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  • 101.
    Bednarz, Andrzej
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Transformation of Rational Unified Process analysis model to design model according to architectural patterns2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Applying Rational Unified Process (RUP) in a project means to develop a set of models before the system could be implemented. The models depict the essentials of the system from requirements to detailed design. They facilitate getting a system that has appropriate and rich documentation (therefore highly maintainable) and addresses user needs. However, creation of the models may cause overheads since a lot of work has to be put to elaborate the artefacts. In this paper a method that makes RUP more efficient is proposed. The method makes use of the fact that every subsequent model is developed basing on the previous model. In other words, models are successively transformed from requirements up to executable code. In particular, design model bases on an analysis model. The proposed method applies automatic model transformation from an analysis model to a design model. Firstly, an approach for performing automatic transformation is chosen. Secondly, a tool applying this approach is implemented. Finally, the transformation tool is tested and evaluated in an empirical study. The results show that automation of model transformation may be beneficial, and therefore can help in getting better systems in shorten time.

  • 102. Bell, Tim
    et al.
    Wada, Ben T
    Kanemunu, Susumu
    Xia, Xie
    Lee, WonGyu
    Choi, SookKyoung
    Aspvall, Bengt
    , Anna Wingkvist
    Making Computer Science Activities Accessible for the Languages and Cultures of Japan, Korea, China and Sweden2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When teaching material is translated into another language, text-based examples can lose their significance, analogies may be meaningless in the local culture, and there may even be problems with physical access to the material. We consider principles for addressing these issues so that teaching examples can be made accessible to a diverse range of languages and cultures. We present a case study of the adaptation of a free resource for school outreach and lecture demonstrations (csunplugged.org), looking at issues encountered for Japanese, Korean, Chinese and Swedish translations. These represent a large range of languages, types of alphabets and cultures.

  • 103.
    Bengtsson, Johan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Interaction and System Design.
    Hansson, Emma
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Interaction and System Design.
    DRM: Digital Rights Management2001Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, technological developments have led to digital files being more easily distributed, for example through Napster (a file sharing service on the Internet). In order to manage and control the distribution of digital files, a new concept has been developed, called DRM (Digital Rights Management). The purpose is to set every single file with individual rights that are extremely hard to break, and consequently make people pay and use the files legally. The file will then be fully protected from intrusion and alteration until the set rights expire. The goal of this thesis is to look into and summarise DRM of today. We have concentrated on the mobile DRM market, and especially mobile phones. Especially the solutions/applications that already exist and their functionality and properties, but also requirements regarding security levels, compatibility etc. We have also added predictions of the near future, ours as well as others. Existing applications for DRM are well made but few are constructed for mobile phones. Mobile phones will however be a good and secure platform for DRM. At present there is no DRM application inserted in mobile phones in Europe. The third generation (3G) network will push the progress with the capability of broader bandwidth, with capacity of downloading more content to the phone. Since the mobile phone software is embedded and the mobile phones are within a trusted network, the security level of a DRM application in a mobile phone can be discussed. A lower level of security would make it easier for managing content but also open up the market for hackers that wish to trespass. With a lower level of security you always have to consider the consequences and often it creates more problems than it solves. We believe the DRM market and its value will increase exponentially over the next few years. The number of players on the mobile Internet DRM market will be less than on the Internet DRM market, due to the complexity of getting applications into the phone. The latter will consist of many more players, and remain fragmented, since it is an open market.

  • 104.
    Bengtsson, Sandra
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Interaction and System Design.
    Gnospelius, Sara
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Interaction and System Design.
    XP ett stöd eller ett hinder?2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a reflection over a software engineering project, WAIS, and the work methodology that has been used within the project. Extreme Programming (XP) was the work methodology used during the process of development. We question if the choice of work methodology is suitable for this kind of project. The project was running by student during spring 2004 at Blekinge Institute of technology (BTH). The project WAIS was a part of a larger project named AIS 42 that runs with funds from VINNOVA. The main projects background and purpose are described in thesis so that the reader can understand the students’ part in the projects as a whole. The students’ main task was to develop a prototype for a system that disseminates information about logistics and transports. The system has many different end users and they come from various organizations that are spread out both physical and organizational. XP is treated as a methodology with in Agile manifesto, which principles are being explained in the thesis. Parallels are being drawn between the work process and the result from the work done. We reflect over the process and the work methodology from a perspective that has been brought forth from our years of education at BTH. The approach is built up upon theories from participatory design and human computer interaction where the user has an essential part of the process of development. The conclusion shows that the project has missed some of the advantages that XP brings. The reasons that we identified were; timeaspects, access to users and the lack of a joint objectiv.

