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  • 1101.
    Bajwa, Ahmer Ali
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Signal Processing.
    Awan, Junaid Anwar
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Signal Processing.
    Performance study of IEEE 802.16d (Fixed WiMAX) Physical layer with Adaptive Antenna System2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis work, WiMAX (IEEE 802.16d) PHY layer with underlying OFDM technology and an optional feature called Adaptive Antenna System has been considered. The SUI-3 channel model (Rician fading) is used for creating fading phenomena. An Adaptive Antenna System has been deployed at the receiver module to reduce the fading effects caused by SUI-3 channel model. Adaptive Antenna Systems (AAS) uses different beamforming techniques to focus the wireless beam between the base station and the subscriber station. In this thesis, the transmitter (SS) and receiver (BS) are fixed and AAS installed at the receiver is used to direct the main beam towards the desired LOS signal and nulls to the multipath signals. Pre-FFT beamformer based on Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm is used. Different aspects of the complete system model were investigated such as adaptive modulation, angle of arrival of the incoming signals and number of array elements. It has been demonstrated through MATLAB simulations that the performance of the system significantly improves by AAS, where beamforming is implemented in the direction of desired user. The performance of the system further increases by increasing the number of antennas at receiver.

  • 1102. Bajwa, Sohaib Shahid
    et al.
    Gencel, Cigdem
    What are the Significant Cost Factors for COSMIC Functional Size Based Effort Estimation?2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the nature of the relationship between software product size measured in Common Software Measurement International Consortium (COSMIC) Function Points and the development effort. We investigated both numerical and categorical cost factors which have a significant effect on this relationship based on the empirical studies we conducted using the International Software Benchmarking Standards Group (ISBSG) Dataset Release 10. For the statistical analyses, we performed step wise Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Analysis of Co-Variance (ANCOVA) and Linear Regression Analysis techniques. In this paper, we discuss the results we obtained and the significance of the results for the software organizations who would like to improve their effort estimation processes.

  • 1103.
    Bajwa, Sohaib-Shahid
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Interaction and System Design.
    Investigating the Nature of Relationship between Software Size and Development Effort2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Software effort estimation still remains a challenging and debatable research area. Most of the software effort estimation models take software size as the base input. Among the others, Constructive Cost Model (COCOMO II) is a widely known effort estimation model. It uses Source Lines of Code (SLOC) as the software size to estimate effort. However, many problems arise while using SLOC as a size measure due to its late availability in the software life cycle. Therefore, a lot of research has been going on to identify the nature of relationship between software functional size and effort since functional size can be measured very early when the functional user requirements are available. There are many other project related factors that were found to be affecting the effort estimation based on software size. Application Type, Programming Language, Development Type are some of them. This thesis aims to investigate the nature of relationship between software size and development effort. It explains known effort estimation models and gives an understanding about the Function Point and Functional Size Measurement (FSM) method. Factors, affecting relationship between software size and development effort, are also identified. In the end, an effort estimation model is developed after statistical analyses. We present the results of an empirical study which we conducted to investigate the significance of different project related factors on the relationship between functional size and effort. We used the projects data in the International Software Benchmarking Standards Group (ISBSG) dataset. We selected the projects which were measured by utilizing the Common Software Measurement International Consortium (COSMIC) Function Points. For statistical analyses, we performed step wise Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Analysis of Co-Variance (ANCOVA) techniques to build the multi variable models. We also performed Multiple Regression Analysis to formalize the relation.

  • 1104.
    Bakht, Syed Sikandar
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Ahmad, Qazi Sohail
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    A Multi Agent Web Based Simulation Model for Evaluating Container Terminal Management2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis provides a software prototype of Container Terminal Management system with the help of a Multi Agent systems technology. The goal that has been tried to achieve during this research work was to solve the management issues residing in a CT. The software prototype can be implemented as simulation software that will help the Terminal Managers to take necessary decisions for the better productivity of CT. The CTs are struggling with taking proper management decisions. There are many policies implemented but the use of a certain policy at a proper time is the main issue. It is possible with simulation software to visualize the affects of decisions taken by the implementation of a policy and see the expected output. This can really improve the performance of a CT. The management decision problem is solved by modeling the whole CT in a computer modeling language. The prototype shows all the actors appearing in a CT in the form of Agents and these agents are responsible for carrying out certain tasks. The prototype is the final contribution along with partial implementation. The model is proposed to be a web based system which removes the platform dependability problem and provide availability online.

  • 1105.
    Bakht, Syed Sikandar
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Ahmad, Qazi Sohail
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    A Multi Agent Web Based Simulation Model for Evaluating Container Terminal Management2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis provides a software prototype of Container Terminal Management system with the help of a Multi Agent systems technology. The goal that has been tried to achieve during this research work was to solve the management issues residing in a CT. The software prototype can be implemented as simulation software that will help the Terminal Managers to take necessary decisions for the better productivity of CT. The CTs are struggling with taking proper management decisions. There are many policies implemented but the use of a certain policy at a proper time is the main issue. It is possible with simulation software to visualize the affects of decisions taken by the implementation of a policy and see the expected output. This can really improve the performance of a CT. The management decision problem is solved by modeling the whole CT in a computer modeling language. The prototype shows all the actors appearing in a CT in the form of Agents and these agents are responsible for carrying out certain tasks. The prototype is the final contribution along with partial implementation. The model is proposed to be a web based system which removes the platform dependability problem and provide availability online.

