira, Hila
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Ketchie, Adela
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Nehe, Meret
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    The integration of Design Thinking and Strategic Sustainable Development2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 140, no Part 1, p. 277-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human activities are now so pervasive and profound that they are altering the stability of the earth in ways that threaten the very life support system upon which humanity depends. The field of design has contributed to the creation of such complex socio-ecological problems, but it is also adapting as a source for solutions. Design Thinking (DT) was identified as a possible approach that could help create such solutions, and contribute to Strategic Sustainable Development (SSD). The purpose of the research was to examine potential contributors and hindrances of the DT process with regards to SSD, and create a prototype of an integrated process that could help achieve more strategic and sustainable outcomes. Using the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD) as a lens to examine and inform the above, combined with interviews, Action Research and expert feedback, an integrated process was created. It was indicated by participants of the Action Research and by experts that the proposed prototype could help reach strategic and sustainable outcomes, and that further refinement should be pursued. Consequently, a third and final prototype, suggesting a possible Sustainable Design Thinking (SDT) process, was developed. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 149.
    Sienknecht, Jos
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Villafranca, Daniel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Martel, Jennifer
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Lamb, Sarah
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Promoting Sustainability through the Integration of Citizen Science and Ecotourism2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to draw attention to a new concept within the tourism industry that integrates citizen science into an ecotourism product. The merge of citizen science and ecotourism shows potential to play a role in strategic sustainable development and to give ecotourism providers a competitive advantage in the market. However, the environmental and social benefits of this concept can only be realized if it is applied correctly. The framework for strategic for strategic sustainable development (FSSD) was used to address the complexity surrounding ecotourism and the use of citizen science. The study used a mixed method research design by conducting exploratory interviews, and then distributing a questionnaire to validate the qualitative findings. Results demonstrate that the merge of citizen science and ecotourism could contribute to sustainability through education, conservation, local community engagement, and the increased environmental awareness of the travellers. Additionally, it demonstrates that the integration of citizen science in an ecotourism product might create business benefits for the ecotourism providers in conjunction with a dynamic learning experience for the consumer. This study makes adaptions to a widely used citizen science toolkit and recommends appropriate changes to the process in order to ensure that it is effective for ecotourism providers while incorporating sustainability throughout the product design phase.

  • 150.
    Silvander, Johan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wälitalo, Lisa
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Knowledge creation through a teaching and learning spiral2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: We have experienced the use of a domain specific language sometimes makes it difficult to present domain knowledge to a group or an individual that has limited or different knowledge about the specific domain, and where the presenter and the audience do not have sufficient insight into each other's contexts. In order to create an environment w here knowledge transfer can exists it is vital to understand how the roles are shifting during the interaction between the participants. In an educational environment Teaching and Learning Activities (TLA) could, in ideal situations, be invented during the design of the curriculum. This might not be the case when interacting with practitioners or students from diverse fields. This situation requires a method to find TLAs for the specific situation. For the domain knowledge to be useful for learners it has to be connected to the context/domain where the learners are active. In this paper we combine a spiral learning process with constructive alignment, which resulted in a teaching and learning spiral process. The outcome of the teach - ing and learning spiral process is to provide the knowledge of using the introduced domain knowledge in a context/domain where the learners are active.

    Objective: The aim with this work is to present guidelines that will contribute to a more effective knowledge creation process in heterogeneous groups, both in an educational environment and in interaction with different groups of practitioners in society.

    Method: We conducted a case study using observations and surveys.

    Results: The results from our case study support a positive effect on the learning outcomes when adopting this methodology. The learning outcome is to gain deeper understanding of the introduced domain knowledge and being able to dis - cuss how the new domain knowledge can be integrated to the learners own context.

    Conclusions: We have formulated guidelines for how to use the teaching and learning spiral process in an effective and efficient way.

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