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  • 101.
    Johansson, Christian
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Towards assessing the value of aerospace components: a conceptual scenario2011Ingår i: mpacting society through engineering design: ICED 11 København, the 18th International Conference on Engineering Design / [ed] ve Culley, Ben Hicks, Tim McAloone, T.J. Howard, Glasgow, UK: The Design Society, 2011, Vol. 18, s. 226-235Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of complex products, characterized by long lifecycles and deep supply chains, requires enhanced capabilities to assess, in an early design stage, the value of a solution not merely from a requirement fulfillment perspective. The paper proposes a conceptual scenario, described in terms of activities, inputs, outputs, actors and mechanisms, which details how aircraft components can be developed and assessed with a focus on their value contribution at system level. The scenario proposes a set of methodological and technological tools needed to enable value assessment in preliminary design, and has been created and preliminary validated together with major European aerospace manufacturers. The importance of being able to communicate the lifecycle value contribution of design solutions during the development work emerged clearly from the study. In this spirit, an approach to visualize such contribution directly in a 3D CAD model (across a set of value criteria, dimensions and drivers) has been proposed and it is currently under development.

  • 102.
    Johansson, Christian
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Chirumalla, Koteshwar
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Capturing and sharing lessons learned across boundaries: a video-based approach2012Ingår i: Proceedings of the 20th European Conference on Information Systems, 2012, Vol. 20, s. 12-, artikel-id 236Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In light of emerging product development trends, such as Product-Service Systems, manufacturing organizations are obliged to collaborate across functional and organizational borders. Hence, companies are increasingly investigating how to leverage knowledge management practices to enhance their dynamic learning capabilities to achieve continuous process improvements. Many researchers assert that lessons learned practices are possible ways for organizational learning, which allows for continuous capturing and sharing of experiential knowledge across boundaries in order to learn both from mistakes and successes. However, many organizations fall short in capturing and sharing lessons from projects and applying them in new situations. The purpose of this paper is to propose a video-based approach and related guidelines for capturing and sharing lessons learned in a dynamic manner across functional and organizational boundaries. Based on laboratory experiments as well as validation activities conducted in collaboration with an aerospace manufacturer, this paper compares the video-based approach with a more traditional text-based approach of documenting lessons learned from projects. The paper describes the results of testing activities conducted with a video-based lessons learned prototype and the authors reflect on its implications for design practice management in the aerospace industry.

  • 103.
    Johansson, Christian
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Elfsberg, Jenny
    Volvo Construction Equipment, SWE.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Frank, Martin
    Volvo Construction Equipment, SWE.
    Leifer, Larry
    Stanford University, USA.
    Nilsson, Niklas
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Söderberg, Victor
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Urban Mining as a Case for PSS2016Ingår i: PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEMS ACROSS LIFE CYCLE / [ed] Cavalieri, S; Ceretti, E; Tolio, T; Pezzotta, G, Elsevier, 2016, Vol. 47, s. 460-465Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Reports about the depletion and pollutant of the earth by human interference and the increasing need for urbanised areas require us to think differently about how we go about achieving this increased urbanisation. In this context, urban mining, where demolition sites are mined for increased recycling and value extraction. Due to high specialisation of construction equipment for this context, as well as sustainability being an important factor, product-service systems are suggested as a way forward in this area. This paper presents key topics that needs to be addressed when developing sustainable product-service systems for the urban mining segment. The idea is to transform from a traditional construction and demolition perspective towards a PSS-based construction product for an urban mining environment, incorporating a circular economy perspective. A modification to the common business model notation of business model canvas, with guiding questions is suggested. Opportunities for improved sustainability lies both in application – within an urban mining site – and in the enabling technology – when technology is specialised, owned by the provider, and utilised by multiple partners. 

  • 104.
    Johansson, Christian
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Ericson, Åsa
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Visualization of knowledge maturity for product-service system development2011Ingår i: Research into Design: Supporting Sustainable Product Development / [ed] Amaresh Chakrabarti, Bangalore, India: Research Publishing Services, 2011, Vol. 3, s. 312-319Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An extension towards a service perspective in manufacturing firms challenge decision making in early development phases. This addition in business models challenges the established knowledge base, which is focused on product aspects. A service perspective makes it necessary to assess the team's competences in another way. The knowledge maturity scales presented in this paper stems from a method to judge technology readiness, yet the knowledge perspective adopted highlights the issue of whether this approach is readily adopted or not. In this paper, a pragmatic view of the term knowledge, as found in previous empirical data, is used to discuss and propose a way to visualize the current knowledge state in a development team. The paper concludes on a rationale for visualization of knowledge maturity. Based on this, further improvement of the scales to support a service perspective on products can be done.

  • 105.
    Johansson, Christian
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Ericson, Åsa
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Holmqist, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Wenngren, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    A quest for knowledge?2011Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, a new knowledge economy and more service-based offerings are commonly mentioned as a challenge for manufacturing companies. This challenge addresses the companies’ knowledge base and the traditional engineering expertise areas. The report starts from an assumption that there are differences in how knowledge is managed, as well as differences in the intentions to why it is managed. Based on this assumption, the purpose in the report is two-folded. First, the purpose is to conceptualize different facets of knowledge within a framework of technical product development. Second, the purpose is that the report serves as a trigger for discussions and reflections on existing practices in industrial workshops. So, despite that the report does not provide the “right” answers to these questions; they still guide the work in our research:• What is actually managed in every-day engineering project work?• And, for what purposes?The work accounted for in the report comes from a literature review and our jointefforts in understanding the research area from a theoretical perspective. First general views on knowledge is presented, including its classification in different ways, compared to information and data, as well as its division into tacit and explicit knowledge, or practical skills and theoretical knowledge. Human factors, including how people search for information, is also presented. Then a more explicit focus on technical knowledge is presented, showing the shift from knowledge as an artefact to a social and personal perspective in recent years. This also encompasses discussing the capabilities and knowledge of an engineer. A contribution of this report is the conceptualization of different facets of engineering knowledge; especially the more social aspects of engineering knowledge have been highlighted.

  • 106.
    Johansson, Christian
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Hicks, Ben
    University of Bath.
    Larsson, Andreas
    Lunds tekniska högskola.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Knowledge maturity as a means to support decision making during product-service systems development projects in the aerospace sector2011Ingår i: Project Management Journal, ISSN 8756-9728, E-ISSN 1938-9507, Vol. 42, nr 2, s. 32-50Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Streamlining new product development forces companies to make decisions on preliminary information. This paper considers this challenge within the context of project management in the aerospace sector, and in particular the development of product-service systems.  The concept of knowledge maturity is explored as a means to provide practical decision support, which increases decision makers' awareness of the knowledge base and supports cross-boundary discussions on the perceived maturity of available knowledge, thereby identifying and mitigating limitations. Requirements are elicited from previous research on knowledge maturity in the aerospace industry and a knowledge maturity model is developed through five industry-based workshops.

  • 107.
    Johansson, Christian
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Chiruumalla, Koteshwar
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Enhancing intra-cognitive communication between engineering designers and operators: a case study in the laser welding industry2012Ingår i: Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Communications, Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE conference proceedings, 2012, Vol. 3, s. 493-497Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In manufacturing, metal parts can be joined using a laser as a welding tool, i.e. laser welding. Despite huge amount of research over the years, the process is neither sufficiently understood nor mathematically predictable. This study aims to holistically analyze the knowledge management issues occurring in laser welding. Emerging from observations and semi-structured interviews from industry and academy, the complexity and the criticalities of the process as well as the current knowledge transfers is explained and analyzed, using a knowledge lifecycle framework as a reference. Besides enhanced awareness of the limiting issues, information and knowledge visualization, e.g. knowledge maps, is identified as a key for progress in the community. The Matrix Flow Chart is suggested as an alternative descaled map of process changes.

