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  • 101. Pettersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Ivarsson, Martin
    Öhman, Peter
    Gorschek, Tony
    A Practitioner’s Guide to Light Weight Software Process Assessment and Improvement Planning2008In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212 , Vol. 81, no 6, p. 972-995Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software process improvement (SPI) is challenging, particularly for small and medium sized enterprises. Most existing SPI frameworks are either too expensive to deploy, or do not take an organizations' specific needs into consideration. There is a need for light weight SPI frameworks that enable practitioners to base improvement efforts on the issues that are the most critical for the specific organization. This paper presents a step-by-step guide to process assessment and improvement planning using improvement framework utilizing light weight assessment and improvement planning (iFLAP), aimed at practitioners undertaking SPI initiatives. In addition to the guide itself the industrial application of iFLAP is shown through two industrial cases. iFLAP is a packaged improvement framework, containing both assessment and improvement planning capabilities, explicitly developed to be light weight in nature. Assessment is performed by eliciting improvements issues based on the organization's experience and knowledge. The findings are validated through triangulation utilizing multiple data sources. iFLAP actively involves practitioners in prioritizing improvement issues and identifying dependencies between them in order to package improvements, and thus establish a, for the organization, realistic improvement plan. The two cases of iFLAP application in industry are presented together with lessons learned in order to exemplify actual use of the framework as well as challenges encountered.

  • 102. Sabaliauskaite, Giedre
    et al.
    Loconsole, AnnaBella
    Engström, Emelie
    Regnell, Björn
    Runeson, Per
    Gorschek, Tony
    Feldt, Robert
    A large-scale empirical study of practitioners' use of object-oriented concepts2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 103. Sabaliauskaite, Giedre
    et al.
    Loconsole, Annabella
    Engström, Emelie
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Regnell, Björn
    Runeson, Per
    Gorschek, Tony
    Feldt, Robert
    Challenges in Aligning Requirements Engineering and Verification in a Large-Scale Industrial Context2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [Context and motivation] When developing software, coordination between different organizational units is essential in order to develop a good quality product, on time and within budget. Particularly, the synchronization between requirements and verification processes is crucial in order to assure that the developed software product satisfies customer requirements. [Question/problem] Our research question is: what are the current challenges in aligning the requirements and verification processes? [Principal ideas/results] We conducted an interview study at a large software development company. This paper presents preliminary findings of these interviews that identify key challenges in aligning requirements and verification processes. [Contribution] The result of this study includes a range of challenges faced by the studied organization grouped into the categories: organization and processes, people, tools, requirements process, testing process, change management, traceability, and measurement. The findings of this study can be used by practitioners as a basis for investigating alignment in their organizations, and by scientists in developing approaches for more efficient and effective management of the alignment between requirements and verification.

  • 104. Schneider, Stefan
    et al.
    Torkar, Richard
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Solutions in Global Software Engineering: A Systematic Literature Review2013In: International Journal of Information Management, ISSN 0268-4012, E-ISSN 1873-4707, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 119-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global software engineering (GSE) has received increased attention, as globalization enables and encourages increased distribution of product development. Many empirical studies and systematic literature reviews (SLRs) focus on the identification of challenges, this paper however presents the first SLR collecting and analyzing solutions associated with GSE, while also evaluating the level of empirical validation of said solutions. As a starting point the paper presents a GSE model, designed to categorize solutions into process areas, useful for the analysis of the research community's contributions to state-of-the-art and identifying fundamental gaps in research. In addition, the model categorizing the solutions is populated with references and good-examples, useful for practitioners, which can use the model to find solutions to overall challenges in various process areas. The overall results of the systematic review revealed more than 330 papers containing 127 solutions that were then identified and mapped to the model. The process areas of project management are highly populated, while other areas like product integration have received surprisingly little attention. In addition, selected process area is elaborated upon in terms of contents and deficiencies.

  • 105.
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    A model for assessing and re-assessing the value of software reuse2017In: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 29, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Software reuse is often seen as a cost avoidance rather than a gained value. This results in a rather one-sided debate where issues such a resource control, release schedule, quality, or reuse in more than one release are neglected. Aims: We propose a reuse value assessment framework, intended to provide a more nuanced view of the value and costs associated with different reuse candidates. Method: This framework is constructed based on findings from an interview study at a large software development company. Results: The framework considers the functionality, compliance to standards, provided quality, and provided support of a reuse candidate, thus enabling an informed comparison between different reuse candidates. Furthermore, the framework provides means for tracking the value of the reused asset throughout subsequent releases. Conclusions: The reuse value assessment framework is a tool to assist in the selection between different reuse candidates. The framework also provides a means to assess the current value of a reusable asset in a product, which can be used to indicate where maintenance efforts would increase the utilized potential of the reusable asset.

  • 106. Svahnberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Eriksson, Magnus
    Borg, Andreas
    Sandahl, Kristian
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Loconsole, AnnaBella
    Perspectives on Requirements Understandability: for Whom Does the Teacher's Bell Toll?2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software development decision makers use many different information sources as a basis for their decisions. One of these sources is the requirements specification, which is used in a large number of processes throughout the software development cycle. In order to make good decisions, the quality and completeness of the available information is important. Hence, requirements must be written in a way that is understandable for the different decision makers. However, requirements are rarely written with an explicit perception of how to make them understandable for different target usages. In this study we investigate the implicit assumptions of current and future requirements engineers and their teachers regarding which usages they perceive as most important when creating requirements. This is contrasted with industrial viewpoints of the relative importance of different requirements usages. The results indicate that the teachers and future requirements engineers have a strong focus towards in-project perspectives, and very little in common with the perspectives of industry managers. Thus, we are training students to serve as software developers, and not software engineering managers.

