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  • 101. Svahnberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    A Comparative Study of Quantitative and Qualitative Views of Software Architectures2003Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 102. Svahnberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    An Investigation of a Method for Identifying a Software Architecture Candidate with respect to Quality Attributes2005Inngår i: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 10, nr 2, s. 149-81Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To sustain the qualities of a software system during evolution, and to adapt the quality attributes as the requirements evolve, it is necessary to have a clear software architecture that is understood by all developers and to which all changes to the system adheres. This software architecture can be created beforehand, but must also be updated to reflect changes in the domain, and hence the requirements of the software. The choice of which software architecture to use is typically based on informal decisions. There exist, to the best of our knowledge, little factual knowledge of which quality attributes are supported or obstructed by different architecture approaches. In this paper, we present an empirical study of a method that enables quantification of the perceived support different software architectures give for different quality attributes. This in turn enables an informed decision of which architecture candidate best fit the mixture of quality attributes required by a system being designed

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 103. Svahnberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Consensus Building when Comparing Software Architectures2002Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When designing a software system it is beneficial to study and use architectural styles from literature, to ensure certain quality attributes. However, as the interpretation of literature may differ depending on the background and area of expertise of the person reading the literature, we suggest that structured discussions about different architecture candidates provides more valuable insight not only in the architectures themselves, but in peoples’ opinions of the architectures’ benefits and liabilities. In this paper, we propose a method to elicit the views of individuals concerning architecture candidates for a software system and pinpoint where discussions are needed to come to a consensus view of the architectures.

  • 104. Svahnberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Lundberg, Lars
    Mattsson, Michael
    A Method for Understanding Quality Attributes in Software Architecture Structures.2002Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 105. Svahnberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Lundberg, Lars
    Mattsson, Michael
    A Quality-Driven Decision Support Method for Identifying Software Architecture Candidates2003Inngår i: International journal of software engineering and knowledge engineering, ISSN 0218-1940, Vol. 13, nr 5, s. 547-573Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To sustain the qualities of a software system during evolution, and to adapt the quality attributes as the requirements evolve, it is necessary to have a clear software architecture that is understood by all developers and to which all changes to the system adheres. This software architecture can be created beforehand, but must also be updated as the domain of the software, and hence the requirements on the software system evolve. Creating a software architecture for a system or part of a system so that the architecture fulfils the desired quality requirements is often hard. We propose a decision-support method to aid in the understanding of different architecture candidates for a software system. We propose a method that is adaptable with respect to both the set of potential architecture candidates and quality attributes relevant for the system's domain to help in this task. The method creates a support framework, using a multicriteria decision method, supporting comparison of different software architecture candidates for a specific software quality attribute and vice versa, and then uses this support framework to reach a consensus on the benefits and liabilities of the different software architecture candidates and to increase the confidence in the resulting architecture decision.

  • 106. Thelin, Thomas
    et al.
    Erlansson, Magnus
    Runeson, Per
    Wohlin, Claes
    Experimentation with Usage-Based Reading2003Inngår i: Empirical Methods and Studies in Software Engineering – Experiences from ESERNET / [ed] Wang, A.I.; Conradi, R., Springer Verlag , 2003Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 107. Thelin, Thomas
    et al.
    Petersson, Håkan
    Runeson, Per
    Wohlin, Claes
    Applying Sampling to Improve Software Inspections.2004Inngår i: Journal of Software and Systems, ISSN 0164-1212 , Vol. 73, nr 2, s. 257-269Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of software inspections is to find faults in software documents. The benefits of inspections are reported from researchers as well as software organizations. However, inspections are time consuming and the resources may not be sufficient to inspect all documents. Sampling of documents in inspections provides a systematic solution to select what to be inspected in the case resources are not sufficient to inspect everything. The method presented in this paper uses sampling, inspection and resource scheduling to increase the efficiency of an inspection session. A pre-inspection phase is used in order to determine which documents need most inspection time, i.e. which documents contain most faults. Then, the main inspection is focused on these documents. We describe the sampling method and provide empirical evidence, which indicates that the method is appropriate to use. A Monte Carlo simulation is used to evaluate the proposed method and a case study using industrial data is used to validate the simulation model. Furthermore, we discuss the results and important future research in the area of sampling of software inspections.