  • 108.
    Johansson, Christian
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Larsson, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Knowledge enabled engineering - knowledge lifecycle approach2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    VIVACE is an EC-funded integrated project that addresses aeronautics´ vision for the year 2020. More specifically VIVACE intends to achieve cost reduction and time reduction in new aircraft development. VIVACE consists of three sub-projects where the two first extracts problems from aircraft and engine industries respectively. The third sub-project collects these problems and develops advanced capabilities (methods, tools, guidelines, etc.). The ’Knowledge Enabled Engineering’ (KEE) work package in sub-project three focuses issues on concerns associated with knowledge within an extended enterprise. This includes both Knowledge Based Engineering (KBE) issues, but also more general questions about engineering knowledge. The work starts in analysing requirements from use cases via finding existing solutions to conducting tests in the form of pilots. Finally the knowledge acquired is disseminated to both the aeronautics community and also to a wider audience in Europe and the rest of the world.

  • 109.
    Johansson, Christian
    et al.
    Luleå Technical University.
    Larsson, Andreas
    Luleå Technical University.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå Technical University.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Gated maturity assessment - Supporting Gate Review Decisions with Knowledge Maturity Assessment2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In aeronautics industry today, companies collaborate closely in virtual enterprises to develop products and solutions that are more integrated and more complex, and that aims to target larger responsibilities regarding the product life-cycle. On top of this, lead-time and development costs needs to be reduced.<br/>The 7 Day Proposal (7DP) is the conceptual name of a framework wherein a customized proposal is produced by a virtual enterprise consortium within seven days from a received request for proposal. This is substantially shorter than what is current practice today and implies that new methods, tools and ways of working are needed. Today, in offer processes, time is lost because of insufficient, or immature, available information and knowledge at gate reviews when decisions are due, causing time consuming iterations. <br/>The Gated Maturity Assessment (GMA) concept is intended to help reduce these costly iterations by targeting the ambiguity at these gate reviews in order to reduce the uncertainty in decision base. <br/>Other frameworks using maturity include Technology Readiness Levels (TRL) and the Capability Maturity Model (CMM). TRL is an artefact-focused framework developed by NASA to assess space technology maturity. CMM is a process-focused framework for assessing organisations' software development process capability (maturity). <br/>The GMA is a concept for assessing the maturity of the knowledge that goes into a gate review (i.e. a decision document). The GMA is intended to support decision makers by assuring confidence in these decision points and thereby reducing the number of iterations, hereby reducing lead-time and increases the quality of the process.<br/>This paper reports on the development of the GMA concept from the 7DP use case, and also the development of a support tool intended for use in the 7DP process. <br/>Essentially, the 7DP process is a stage-gate process like many corporate product development processes with a number of decision gates. Therefore there is a future wish to move towards an engineering design context with this concept. <br/>The work is part of the 70 million € European project VIVACE where GMA is part of a Knowledge Enabled Engineering solution to the 7DP use case.

  • 110.
    Johansson, Christian
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Assessment of team based innovation in a Product Service System development process2011Ingår i: Research into Design: Supporting Sustainable Product Development / [ed] Amaresh Chakrabarti, Bangalore, India, 2011, Vol. 3, s. 711-718Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation is often measured based on how the product performs on the market. This makes it difficult tomeasure the performance of a team since the time to develop a product may take several years. In this paperwe show the importance of creating a common ground and facilitation in a team, two aspects that is not easymeasure, but should be assessed. We also discuss innovation on three interrelated organizational levels, theoperational, which is the development team and in focus in this paper, the managerial and the strategic level.We found that companies need indicators to measure and/or assess performance on all three levels and thatmore research is needed to find the inter-links between the levels to prescribe measures and assessment points.

  • 111.
    Johansson, Christian
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Bergström, Mattias
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Exploring challenges for innovation-driven virtual enterprises2009Ingår i: Research into Design: Supporting multiple facets of product development / [ed] Amaresh Chakrabarti, Singapore: Research Publishing Services, 2009, Vol. 2, s. 568-575Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have suggested virtual enterprises (VEs) as a promising new form of organization. VEs are created to gain several benefits, for example, risk-and-revenue sharing, entering new markets, etc. However, in this study we focus on increasing the innovation in the VE consortiums. Based on past experience and knowledge from related fields, we argue that VE consortiums in the Swedish industry are rare. Thus, this study highlights and explores the challenges, particularly four areas: networking capability, information and communication technology (ICT) usage, knowledge engineering, and team based innovation. These areas contribute to the facilitation of VE creation and its effective operation. Each of these areas is discussed and propositions are formed which will guide the future research. Finally, we have discussed the concept of innovation driven virtual enterprise that combines open innovation ideology with the virtual enterprise concept.

  • 112.
    Johansson, Christian
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Larsson, Andreas
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    How are knowledge and information evaluated?: decision making in stage-gate processes2009Ingår i: Design has never been this cool : ICED 09, the 17th International Conference on Engineering Design ; 24 - 27 August 2009, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA ; proceedings volume / [ed] Margareta Norell Bergendahl, Martin Grimheden, Larry Leifer, Stanford, CA, USA, 2009, Vol. 17, s. 195-206, artikel-id 342Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In stage-gate processes decisions are made based on the knowledge and information developed during the preceding phase. The purpose of this study is to explore the state-of-practice in industry regarding the assessment of knowledge and information at gates. The result indicates that gate reviews relate mainly to assessments of technical performance and function. Relatively little attention is given to assess the quality of the knowledge base, making it difficult to identify outdated, irrelevant and non-applicable information and knowledge. Further, tacit knowledge plays an important role in the decision-making process, as reviewers ask for the design rationale and further evidence of what has been done and why. However, evaluating such knowledge is currently a poorly understood aspect of gate reviews. It is concluded that even though the specific focus of such meetings is not on the evaluation of knowledge and information, the opportunity to work towards a better support of such activities is promising, especially since the respondents perceive the benefits that come from an increased attention to assessments of both the explicit and tacit knowledge base used in gate reviews.

  • 113.
    Johansson, Frans
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Optimizing Fused Filament Fabrication 3D printing for durability: Tensile properties and layer bonding2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    With the rapid increase in utilization of the cheap and user friendly Fused Filament Fabrication, FFF 3D printer, a deeper knowledge about the technique is needful. The frame restricting the 3D printers for prototyping purposes is fading and a new phase of endless application possibilities is emerging. To bridge the gap in possible applications from prototypes to real products it is key to know and improve the factors affecting durability. With over a hundred settings and parameters to tweak the FFF 3D printing process there are a lot of opportunities, opportunities to optimize for durability.The tensile properties of some of the most used FFF 3D printing materials together with a few nylon based materials are examined, which are popular in engineering applications. The materials tested are ranging from rigid to flexible, rubber like materials. The most common failure scenario of a FFF 3D printed product is layer bonding failure. The factors affecting layer bonding performance are studied.The measurements are carried out using tensile testing equipment at Blekinge Institute of Technology. All tested specimens are manufactured at Creative Tools AB Halmstad with the FFF 3D printers Flashforge Dreamer and Makerbot Replicator 2X.The tensile strength of 3D printed PLA is found to be 51 MPa. PET has a tensile strength of 40 MPa and ABS 34 MPa. Stress-strain behavior of the materials shows that ABS is slightly softer than PLA and PET are slightly softer than ABS. PLA being the hardest material in the test. ISO 527-2 tensile testing standard is used but the tests diverge from the standard in several ways. The measurement data presented in this study can be very useful to guide the design engineer to choose the most durable plastic for the unique application.Five basic 3D printing settings are evaluated for layer bonding performance, by measuring the load capacity of a PLA specimen loaded transversally relative to the layers. Four of the settings show to possibly affect the layer bond’s load capacity by 50 % or more individually.The results of this study are presented in graphs, diagrams and pictures. These may help the 3D printer user to tweak basic settings to increase layer bonding performance and ultimately the durability of the product significantly.