  • 107. Svahnberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Feldt, Robert
    Torkar, Richard
    Saleem, S.B
    Shafique, M.U.
    A systematic review on strategic release planning models2010In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 237-248Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strategic release planning (sometimes referred to as road-mapping) is an important phase of the requirements engineering process performed at product level. It is concerned with selection and assignment of requirements in sequences of releases such that important technical and resource constraints are fulfilled. Objectives: In this study we investigate which strategic release planning models have been proposed, their degree of empirical validation, their factors for requirements selection, and whether they are intended for a bespoke or market-driven requirements engineering context. Methods: In this systematic review a number of article sources are used, including Compendex, Inspec, IEEE Xplore, ACM Digital Library, and Springer Link. Studies are selected after reading titles and abstracts to decide whether the articles are peer reviewed, and relevant to the subject. Results: Twenty four strategic release planning models are found and mapped in relation to each other, and a taxonomy of requirements selection factors is constructed. Conclusions: We conclude that many models are related to each other and use similar techniques to address the release planning problem. We also conclude that several requirement selection factors are covered in the different models, but that many methods fail to address factors such as stakeholder value or internal value. Moreover, we conclude that there is a need for further empirical validation of the models in full scale industry trials. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 108.
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Nguyen, Thi Than Loan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Nguyen, Mai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Uni-REPM: Validated and Improved2013In: Requirements Engineering, ISSN 0947-3602, E-ISSN 1432-010X, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 85-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software products are usually developed for either a specific customer (bespoke) or a broader market (market-driven). Due to their characteristic, bespoke and market-driven development face different challenges, especially concerning requirements engineering. Many challenges are caused by an inadequate requirements engineering process, and hence there is a need for process improvement frameworks based on empirical research and industry needs. In a previous article we introduced Uni-REPM, a lightweight requirements engineering process assessment framework based on a review of empirically motivated practices in market-driven and bespoke requirements engineering literature. In this article, we validate this framework in academia as well as industry, in order to prepare Uni-REPM for widespread industry use. We conduct two validations; a static validation based on interviews with seven academic experts and a dynamic validation where Uni-REPM is applied in four industrial organisations. Uni-REPM is refined according to the feedback obtained in the validations. The study shows that Uni-REPM is a quick, simple, and cost-effective solution to assess the maturity level of the requirements engineering process of projects. Moreover, the assessment method using checklists is highly usable and applicable in various international development environments.

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  • 109.
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Nguyen, Thi Than Loan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Nguyen, Mai Huong
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Uni-REPM: a framework for requirements engineering process assessment2015In: Requirements Engineering, ISSN 0947-3602, E-ISSN 1432-010X, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 91-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been shown that potential business benefits could be achieved by assessing and improving the requirements engineering (RE) process. However, process assessment models such as CMMI and ISO9000 only cover RE shallowly. Tailored models such as REGPG and REPM, on the other hand, do not cover market-driven requirements engineering. Other attempts such as MDREPM covers market-driven requirements engineering, but correspondingly neglects bespoke requirements engineering. Moreover, the area itself has evolved so practices that once were cutting edge are now commonplace. In this article, we develop and evaluate a unified requirements engineering process maturity model (Uni-REPM) that can be used in a market-driven as well as a bespoke context. This model is based on REPM, but has evolved to reflect contemporary requirements engineering practices. Uni-REPM is primarily created based on a systematic literature review of market-driven requirements engineering practices and a literature review of bespoke practices. Based on the results, Uni-REPM is formulated. The objective of Uni-REPM is twofold. Firstly, it is expected to be applicable for assessing the maturity of RE processes in various scenarios where an organisation would use different development approaches. Secondly, it instructs practitioners about which RE practices to perform and their expected benefits. As an assessment instrument, Uni-REPM provides a simple and low-cost solution for practitioners to identify the status of their RE process. As a guidance tool, Uni-REPM lessens the gap between theoretical and practical worlds by transferring the available RE technologies from research to industry practice.

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  • 110. Svensson, Richard Berntsson
    et al.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Regnell, Björn
    Torkar, Richard
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Shahrokni, Ali
    Feldt, Robert
    Quality Requirements in Industrial Practice – An Extended Interview Study at Eleven Companies2012In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 923-935Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to create a successful software product and assure its quality, it is not enough to fulfill the functional requirements, it is also crucial to find the right balance among competing quality requirements (QR). An extended, previosluy piloted, interview study was performed to identify specific challenges associated with the selection, trade-off, and management of QR in industrial practice. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews with eleven product managers and eleven project leaders from eleven software companies. The contribution of this study is fourfold: First, it compares how QR are handled in two cases, companies working in business-to-business markets, and companies that are working in business-to-consumer markets. These two are also compared in terms of impact on the handling of QRs. Second, it compares the perceptions and priorities of QR by product and project management respectively. Third, it includes an examination of the interdependencies among quality requirements perceived as most important by the practitioners. Fourth, it characterizes the selection and management of QR in down-stream development activities.