  • 105. Berander, Patrik
    Evolving Prioritization for Software Product Management2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The quality of a product is commonly defined by its ability to satisfy stakeholder needs and expectations. Therefore, it is important to find, select, and plan the content of a software product to maximize the value for internal and external stakeholders. This process is traditionally referred to as requirements engineering in the software industry, while it is often referred to as product management in industries with a larger market focus. As an increasing number of software products are delivered to a market instead of single customers, the need for product management in software companies is increasing. As a side effect, the need for mechanisms supporting decisions regarding the content of software products also increases. While decision-support within requirements engineering and product management is a broad area, requirements prioritization together with release planning and negotiation are considered as some of the most important decision activities. This is particularly true because these activities support decisions regarding the content of products, and are hence drivers for quality. At the same time, requirements prioritization is seen as an integral and important component in both requirements negotiation (with single customers) and release planning (with markets) in incremental software development. This makes requirements prioritization a key component in software engineering decision support, in particular as input to more sophisticated approaches for release planning and negotiation, where decisions about what and when to develop are made. This thesis primarily focuses on evolving the current body of knowledge in relation to release planning in general and requirements prioritization in particular. The research is carried out by performing qualitative and quantitative studies in industrial and academic environments with an empirical focus. Each of the presented studies has its own focus and scope while together contributing to the research area. Together they answer questions about why and how requirements prioritization should be conducted, as well as what aspects should be taken into account when making decisions about the content of products. The primary objective of the thesis is to give guidelines on how to evolve requirements prioritization to better facilitate decisions regarding the content of software products. This is accomplished by giving suggestions on how to perform research to evolve the area, by evaluating current approaches and suggest ways on how these can be improved, and by giving directions on how to align and focus future research to be more successful in development of decision-support approaches. This means that the thesis solves problems with requirements prioritization today, and gives directions and support on how to evolve the area in a successful way.

  • 106. Berander, Patrik
    Prioritization of Stakeholder Needs in Software Engineering: Understanding and Evaluation2004Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In everyday life, humans confront situations where different decisions have to be made. Such decisions can be non-trivial even though they often are relatively simple, such as which bus to take or which flavor of a soft drink to buy. When facing decisions of more complex nature, and when more is at stake, they tend to get much harder. It is often possible to deal with such decisions by prioritizing different alternatives to find the most suitable one. In software engineering, decision-makers are often confronted with situations where complex decisions have to be made, and where the concept of prioritization can be utilized. Traditionally in software engineering, discussions about prioritization have focused on the software product. However, when defining or improving software processes, complex decisions also have to be made. In fact, software products and software processes have many characteristics in common which invite thoughts about using prioritization when developing and evolving software processes as well. The results presented in this thesis indicate that it is possible to share results and knowledge regarding prioritization between the two areas. In this thesis, the area of prioritization of software products is investigated in detail and a number of studies where prioritizations are performed in both process and product settings are presented. It is shown that it is possible to use prioritization techniques commonly used in product development also when prioritizing improvement issues in a software company. It is also shown that priorities between stakeholders of a software process sometimes differ, just as they do when developing software products. The thesis also presents an experiment where different prioritization techniques are evaluated with regard to ease of use, time consumption, and accuracy. Finally, an investigation of the suitability of students as subjects when evaluating prioritization techniques is presented.

  • 107. Berander, Patrik
    Using students as subjects in requirements prioritization2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 108. Berander, Patrik
    et al.
    Andrews, Anneliese Amschler
    Requirements Prioritization2005In: Engineering and Managing Software Requirements / [ed] Aurum, Aybüke; Wohlin, Claes, Berlin: Springer Verlag , 2005, p. 69-94Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter provides an overview of techniques for prioritization of requirements for software products. Prioritization is a crucial step towards making good decisions regarding product planning for single and multiple releases. Various aspects of functionality are considered, such as importance, risk, cost, etc. Prioritization decisions are made by stakeholders, including users, managers, developers, or their representatives. Methods are given how to combine individual prioritizations based on overall objectives and constraints. A range of different techniques and aspects are applied to an example to illustrate their use. Finally, limitations and shortcomings of current methods are pointed out, and open research questions in the area of requirements prioritization are discussed.

  • 109. Berander, Patrik
    et al.
    Jönsson, Per
    A Goal Question Metric Based Approach for Efficient Measurement Framework Definition2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 110. Berander, Patrik
    et al.
    Jönsson, Per
    Hierarchical Cumulative Voting (HCV) Prioritization of Requirements in Hierarchies2006In: International Journal of Software Engineering & Knowledge Engineering, ISSN 0218-1940 , Vol. 16, no 6, p. 819-849Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision support in requirements engineering is an activity that plays an important role in enabling the delivery of value to stakeholders. Requirements prioritization has been identified as an integral (and important) part of requirements negotiation and release planning in incremental software development, which makes prioritization a key issue in requirements engineering decision support. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) has for long been considered as the technique to use when prioritizing requirements on a ratio scale. Several studies have reported positively about AHP, but lately a number of studies have also reported about weaknesses, without identifying any better ratio-scale alternatives. In this paper, the strengths and weaknesses of AHP and another ratioscale prioritization technique, Cumulative Voting (CV), are compared. Based on this comparison, a new technique for prioritizing hierarchically structured requirements on a ratio scale is presented, called Hierarchical Cumulative Voting (HCV). HCV addresses the weaknesses of AHP while inheriting the strengths of CV. The suitability of HCV is discussed theoretically as well as in the light of empirical results from using HCV and CV in industrial settings. It is concluded that HCV seems very promising, but additional empirical studies are needed to address some of the open questions about the technique.