  • 114. Johansson, Henrik
    et al.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Information flow and simulation support in the product development process1998Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper consists of a case study of the product development process at Indexator AB, manufacturer of rotators for heavy equipment. The process has been studied concerning the information flow and computer support in the engineering design department and its interacting departments. It is shown that the company has a clear view of how information flows and which computer tools they use in the different parts of the processes. The advantage of using computer tools for analysis and planning is seen. Ways of communication and information flows concerning the design processes can sometimes happen in unplanned ways. Lack of integration between the different computer tools leads to unnecessary regeneration of the product information in the different parts of the development process.

  • 115.
    Johansson, Pär
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Johansson, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Perceptions of and challenges with knowledge sharing: enterprise collaboration in a virtual aeronautical enterprise2011Ingår i: Impacting society through engineering design: ICED 11 København, the 18th International Conference on Engineering Design / [ed] Steve J Culley, Ben J Hicks, Tim C McAloone, Tim J Howard, W Chen, Glasgow, UK: The Design Society, 2011, Vol. 18, s. 332-341Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate how knowledge is managed and shared within product development in an enterprise collaboration context in the aerospace manufacturing industry.

    This paper is based on a qualitative survey that was sent to seven companies in the European aerospace manufacturing industry, focusing on how they perceive knowledge sharing, and on common problems and challenges with knowledge sharing.

    Lack of trust and fear of losing competitive advantage is identified as a problem area. Further, information and communication technology is seen as an important enabler. In this area it is found that it is important to develop strategies for knowledge sharing in collaboration with business developers, engineering, and IT architects from various organizations in the extended enterprise.

  • 116.
    Johansson, Pär
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Johansson, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Take the knowledge path to support knowledge management in product/service systems2010Ingår i: Industrial product-service systems (IPS²): proceedings of the 2nd CIRP IPS² Conference / [ed] Tomohiko Sakao, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2010, Vol. 2Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Product/Service-Systems (PSS) strategies are a part of an overall movement towards a service-based society that is increasingly knowledge and information based. Knowledge sharing for cross-company innovation and development projects has been recognized as troublesome, since disparate knowledge domains must be brought together in a cohesive way to support both creativity and innovations. Stage-Gate process models are widely used in collaborative development projects but they do not suggest how to assess the degree of understanding of the produced information and the results in projects. A successful assessment of knowledge should be used for designing the next development steps in form of work methods and tools. This paper describes an approach for supporting Knowledge Management and Knowledge Sharing in the development of PSS. Finally, a concept for supporting knowledge assessment is proposed, based on designing and visualizing knowledge paths.

  • 117.
    Johnsson, Mikael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Creating High-performing Innovation Teams2017Ingår i: Journal of Innovation Management, ISSN 2183 - 0606, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. 23-47Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This research suggests a conceptual process of how to create highperforming

    innovation teams to meet the market’s need of faster ways of

    conducting innovation work. The CIT-process (Creating high-performing

    Innovation Teams) is a five-step-process systematically developed to meet

    organizational-, team-, and individual perspectives. On a holistic level, this

    research contributes to prior research by bringing research on innovation teams

    and high-performing teams together to become a pre-stage to established group

    dynamic processes and innovation processes. Practical implications and future

    research are suggested.

  • 118.
    Johnsson, Mikael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    How Understanding of Agile Innovation Work Affects Innovation Teams2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

     This research aims to explore how the understanding of agile innovation work methodologies affect innovation teams and the progress of innovation projects. In a long-term research, three innovation teams were studied through questionnaires, interviews, audio-recorded interviews and rich notes from. The data was analysed using group development theories and knowledge taxonomy to determine the relation of the teams' estimated knowledge and their performance in relation to the teams’ group development status. The results indicate that innovation teams that are unfamiliar with agile innovation work tend to not seek collaboration due to uncertainty, which results in slow progress. When an innovation team’s surrounding organisation is unfamiliar with agile innovation methodologies it tends to not offer their support until the innovation team can prove progress, also slowing the progress down. The opposite is noticed when innovation teams and the organisation understands how to apply agile innovation work methodologies, collaboration occurs easily, resulting in positive progress. Further research is suggested.

  • 119.
    Johnsson, Mikael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Innovation Enablers and Their Importance for Innovation Teams2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this research is to develop an understanding of factors that enable innovation teams to conduct agile innovation work in an industrial context. The background and reason for this research are not only that innovation is necessary for companies that want to stay in business, but also that these companies need to increase the speed of their innovation work to stay competitive. Research has demonstrated that cross-functional (X-functional) innovation teams are fast and agile, and are therefore assumed to be suitable for these activities. Still, there is much knowledge to be gained.

    Prior research has identified factors that are seen as important from an organizational, team, and individual perspective to enable teams to work with potentially innovative outcomes. However, in cases where teams have been created with the purpose of conducting innovation work, i.e. innovation teams, problems related to e.g. performance and learning have occurred, and the innovation work has stopped shortly after conducted research projects due to the high level of complexity.

    The research question (RQ) that this thesis explores is the following: “Which innovation enablers are important for innovation teams when conducting agile innovation work in an industrial context?” Based on the RQ, two sub-questions are formulated and operationalized to answer the RQ.

    Qualitative data have been collected from five innovation teams in two phases. Two innovation teams in two small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) were studied in the first phase to clarify the situation for innovation teams before innovation work is begun. In the second phase, which built on the first one, three innovation teams in a large industrial company were studied as they conducted three separate innovation projects.

    This research revealed five main findings: first, knowledge about important innovation enablers (Enablers) revealed from a literature study; second, the Innovation Team Model (ITM), demonstrating innovation teams before innovation work is begun in relation to the individuals and organization in a holistic way; third, the innovation team creation process (CIT-process), a stepwise process in how to create an innovation team; fourth, the innovation facilitator, who supports and facilitates the innovation team throughout the CIT-process and the innovation projects; and fifth, the Extended Innovation Process (EIP), an extension of the traditional innovation process by a pre-phase, i.e. a Preparation-phase, to gather and prepare the innovation teams for forthcoming work. The findings regarding the importance of the CIT-process, the EIP, and the innovation facilitator were unexpected.

    The findings formed the Innovation Team Framework (ITF), which represents all of the findings in relation to each other. The EIP is used as the basis for which the other innovation enablers are provided to the innovation teams through an innovation facilitator’s competence throughout the innovation project. The ITF is multidimensional: it could serve as a tool to describe both the simplicity and the complexity when creating an innovation team and forthcoming work and activities.

    All separate findings within this research contribute to prior research in individual ways, however, the ITF is the main scientific contribution of this study to Innovation management.

    Practitioners can use the ITF as a complement to already established methodologies for product development or similar; however one should be aware of the limited nature of the data set that served as the basis for analysis and development of the ITF.

    Further studies regarding the ITF and its detailed models and processes are suggested.

  • 120.
    Johnsson, Mikael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik. 1972.
    Innovation Enablers for Innovation Teams - A Review2017Ingår i: Journal of Innovation Management, E-ISSN 2183-0606, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 75-121Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This review consolidates research on innovation enablers for

    innovation teams, defined within this research as factors that enable a crossfunctional

    team within an organization to conduct innovation work, to provide a

    deeper understanding of what factors enable innovation teams to conduct

    innovation work, which means that this research involves three areas to provide

    a holistic picture: the organizational context, the team itself, and the individuals

    within the innovation team. A systematic database search was conducted in

    which 208 relevant articles were identified and analyzed thematically way.