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  • 111. Svensson, Richard Berntsson
    et al.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Regnell, Björn
    Torkar, Richard
    Shahrokni, Ali
    Feldt, Robert
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Prioritization of quality requirements: State of practice in eleven companies2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Requirements prioritization is recognized as an important but challenging activity in software product development. For a product to be successful, it is crucial to find the right balance among competing quality requirements. Although literature offers many methods for requirements prioritization, the research on prioritization of quality requirements is limited. This study identifies how quality requirements are prioritized in practice at 11 successful companies developing software intensive systems. We found that ad-hoc prioritization and priority grouping of requirements are the dominant methods for prioritizing quality requirements. The results also show that it is common to use customer input as criteria for prioritization but absence of any criteria was also common. The results suggests that quality requirements by default have a lower priority than functional requirements, and that they only get attention in the prioritizing process if decision-makers are dedicated to invest specific time and resources on QR prioritization. The results of this study may help future research on quality requirements to focus investigations on industry-relevant issues.

  • 112.
    Tempero, Ewan
    et al.
    Univ Auckland, NZL.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Angelis, Lefteris
    Aristotle Univ Thessaloniki, GRC.
    Barriers to Refactoring2017In: Communications of the ACM, ISSN 0001-0782, E-ISSN 1557-7317, Vol. 60, no 10, p. 54-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    REFACTORING(6) IS SOMETHING software developers like to do. They refactor a lot. But do they refactor as much as they would like? Are there barriers that prevent them from doing so? Refactoring is an important tool for improving quality. Many development methodologies rely on refactoring, especially for agile methodologies but also in more plan-driven organizations. If barriers exist, they would undermine the effectiveness of many product-development organizations. We conducted a large-scale survey in 2009 of 3,785 practitioners' use of object-oriented concepts, 7 including questions as to whether they would refactor to deal with certain design problems. We expected either that practitioners would tell us our choice of design principles was inappropriate for basing a refactoring decision or that refactoring is the right decision to take when designs were believed to have quality problems. However, we were told the decision of whether or not to refactor was due to non-design considerations. It is now eight years since the survey, but little has changed in integrated development environment (IDE) support for refactoring, and what has changed has done little to address the barriers we identified.

  • 113. Torkar, Richard
    et al.
    Feldt, Robert
    Gorschek, Tony
    Extracting Generally Applicable Patterns from Object-Oriented Programs for the Purpose of Software Test Creation2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 114. Torkar, Richard
    et al.
    Feldt, Robert
    Gorschek, Tony
    Extracting generally applicable patterns from object-oriented programs for the purpose of test case creation2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an experiment performed on three large open source applications. The applications were instrumented automatically with a total of 10,494 instrumentation points. The purpose of the instrumentation was to collect and store data during the execution of each application that later could be analyzed off-line. Data analysis, on the collected data, allowed for the creation of test cases (test data, test fixtures and test evaluators) in addition to finding object message patterns for object-oriented software.

  • 115. Torkar, Richard
    et al.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Feldt, Robert
    Eighth Conference on Software Engineering Research and Practice in Sweden (SERPS'08)2009In: Software Engineering Notes: an Informal Newsletter of The Specia, ISSN 0163-5948, E-ISSN 1943-5843, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 31-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The eight conference on software engineering research and practice in Sweden (SERPS'08) was held in Karlskrona, Sweden, on the 4th-5th of Nov. 2008. The aim with SERPS'08 is to bring researchers and industry practitioners together to discuss software engineering issues, problems, solutions and experiences, not necessarily from a Swedish perspective. During the conference a number of research and industry papers were presented and questions in connection to the presentations were discussed. This paper is a report on the discussions that took place, pointing towards needs and challenges as well as areas of interest in both academia and industry.

  • 116.
    Torkar, Richard
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Uzair Akbar, Raja
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Kamran, Kashif
    Requirements Traceability: A Systematic Review and Industry Case Study2012In: International Journal of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering, ISSN 0218-1940, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 385-433Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Requirements traceability enables software engineers to trace a requirement from its emergence to its fulfillment. In this paper we examine requirements traceability definitions, challenges, tools and techniques, by the use of a systematic review performing an exhaustive search through the years 1997-2007. We present a number of common definitions, challenges, available tools and techniques (presenting empirical evidence when found), while complementing the results and analysis with a static validation in industry through a series of interviews.

  • 117.
    Tripathi, Nirnaya
    et al.
    Oulun Yliopisto, M3S Research Group, FIN.
    Klotins, Eriks
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Prikladnicki, Rafael
    Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, BRA.
    Oivo, Markku
    Oulun Yliopisto, M3S Research Group, FIN.
    Pompermaier, Leandro Bento
    Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, BRA.
    Kudakacheril, Arun Sojan
    Oulun Yliopisto, M3S Research Group, FIN.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Liukkunen, Kari
    Oulun Yliopisto, M3S Research Group, FIN.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    An anatomy of requirements engineering in software startups using multi-vocal literature and case survey2018In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 146, p. 130-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Software startups aim to develop innovative products, grow rapidly, and thus become important in the development of economy and jobs. Requirements engineering (RE) is a key process area in software development, but its effects on software startups are unclear. Objective: The main objective of this study was to explore how RE (elicitation, documentation, prioritization and validation) is used in software startups. Method: A multi-vocal literature review (MLR) was used to find scientific and gray literature. In addition, a case survey was employed to gather empirical data to reach this study's objective. Results: In the MLR, 36 primary articles were selected out of 28,643 articles. In the case survey, 80 respondents provided information about software startup cases across the globe. Data analysis revealed that during RE processes, internal sources (e.g., for source), analyses of similar products (e.g., elicitation), uses of informal notes (e.g., for documentation), values to customers, products and stakeholders (e.g., for prioritization) and internal reviews/prototypes (e.g., for validation) were the most used techniques. Conclusion: After an analysis of primary literature, it was concluded that research on this topic is still in early stages and more systematic research is needed. Furthermore, few topics were suggested for future research. © 2018 Elsevier Inc.