  • 111. Berander, Patrik
    et al.
    Khan, K.A.
    Lehtola, L.
    Towards a Research Framework on Requirements Prioritization2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 112. Berander, Patrik
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Differences in Views between Development Roles in Software Process Improvement: A Quantitative Comparison2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a quantitative study that evaluates how different roles in a software development organization view different issues in software process improvement. The study is conducted in a large Swedish telecommunication organization with the traditional roles of software development. The respondents of the study got five different questions related to process improvement. The result was that the different roles disagreed in three of the questions while they agreed in two of the questions. The disagreement was related to issues about importance of improvement, urgency of problems, and threat against successful process management, while the questions where the roles agreed focused on communication of the processes (documentation and teaching). It is concluded that it is important to be aware and take into account the different needs of different roles and that looking into other areas (e.g. marketing) could be beneficial when conducting process improvements.

  • 113.
    Berg, Magnus
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Signal Processing.
    Bondesson, Erik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Signal Processing.
    Real-Time Implementation of a Combined PCA-ICA Algorithm for Blind Source Separation2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis we introduce and investigate a method combining Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) for Blind Source Separation (BSS). A recursive method for the PCA is applied to meet the demands of a real-time application, and for the ICA algorithm, the Information maximization principle is used. In an effort to address convolutive BSS, the separation is performed in the frequency domain. By doing so, the problem reduces to the simple stantaneous case, and existing instantaneous BSS model can be used. However, frequency domain BSS is subject to both permutation and scaling ambiguities. This thesis examines several methods to solve these problems, like Direction Of Arrival (DOA) and the Kurtosis. Furthermore, results are presented based on Matlab simulations as well as from a real-time implementation. Evaluations show that the combined PCA-ICA algorithm outperforms both the PCA and ICA alone. The algorithm was also successfully implemented in real-time with comparable noise suppression capability compared to Matlab implementation. Future work which include ways to improve efficiency of the algorithms is also discussed.

  • 114. Berg, Magnus
    et al.
    Bondesson, Erik
    Low, Siow Yong
    Nordholm, Sven
    Claesson, Ingvar
    A combined on-line PCA-ICA algorithm for blind source separation 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we introduce and investigate a method combining principle component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA) for blind source separation (BSS). A recursive method for the PCA is applied to meet the demands of a real-time application, and likewise a modified on-line version of the information maximization principle is used. The combined PCA-ICA algorithm, first reduces the dimension of the problem and then separates the signals. Evaluation of the proposed algorithm in a real room shows superior noise suppression capabilities compared to the use of PCA or ICA individually. The proposed algorithm achieves an impressive noise suppression/separation of up to 14 dB with only two microphones. Most importantly this is achieved with negligible distortion of the recovered signal. © 2005 IEEE.

  • 115. Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Lindström, Fredric
    Waye, Kerstin Persson
    Claesson, Ingvar
    Analysis of How the Noise Level Depends on Different Activities in a Child Day-Care Center2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In child day-care centers the noise level can rise to high levels and in some cases become so high that the people present risk hearing damage. The purpose of this investigation was to study how the noise level depends on the different activities during the day. The study was performed at a child day-care center and 6 children and 5 adult female teachers participated. The participants had a microphone attached next to the ear connected to a wearable digital recorder. A total of 32.5 hours of data was recorded. By listening tests the recorded data could be sorted by activity and by number of people present in the same room as the test subject. Activities were classified as belonging to one of the following: outdoor activity, indoor play, singing, storytelling and gathering. Further, by listening, the data was classified in small group/large group (3 or less/more than 3). The results show that the average noise level (LAeq) for outdoor activity was the highest and was measured to 88.1 dBA (average over 7h52min). Singing was 81.5 dBA (1h26min), indoor play 81.3 dBA (19h21min), storytelling 76.6 dBA (1h09min) and gathering 75.0 dBA (2h44min). The noise level difference between all activities except between singing and indoor play and gathering and storytelling could be verified using t-test (p<0.001). Further, the results showed that the average noise level was 86.6 dBA (14h11min) for the large group and 79.6 dBA (18h21min) for the small group. This difference, of 7.0 dB was statistically validated (p<0.001) using t-test.

  • 116. Bergkvist, Markus
    et al.
    Davidsson, Paul
    Persson, Jan A.
    Ramstedt, Linda
    A Hybrid Micro-Simulator for Determining the Effects of Governmental Control Policies on Transport Chains2005In: Multi-Agent and Multi-Agent Based Simulation / [ed] Davidsson, Paul; Logan, Brian; Takadama, and Keiki, Springer , 2005Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A simulation-based tool is described which will be used to investigate how the actors in a transport chain are expected to act when different types of governmental control policies are applied, such as, fuel taxes, road tolls, vehicle taxes and requirements on vehicles. The simulator is composed of two layers, one layer simulating the physical activities taking place in the transport chain, e.g., production, storage, and transports of goods, and another layer simulating the different actors’ decision making processes. The decision layer is implemented by a multi-agent system where each agent corresponds to a particular actor and models the way it acts in different situations. The simulator will be used for analyzing the costs and environmental effects, and will in this way provide guidance in decision making regarding control policies. In addition, it will be possible for companies to use the simulator in order to determine cost-effective strategies given different (future) scenarios.