  • 108. Thelin, Thomas
    et al.
    Runeson, Per
    Wohlin, Claes
    An Experimental Comparison of Usage-Based and Checklist-Based Reading2003Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 29, nr 8, s. 687-704Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 109. Thelin, Thomas
    et al.
    Runeson, Per
    Wohlin, Claes
    Prioritized Use Cases as a Vehicle for Software Inspections2003Inngår i: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459 , Vol. 20, nr 4, s. 30-33Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 110. Thelin, Thomas
    et al.
    Runeson, Per
    Wohlin, Claes
    Ohlsson, Thomas
    Andersson, Carina
    Evaluation of Usage-Based Reading: Conclusions after Three Experiments2004Inngår i: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 97-110Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Software inspections have been introduced in software engineering in order to detect faults before testing is performed. Reading techniques provide reviewers in software inspections with guidelines on how they should check the documents under inspection. Several reading techniques with different purposes have been introduced and empirically evaluated. In this paper, we describe a reading technique with the special aim to detect faults that are severe from a user’s point of view. The reading technique is named usage-based reading (UBR) and it can be used to inspect all software artefacts. In the series of experiments, a high-level design document is used. The main focus of the paper is on the third experiments, which investigates the information needed for UBR in the individual preparation and the meeting of software inspections. Hence, the paper discusses (1) the series of three experiments of UBR, (2) the individual preparation of the third experiment, and (3) the meeting part of the third experiment. For each of these three parts, results are produced. The main results are (1) UBR is an efficient and effective reading technique that can be used for user-focused software inspections, (2) UBR is more efficient and effective if the information used for UBR is developed prior to, instead of during the individual preparation, and (3) the meeting affects the UBR inspection in terms of increased effectiveness and decreased efficiency. In summary, the empirical evidence shows that UBR is an efficient and effective reading technique to be used by software organizations that produce software for which the user perceived quality is important.

  • 111. Thelin, Thomas
    et al.
    Runeson, Per
    Wohlin, Claes
    Ohlsson, Thomas
    Andersson, Carina
    How Much Information is Needed for Usage-Based Reading?: A Series of Experiments.2002Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Software inspections are regarded as an important technique to detect faults throughout the software development process. The individual preparation phase of software inspections has enlarged its focus from only comprehension to also include fault searching. Hence, reading techniques to support the reviewers on fault detection are needed. Usage-based reading (UBR) is a reading technique, which focuses on the important parts of a software document by using prioritized use cases. This paper presents a series of three UBR experiments on design specifications, with focus on the third. The first experiment evaluates the prioritization of UBR and the second compares UBR against checklist-based reading. The third experiment investigates the amount of information needed in the use cases and whether a more active approach helps the reviewers to detect more faults. The third study was conducted at two different places with a total of 82 subjects. The general result from the experiments is that UBR works as intended and is efficient as well as effective in guiding reviewers during the preparation phase of software inspections. Furthermore, the results indicate that use cases developed in advance are preferable compared to developing them as part of the preparation phase of the inspection.

  • 112. Wohlin, Claes
    A New Index for the Citation Curve of Researchers2009Inngår i: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130 , Vol. 81, nr 2, s. 521-533Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet has made it possible to move towards researcher and article impact instead of solely focusing on journal impact. To support citation measurement, several indexes have been proposed, including the h–index. The h–index provides a point estimate. To address this, a new index is proposed that takes the citation curve of a researcher into account. This article introduces the index, illustrates its use and compares it to rankings based on the h–index as well as rankings based on publications. It is concluded that the new index provides an added value, since it balances citations and publications through the citation curve.