  • 118.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Abrahamsson, Pekka
    Wang, XiaoFeng
    Nguyen-Duc, Anh
    Shah, Syed
    Bajwa, Sohaib Shahid
    Baltes, Guido H.
    Conboy, Kieran
    Cullina, Eoin
    Dennehy, Denis
    Edison, Henry
    Fernandez-Sanchez, Carlos
    Garbajosa, Juan
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Klotins, Eriks
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Hokkanen, Laura
    Kon, Fabio
    Lunesu, Ilaria
    Marchesi, Michele
    Morgan, Lorraine
    Oivo, Markku
    Selig, Christoph
    Seppänen, Pertti
    Sweetman, Roger
    Tyrväinen, Pasi
    Ungerer, Christina
    Yagüe, Agustin
    Software Startups: A Research Agenda2016In: e-Informatica Software Engineering Journal, ISSN 1897-7979, E-ISSN 2084-4840, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 89-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software startup companies develop innovative, software-intensive products within limited timeframes and with few resources, searching for sustainable and scalable business models. Software startups are quite distinct from traditional mature software companies, but also from micro-, small-, and medium-sized enterprises, introducing new challenges relevant for software engineering research. This paper’s research agenda focuses on software engineering in startups, identifying, in particular, 70+ research questions in the areas of supporting startup engineering activities, startup evolution models and patterns, ecosystems and innovation hubs, human aspects in software startups, applying startup concepts in non-startup environments, and methodologies and theories for startup research. We connect and motivate this research agenda with past studies in software startup research, while pointing out possible future directions. While all authors of this research agenda have their main background in Software Engineering or Computer Science, their interest in software startups broadens the perspective to the challenges, but also to the opportunities that emerge from multi-disciplinary research. Our audience is therefore primarily software engineering researchers, even though we aim at stimulating collaborations and research that crosses disciplinary boundaries. We believe that with this research agenda we cover a wide spectrum of the software startup industry current needs.

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  • 119.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    A Taxonomy for Requirements Engineering and Software Test Alignment2014In: ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology, ISSN 1049-331X, E-ISSN 1557-7392, Vol. 23, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Requirements Engineering and Software Testing are mature areas and have seen a lot of research. Nevertheless, their interactions have been sparsely explored beyond the concept of traceability. To fill this gap we propose a definition of requirements engineering and software test (REST) alignment, a taxonomy that characterizes the methods linking the respective areas, and a process to assess alignment. The taxonomy can support researchers to identify new opportunities for investigation, as well as practitioners to compare alignment methods and evaluate alignment, or lack thereof. We constructed the REST taxonomy by analyzing alignment methods published in literature, iteratively validating the emerging dimensions. The resulting concept of an information dyad characterizes the exchange of information required for any alignment to take place. We demonstrate use of the taxonomy by applying it on five in-depth cases and illustrate angles of analysis on a set of thirteen alignment methods. In addition we developed an assessment framework (REST-bench), applied it in an industrial assessment, and showed that it, with a low effort, can identify opportunities to improve REST alignment. Although we expect that the taxonomy can be further refined, we believe that the information dyad is a valid and useful construct to understand alignment.

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  • 120.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Lavesson, Niklas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Large-scale Information Retrieval in Software Engineering - An Experience Report from Industrial Application2016In: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 2324-2365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Software Engineering activities are information intensive. Research proposes Information Retrieval (IR) techniques to support engineers in their daily tasks, such as establishing and maintaining traceability links, fault identification, and software maintenance. Objective: We describe an engineering task, test case selection, and illustrate our problem analysis and solution discovery process. The objective of the study is to gain an understanding of to what extent IR techniques (one potential solution) can be applied to test case selection and provide decision support in a large-scale, industrial setting. Method: We analyze, in the context of the studied company, how test case selection is performed and design a series of experiments evaluating the performance of different IR techniques. Each experiment provides lessons learned from implementation, execution, and results, feeding to its successor. Results: The three experiments led to the following observations: 1) there is a lack of research on scalable parameter optimization of IR techniques for software engineering problems; 2) scaling IR techniques to industry data is challenging, in particular for latent semantic analysis; 3) the IR context poses constraints on the empirical evaluation of IR techniques, requiring more research on developing valid statistical approaches. Conclusions: We believe that our experiences in conducting a series of IR experiments with industry grade data are valuable for peer researchers so that they can avoid the pitfalls that we have encountered. Furthermore, we identified challenges that need to be addressed in order to bridge the gap between laboratory IR experiments and real applications of IR in the industry.