    Twenty innovation enablers related to innovation teams were identified:

    awareness, capabilities, climate, collaboration, culture, dedication, economy,

    education, empowerment, entre- / intrapreneurship, human resources,

    incentives, knowledge, knowledge management, management, mind-set, need,

    processes, strategy, and time. This review contributes to prior research a deeper

    understanding of what key factors enable innovative work for innovation teams.

    Suggestions of both academic and practical use for the identified innovation

    enablers are included in this review, and direction for future research is

    suggested.

  • 121.
    Johnsson, Mikael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Prisoner's dilemma as a workshop tool?2018Ingår i: CEUR Workshop Proceedings / [ed] Koivisto J.,Hamari J.,Hamari J., CEUR-WS , 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Product lifecycles are shorter than ever and agile innovation processes and teams are being developed to meet challenging product lifecycle deadlines. Teaching how to create innovation teams is however shown to be both complex and time consuming, which is not optimal in a time where the business environment demands faster pace when innovating. This research has explored the potential of using Prisoner's dilemma as a workshop tool to stimulate learning and collaboration, which is the core of innovation team’s work, to be further developed to educational tools if being successful. The workshop setting was based on the participating organisations' individual and concrete ideas to be developed, where game elements were designed as game mechanisms. Management from six organisations participated in the research, three of the organisations conducted a workshop designed as a modified Prisoner's dilemma, and the other three organisations participated in a non-gamified workshop based on the same content as the gamified one. Empirical data were collected through statement-based questionnaires, rich field notes, and observations from the video-recorded workshops. The findings indicate that Prisoner's dilemma may be used as a workshop tool for educational purposes. However, significant findings indicate that collaboration felt somewhat mandatory and learning was not optimized due to the dilemma. The research' limitations are discussed and further research is suggested. 

  • 122.
    Jörgensen, Marika
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Rutiner för investeringsprojekt: En handbok för ABBs projektmall Project Method for Investements2014Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    På ABB HVC i Karlskrona tillverkas högspänningskablar för både land och sjön. Det finns flera avdelningar på ABB HVC, men detta arbete handlar om investeringsavdelningen D. D-avdelningen sköter alla de stora investeringarna som görs på Karlskronafabriken och för projekten använder de projektmallen ”Project Method For Investments” (PMFI). Detta arbete handlar om förbättringsmöjligheterna för denna projektmall, samt hur mallen används och införs som rutin i organisationen. Frågeställningarna var: ”Hur kan PMFImodellen och användandet av den förbättras?”, ”Hur införs PMFI som en rutin i organisationen?” och ”Hur kan rutininförandet av PMFI förbättras?”. Arbetet har bedrivits som en fallstudie med bra insyn i det vardagliga arbetet på D-avdelningen. Parallellt med fallstudien har en handbok till PMFI-modellen tagits fram. Handboken har tagits fram i två olika versioner, en tryckt lightversion och en digital originalversion som syftar till att vara ett stöd för projektledare på D-avdelningen. Handböckerna är utformade för att användas som en rutin i investeringsprojekt. Slutsatserna blev att användandet av PMFI kan förbättras och detta görs lättast genom att PMFI införs som en rutin i organisationen. Under fallstudien framkom det att PMFI inte är en helt inarbetad rutin i organisationen. Införandet gjordes i samband med starten av Double Capacity och sedan dess har mycket glömts bort. För att förbättra rutininförandet kan flera olika förbättringar göras. Organisationen skulle kunna utse en ansvarig för PMFI och dess införande och utveckling. Att införa en ansvarig visar på hur viktigt organisationens processverktyg är. Förbättring av rutininförande kan också göras i form av ökad delaktighet och ökad kunskap om PMFI. Kunskap, förståelse och engagemang för PMFI som rutin är en förutsättning för ett lyckat rutininförande.

  • 123.
    KAMMADARI, SHIV SRINATH
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Analysis and Validation for an Armature of Electrodynamic Shaker2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 124.
    Kang, Yachi
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Liu, Meihong
    Kunming University of Science and Technology, CHI.
    Hu, Xiangping
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NOR.
    Liu, Jungfen
    Kunming University of Science and Technology, CHI.
    Investigation into velocity choice for determining aerodynamic resistance in brush seals2019Ingår i: Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, Springer Verlag , 2019, Vol. 484, s. 616-622Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Brush seal is a novel contact seal in turbomachinery. Although this new type of seal has been adopted for many years, there are still some problems which should be investigated. One of the main problems is the determined pressure differential across a brush seal. Aerodynamic resistance, characterized by Euler number (Eu), is used to determine pressure differential of brush seals. Eu is a dimensionless quantity including a velocity term. Tube banks model is widely used in numerical simulation of brush seals. Various velocity values can be chosen by calculating Eu in a tube banks model. The present research analyzed the effect of different velocity values on Eu. Velocity choice in a tube banks model was preliminarily analyzed. Three different methods (Eu1, Eu2 and Eu3) for calculating Eu were presented. The results revealed that Eu1 decreases as the pressure differential increasing. Eu2 keeps almost unchanged or increase slightly with the growing of pressure differential, as well as Eu3. By comparing Eu1, Eu2 and Eu3 and considering practical application, Eu1 is qualified for measuring the aerodynamic resistance. © Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd 2019.

  • 125.
    Kang, Yachi
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Liu, Meihong
    Kunming University of Science and Technology, CHI.
    Wang, Xueliang
    Kunming University of Science and Technology, CHI.
    Tan, Yongfa
    Kunming University of Science and Technology, CHI.
    Liu, Jinbin
    Kunming University of Science and Technology, CHI.
    Numerical simulation of pressure distribution in bristle seal for turbomachinery2018Ingår i: Paiguan Jixie Gongcheng Xuebao/Journal of Drainage and Irrigation Machinery Engineering, ISSN 1674-8530, Vol. 36, nr 5, s. 420-425Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to further study the pressure distribution in bristle seals, a uniformed two-dimensional closed staggered tube bundle model representing a bristle pack cross-section was proposed and the fluid flow through the bundle was solved by computational fluid dynamics(CFD) method. Accor-ding to the critical Reynolds number for boundary layer transition, a new method was proposed to decide the fluid flow regime in the bundle. The pressure and velocity distributions in the bundle were studied under various pressure differentials across the seal. The influences of distance between bristles and number of circumferential bristle rows on the pressure distribution were tackled. It is shown that the pressure distributions in the uniformed two-dimensional closed staggered tube bundle model agree well with the previous experimental data. The pressure distributions are like "V", while the velocity distributions are like the inverted "V". The pressure borne by the rear 1/3 part of the bristle pack is higher than that by the front 2/3 part. Moreover, the percentage of the pressure differential borne by the last 5 bristle rows increases with increasing total pressure differential. The pressure differential borne by the last bristle row is higher than that by a few rows in front of it. A reduced distance between bristles can allow the pressure to be distributed more even from one row to another. Bristles equally spaced can ensure an even pressure distribution rather well. Increasing the number of rows can also have the same effect. © 2018, Editorial Department of Journal of Drainage and Irrigation Machinery Engineering. All right reserved.