  • 113.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola [bth.se], School of Computing.
    Agile Processes in Software Engineering and Extreme Programming2012Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This book contains the refereed proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Agile Software Development, XP 2012, held in Malmö, Sweden, in May 2011. In the last decade, we have seen agile and lean software development strongly influence the way software is developed. Agile and lean software development has moved from being a way of working for a number of pioneers to becoming, more or less, the expected way of developing software in industry. The topics covered by the selected full papers include general aspects of agility, agile teams, studies related to the release and maintenance of software, and research on specific practices in agile and lean software development. They are complemented by four short papers capturing additional aspects of agile and lean projects.

  • 114. Wohlin, Claes
    An Analysis of the Most Cited Articles in Software Engineering Journals: 19992005Inngår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 47, nr 15, s. 957-964Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Citations and related work are crucial in any research to position the work and to build on the work of others. A high citation count is an indication of the influence of specific articles. The importance of citations means that it is interesting to analyze which articles are cited the most. Such an analysis has been conducted using the ISI Web of Science to identify the most cited software engineering journal articles published in 1999. The objective of the analysis is to identify and list the articles that have influenced others the most as measured by citation count. An understanding of which research is viewed as most valuable to build upon may provide valuable insights into what research to focus on now and in the future. Based on the analysis, a list of the 20 most cited articles is presented here. The intention of the analysis is twofold. First, to actually show the most cited articles, and second, to invite the authors of the most cited articles in 1999 to contribute to a special issue of Information and Software Technology. Five invited authors have accepted the invitation and their articles are appearing in this special issue. Moreover, the research topics and methods of the most cited articles in 1999 are compared with those from the most cited articles in 1994 to provide a picture of similarities and differences between the years.

  • 115. Wohlin, Claes
    An Analysis of the Most Cited Articles in Software Engineering Journals: 20002007Inngår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 49, nr 1, s. 2-11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 116. Wohlin, Claes
    An Analysis of the Most Cited Articles in Software Engineering Journals: 20012008Inngår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 50, nr 1-2, s. 3-9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 117. Wohlin, Claes
    An analysis of the most cited articles in software engineering journals-20022009Inngår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 51, nr 1, s. 2-6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Citations and related work are crucial in any research to position the work and to build on the work of others. A high citation count is an indication of the influence of specific articles. The importance of citations means that it is interesting to analyze which articles are cited the most. Such an analysis has been conducted using the ISI Web of Science to identify the most cited software engineering journal articles published in 2002. The objective of the analysis is to identify and list the articles that have influenced others the most as measured by citation count. An understanding of which research is viewed by the research community as most valuable to build upon may provide valuable insights into what research to focus on now and in the future. Based on the analysis, a list of the 20 most cited articles is presented here. The intention of the analysis is twofold. First, to identify the most cited articles, and second, to invite the authors of the most cited articles in 2002 to contribute to a special section of Information and Software Technology. Six authors have accepted the invitation and their articles appear in this special section. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 118.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    An Evidence Profile for Software Engineering Research and Practice2013Inngår i: Perspectives on the Future of Software Engineering: Essays in Honor of Dieter Rombach / [ed] Münch, Jürgen; Schmid, Klaus, Heidelberg, Germany: Springer , 2013, s. 145-158Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence-based software engineering has emerged as an important part of software engineering. The need for empirical evaluation and hence evidence has grown in the last couple of decades when developing new models, methods, techniques and tools in research. Furthermore, industrial decision-making ought to become more evidence-based. The objective here is to develop and present an evidence-based profile, which could be used to divide pieces of evidence into different types and hence creating an overall picture of evidence in a specific case. The evidence profile is developed in such a way that it allows evidence to be judged in context. The evidence profile consists of five types of evidence, and the profile is illustrated for perspective-based reading. It is shown how pieces of evidence can be classified into the different types. It is concluded that this type of approach may be useful to capture the evidence with respect to a specific topic and in a specific context. The further work includes applying the evidence profile for evidence collected from different type of studies and contexts.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 119. Wohlin, Claes
    Are Individual Differences in Software Development Performance Possible to Capture Using a Quantitative Survey?2004Inngår i: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 211-228Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 120. Wohlin, Claes
    Assuring Fault Classification Agreement: An Empirical Evaluation2004Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Inter-rater agreement is a well-known challenge and is a key issue when discussing fault classification. Fault classification is, by nature, a subjective task since it highly depends on the people performing the classification. Measures are required to hinder the subjective nature of fault classification to propagate through the fault classification process and onto subsequent activities using the classified faults, for example process improvement. One approach to prevent the subjective nature of fault classification is to use multiple raters and measure inter-rater agreement. In this paper, we evaluate the possibility to have an independent group of people classifying faults. The objective is to evaluate whether such a group could be used in a process improvement initiative. An empirical study is conducted with eight persons classifying 30 faults independently. The study concludes that the provided material were unsatisfactory to obtain inter-rater agreement.