  • 121.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Process Improvement Archaeology: What led us here and what’s next?2018In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 53-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While in every organization corporate culture and history change over time, intentional efforts to identifyperformance problems are of particular interest when trying to understand the current state of an organization.The results of past improvement initiatives can shed light on the evolution of an organization, and represent,with the advantage of perfect hindsight, a learning opportunity for future process improvements. Weencountered the opportunity to test this premise in an applied research collaboration with the SwedishTransport Administration (STA), the government agency responsible for the planning, implementation andmaintenance of long-term rail, road, shipping and aviation infrastructure in Sweden.

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  • 122.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Requirements quality assurance in industry: Why, what and how?2017In: Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., Springer, 2017, Vol. 10153, p. 77-84Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context and Motivation: Natural language is the most common form to specify requirements in industry. The quality of the specification depends on the capability of the writer to formulate requirements aimed at different stakeholders: they are an expression of the customer’s needs that are used by analysts, designers and testers. Given this central role of requirements as a mean to communicate intention, assuring their quality is essential to reduce misunderstandings that lead to potential waste. Problem: Quality assurance of requirement specifications is largely a manual effort that requires expertise and domain knowledge. However, this demanding cognitive process is also congested by trivial quality issues that should not occur in the first place. Principal ideas: We propose a taxonomy of requirements quality assurance complexity that characterizes cognitive load of verifying a quality aspect from the human perspective, and automation complexity and accuracy from the machine perspective. Contribution: Once this taxonomy is realized and validated, it can serve as the basis for a decision framework of automated requirements quality assurance support.

  • 123.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Klotins, Eriks
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Assessing Requirements Engineering and Software Test Alignment - Five Case Studies2015In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 109, no C, p. 62-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of large, software-intensive systems is a complex undertaking that we generally tackle by a divide and conquerstrategy. Companies thereby face the challenge of coordinating individual aspects of software development, in particular betweenrequirements engineering (RE) and software testing (ST). A lack of REST alignment can not only lead to wasted effort but alsoto defective software. However, before a company can improve the mechanisms of coordination they need to be understood first.With REST-bench we aim at providing an assessment tool that illustrates the coordination in software development projects andidentify concrete improvement opportunities. We have developed REST-bench on the sound fundamentals of a taxonomy onREST alignment methods and validated the method in five case studies. Following the principles of technical action research, wecollaborated with five companies, applying REST-bench and iteratively improving the method based on the lessons we learned.We applied REST-bench both in Agile and plan-driven environments, in projects lasting from weeks to years, and staffed as largeas 1000 employees. The improvement opportunities we identified and the feedback we received indicate that the assessmentwas effective and efficient. Furthermore, participants confirmed that their understanding on the coordination between RE and STimproved.

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  • 124.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Islam, A.K.M. Moinul
    Cheng, Chow Kian
    Permadi, Rahadian Bayu
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    A conceptual framework for SPI evaluation2014In: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 251-279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software Process Improvement (SPI) encompasses the analysis and modification of the processes within software development, aimed at improving key areas that contribute to the organizations’ goals. The task of evaluating whether the selected improvement path meets these goals is challenging. On the basis of the results of a systematic literature review on SPI measurement and evaluation practices, we developed a framework (SPI Measurement and Evaluation Framework (SPI-MEF)) that supports the planning and implementation of SPI evaluations. SPI-MEF guides the practitioner in scoping the evaluation, determining measures, and performing the assessment. SPI-MEF does not assume a specific approach to process improvement and can be integrated in existing measurement programs, refocusing the assessment on evaluating the improvement initiative’s outcome. Sixteen industry and academic experts evaluated the framework’s usability and capability to support practitioners, providing additional insights that were integrated in the application guidelines of the framework.

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  • 125.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Islam, A.K.M. Moinul
    Cheng, Chow Kian
    Permadi, Rahadian Bayu
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Evaluation and Measurement of Software Process Improvement: A Systematic Literature Review2012In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 398-424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software Process Improvement (SPI) is a systematic approach to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of a software development organization and to enhance software products. OBJECTIVE—This paper aims to identify and characterize evaluation strategies and measurements used to assess the impact of different SPI initiatives. METHOD--The systematic literature review includes 148 papers published between 1991 and 2008. The selected papers were classified according to SPI initiative, applied evaluation strategies and measurement perspectives. Potential confounding factors interfering with the evaluation of the improvement effort were assessed. RESULTS--Seven distinct evaluation strategies were identified, whereas the most common one, "Pre-Post Comparison", was applied in 49% of the inspected papers. Quality was the most measured attribute (62%), followed by Cost (41%) and Schedule (18%). Looking at measurement perspectives, "Project" represents the majority with 66%. CONCLUSION—The evaluation validity of SPI initiatives is challenged by the scarce consideration of potential confounding factors, particularly given that "Pre-Post Comparison" was identified as the most common evaluation strategy, and the inaccurate descriptions of the evaluation context. Measurements to assess the short and mid-term impact of SPI initiatives prevail, whereas long-term measurements in terms of customer satisfaction and return on investment tend to be less used.