  • 126.
    Kang, Yuchi
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Liu, Meihong
    Kunming University of Science and Technology, CHI.
    Kao-Walter, Sharon
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Reheman, Wureguli
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Liu, Jinbin
    Kunming University of Science and Technology, CHI.
    Predicting aerodynamic resistance of brush seals using computational fluid dynamics and a 2-D tube banks model2018Ingår i: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 126, s. 9-15Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aerodynamic resistance of a brush seal was mainly studied. The velocity distribution along three specified lines was presented. By considering the pressure differential, Reynolds number and Euler number (Eu) were modified. The effect of geometric arrangements and pressure differentials on Eu and leakage were analyzed. Two correlations were fitted based on the numerical results. The results reveal the velocity distribution is almost flat, asymmetric along the specified lines. The velocity increases and decreases almost linearly at centerlines. Eu decreases gradually less with the increase of pressure differential and trends towards a fixed value. A larger Eu indicates stronger resistance but not necessarily less leakage. Finally, two fitted correlations are developed and one is exponential to the row number fits better. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

  • 127.
    Karlsson, Hampus
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Karlsson, Anton
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Konceptutveckling av en caterpillar med inriktning på kvalitet: En utvecklingsprocess2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    When transporting a sea cable, what is commonly called a caterpillar is used, but the most common said is a cable tensioner. These machines can be found in a flurry of different variants, where there are a multitude of competitors, which applies demands to having an extremely distinctive machine. Therefore  from  a  market  analysis  it  have  been  identified  that  a  lack  of  quality  regarding  the machines are a factor. A poor quality shortage that usually occurs in hard weather conditions, but this is something that should not happen as it may lead to machine breakdown.

    Semcon AB in Karlskrona constructs and then collaborates with Ronneby Svets & Smide, who manufacture cable carousels, armrests and other equipment for the cable industry but not the cable tensioner that are ordered separately by external companies. This is the background to why the project is created because Semcon sees a need to eliminate this bottleneck and also expand their product portfolio for customer recovery. The aim it therefore, together with Semcon, develop a new concept for a completely  new cable tensioner with given preferences, rough drawing and selection of qualitative features for the machine in order to be competitive with its future overall solution for the cable industry.   

    To find a solution to the described problem, a product development process has been followed to establish  structure.  The  process  include  a  planning,  concept  development,  design  and  detailed development phase. From the first phase, a wide understanding of how the complex machine works and where its deficiencies may be. Even hidden customer needs in form of interviews with cable manufacturers in Karlskrona and with industries that handle sea cable were conducted to get a broader spectrum. The needs are transformed into specifications to generate concepts based on the rankings of the measurably formulated specifications. Followed up by an evaluation where the best concepts were taken to the design phase and detailed development. All design calculations have been made, either by hand or with computer-based programs.  

    The work has resulted in an innovative concept of a whole cable tensioner with all key components, rough drawing, together with a new thinking solution regarding the contact face between the cable and the machine, developed through experiments and theory studies. As this project is very broad, the overall project has been divided into two master thesis works and all electronics are handles by  an  electrical/automation  company.  Therefore,  for  a  broader  understanding  and  information about functionality, reference is made to the second project “Konceptutveckling kring funktionerna hos en kabeldragare” authored by Anton Hansson.  

    It is extremely important to mention that the outcome of this project is intended to be a concept for a new innovative cable tensioner. This means that with future work on the concept, which includes  continued  depth  of  calculation  and  further  contact  with  suppliers,  can  provide  an opportunity  to  manufacture  the  generated  concept.  Another  development  area  Semcon  must proceed with is to review the safety routines of the machine. The authors of this report believe that a highly competitive solution has been presented, and that work contributes to a strong foundation for  the  development  of  transporting  sea  cable  technology  in  the  future  with  the  help  of  this innovative concept.

  • 128. Karlsson, Lennart
    et al.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Larsson, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Törlind, Peter
    Elfström, Bengt-Olof
    Isaksson, Ola
    Information driven collaborative engineering - enabing functional product innovation2005Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses Information Driven Collaborative Engineering (IDCE) as an enabler of Functional Product Innovation (FPI). It discusses challenges that arise in functional product development and how distributed collaborative work will be affected. Finally the paper proposes bringing the domains of Distributed Collaborative Engineering (DCE) and Knowledge Enabled Engineering (KEE) together to form IDCE, in order to meet these challenges.

  • 129.
    Karlsson, Simon
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Routine Child Vaccination in Uganda: Designing a vaccination service delivery model2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides a new system model for delivering routine vaccination service in Uganda in low resource settings by incorporating the entire supporting infrastructure from vaccination suppliers to vaccination receivers. The model introduces ways of improving access, service quality as well as caretakers’ motivation to complete their children’s vaccination schedule. A system model design is provided together with graphical user interfaces for all agents in the new system. Vaccination service is not easily available and too often not reliable due to rural health facilities being far away and in poor condition with few health workers, and because of an unreliable vaccine supply system (MoH 2010b; USAID 2010). Outreaches are irregular and of ad-hoc character. System wise, a geographically more centralized outreach program in direct connection to district vaccine stores could circumvent unreliable vaccine distribution channels and strengthen vaccine availability and quality. Families experience low motivation and knowledge about vaccination dates for their children to complete immunization programs (Tugumisirize et al. 2002). Community Health Workers, coordinated with help of ICT, can be used to encourage families to complete vaccination and inform them on upcoming vaccination outreach sessions. Qualitative research methodology, with methods including structured, semi-structured and unstructured interviews, observations and literature studies, was chosen to analyze and evaluate the current Ugandan vaccination system. An agile-like product development process was used as a framework for finding and evaluating concepts underlying the artifacts design which represents the system (e.g., GUI). Outcomes of internal evaluations together with representatives of the client organization (ICT4MPOWER) indicate that the new system can increase access and service quality. We conclude that the new system can cure several present issues in vaccination service delivery. However, further studies are needed to appreciate practical feasibility of the new system, for example by considering cost and ICT infrastructure.

  • 130.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för management.
    Poker E-Sports Reflection Cover2011Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper will reflect on Stefan Karlsson’s process of developing the business plan Poker E-­‐‑ Sports. This paper is intended to be read by (1) nascent entrepreneurs, (2) students in the end of their education whom is about to create a link between the academic learning’s and the first job, (3) university personnel involved in this development process and (4) stakeholders whom are about to read the business plan Poker E-­‐‑Sports. This reflection will chronology describe the development process with the decisions made and reflect upon how practical decision making connects with entrepreneurship theory. This paper describes the process at six headlines; (1) Business Idea, (2) Business concept (3), Business plan first version (4) Business plan middle version, (5) Business plan is it done? and (6) conclusion. This paper describes the process to create this business plan from the start of the idea to the complete business plan. In the conclusions I will reflect on the big picture and highlight what I will consider being my key leanings from this turbulent process.

  • 131.
    KASINENI, SAI TEJA
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    VADLAPALLY, MADHUSUDHAN REDDY
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Conceptual Design of Hyperloop Pressure Capsule2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 132.
    Kastensson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Johansson, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Decision-making in gates: based on formal basis or gut feeling?2011Ingår i: International Journal of Technology Intelligence and Planning (IJTIP), ISSN 1740-2832, E-ISSN 1740-2840, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 140-152Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing companies continuously deal with development of innovations. Many of these are cancelled on the way, in gate meetings. This paper investigates why technologies are cancelled, and on which basis managers make decisions. The paper is based on a study from the automotive industry with interviews with different stakeholders in the gates. The most common reasons for stopping projects were time, cost and technology readiness. Gut feeling is found to be an important factor when evaluating projects. This paper concludes that managers need to understand the role of intuition and query for this subjective information in addition to objective measures.