  • 1106.
    Bakhtyar, Shoaib
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Designing Electronic Waybill Solutions for Road Freight Transport2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In freight transportation, a waybill is an important document that contains essential information about a consignment. The focus of this thesis is on a multi-purpose electronic waybill (e-Waybill) service, which can provide the functions of a paper waybill, and which is capable of storing, at least, the information present in a paper waybill. In addition, the service can be used to support other existing Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) services by utilizing on synergies with the existing services. Additionally, information entities from the e-Waybill service are investigated for the purpose of knowledge-building concerning freight flows.

    A systematic review on state-of-the-art of the e-Waybill service reveals several limitations, such as limited focus on supporting ITS services. Five different conceptual e-Waybill solutions (that can be seen as abstract system designs for implementing the e-Waybill service) are proposed. The solutions are investigated for functional and technical requirements (non-functional requirements), which can potentially impose constraints on a potential system for implementing the e-Waybill service. Further, the service is investigated for information and functional synergies with other ITS services. For information synergy analysis, the required input information entities for different ITS services are identified; and if at least one information entity can be provided by an e-Waybill at the right location we regard it to be a synergy. Additionally, a service design method has been proposed for supporting the process of designing new ITS services, which primarily utilizes on functional synergies between the e-Waybill and different existing ITS services. The suggested method is applied for designing a new ITS service, i.e., the Liability Intelligent Transport System (LITS) service. The purpose of the LITS service isto support the process of identifying when and where a consignment has been damaged and who was responsible when the damage occurred. Furthermore, information entities from e-Waybills are utilized for building improved knowledge concerning freight flows. A freight and route estimation method has been proposed for building improved knowledge, e.g., in national road administrations, on the movement of trucks and freight.

    The results from this thesis can be used to support the choice of practical e-Waybill service implementation, which has the possibility to provide high synergy with ITS services. This may lead to a higher utilization of ITS services and more sustainable transport, e.g., in terms of reduced congestion and emissions. Furthermore, the implemented e-Waybill service can be an enabler for collecting consignment and traffic data and converting the data into useful traffic information. In particular, the service can lead to increasing amounts of digitally stored data about consignments, which can lead to improved knowledge on the movement of freight and trucks. The knowledge may be helpful when making decisions concerning road taxes, fees, and infrastructure investments.

  • 1107.
    Bakhtyar, Shoaib
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    On the Synergies Between an Electronic Waybill and Intelligent Transport Systems Services2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this thesis is to investigate potential synergies between an electronic waybill (e-Waybill) and other Intelligent Transport System (ITS) services. An e-Waybill service, as presented in this thesis, should be able to perform the functions of a paper waybill (which is an important transport document and contains essential information about a consignment) and it should contain at least the information specified in a paper waybill. To investigate synergies between the e-Waybill solutions and ITS services, we present 5 conceptual e-Waybill solutions that differ in where the e-Waybill information is stored, read, and written. These solutions are further investigated for functional and technical requirements (non-functional requirements), which can potentially impose constraints on a potential system that should implement the e-Waybill service. A set of 20 ITS services are considered for synergy analysis in this thesis. These services are mainly for road transport, however most of them are relevant to be considered for utilization in other modes of transport as well. For information synergy analysis, the e-Waybill solutions are assessed based on their synergies with ITS services. For different ITS services, the required input information entities are identified; and if at least one information entity can be provided by an e-Waybill at the right location we regard it to be a synergy. The result from our synergy analysis may support the choice of practical e-Waybill systems, which has the possibility to provide high synergy with ITS services. This may lead to a higher utilization of ITS services and more sustainable transport, e.g., in terms of reduced congestion and emissions. Additionally, a service design method has been proposed for supporting the process of designing new ITS services, which primarily utilizes on functional synergies with already existing ITS services. In order to illustrate the usage of the suggested method, we have applied it for designing a new ITS service, i.e., the Liability Intelligent Transport System (LITS) service. The purpose of the LITS service is to support the process of identifying when, where, and by whom a consignment has been damaged and who was responsible when the consignment was damaged.