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  • 126.
    Vilela, Jessyka
    et al.
    Univ Fed Ceara, BRA.
    Castro, Jaelson
    Univ Fed Pernambuco UFPE, BRA.
    Martins, Luiz Eduardo G.
    Univ Fed Sao Paulo UNIFESP, BRA.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Silva, Carla
    Univ Fed Pernambuco UFPE, BRA.
    Specifying Safety Requirements with GORE languages2017In: XXXI BRAZILIAN SYMPOSIUM ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING (SBES 2017), Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2017, p. 154-163Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: A suitable representation of Safety-Critical Systems (SCS) requirements is crucial to avoid misunderstandings in safety requirements and issues in safety specification. However, current general requirements specification languages do not fully support the particularities of specifying SCS. Objective: In this paper, our goal is to identify and propose a set of important features that should be provided by requirements languages to support an early safety requirements specification. Moreover, we aim to compare the ability of the four most used Goal-Oriented Requirements Engineering (GORE) languages (i*, KAOS, GRL, NFR-Framework) in supporting the proposed features. Method: We first established a conceptual foundation and a conceptual model based on the literature, challenges elicited in previous works, and demands of safety standards at the requirements level that practitioners must satisfy in order to certify their systems. Results: We proposed a set of 15 features that requirements languages should provide to an early safety requirements specification. Regarding the comparison of GORE languages, in summary, all surveyed languages lacks explicit modeling constructs to express how hazards can occur in the system, the accidents, their impact and how they can mitigated. Conclusions: The conceptual foundation, conceptual model, and the set of features is a novelty. Finally, the features can be used to propose new requirements languages for SCS or to define extensions for the ones already available.

  • 127.
    Vilela, Jéssyka
    et al.
    Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, BRA.
    Castro, Jaelson
    Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, BRA.
    Martins, Luiz Eduardo Galvão
    Universidade Federal de São Paulo, BRA.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Integration between requirements engineering and safety analysis: A systematic literature review2017In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 125, p. 68-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Safety-Critical Systems (SCS) require more sophisticated requirements engineering (RE) approaches as inadequate, incomplete or misunderstood requirements have been recognized as a major cause in many accidents and safety-related catastrophes. Objective: In order to cope with the complexity of specifying SCS by RE, we investigate the approaches proposed to improve the communication or integration between RE and safety engineering in SCS development. We analyze the activities that should be performed by RE during safety analysis, the hazard/safety techniques it could use, the relationships between safety information that it should specify, the tools to support safety analysis as well as integration benefits between these areas. Method: We use a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) as the basis for our work. Results: We developed four taxonomies to help RE during specification of SCS that classify: techniques used in (1) hazard analysis; (2) safety analysis; (3) safety-related information and (4) a detailed set of information regarding hazards specification. Conclusions: This paper is a step towards developing a body of knowledge in safety concerns necessary to RE in the specification of SCS that is derived from a large-scale SLR. We believe the results will benefit both researchers and practitioners.

  • 128.
    Vilela, Jéssyka
    et al.
    Universidade Federal do Ceará, BRA.
    Castro, Jaelson
    Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, BRA.
    Martins, Luiz Eduardo Galvão
    Universidade Federal de São Paulo, BRA.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Safe-RE: A safety requirements metamodel based on industry safety standards2018In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Association for Computing Machinery , 2018, p. 196-201Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: The development of Safety-Critical Systems (SCS) requires an adequate understanding of safety terms to avoid the specification of poor, incomplete or unclear safety requirements. However, there are some misunderstandings, mostly by requirements engineers, about the definition of such concepts. Hence, integration of safety concerns in the Requirements Engineering (RE) and a common nomenclature is necessary to improve the specification of these systems. Objective: To fill this gap, this paper presents Safe-RE, a safety requirements metamodel based on industry safety standards whose aim is to support the specification of safety-related concepts in the RE process. Method: We rely on safety standards as a basis for our work since companies must follow them to have their systems certified. Results: To illustrate the Safe-RE metamodel usage, we applied its concepts in an insulin infusion pump system. Conclusions: We hope that Safe-RE can contribute to improving the elicitation and specifications of such systems and therefore, reducing accidents and safety-related catastrophes. We also discuss some benefits we envision of using the metamodel, its limitations, and open issues. © 2018 Association for Computing Machinery.

  • 129.
    Vilela, Jéssyka
    et al.
    Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, BRA.
    Castro, Jaelson
    Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, BRA.
    Martins, Luiz Eduardo
    Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, BRA.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Assessment of safety processes in requirements engineering2018In: Proceedings - 2018 IEEE 26th International Requirements Engineering Conference, RE 2018, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, p. 358-363Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Requirements issues tend to be mitigated in organizations with high process maturity levels since they do their business in a systematic, consistent and proactive approach. In a Safety-Critical System (SCS), requirements problems have been associated with accidents and safety incidents. Objective: This work investigates which safety practices/actions are suitable to be used in the Requirements Engineering (RE) process of SCS and how to design a safety maturity model for this area. Method: we adopted different empirical techniques to propose Uni-REPM SCS, which consists of a safety module to be included in the Unified Requirements Engineering Process Maturity Model (Uni-REPM). Results: The safety module has seven main processes, 14 sub-processes and 148 safety actions describing principles and practices that form the basis of safety processes maturity. Conclusions: Preliminary validation with two practitioners and nine academic experts indicates that the safety module can help organizations to evaluate their current safety practices with respect to their RE process. Moreover, it also offers a step-wise improvement strategy to raise their safety maturity level. © 2018 IEEE.