  • 117. Bergkvist, Markus
    et al.
    Davidsson, Paul
    Persson, Jan A.
    Ramstedt, Linda
    A Hybrid Micro-Simulator for Determining the Effects of Governmental Control Policies on Transport Chains2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A simulation-based tool is described which will be used to investigate how the actors in a transport chain are expected to act when different types of governmental control policies are applied, such as, fuel taxes, road tolls, vehicle taxes and requirements on vehicles. The simulator is composed of two layers, one layer simulating the physical activities taking place in the transport chain, e.g., production, storage, and transports of goods, and another layer simulating the different actors’ decision-making processes. The decision layer is implemented by a multi-agent system where each agent corresponds to a particular actor and models the way it acts in different situations. The simulator will be used for analyzing the costs and environmental effects, and will in this way provide guidance in decision making regarding control policies. In addition, it will be possible for companies to use the simulator in order to determine cost-effective strategies given different (future) scenarios.

  • 118.
    Bergstrand, Fredrik
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Bergstrand, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Gunnarsson, Håkan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Localization of Spyware in Windows Environments2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a thesis about different methods that can be used to detect spyware. Methods included are Layered Service Provider, Internet Protocol Helper API, TDI filtering and API hooking. Some firewall testing applications, leak tests, that use methods that can be used by real spyware program to penetrate firewalls have also been examined. The goal was to develop a Windows 2000/XP program that is able to detect as many of our examined leak tests as possible. Our program uses the methods TDI filtering and API hooking for detection of spyware because our study showed that these methods were the best. To evaluate the program it was tested against our examined leak test programs. Our program managed to detect all leak tests except one.

  • 119.
    Bergström, Jonas
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Dahlqvist, Andreas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    BESMART: a framework for shifting from BESpoke to MARkeT-driven requirements engineering2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Requirements Engineering has two main directions, Bespoke (product developed for one customer) and Market-Driven (several potential customers for the same product). These two are in some ways very much alike but in some aspects very different. Over the last couple of years the software development industry has tended to shift more and more to Market-Driven Requirements Engineering. This has brought attention to the challenges facing a Market-Driven development organization, without focusing on the actual shift from Bespoke development. Based on the differences and similarities between Bespoke and Market-Driven Requirements Engineering, this thesis presents a framework for shifting from the former to the latter. The framework (BESMART) involves three steps. Firstly, the organization assesses their potential to become more Market-Driven. Secondly they assess their current way of working to identify which areas that may need to be improved. Finally, BESMART provides multiple suggestions that address the identified improvement areas. The organization is then able to choose the one that best suits their needs. This also lets the organization choose a solution that they find feasible. The framework was used at a case organization during its development. This way it was ensured that the theoretical framework could actually be used in a real world setting. The practical use of BESMART resulted in some refinements aimed at making it more applicable in industry. Once the framework had been applied, it was evaluated by representatives from the case organization. The industry evaluation resulted in some improvement suggestions but showed that the framework was both useful and usable and provided an improvement plan that seemed promising enough to pilot in the organization.

  • 120. Berntsson-Svensson, R.
    et al.
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Wohlin, Claes
    Hu, Ganglan
    Successful Software Project and Products: An Empirical Investigation Comparing Australia and Sweden2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 121.
    Berntsson-Svensson, Richard
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Successful Software Projects and Products: A quantitative study2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Successful or failed software projects have been discussed in literature for many years. Successful software projects are often defined as meeting business objectives, deliver on time and within budget, and meeting requirements. Different factors that contribute to software project success have been identified in the literature. Some of the most common factors that lead to software project success are: user involvement, management support, realistic requirements, and having good estimations. However, there are different opinions about what a successful software project is. Linberg found in a study that managers had a different perception from software practitioners (developers, testers etc.) about what a successful software project is. Since there are different perceptions of what a successful project is among different roles in software development, there may be differences from other perspectives too. This observation relates to the overall research questions in the thesis: Could there be different perceptions about what success factors are for software projects among different countries and customer-supplier relationships? Do people from different countries have different perceptions about what success factors are for software products? This study investigated if there are any differences and similarities between Swedish and Australian companies. In addition, a comparison between bespoke and market driven and bespoke and in-house customer-supplier relationships was made. The result shows that there are differences of which factors that lead to software project success among the two countries as well as between different types of customer-supplier relationships.

  • 122.
    Bertilsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Telecommunication Systems.
    Nilsson, Fredrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Telecommunication Systems.
    En butik på Internet, Grandpa AB2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fler och fler människor handlar på Internet idag. Det är därför inte konstigt att butikerna vill nå ut till dessa kunder också. Grandpa AB, är en liten butik i Stockholm som säljer framför allt kläder men även andra saker, är just en av dessa butikerna.

  • 123.
    Bertilsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Telecommunication Systems.
    Persson, Mårten
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Telecommunication Systems.
    Situation-dependent spontaneous mobile information service for travelers2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This application is created to provide valid and relevant travel information to travelers on their journey. The application is proposed as a demonstration for seamless communications in the VINNOVA-sponsored project PIITSA (Personal Information Intelligent Transport systems through Seamless communications and Autonomous decisions). The PIITSA-project is a cooperation between Blekinge Institute of Technology (BTH), Saab AB, SP Swedish National Testing and Research Institute and Swedish Road Administration region Stockholm. The project is going on under three years, and the goal is to define communication and decision functions which will make it easier for ITS-applications (Intelligent Transport Systems and Services) that have the need of supplying personalised information. This project presents a solution to the question “How do I get from point A to point B in any case”. All that the user needs is a PDA with the application installed and being able to connect to the service via a mobile network. If the user has specified a route in the application, then the user will receive up-to-date information on how to get to his destination. This information is presented on the user’s PDA. If something happens on the current route, then the user will get an automatic message sent to him presenting the problem and give him a new travel route. Thanks to this the user won’t be stuck in the traffic problem and will probably reach its destination in time.