  • 133.
    Khodabandeloo, Babak
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Hedberg, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik. Blekinge Inst Technol, Karlskrona, Sweden..
    NONLINEAR DYNAMICS OF MARBLE AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES2015Ingår i: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 22ND INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS ON SOUND AND VIBRATION: MAJOR CHALLENGES IN ACOUSTICS, NOISE AND VIBRATION RESEARCH, 2015 / [ed] Crocker, MJ Pawelczyk, M Pedrielli, F Carletti, E Luzzi, S, INT INST ACOUSTICS & VIBRATION , 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The temperature influence on the acoustically amplitude dependent sound speed of a marble rod was investigated. The sound speed was monitored through the resonance frequency by a series of ultrasonic frequency sweeps with successively increasing amplitudes. For the temperatures from 15 C to 60 C, the resonance frequency was measured in 5-degree increments as a function of the resonant acoustic amplitude inside the marble rod. In most of the curves the marble exhibits a softening (i.e. the sound speed decreases) with higher amplitude, but for each test run there exist one notable exception - for one temperature - where the marble gets stiffer (i.e the sound speed increases). The test also shows that the average sound velocity level first, as expected, decreases with temperature, but for the higher temperatures it increases - to well past the starting value.

  • 134.
    Kianian, Babak
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Additive Manufacturing Technology Potential: A Cleaner Manufacturing Alternative2016Ingår i: INTERNATIONAL DESIGN ENGINEERING TECHNICAL CONFERENCES AND COMPUTERS AND INFORMATION IN ENGINEERING CONFERENCE, 2015, VOL 4, AMER SOC MECHANICAL ENGINEERS , 2016, Vol. 4Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on an emerging manufacturing technology called Additive Manufacturing (AM) and its potential to become a more efficient and cleaner manufacturing alternative. This work is built around selected case companies, where the benefit of AM compared to other more traditional technologies is studied through the comparison of resource consumption. The resource consumption is defined as raw materials and energy input. The scope of this work is the application of AM in the scale model kit industry. The method used is the life cycle inventory study, which is a subtype of life cycle assessment (LCA). The result of the paper is the quantification of raw materials and energy consumption. The outcomes shows that AM has higher efficiency in terms of materials usage, as a higher proportion of materials ending up in the final product. Injection Molding (IM), on the other hand, wastes a significant proportion of raw materials in components that are not part of the final product. If the same or similar raw materials are used in both manufacturing methods, the advantage is clearly with AM. However, AM has higher energy consumption in comparison to the injection molding technique (IM). In terms of energy consumption, AM only has an advantage in this area when working with a very low production volume. The analysis of the energy consumption shows that most of the energy used in AM is to create the final product, while IM only uses a fraction of the total energy to produce the final product. AM technologies are still very new but have the potential for development and reduction of energy consumption in the future. Added to this potential is the higher materials usage efficiency of AM, which reduce the waste of materials and the energy, embedded in them. These two factors are likely to position AM as cleaner manufacturing alternative.

  • 135.
    Kianian, Babak
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Tavassoli, Sam
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för industriell ekonomi.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Diegel, Olaf
    The Adoption of Additive Manufacturing Technology in Sweden2015Ingår i: 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing, ISSN 2329-7662, Vol. 2, nr 4, s. 152-158Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes the adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies in Sweden. The data set consists of a recent and representative sample of Swedish AM users (companies, universities, and research institutes). The authors investigate two questions. First, what are the current applications of AM in Sweden (e.g., rapid prototyping [RP], production)? Second, what are the factors that can explain the variation in AM adoption among the users? Using a regression analysis technique, the main findings are as follows. (i) There is a variation among users' choice of AM application, and the majority of users are expanding their AM applications beyond RP. (ii) There are two factors that positively affect the decision of firms to expand classical RP and incorporate production and management as well. These two factors are using multiple AM technologies (as opposed to single fused deposition modeling technology) being small companies. The authors discuss the implication of these results.

  • 136.
    Kigwangalla, Hamisi
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för management.
    Job Motivation and Associated Factors among Health Workers in Urban Public Hospitals in Tanzania, March – June 20072012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This study focused on the motivation of human resource for health in urban public health facilities in Tanzania. Motivation is defined in this study as an individual's degree of willingness to exert and maintain an effort towards organizational goals. Motivation of health workers was studied based on Herzberg’s two-factor theory. Purpose: The overall purpose of this study was to study job motivation and associated factors among urban health workers in public hospitals in Dar es salaam, Tanzania. Methods: The study employed predominantly qualitative research methods. Data was collected from three municipal hospitals and one referral hospital, the Muhimbili National Hospital. Some information was also collected from key informants in the Municipality Administration, the Non – Governmental Organisations and the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare. A combination of direct observation, key informants interviews, Focus Group Discussions and a desk review of key documents was done. Sampling of participants was done using purposive methods with representative, intensity and sometimes snow-ball sampling done in different stages and at different environments. Data analysis was done following the principles of grounded theory. Results: This study established that a number of extrinsic or ‘hygiene’ factors (dissatisfiers) which match with those proposed by Herzberg et al, are important and necessary for maintaining human resource for health in urban health facilities. The study also found that intrinsic factors (satisfiers) when available would increase job motivation among the healthcare workers in government-owned health facilities in Dar es salaam and that when are not available would not cause any dissatisfaction. Conclusion: Although the theory did not provide a fit in all circumstances, it formed a firm foundation on which to study job motivation and associated factors among urban health workers in public hospitals in Tanzania.

  • 137.
    Kohestani, Tamim
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Zeaiter, Ali
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    FE based method for simulation of rock-loading on a truck2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Volvos trucks are used to carry boulders of varying sizes from different mining sites or construction sites. These boulders are loaded onto the dumper of the truck by a wheel-loader which drops the boulders from various heights causing an impulse like force which distributes throughout the frame and to the rest of the truck. Depending on the size and what height the boulders are being dropped from, the distributed forces can cause damage to important parts of the truck. An experiment done by Volvo has shown that a two-ton weight dropped from 3.5 meters caused some truck components to crack, such as flywheel housing. Since this is alerting and it is costly to do the experiment on all trucks that Volvo manufactures it is our objective to come up with a method based on Finite Element which would evaluate the rock loading case. By using ANSA as the pre-processor which helps set up the model before running a simulation, and Nastran and LS-DYNA as the FEM solvers, a result was obtained that is somewhat comparable with the measurements. In the Nastran model, no non-linearities such as contact were considered, while in LS-DYNA nonlinear contact between the weight and the dumper body was defined, which improved the results considerably. The key conclusion from the two results was that the contact definition used in LS-DYNA is necessary if accurate results are important. Since LS-DYNA uses an explicit numerical method the model can be made more complicated by including more nonlinearities in the model and it would not affect the computation to much or at all. Hence the method would be future proof.

  • 138.
    Kokorev, Andrey
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för industriell ekonomi.
    Gidlöf, Simon
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för industriell ekonomi.
    Key Elements for Making Product Value Offerings Comprehendible in Value-­Based Selling -­ a Study of Energy and Fuel Saving Solutions in the Marine Industry2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Value-based selling is broadly discussed in today’s business world. Selling value is not just about selling a product/solution by adjusting price and negotiating contract terms. It requires detailed and deep understanding of customer needs, acting in proactive manner and delivery of product value in terms of improvement of customer’s business and elimination of his problems. However, it has been shown in academic literature that there is a lack in understanding of value in the offerings submitted to the customers, thus there is an existing need to identify key elements of value proposition that make it comprehendible for the customers. The objectives of this thesis aim to add knowledge about how to make value proposition understandable for the customers. Theoretical framework built on the basis of literature review serves as a tool for narrowing down the discussion topic and to design insightful questions for interviews. Case study as a research method has been selected for this thesis where two companies delivering energy and fuel saving solutions to marine industry are interviewed. Data was collected through 10 semi-structured interviews with employees in different sales management positions, a Bricolage analysis approach was thereafter applied on the material. Our findings show that there are several important elements for making an offering more comprehendible. The result points toward that both tangible and intangible form of value are important elements to include in offerings. The choice of value forms and value elements, to be included in the offering, depends on customer segments, but price associated with low acquisition cost is, in general, mostly utilised and found to be best understood by customers. It is shown that quantification of value elements is another important aspect and that resonating focus is the most suitable method for presenting benefits. Our findings also show that reference cases in combination with value calculators are a fruitful approach for making offering´s value understandable by the customers. Finally, the study shows that sale force plays an important role in value-based selling and that the advising role of sale force is a key element attributable to better value understanding of the offerings. Thus, this study contributes to the knowledge about elements for making customers to comprehend product value in offerings in value based selling, both from practitioners’ point of view and from theory perspective.