  • 130.
    Vilela, Jéssyka Flavyanne Ferreira
    et al.
    Universidade Federal do Ceara, BRA.
    Castro, Jaelson Freire B.
    Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, BRA.
    Martins, Luiz Eduardo Galvão
    Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, BRA.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Safety Practices in Requirements Engineering: The Uni-REPM Safety Module2020In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 222-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Software is an important part in safety- critical system (SCS) development since it is becoming a major source of hazards. Requirements-related hazards have been as- sociated with many accidents and safety incidents. Requirements issues tend to be mitigated in companies with high processes maturity levels since they do their business in a systematic, consistent and proactive approach. However, requirements en- gineers need systematic guidance to consider safety concerns early in the development process. Goal: the paper investigates which safety practices are suitable to be used in the Requirements Engineering (RE) process for SCS and how to design a safety maturity model for this area. Method: we followed the design science methodology to propose Uni-REPM SCS, a safety module for Unified Requirements Engineering Process Maturity Model (Uni-REPM). We also conducted a static validation with two practitioners and nine academic experts to evaluate its coverage, correctness, usefulness and applicability. Results: The module has seven main processes, fourteen sub-processes and 148 practices that form the basis of safety processes maturity. Moreover, we describe its usage through a tool. Conclusions: The validation indicates a good coverage of practices and well receptivity by the experts. Finally, the module can help companies in evaluating their current practices. IEEE

  • 131.
    Wilson, Magnus
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Silvander, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    A Literature Review on the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Business Modeling2018In: e-Informatica Software Engineering Journal, ISSN 1897-7979, E-ISSN 2084-4840, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 265-302Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Achieving and maintaining a strategic competitive advantage through business and technology innovation via continually improving effectiveness and efficiency of the operations are the critical survival factors for software-intensive product development companies. These companies invest in business modeling and tool support for integrating business models into their product development, but remain uncertain, if such investments generate desired results. Aim: This study explores the effects of business modeling on effectiveness and efficiency for companies developing software-intensive products. Method: We conducted a systematic literature review using the snowballing methodology, followed by thematic and narrative analysis. 57 papers were selected for analysis and synthesis, after screening 16 320 papers from multiple research fields. Results: We analyzed the literature based on purpose, benefit, challenge, effectiveness, and efficiency with software and software-intensive products as the unit of analysis. The alignment between strategy and execution is the primary challenge, and we found no evidence that business modeling increases effectiveness and efficiency for a company. Any outcome variations may simply be a result of fluctuating contextual or environmental factors rather than the application of a specific business modeling method. Therefore, we argue that governance is the fundamental challenge needed for business modeling, as it must efficiently support simultaneous experimentation with products and business models while turning experiences into knowledge. Conclusion: We propose a conceptual governance model for exploring the effectiveness and efficiency of business modeling to occupy the missing link between business strategy, processes and software tools. We also recommend managers to introduce a systematic approach for experimentation and organizational learning, collaboration, and value co-creation.

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  • 132.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Borg, Markus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, SWE.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Towards new ways of evaluating methods of supporting requirements management and traceability using signal-to-noise ratio2019In: ENASE 2019 - Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering, SciTePress , 2019, p. 330-339Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing contemporary software solutions requires many processes and people working in synergy to achieve a common goal. Any misalignment between parts of the software production cycle can severely impede the quality of the development process and its resulting products. In this paper, we focus on improving means for measuring the quality of methods used to support finding similarities between software product artifacts, especially requirements. We propose a new set of measures, Signal-to-Noise ratios which extends the commonly used precision and recall measures. We test the applicability of all three types of SNR on two methods for finding similar requirements: the normalized compression distance (NCD) originating from the domain of information theory, and the Vector Space Model originating from computer linguistics. The results obtained present an interesting property of all types of SNR, all the values are centered around 1 which confirms our hypothesis that the analyzed methods can only limit the search space for the analysis. The analyst may still have difficulties in manually assessing the correct links among the incorrect ones. Copyright © 2019 by SCITEPRESS - Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved

  • 133.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Supporting Scope Tracking and Visualization for Very Large-Scale Requirements Engineering-Utilizing FSC+, Decision Patterns, and Atomic Decision Visualization2016In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 47-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deciding the optimal project scope that fulfills the needs of the most important stakeholders is challenging due to a plethora of aspects that may impact decisions. Large companies that operate in rapidly changing environments experience frequently changing customer needs which force decision makers to continuously adjust the scope of their projects. Change intensity is further fueled by fierce market competition and hard time-to-market deadlines. Staying in control of the changes in thousands of features becomes a major issue as information overload hinders decision makers from rapidly extracting relevant information. This paper presents a visual technique, called Feature Survival Charts+ (FSC+), designed to give a quick and effective overview of the requirements scoping process for Very Large-Scale Requirements Engineering (VLSRE). FSC+ were applied at a large company with thousands of features in the database and supported the transition from plan-driven to a more dynamic and change-tolerant release scope management process. FSC+ provides multiple views, filtering, zooming, state-change intensity views, and support for variable time spans. Moreover, this paper introduces five decision archetypes deduced from the dataset and subsequently analyzed and the atomic decision visualization that shows the frequency of various decisions in the process. The capabilities and usefulness of FSC+, decision patterns (state changes that features undergo) and atomic decision visualizations are evaluated through interviews with practitioners who found utility in all techniques and indicated that their inherent flexibility was necessary to meet the varying needs of the stakeholders.