  • 124.
    Betschart, Willie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Signal Processing.
    Applying intelligent statistical methods on biometric systems2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master’s thesis work was performed at Optimum Biometric Labs, OBL, located in Karlskrona, Sweden. Optimum Biometric Labs perform independent scenario evaluations to companies who develop biometric devices. The company has a product Optimum preConTM which is surveillance and diagnosis tool for biometric systems. This thesis work’s objective was to develop a conceptual model and implement it as an additional layer above the biometric layer with intelligence about the biometric users. The layer is influenced by the general procedure of biometrics in a multimodal behavioural way. It is working in an unsupervised way and performs in an unsupervised manner. While biometric systems are increasingly adopted the technologies have some inherent problems such as false match and false non-match. In practice, a rejected user can not be interpreted as an impostor since the user simply might have problems using his/her biometric feature. The proposed methods in this project are dealing with these problems when analysing biometric usage in runtime. Another fact which may give rise to false rejections is template aging; a phenomenon where the enrolled user’s template is too old compared towards the user’s current biometric feature. A theoretical approach of template aging was known; however since the analysis of template aging detection was correlated with potential system flaws such as device defects or human generated risks such as impostor attacks this task would become difficult to solve in an unsupervised system but when ignoring the definition of template aging, the detection of similar effects was possible. One of the objectives of this project was to detect template aging in a predictive sense; this task failed to be carried out because the absence of basis performing this kind of tasks. The developed program performs abnormality detection at each incoming event from a biometric system. Each verification attempt is assumed to be from a genuine user unless any deviation according to the user's history is found, an abnormality. The possibility of an impostor attack depends on the degree of the abnormality. The application makes relative decisions between fraud possibilities or if genuine user was the source of what caused the deviations. This is presented as an alarm with the degree of impostor possibility. This intelligent layer has increased Optimum preCon´s capacity as a surveillance tool for biometrics. This product is an efficient complement to biometric systems in a steady up-going worldwide market.

  • 125.
    Bhatti, Ansar Malook
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Abdullah, Hafiz Muhammad
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Deciding on Optimum Set of Measures in Software Organizations2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Software measurement process is a significant part of process improvement in software organizations. The organizations usually follow a measurement process that includes measures selection, data collection, and analysis to improve their processes. Most of the software organizations face difficulties in deciding the measures to collect since there is no universal set of measures for all types of organizations and projects. Experience shows that measurement can be more successful if the measures are collected based on the goals of the organization or the project which it will serve. A few methodologies exist to aid the software organizations. Goal Question Metric (GQM) is one of the most widely known and used one. However, one of the major constraints for the organizations is the associated cost when collecting the measures. Therefore, software organizations also require selecting the optimum set of measures which are good enough for the organization. This thesis study aims to provide solution for this problem. We propose a model, named ‗Optimum Measure Set Decision Model (OMSD)‘, which is an extension of GQM paradigm. The model is based on a heuristics approach, which aims to provide the optimum set of measures from a large number of possible measures. To develop the model, we identified the factors which are significant in selecting the optimum set of measures based on the literature survey results. Then, we evaluated those factors by conducting an empirical study. As the empirical research strategy, we used traditional fixed non-experimental design strategy. We performed a survey by distributing a structured questionnaire in order to evaluate the important factors we identified when selecting the optimum number of measures to be collected in an organization. We evaluated the heuristics rules by means of some sample cases we created. Moreover, we provided an idea for an alternative solution to optimize the number of measures to be collected for the future research.

  • 126. Bhole, Yogesh
    et al.
    Popescu, Adrian
    Measurement and Analysis of HTTP Traffic2005In: Journal of Network and Systems Management, ISSN 1064-7570, E-ISSN 1573-7705, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 357-371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The usage of Internet is rapidly increasing and a large part of the Internet traffic is generated by the World Wide Web (WWW) and the associated protocol HiperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP). Several important parameters that affect the performance of the WWW are bandwidth, scalability and latency. To tackle these parameters and to improve the overall performance of the system, it is important to understand and to characterize the application level characteristics. This article is reporting on the measurement and analysis of HTTP traffic collected on the student access network at the Blekinge Institute of Technology in Karlskrona, Sweden. The analysis is done on various HTTP traffic parameters, e.g., inter-session timings, inter-arrival timings, request message sizes, response code and number of transactions. The reported results can be useful for building synthetic workloads for simulation and benchmarking purposes.