  • 121.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Empirical Software Engineering Research with Industry: Top 10 Challenges2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Software engineering research can be done in many ways, in particular it can be done in different ways when it comes to working with industry. This paper presents a list of top 10 challenges to work with industry based on our experience from working with industry in a very close collaboration with continuous exchange of knowledge and information. The top 10 list is based on a large number of research projects and empirical studies conducted with industrial research partners since 1983. It is concluded that close collaboration is a long-term undertaking and a large investment. The importance of addressing the top 10 challenges is stressed, since they form the basis for a long-term sustainable and successful collaboration between industry and academia.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 122. Wohlin, Claes
    Empirical Software Engineering: Teaching Methods and Conducting Studies2007Inngår i: Empirical Software Engineering Issues. Critical Assessment and Future Directions / [ed] Basili, V.; Rombach, D.; Schneider, K.; Kitchenham, B.; Pfahl, D.; Selby, R., Dagstuhl Castle, Germany: Springer , 2007, s. 135-142Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 123.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Institutionen för programvaruteknik och datavetenskap.
    Engineering Software Qualities in Telecommunications: Three Cases from Industry2004Inngår i: Telektronikk, ISSN 0085-7130, E-ISSN 1891-8220, nr 4, s. 208-216Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Software has become an integral part of telecommunication systems over the last 30 years. The relative cost for software in the systems has increased continuously over these years. This increase has meant that there has been a need to also focus on evaluation and prediction of different software qualities of the systems. This paper presents three studies evaluating software qualities in different ways. The firsts study focuses on performance and touches upon reliability. The reliability aspect is discussed in more detail in the second case study. Finally, the third study presents methods to estimate the fault content from software inspections. These studies are presented as representative examples of the work that resulted in that the author of this paper received the Telenor Nordic Research Award in 2004. Some ongoing research on engineering software qualities is also briefly presented.

  • 124. Wohlin, Claes
    Estimation of Software Reliability Growth Model Parameters2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 125.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Guidelines for snowballing in systematic literature studies and a replication in software engineering2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Systematic literature studies have become common in software engineering, and hence it is important to understand how to conduct them efficiently and reliably. Objective: This paper presents guidelines for conducting literature reviews using a snowballing approach, and they are illustrated and evaluated by replicating a published systematic literature review. Method: The guidelines are based on the experience from conducting several systematic literature reviews and experimenting with different approaches. Results: The guidelines for using snowballing as a way to search for relevant literature was successfully applied to a systematic literature review. Conclusions: It is concluded that using snowballing, as a first search strategy, may very well be a good alternative to the use of database searches.

  • 126. Wohlin, Claes
    Introduktion till programvaruutveckling2005Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 127. Wohlin, Claes
    Is Prior Knowledge of a Programming Language Important for Software Quality?2002Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Software engineering is human intensive. Thus, it is important to understand and evaluate the value of different types of experiences, and their relation to the quality of the developed software. Many job advertisements focus on requiring knowledge of specific programming languages. This may seem sensible at first sight, but maybe it is sufficient to have general knowledge in programming and then it is enough to learn a specific language within the new job. A key question is whether prior knowledge actually does improve software quality. This paper presents an empirical study where the programming experience of students is assessed using a survey at the beginning of a course on the Personal Software Process (PSP), and the outcome of the course is evaluated, for example, using the number of defects and development time. Statistical tests are used to analyse the relationship between programming experience and the performance of the students in terms of software quality. The results are mostly unexpected, for example, we are unable to show any significant relation between experience in the programming language used and the number of defects detected.