  • 134. Wnuk, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Zahda, Showayb
    Obsolete Software Requirements2013In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 55, no 6, p. 921-940Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coping with rapid requirements change is crucial for staying competitive in the software business. Frequently changing customer needs and fierce competition are typical drivers of rapid requirements evolution resulting in requirements obsolescence even before project completion. Objective: Although the obsolete requirements phenomenon and the implications of not addressing them are known, there is a lack of empirical research dedicated to understanding the nature of obsolete software requirements and their role in requirements management. Method: In this paper, we report results from an empirical investigation with 219 respondents aimed at investigating the phenomenon of obsolete software requirements. Results: Our results contain, but are not limited to, defining the phenomenon of obsolete software requirements, investigating how they are handled in industry today and their potential impact. Conclusion: We conclude that obsolete software requirements constitute a significant challenge for companies developing software intensive products, in particular in large projects, and that companies rarely have processes for handling obsolete software requirements. Further, our results call for future research in creating automated methods for obsolete software requirements identification and management, methods that could enable efficient obsolete software requirements management in large projects.

  • 135.
    Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Aurum, Aybueke
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Angelis, Lefteris
    Phillips, Laura
    Dittrich, Yvonne
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Grahn, Håkan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Henningsson, Kennet
    Kågström, Simon
    Low, Graham
    The Success Factors Powering Industry-Academia Collaboration2012In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 67-73Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 136.
    Yu, Liang
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Alégroth, Emil
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    Örebro universitet, SWE.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Utilising CI environment for efficient and effective testing of NFRs2020In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 117, article id 106199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Continuous integration (CI) is a practice that aims to continuously verify quality aspects of a software intensive system both for functional and non-functional requirements (NFRs). Functional requirements are the inputs of development and can be tested in isolation, utilising either manual or automated tests. In contrast, some NFRs are difficult to test without functionality, for NFRs are often aspects of functionality and express quality aspects. Lacking this testability attribute makes NFR testing complicated and, therefore, underrepresented in industrial practice. However, the emergence of CI has radically affected software development and created new avenues for software quality evaluation and quality information acquisition. Research has, consequently, been devoted to the utilisation of this additional information for more efficient and effective NFR verification. Objective: We aim to identify the state-of-the-art of utilising the CI environment for NFR testing, hereinafter referred to as CI-NFR testing. Method: Through rigorous selection, from an initial set of 747 papers, we identified 47 papers that describe how NFRs are tested in a CI environment. Evidence-based analysis, through coding, is performed on the identified papers in this SLR. Results: Firstly, ten CI approaches are described by the papers selected, each describing different tools and nine different NFRs where reported to be tested. Secondly, although possible, CI-NFR testing is associated with eight challenges that adversely affect its adoption. Thirdly, the identified CI-NFR testing processes are tool-driven, but there is a lack of NFR testing tools that can be used in the CI environment. Finally, we proposed a CI framework for NFRs testing. Conclusion: A synthesised CI framework is proposed for testing various NFRs, and associated CI tools are also mapped. This contribution is valuable as results of the study also show that CI-NFR testing can help improve the quality of NFR testing in practices. © 2019

  • 137. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Feldt, Robert
    Gorschek, Tony
    Reporting Empirical Research in Global Software Engineering: A Classification Scheme2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased popularity of global software engineering (GSE) has resulted in quite a number of research and industrial studies. As the area matures, an increased focus on empirically supported results leads to a greater potential impact on future research and industrial practice. However, since GSE scenarios are diverse, what works in one context might not directly apply in another. Thus it is necessary to understand, how GSE-related empirical findings should be reported to be useful for practitioners and researchers. Furthermore, it‘s important to summarize progress and get the big picture of published research to identify gaps and commonalities. In this paper we analyze differentiating factors of GSE scenarios and offer a classification scheme for describing the context of a GSE study. In addition, we report initial results of a systematic review on GSE-related empirical literature using papers from ICGSE 2006 and 2007, at the same time illustrating and evaluating the proposed scheme.

  • 138. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Gorschek, Tony
    Feldt, Robert
    Empirical evidence in global software engineering: a systematic review2010In: Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 91-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recognized as one of the trends of the 21st century, globalization of the world economies brought significant changes to nearly all industries, and in particular it includes software development. Many companies started global software engineering (GSE) to benefit from cheaper, faster and better development of software systems, products and services. However, empirical studies indicate that achieving these benefits is not an easy task. Here, we report our findings from investigating empirical evidence in GSE-related research literature. By conducting a systematic review we observe that the GSE field is still immature. The amount of empirical studies is relatively small. The majority of the studies represent problem-oriented reports focusing on different aspects of GSE management rather than in-depth analysis of solutions for example in terms of useful practices or techniques. Companies are still driven by cost reduction strategies, and at the same time, the most frequently discussed recommendations indicate a necessity of investments in travelling and socialization. Thus, at the same time as development goes global there is an ambition to minimize geographical, temporal and cultural separation. These are normally integral parts of cross-border collaboration. In summary, the systematic review results in several descriptive classifications of the papers on empirical studies in GSE and also reports on some best practices identified from literature.

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