  • 127.
    Bhoomgoud, Uday
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    P, Kiran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    An Empirical Study On Requirements Engineering Core Practices2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Requirements engineering (RE) is the primary task (process) that is done when agreed upon to develop a software product. The success of the software product is gauged on its ability to meet the intended needs of the stakeholders. There is abundant literature emphasizing the significance of RE and its influence on the entire software project, apart from its importance as the first step for a successful development endeavor. There are several established methodologies that are acknowledged to support the RE process and assist in creating a reliable structure of creating software. Despite the availability of such techniques and solutions, it was observed that umpteen number of software product failures are attributed to unsatisfactory RE practices. In this thesis, we have conducted a study with six organizations to emphasize the gap between the state of the art and the state of the practice, and consequently identify the factors that hinder the industrial community to implement state of the art RE. As a result of this empirical research we have found that to a great extent, state of the art practices are unpopular, more specifically in small organizations. Interestingly the majority of the problems associated with RE are associated to non technical issues.

  • 128. Binzenhöfer, Andreas
    et al.
    Tutschku, Kurt
    Graben, Björn auf dem
    Fiedler, Markus
    Arlos, Patrik
    A P2P-based framework for distributed network management2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a novel framework supporting distributed network management using a self-organizing peer-to-peer overlay network. The overlay consists of several Distributed Network Agents which can perform distributed tests and distributed monitoring for fault and performance management. In that way, the concept is able to overcome disadvantages that come along with a central management unit, like lack of scalability and reliability. So far, little attention has been payed to the quality of service experienced by the end user. Our self-organizing management overlay provides a reliable and scalable basis for distributed tests that incorporate the end user. The use of a distributed, self-organizing software will also reduce capital and operational expenditures of the operator since fewer entities have to be installed and operated.

  • 129. Binzenhöfer, Andreas
    et al.
    Tutschku, Kurt
    Graben, Björn auf dem
    Fiedler, Markus
    Arlos, Patrik
    DNA, a P2P-based framework for distributed network management2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    N/A

  • 130.
    Birkestedt, Sara
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Hansson, Andreas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Can web-based statistic services be trusted?2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of statistic services exist today, which shows that there is a great interest in knowing more about the visitors on a web site. But how reliable is the result the services are giving? The hypothesis examined in the thesis is: Web-based statistic services do not show an accurate result The purpose of the thesis is to find out how accurate the web-based statistic services are regarding unique visitors and number of pages viewed. Our hope is that this thesis will bring more knowledge about the different statistic services that exists today and the problems surrounding them. We will also draw attention to the importance of knowing how your statistic software works to be able to interpret the results correctly. To investigate this, we chose to do practical tests on a selection of web-based statistic services. The services registered the traffic from the same web site during a test period. During the same period a control program registered the same things and stored the result in a database. In addition to the test, we have done an interview with a person working with web statistics. The investigation showed that there are big differences between the results from the web-based statistic services in the test and that none of them showed an accurate result, neither for the total number of page views nor unique visitors. This led us to the conclusion that web-based statistic services do not show an accurate result, which verifies our hypothesis. Also the interview confirmed that there is a problem with measuring web statistics.

  • 131.
    Biswas, Kamanashis
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Interaction and System Design.
    Ali, Md. Liakat
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Interaction and System Design.
    Security Threats in Mobile Ad Hoc Network2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of communication devices or nodes that wish to communicate without any fixed infrastructure and pre-determined organization of available links. The nodes in MANET themselves are responsible for dynamically discovering other nodes to communicate. Although the ongoing trend is to adopt ad hoc networks for commercial uses due to their certain unique properties, the main challenge is the vulnerability to security attacks. A number of challenges like open peer-to-peer network architecture, stringent resource constraints, shared wireless medium, dynamic network topology etc. are posed in MANET. As MANET is quickly spreading for the property of its capability in forming temporary network without the aid of any established infrastructure or centralized administration, security challenges has become a primary concern to provide secure communication. In this thesis, we identify the existent security threats an ad hoc network faces, the security services required to be achieved and the countermeasures for attacks in each layer. To accomplish our goal, we have done literature survey in gathering information related to various types of attacks and solutions, as well as we have made comparative study to address the threats in different layers. Finally, we have identified the challenges and proposed solutions to overcome them. In our study, we have found that necessity of secure routing protocol is still a burning question. There is no general algorithm that suits well against the most commonly known attacks such as wormhole, rushing attack etc. In conclusion, we focus on the findings and future works which may be interesting for the researchers like robust key management, trust based systems, data security in different layer etc. However, in short, we can say that the complete security solution requires the prevention, detection and reaction mechanisms applied in MANET.

  • 132. Björgvinsson, Erling Bjarki
    Socio-Material Mediations: Learning, Knowing, and Self-produced Media within Healthcare2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis discusses lessons learned and issues raised when exploring how self-produced rich media can facilitate sharing of meaning between healthcare professionals at an intensive care unit and between healthcare professionals and patients within a hand surgery clinic. Design experiments conducted at the intensive care unit focused on how healthcare professionals could collaboratively produce ‘best practice’ videos displayed on handheld devices and accessed through barcodes placed out in the unit. The making of the videos it is argued can be seen as a temporary convergence of different views when reifying ‘best practice.’ Design experiments conducted at the hand surgery clinic focused on how healthcare professional and patients collaboratively could produce, during consultations, rich media documents that are tailored to the patients’ specific needs. The rich media documents made can be seen as a temporary convergence of two distinct practices; namely that of hand surgery treatment and the practice of everyday life. Making of rich media documents in both projects resulted in developing relational spaces of informal learning, which engendered the making of rich reifications that function well in close relation to participation. To engender the making of the rich media documents demanded the establishment and hardening of a socio-technical infrastructure which can be seen as a temporary convergence between tools and practices where both the tools and practices are changed. In both cases using these videos in turn demanded that the videos, a form of local collaborative hardenings, needed to be translated anew and so to speak “defrosted.” The design consequences are that designers need to acknowledge materiality as an ongoing process which is given meaning through participation over time within and across communities of practice. Materiality and human agency in this instance are not seen as discrete elements, but rather highly intertwined. The second design consequence is that we need to acknowledge the complexity, partiality, and multiplicity of such relational spaces. Methodologically, the consequences are that it is important to consider where the designers position themselves and the artifacts in the network of relations, since different positioning will have different implications for the subsequent spaces of action.