  • 128.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Is there a Future for Empirical Software Engineering?2016Inngår i: Proceedings of the 10th ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement, ACM/IEEE , 2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 129. Wohlin, Claes
    Most cited journal articles in software engineering2005Inngår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 47, nr 15, s. 955-955Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 130.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Second-generation systematic literature studies using snowballing2016Inngår i: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, ACM Press, 2016, Vol. 01-03-June-2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Systematic literature studies have become standard practice in software engineering to synthesize evidence in different areas of the discipline. As more such studies are published, there is also a need to extend previously published systematic literature studies to cover new research papers. These first extensions become second-generation systematic literature studies. It has been asserted that snowballing would be a suitable search strategy for these types of second-generation studies, since newer studies ought to refer to previous research on a topic, and in particular to systematic literature studies published in an area. This paper compares using a snowballing search strategy with a published second-generation study using a database search strategy in the area of cross-company vs. within-company effort estimation. It is concluded that the approaches are comparable when it comes to which papers they find, although the snowballing approach is more efficient in this particular case. Copyright is held by the owner/author(s).

  • 131. Wohlin, Claes
    Taking novelty to a new level2011Inngår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 53, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 132. Wohlin, Claes
    The infamous ratio measure [1]2010Inngår i: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 27, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 133.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Writing for Synthesis of Evidence in Empirical Software Engineering2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Systematic literature reviews have become common in software engineering in the last decade, but challenges remain. Goal: Given the challenges, the objective is to describe improvement areas in writing primary studies, and hence provide a good basis for researchers aiming at synthesizing research evidence in a specific area. Method: The results presented are based on a literature review with respect to synthesis of research results in software engineering with a particular focus on empirical software engineering. The literature review is complemented and exemplified with experiences from conducting systematic literature reviews and working with research methodologies in empirical software engineering. Results: The paper presents three areas where improvements are needed to become more successful in synthesizing empirical evidence. These three areas are: terminology, paper content and reviewing. Conclusion: It is concluded that it must be possible to improve the primary studies, but it requires that researchers start having synthesis in mind when writing their research papers.

  • 134. Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Andrews, Anneliese Amschler
    Analysing Primary and Lower Order Project Success Drivers.2002Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 135. Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Andrews, Anneliese Amschler
    Assessing project success using subjective evaluation factors2001Inngår i: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 43-70Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Project evaluation is essential to understand and assess the key aspects of a project that make it either a success or failure. The latter is influenced by a large number of factors, and many times it is hard to measure them objectively. This paper addresses this by introducing a new method for identifying and assessing key project characteristics, which are crucial for a project's success. The method consists of a number of well-defined steps, which are described in detail. The method is applied to two case studies from different application domains and continents. It is concluded that patterns are possible to detect from the data sets. Further, the analysis of the two data sets shows that the proposed method using subjective factors is useful, since it provides an increased understanding, insight and assessment of which project factors might affect project success.

  • 136. Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Andrews, Anneliese Amschler
    Evaluation of Three Methods to Predict Project Success: A Case Study2005Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To increase the likelihood for software project success, it is important to be able to identify the drivers of success. This paper compares three methods to identify similar projects with the objective to predict project success. The hypothesis is that projects with similar characteristics are likely to have the same outcome in terms of success. Two of the methods are based on identifying similar projects using all available information. The first method of these aims at identifying the most similar project. The second method identifies a group of projects as most similar. Finally, the third method pinpoints some key characteristics to identify project similarity. Our measure of success for these identifications is whether project success for these projects identified as similar is the same. The comparison between methods is done in a case study with 46 projects with varying characteristics. The paper evaluates the performance of each method with regards to its ability to predict project success. The method using key drivers of project success is superior to the others in the case study. Thus, it is concluded that it is important for software developing organizations to identify its key project characteristics to improve its control over project success.