  • 139.
    Kosovari, Fatmir
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Appropriate standing-leaning backward angle for healthier posture while working in front of the computer2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hälsoproblem i samband med datoranvändning har blivit allt vanligare dem senaste decennierna. Det är många människor som sitter eller står stilla för länge i fel ställning under tiden de jobbar framför datorer.Det finns mycket forskning som visar att för långt stillasittande eller stillastående orsakar hälsoproblem. Till följd av hälsoproblemen så finns det många försök att lösa problemen genom att designa olika ergonomiska arbetsstationer.Förutom arbetsstationer för sittande eller stående finns också försök att designa arbetsstationer stående-lutande-bakåt. I och med att stående-lutande-bakåt ställning kan vara ett bättre alternativ än stillasittandet eller stillaståendet. Då var det viktigt att hitta den lämpliga stående-lutande-bakåt-vinkeln.Därför fokuserade denna studie på att hitta den lämpliga vinkeln på stående lutande bakåtställning för att bevisa att lämplig vinkel på stående lutande bakåtställning kan ge friskare hållning medan en person arbetar framför datorskärmen. Denna hållning kan vara ett alternativ för att förhindra hälsoproblem som följer av arbete i många timmar framför datorskärmen.Dessa hälsoproblem är: huvudvärk, smärta från nacke, axlar och rygg medan personen sitter stilla för länge; och knän, ben, rygg och åderbråck medan personen står stilla för länge.Den lämpliga stående lutande bakåtvinkeln, där personen kände sig mest bekvämt är mellan fyrtio och femtio grader mätt från början av stående hållning. Resultatet uppnåddes genom att testa komforten med olika personer på justerbar transformerad tippbräda till en arbetsstation som stöder stående lutande bakåtställning i olika vinklar. Uppmätt puls och blodtryck i stående lutande hållning skiljer sig inte signifikant från stående eller sittande ställningar. Vinkeln är individuell och beror på hur personens enskilda skelett och hållning. Resultatet av detta projekt är en rekomendation att utforma arbetsstationer som erbjuder möjlighet att variera från sittande till stående lutande hållning mellan fyrtio och femtio grader.

  • 140.
    Krallis, Apostolos
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för industriell ekonomi.
    Souto, Christopher
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för industriell ekonomi.
    Leadership Style, National Culture and Employee Satisfaction: Empirical Evidence from European R&D Companies2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    The current research work provides empirical evidence of the importance of transformational leadership on promoting employee satisfaction in R&D environments, which is in line with the existing studies in this field. Transformational leadership was found to be positively correlated with employee satisfaction and the scales of individualised consideration and inspirational motivation to exhibit the highest correlations with general satisfaction among all of the leadership dimensions. Transactional leadership was found not to promote employee satisfaction, although the dimension of management by exception (active) seems to contribute to all three scales of satisfaction. This result does not confirm the findings of studies which investigate the effect of transactional leadership on employee satisfaction in conventional organisations, however it is aligned with studies conducted in R&D organisations (Berson and Linton, 2005), and provides additional evidence that the complexity of such working environments results in different trends from the common ones. An attempt was also made to examine the effects of national culture on the leadership style, trying to focus on the main cultural differences observed between Northern/Central and Southern Europe. While in Northern and Central European R&Ds the number of transformational managers was found to be equal to the number of transactional ones, in the Southern Europe the transactional leadership style was found to be the dominant one, as a result of less flat structure and higher power distance in the society. The above result confirmed the conclusion, which was drawn by other studies conducted in other types of organisations, that the higher power distance the more prevalent the transactional leadership is (Whitley, 1997 and Chen 2001). However, in Northern and Central European R&Ds, transformational leadership was not identified as the prevalent leadership style as expected based on these studies. A most interesting observation was that the majority of managers believe that transactional leadership should be the style to follow even though the data clearly shows that it does not bring employee satisfaction. Investigation was also conducted on the individual dimensions of the transformational leadership style in order to find how they vary between the different geographic locations in Europe, as a result of the influence of the national culture. It was found that individualised consideration and inspirational motivation where the dominant dimensions in Northern and Central European R&Ds while idealised influence was the prominent one in the Southern European ones. The above results confirmed the findings of Tsai (2009) who pointed out that in hierarchical cultures charismatic leadership is the most prominent style. The authors believe that the current study will prove invaluable information to organisations, which consider setting up new R&D sites in the European region, related to the leadership style that the local managers should have in order to keep the employees satisfied. Moreover, it can provide guidance to R&D organisations as to whether or not they should establish or enhance the training given to new or existing managers in order to promote the desired leadership style, which will bring success to the organisation.

  • 141.
    Kroon, Martin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, SWE.
    Andreasson, Eskil
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Persson Jutemar, Elin
    Tetra Pak AB, SWE.
    Petersson, Viktor
    Tetra Pak AB, SWE.
    Persson, Leo
    Tetra Pak AB, SWE.
    Dorn, Michael
    Linnaeus University, SWE.
    Olsson, Pär
    Malmö högskola, SWE.
    Anisotropic Elastic-Viscoplastic Properties at Finite Strains of Injection-Moulded Low-Density Polyethylene2018Ingår i: Experimental mechanics, ISSN 0014-4851, E-ISSN 1741-2765, Vol. 58, nr 1, s. 75-86Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Injection-moulding is one of the most common manufacturing processes used for polymers. In many applications, the mechanical properties of the product is of great importance. Injection-moulding of thin-walled polymer products tends to leave the polymer structure in a state where the mechanical properties are anisotropic, due to alignment of polymer chains along the melt flow direction. The anisotropic elastic-viscoplastic properties of low-density polyethylene, that has undergone an injection-moulding process, are therefore examined in the present work. Test specimens were punched out from injection-moulded plates and tested in uniaxial tension. Three in-plane material directions were investigated. Because of the small thickness of the plates, only the in-plane properties could be determined. Tensile tests with both monotonic and cyclic loading were performed, and the local strains on the surface of the test specimens were measured using image analysis. True stress vs. true strain diagrams were constructed, and the material response was evaluated using an elastic-viscoplasticity law. The components of the anisotropic compliance matrix were determined together with the direction-specific plastic hardening parameters. © 2017 The Author(s)

  • 142.
    Kroon, Martin
    et al.
    Linné universitetet, SWE.
    Andreasson, Eskil
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Petersson, Viktor
    Tetra Pak AB, SWE.
    Olsson, Pär
    Malmö Högskola.
    Experimental and numerical assessment of the work of fracture in injection-moulded low-density polyethylene2018Ingår i: Engineering Fracture Mechanics, ISSN 0013-7944, E-ISSN 1873-7315, ISSN 0013-7944, Vol. 192, s. 1-11Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The fracture mechanics properties of injection-moulded low-density polyethylene (LDPE) sheets were investigated both experimentally and numerically. The total work of fracture was determined experimentally, by means of fracture mechanics testing of sheets of injection-moulded LDPE with side cracks of different lengths. A multi-specimen method, proposed by Kim and Joe (1987), was employed. The total work of fracture was estimated to 13 kJ/m2. The experiments were simulated numerically using the finite element method. Crack growth was enabled by inclusion of a cohesive zone, and the constitutive response of this zone was governed by a traction-separation law. The local (or essential) work of fracture was estimated through numerical analyses, where the initiation of crack growth was simulated and the outcome was compared to the experimental results. The local (i.e. essential) work of fracture was estimated to 1.7 kJ/m2, which is consistent with previous experimental measurements for the material in question. The total work of fracture, retrieved from the present experiments, agreed well with the far field values of the J-integral in the numerical analyses. © 2018 The Authors