  • 133.
    Björk, Carl
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Salomonsson, Per
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Creating Interface-Controllers using Model Driven Architecture2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis we will examine a telecom industry case, where combining synchronous and asynchronous interfaces causes problems. A solution to the problem is being presented in form of an interface controller framework that is based on patterns of common functionality of interface controllers. The solution is implemented using four different implementation methods (Java, Erlang, XDE, Executable UML), and compared in lines of code, performance and throughput.

  • 134.
    Björklund, Benjamin
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Nilsson, Simon Hjertson
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Customisable game interfaces impact on game experience2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A graphical user interface (GUI) is the bridge between the software and the user. In video games the user interface must be easily understandable and apprehensive. In fact, if a user interface is poorly done it will often break the game and make the user choose another game. If a user has the ability to configure and change the look of the user interface, will it then result in improved game experience? That’s what we investigated in this thesis. To carry out the investigation we developed a fully customisable user interface to a game called “World of Warcraft”. We then compared the original “World of Warcraft” GUI with our own developed customisable GUI; this was conducted with a usability test with five participants. The result of the investigation showed that the participants in fact noticed an improvement in game experience and were intrigued to continue playing. With the customisable GUI the users felt that they could make more important abilities more accessible by either position them in a certain way or change the size of them.

  • 135. Blomstrand, F
    et al.
    Khatibi, Siamak
    Muyderman, H
    Olsson, T
    Rönnbäck, L
    Calcium wave communication within the astroglial network via gap junctions1997In: On astrocytes and glutamate neurotransmission: New waves in brain information processing, Springer, R.G. Landes Company , 1997, p. 121-153Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 136.
    Bohdanowicz, Daniel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Toward Tool Support for Usage of Object-Oriented Design Patterns Expressed in Unified Modeling Language2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Design patterns describe solutions that can be used in a particular context for commonly recurring problems at the detailed design level of a software system. Patterns have become an important concept in object-oriented development and their usage is a widely accepted practice. This thesis investigates issue of tool support for design patterns usage that can be offered by UML modelling tools, and proposes UML based method and notation for specification of the patterns, and documentation of their instances in a design model, facilitating such support. Different ways of such support are presented and classified, and comparison of tools offering assistance for patterns usage is depicted. UML profile supporting specification of structural aspects of solutions proposed by design patterns, and documentation of their instances is specified in the thesis.

  • 137. Boldt, Martin
    Privacy-Invasive Software: Exploring Effects and Countermeasures2007Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As computers are increasingly more integrated into our daily lives, we need aiding mechanisms for separating legitimate software from their unwanted counterparts. We use the term Privacy-Invasive Software (PIS) to refer to such illegitimate software, sometimes loosely labelled as spyware. In this thesis, we include an introduction to PIS, and how it differs from both legitimate and traditionally malicious software. We also present empirical measurements indicating the effects that PIS have on infected computers and networks. An important contribution of this work is a classification of PIS in which we target both the level of user consent, as well as the degree of user consequences associated with PIS. These consequences, affecting both users and their computers, form a global problem that deteriorates a vast number of users’ computer experiences today. As a way to hinder, or at least mitigate, this development we argue for more user-oriented countermeasures that focus on informing users about the behaviour and consequences associated with using a particular software. In addition to current reactive countermeasures, we also need preventive tools dealing with the threat of PIS before it enters users’ computers. Collaborative reputation systems present an interesting way forward towards such preventive and user-oriented countermeasures against PIS. Moving the software reputations from old channels (such as computer magazines or friends’ recommendations) into an instantly fast reputation system would be beneficial for the users when distinguishing unwanted software from legitimate. It is important that such a reputation system is designed to address antagonistic intentions from both individual users and groups thereof, so that users could depend on the reputations. This would allow users to reach more informed decisions by taking the reported consequences into account when deciding whether they want a specific software to enter their computer or not.

  • 138. Boldt, Martin
    et al.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    Analysing Countermeasures Against Privacy-Invasive Software2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    User privacy is widely affected by the occurrence of privacy-invasive software (PIS) on the Internet. Various forms of countermeasures try to mitigate the negative effects caused by PIS. We use a computer forensic tool to evaluate an anti-spyware tool, with respect to found PIS over a four years period. Within the anti-spyware tool PIS was slowly identified, caused classification problems, and formely classified PIS were sometimes excluded. Background information on both PIS and countermeasure techniques are also presented, followed by discussions on legal disputes between developers of PIS and vendors of countermeasures. © 2006 IEEE.