  • 137. Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Andrews, Anneliese Amschler
    Prioritizing and Assessing Software Project Success Factors and Project Characteristics using Subjective Data2003Inngår i: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 285-308Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 138.
    Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Aurum, Aybueke
    Towards a decision-making structure for selecting a research design in empirical software engineering2015Inngår i: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 20, nr 6, s. 1427-1455Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several factors make empirical research in software engineering particularly challenging as it requires studying not only technology but its stakeholders' activities while drawing concepts and theories from social science. Researchers, in general, agree that selecting a research design in empirical software engineering research is challenging, because the implications of using individual research methods are not well recorded. The main objective of this article is to make researchers aware and support them in their research design, by providing a foundation of knowledge about empirical software engineering research decisions, in order to ensure that researchers make well-founded and informed decisions about their research designs. This article provides a decision-making structure containing a number of decision points, each one of them representing a specific aspect on empirical software engineering research. The article provides an introduction to each decision point and its constituents, as well as to the relationships between the different parts in the decision-making structure. The intention is the structure should act as a starting point for the research design before going into the details of the research design chosen. The article provides an in-depth discussion of decision points in relation to the research design when conducting empirical research.

  • 139.
    Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Aurum, Aybueke
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Angelis, Lefteris
    Phillips, Laura
    Dittrich, Yvonne
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Grahn, Håkan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Henningsson, Kennet
    Kågström, Simon
    Low, Graham
    The Success Factors Powering Industry-Academia Collaboration2012Inngår i: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 29, nr 2, s. 67-73Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 140. Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Aurum, Aybüke
    An evaluation of checklist-based reading for entity-relationship diagrams2003Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Software inspections have attracted much attention over the last 25 years. It is a method for static analysis of artifacts during software development. However, few studies look at inspections of entity-relationship diagrams (ER diagrams), and in particular an evaluation of the number of defects, number of false-positives and the types of defects that are found by most reviewers. ER-diagrams are commonly used in the design of databases, which makes them an important modelling concept for many large software systems. We present a large empirical study (486 subjects) where checklists were used for an inspection. The goodness in the evaluation is judged based on the type of defects the reviewers identify and the relationship between the detection of real defects and false positives. It is concluded that checklist-based inspections of entity-relationship diagrams is worthwhile.

  • 141. Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Criteria for Selecting Software Requirements to Create Product Value: An Industrial Empirical Study2005Inngår i: Value-based Software Engineering / [ed] Biffl, S.; Aurum, A.; Boehm, B.; Erdogan, H.; Grünbacher, and P., Springer Verlag , 2005Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Product value is based on which requirements are included in a specific release of a software product. This chapter provides an overview of the value concept and presents an empirical study conducted as an industrial survey. The objective of the survey was to quantify the importance of different decision-making criteria when deciding whether to include a requirement in a project or release. The results reported from the survey are based on responses from two companies. It was discovered that there were similarities in responses at a company level, although major differences existed between individual respondents to the survey. The most important criteria were found to be those related to specific customers or markets and criteria, such as development cost-benefit, delivery date and resources. The least important criteria were those related to development and maintenance. The results also indicate that a better balance between the most important and least important criteria ought to be achieved in the future.

  • 142. Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Aurum, Aybüke
    What is important when deciding to include a software requirement in a project or release?2005Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The requirements on software systems are so many that not all requirements may be included in the next development project or the next release. This means that it is necessary to select a set of requirements to implement in the forthcoming project, and hence to postpone the implementation of other requirements to a later point in time. In this selection process different criteria are used. In many cases, the criteria are not officially stated, but rather implicitly used by the decision-makers. However to be able to support this decision-making process, it is important to know and understand the underlying reasons for the decisions. This paper presents an empirical study of the decision criteria. In particular the paper focuses on how different perspectives have different influence on the decision-making process. It is concluded that business-oriented and management-oriented criteria are more important than technical concerns related to software architecture, impact analysis, dependency between requirements and software evolution.