  • 143.
    Larsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Luleå Technical University.
    Ericson, Åsa
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå Technical University.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Bertoni, Marco
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Engineering 2.0 - Exploring lightweight technologies for the virtual enterprise2010Ingår i: From CSCW to Web 2.0: European Developments in Collaborative Design, Springer , 2010, s. 173-191Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In a traditional business partnership, the partner companies are under contractual obligation to share data, information, and knowledge through one or several information systems that the leading firm decides. In such a case, the issue of sharing "whatever needs to be shared" is settled in contracts before any action is taken, however, also giving the implications that sharing expertise becomes a heavy and time-consuming activity. In turn, it can be argued that the heavy administration affects the lead time of product development negatively since the necessary input flows are delayed. In addition, the adaptation to certain predefined collaborative information systems is both expensive and resource-consuming (e.g., educating staff to use them). Also, the system might not be adaptable to the existing internal technology structure, causing a "translation" procedure, again taking up resources. Another structure for collaboration is a network or alliance of independent partner companies. One motivation for a network structure is that the partners can join or leave it more easily. A reason for joining and staying is an implicit sense of knowledge sharing (Tomkins 2001) and access to a "win-win" environment. Furthermore, the partners can be linked by information technology, i.e., forming a virtual ­structure rather than a physical one. The technologies provide the channels with additional knowledge. In a best-case scenario, a company would get access to a wide range of useful competences, and in a worst-case scenario the company would be drained of its core competences. Accordingly, at least two considerations for joining a partner network can be considered. First, the resources needed to couple the technologies have to be reasonable, due to the underpinning logic of going in and out of more than one network. Second, the company has to identify its knowledge base and evaluate the prospective gains and losses of sharing its expertise.

  • 144.
    Larsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Luleå Technical University.
    Ericson, Åsa
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå Technical University.
    Randall, Dave
    Engineering 2.0 - Exploring Lightweight Technologies for the Virtual Enterprise2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In a Virtual Enterprise setting, it becomes increasingly important to make sure that knowledge and expertise created in one discipline, domain or company is correctly understood and quickly utilized by other actors throughout the value chain. This paper discusses why lightweight technology seems like a particularly promising concept in this context, and why Virtual Enterprises could benefit from learning more about tag clouds, mashups, wikis, and other ‘lightweight' technologies, as complements to the large-scale, arguably ‘heavyweight', product life-cycle management (PLM) systems of current practice. The paper draws on data from a number of product development projects - ranging from the development of manufacturing tools and industrial drive systems, to aircraft engines and armored terrain vehicles. The paper identifies both the kinds of problem typically experienced in the Virtual Enterprise, in relation to knowledge sharing, and explores ways in which lightweight technology might be adapted to solve them.

  • 145.
    Larsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Bylund, Nicklas
    Isaksson, Ola
    Rethinking virtual teams for streamlined development2007Ingår i: Higher creativity for virtual teams - Developing Platforms for Co-Creation, Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference , 2007, s. 138-156Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing from experiences in automotive and aerospace development, the authors argue that it is time to radically progress our current understanding of how creativity could be introduced in organizations where factors like legal demands and contractual agreements severely restrict ‘outside-the-box' thinking, and where well-known creativity enablers such as trust, shared goals, and shared culture are becoming increasingly difficult to accomplish. <br/>

  • 146.
    Larsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Leifer, Larry
    Stanford University.
    Van der Loos, Machiel
    Stanford University.
    Feland, John
    Design for Wellbeing2005Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing need for engineering designers to engage in creative activities that result in innovative products and technologies for the benefit of society. However, from an engineering perspective, issues of ‘life quality’ are currently heavily under-prioritized, particularly with regard to people with disabilities. This paper argues that both needs and solutions are now part of the designer’s responsibility, and that it is crucial to make a qualitative assessment of both the potential market impact and the ‘quality of life’ improvements afforded by innovations. Design for Wellbeing offers a perspective on life quality that goes beyond the traditional scope of assistive technology in that it aims to help people make a transformation from an actual state of being to a desired state of being – regardless of ability level.

  • 147.
    Larsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Törlind, Peter
    Intranet - Luleå University of Technology2001Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Division of Computer Aided Design has been announced as one of ten winners in the Intranet Design Annual, published by web guru Jakob Nielsen at Nielsen/Norman Group. In competition with over 50 nominated organizations, the division's Intranet, developed by Andreas Larsson, Tobias Larsson and Peter Törlind, reached the top ten. Nielsen has been called the "guru of webpage usability" by the New York Times, and he currently holds 60 U.S. Patents, most of them concerning web usability. The report states: “It is also notable that Luleå University of Technology made it to the top 10, despite being designed by a bunch of graduate students. Though small and lacking a lot of resources, this design team focused relentlessly on user needs and on simplifying their design through many fast iterations. Some of the Luleå features underwent up to 50 iterations before they reached their current usability level. ‘I thought my initial design for the calendar application was really easy to use - in fact, I was quite proud of it,’ says one of the developers. But, the design didn’t hold up when professors and other staff members used it, so it was changed. User needs triumphed over the designer’s initial pride. That’s the hallmark of a truly great designer. On a small budget, the way to achieve high-quality design is through fast, cheap iterations and a willingness to do what users need.”

  • 148.
    Larsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Törlind, Peter
    The Mobile intranet - Managing People and Information in a Distributed Organization2002Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of the increasing globalisation of organizations, information systems must deal with issues of mobility. Longer distances between the members can lead to a knowledge gap, which means that two groups of people working in the same organization work according to completely different bases of information. Thus, there is a need for the members of an organization to communicate efficiently across geographical and departmental boundaries. The paper discusses motives, methods and experiences from the participatory design of a versatile Intranet application currently in use at the Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology in Sweden.

  • 149.
    Larsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Törlind, Peter
    Karlsson, Lennart
    Mabogunje, Ade
    Leifer, Larry
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Elfström, Bengt-Olof
    Distributed team innovation - a framework for distributed product development2003Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In response to the need for increased effectivity in global product development, the Polhem Laboratory at Luleå University of Technology, Sweden, and the Center for Design Research at Stanford University, USA, have created the concept of Distributed Team Innovation (DTI). The overall aim of the DTI framework is to decrease the negative impact of geographic distance on product development efforts and to further enhance current advantages of worldwide, multidisciplinary collaboration. The DTI framework uses a three-layered approach to the advancement of global collaboration; with product development, education, and research in dynamic and synergetic interaction. From our preliminary findings, we believe that the approach we have taken in the DTI initiative will make significant contributions to meet current challenges of distributed product development.

  • 150.
    Larsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för industriell ekonomi.
    All, Pontus
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för industriell ekonomi.
    Startups och Marknadsföring2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    The study covers early startups and focuses on their marketing and branding efforts, and the impact of an uncertain business model. The results stress the importance of involving customers as early as possible in order to get valuable feedback on the offering and on the proposed business model. The study also highlights the importance of the network, personal and extended, which could be either physical or digital. Findings also include the preference of startups to chose low cost marketing mediums, especially quantifiable media in order to assess the effectiveness of the campaign.

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