  • 139. Boldt, Martin
    et al.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    Analysing Privacy-Invasive Software Countermeasures2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 140. Boldt, Martin
    et al.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    Confidentiality Aspects within Road User Charging Systems: the Swedish Case2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we analyze how a proposed Swedish Road User Charging (RUC) system for differentiated distance based taxation affects the corporate confidentiality of haulers. Each hauler needs to equip all their vehicles with an On-Board Unit (OBU) that continuously send position readings back to a central server, which then is used to calculate the taxation. The fact that the system gather, process, and store information about where the vehicles travel introduce threats to the haulers’ corporate confidentiality, e.g. if the position data leak to competitors. We describe threats to various parts of the RUC system, together with protective measures. In the end of the paper we discuss the impact on corporate confidentiality if such a RUC system is introduced, e.g. how would the leakage of position data affect transports conveying sensitive goods such as medical drugs or consumer electronics.

  • 141. Boldt, Martin
    et al.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    Privacy-Invasive Software and Preventive Mechanisms2007In: Malware: An Introduction / [ed] Jain, Ravi K., ICFAI Press , 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 142. Boldt, Martin
    et al.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    Privacy-Invasive Software and Preventive Mechanisms2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 143. Boldt, Martin
    et al.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Exploring Spyware Effects2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we discuss various types of spyware programs, their behaviour, how they typically infect computers, and the propagation of new varieties of spyware programs. In two experiments, we investigate the occurrence and impact of spyware programs found in popular P2P applications. Based on the findings from the empirical investigations, we try to lift the perspective to a more general view on spyware deriving from the theory of (virtual) network effects. In a model, we categorize in what ways spyware might decrease the utility of belonging to a large virtual network. Here, the baseline is that spyware programs intrude systems and networks, but since they profit from user data they also intrude user privacy. In the model, the intrusions are classified as moderate, severe or disastrous. We found that spyware has the potential to overthrow the positive aspects of belonging to a large network, and network owners should therefore be very careful about permitting such programs in applications and on networks.

  • 144. Boldt, Martin
    et al.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Exploring Spyware Effects2007In: Spyware: An Insight / [ed] Jain, Ravi K., Hyderabad: ICFAI University Press , 2007, p. 39-58Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 145. Boldt, Martin
    et al.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    Larsson, Tobias
    Lindén, Niklas
    Preventing Privacy-Invasive Software using Online Reputations2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Privacy-invasive software, loosely labeled spyware, is an increasingly common problem for today’s computer users, one to which there is no absolute cure. Most of the privacy-invasive software are positioned in a legal gray zone, as the user accepts the malicious behaviour when agreeing to the End User License Agreement. This paper proposes the use of a specialized reputation system to gather and share information regarding software behaviour between community users. A client application helps guide the user at the point of executing software on the local computer, displaying other users’ feedback about the expected behaviour of the software. We discuss important aspects to consider when constructing such a system, and propose possible solutions. Based on the observations made, we implemented a client/server based proof-of-concept tool, which allowed us to demonstrate how such a system would work. We also compare this solution to other, more conventional, protection methods such as anti-virus and anti-spyware software.

  • 146. Boldt, Martin
    et al.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    Martinsson, Roy
    Software Vulnerability Assessment: Version Extraction and Verification2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 147. Boldt, Martin
    et al.
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Lavesson, Niklas
    Davidsson, Paul
    Automated Spyware Detection Using End User License Agreements2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of spyware increases rapidly over the Internet and it is usually hard for the average user to know if a software application hosts spyware. This paper investigates the hypothesis that it is possible to detect from the End User License Agreement (EULA) whether its associated software hosts spyware or not. We generated a data set by collecting 100 applications with EULAs and classifying each EULA as either good or bad. An experiment was conducted, in which 15 popular default-configured mining algorithms were applied on the data set. The results show that 13 algorithms are significantly better than random guessing, thus we conclude that the hypothesis can be accepted. Moreover, 2 algorithms also perform significantly better than the current state-of-the-art EULA analysis method. Based on these results, we present a novel tool that can be used to prevent the installation of spyware.

  • 148. Boman, Magnus
    et al.
    Johansson, Stefan J.
    Modeling Epidemic Spread in Synthetic Populations: Virtual Plagues in Massively Multiplayer Online Games2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 149.
    Bondesson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Software Engineering Education Improvement: An Assessment of a Software Engineering Programme2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An assessment of a software engineering program has been carried out by reviewing state-of-the-art literature pertaining to software engineering education. Six surveys have been adopted and the result implies that the balance of the curriculum should be revised, and that software engineering education ought to expand the technical oriented knowledge areas somewhat. Relevant curriculum data have been derived hereby, which also confirms other studies in the area. This data, along with a benchmark of the software engineering program to the Software Engineering Body of Knowledge (SWEBOK), is very constructive to universities as it assists educators, trainers, and software engineering practitioners in evaluating, designing, and recommending existing and proposed curricula.

  • 150. Borgh, Markus
    et al.
    Johansson, Sven
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Signal Processing.
    From, Åsa
    Lindström, Fredric
    A Personal Voice Analyzer and Trainer2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a personal voice analyzer and trainer that allow the user to perform four daily exercises to improve the voice capacity. The system grades how well the user is performing the exercises by analyzing the duration, the intensity and the pitch of the user’s voice.

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