  • 143. Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Elbaum, Sebastian
    Shepperd, Martin
    Most cited journal articles in software engineering2007Inngår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 49, nr 1, s. 1-1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 144. Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Höst, Martin
    Special section: Controlled Experiments in Software Engineering2001Inngår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, s. 921-924Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 145. Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Höst, Martin
    Henningsson, Kennet
    Empirical Research Methods in Software and Web Engineering2005Inngår i: Web Engineering: Theory and Practice of Metrics and Measurement for Web Development / [ed] Mosley, E. Mendes and N., Springer Verlag , 2005, s. 409-429Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Web and software engineering are not only about technical solutions. It is to a large extent also concerned with organisational issues, project management and human behaviour. For disciplines like Web and software engineering, empirical methods are crucial, since they allow for incorporating human behaviour into the research approach taken. Empirical methods are common practice in many other disciplines. This chapter provides a motivation for the use of empirical methods in Web and software engineering research. The main motivation is that it is needed from an engineering perspective to allow for informed and well-grounded decision. The chapter continues with a brief introduction to four research methods: controlled experiments, case studies, surveys and post-mortem analyses. These methods are then put into an improvement context. The four methods are presented with the objective to introduce the reader to the methods to a level that it is possible to select the most suitable method at a specific instance. The methods have in common that they all are concerned with quantitative data. However, several of them are also suitable for qualitative data. Finally, it is concluded that the methods are not competing. On the contrary, the different research methods can preferably be used together to obtain more sources of information that hopefully lead to more informed engineering decisions in Web and software engineering.

  • 146. Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Höst, Martin
    Henningsson, Kennet
    Empirical Research Methods in Software Engineering2003Inngår i: Empirical Methods and Studies in Software Engineering – Experiences from ESERNET / [ed] Wang, A.I.; Conradi, R., Springer Verlag , 2003Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 147. Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Lundberg, Lars
    Mattsson, Michael
    Special Issue: Trade-off Analysis of Software Quality Attributes2005Inngår i: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 327-328Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 148. Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Petersson, Håkan
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Combining Data from Reading Experiments in Software Inspections: A Feasibility Study2003Inngår i: Lecture Notes on Empirical Software Engineering / [ed] Juristo, N.; Moreno, A., World Scientific , 2003, s. 85-132Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 149. Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Petersson, Håkan
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Shull, Forrest
    Ciolkowski, Marcus
    Software Inspection Benchmarking: A Qualitative and Quantitative Comparative Opportunity.2002Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Software inspections are commonly used throughout the software industry, but there are still open questions about the relationship between inspection processes and inspection effectiveness. For example, which techniques work best in various environments? Are requirements specifications inspections and code inspections different in terms of effectiveness? What is the effectiveness in inspections for different group sizes? Benchmarking provides an opportunity to address such issues. This paper discusses how benchmarking may be applied for software inspections. The discussion is illustrated with an empirical study. It is shown how the data can be used to plan and manage software inspections. It is concluded that software inspections are well suited for benchmarking and that software practitioners as well as researchers can learn valuable lessons.

  • 150. Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Petersson, Håkan
    Höst, Martin
    Runeson, Per
    Defect content estimation for two reviewers2001Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimation of the defect content is important to enable quality control throughout the software development process. Capture-recapture methods and curve fitting methods have been suggested as tools to estimate the defect content after a review. The methods are highly reliant on the quality of the data. If the number of reviewers is fairly small, it becomes difficult or even impossible to get reliable estimates. This paper presents a comprehensive study of estimates based on two reviewers, using real data from reviews. Three experience-based defect content estimation methods are evaluated vs. methods that use data only from the current review. Some models are possible to distinguish from each other in terms of statistical significance. In order to gain an even better understanding, the best models are compared subjectively. It is concluded that the experience-based methods provide some good opportunities to estimate the defect content after a review.

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