  • 1108.
    Bakhtyar, Shoaib
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Afridi, Qaisar Zaman
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Performance Evaluation of Two Different Usability Evaluation Methods in the Context of Collaborative Writing Systems2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s world of rapid technological development one cannot deny the importance of collaborative writing systems. Besides many advantages of a collaborative writing system the major one is to allow its end users to work in collaboration with each other without having to physically meet. In the past various researches has been carried out for the usability evaluation of collaborative writing systems using the think aloud protocol method however there is no study conducted on the comparison of different usability evaluation methods in the context of collaborative writing systems. In this thesis work the authors have tried to find the limitations and capabilities of think aloud protocol and co-discovery learning methods in the context of a collaborative writing system called ZOHO, as well as the usability evaluation of ZOHO using think aloud protocol and co-discovery learning methods. The authors found various usability errors in ZOHO. Apart from this the authors also observed the two usability evaluation methods when they were used for usability evaluation of ZOHO. The authors found that both the methods have its’ own benefits and drawbacks. While the co-discovery learning method was fast enough, it was expensive in terms of human resource. On the other hand think aloud protocol method was slow to perform but there was less human resource used. Both the usability methods found almost the same usability errors.

  • 1109.
    Bakhtyar, Shoaib
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Ghazi, Ahmad Nauman
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    On Improving Research Methodology Course at Blekinge Institute of Technology2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Research Methodology in Software Engineering and Computer Science (RM) is a compulsory course that must be studied by graduate students at Blekinge Institute of Technology (BTH) prior to undertaking their theses work. The course is focused on teaching research methods and techniques for data collection and analysis in the fields of Computer Science and Software Engineering. It is intended that the course should help students in practically applying appropriate research methods in different courses (in addition to the RM course) including their Master’s theses. However, it is believed that there exist deficiencies in the course due to which the course implementation (learning and assessment activities) as well as the performance of different participants (students, teachers, and evaluators) are affected negatively. In this article our aim is to investigate potential deficiencies in the RM course at BTH in order to provide a concrete evidence on the deficiencies faced by students, evaluators, and teachers in the course. Additionally, we suggest recommendations for resolving the identified deficiencies. Our findings gathered through semi-structured interviews with students, teachers, and evaluators in the course are presented in this article. By identifying a total of twenty-one deficiencies from different perspectives, we found that there exist critical deficiencies at different levels within the course. Furthermore, in order to overcome the identified deficiencies, we suggest seven recommendations that may be implemented at different levels within the course and the study program. Our suggested recommendations, if implemented, will help in resolving deficiencies in the course, which may lead to achieving an improved teaching and learning in the RM course at BTH. 

  • 1110.
    Bakhtyar, Shoaib
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Henesey, Lawrence
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Electronic Waybill Solutions: A Systemtic ReviewIn: Journal of Special Topics in Information Technology and Management, ISSN 1385-951X, E-ISSN 1573-7667Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A critical component in freight transportation is the waybill, which is a transport document that has essential information about a consignment. Actors within the supply chain handle not only the freight but also vast amounts of information,which are often unclear due to various errors. An electronic waybill (e-Waybill) solution is an electronic replacement of the paper waybill in a better way, e.g., by ensuring error free storage and flow of information. In this paper, a systematic review using the snowball method is conducted to investigate the state-of-the-art of e-Waybill solutions. After performing three iterations of the snowball process,we identified eleven studies for further evaluation and analysis due to their strong relevancy. The studies are mapped in relation to each other and a classification of the e-Waybill solutions is constructed. Most of the studies identified from our review support the benefits of electronic documents including e-Waybills. Typically, most research papers reviewed support EDI (Electronic Documents Interchange) for implementing e-Waybills. However, limitations exist due to high costs that make it less affordable for small organizations. Recent studies point to alternative technologies that we have listed in this paper. Additionally in this paper, we present from our research that most studies focus on the administrative benefits, but few studies investigate the potential of e-Waybill information for achieving services, such as estimated time of arrival and real-time tracking and tracing.

  • 1111.
    Bakhtyar, Shoaib
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Henesey, Lawrence
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Freight transport prediction using electronic waybills and machine learning2014In: 2014 International Conference on Informative and Cybernetics for Computational Social Systems, IEEE Computer Society, 2014, p. 128-133Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A waybill is a document that accompanies the freight during transportation. The document contains essential information such as, origin and destination of the freight, involved actors, and the type of freight being transported. We believe, the information from a waybill, when presented in an electronic format, can be utilized for building knowledge about the freight movement. The knowledge may be helpful for decision makers, e.g., freight transport companies and public authorities. In this paper, the results from a study of a Swedish transport company are presented using order data from a customer ordering database, which is, to a larger extent, similar to the information present in paper waybills. We have used the order data for predicting the type of freight moving between a particular origin and destination. Additionally, we have evaluated a number of different machine learning algorithms based on their prediction performances. The evaluation was based on their weighted average true-positive and false-positive rate, weighted average area under the curve, and weighted average recall values. We conclude, from the results, that the data from a waybill, when available in an electronic format, can be used to improve knowledge about freight transport. Additionally, we conclude that among the algorithms IBk, SMO, and LMT, IBk performed better by predicting the highest number of classes with higher weighted average values for true-positive and false-positive, and recall.

  • 1112.
    Bakhtyar, Shoaib
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Holmgren, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    A Data Mining Based Method for Route and Freight Estimation2015In: Procedia Computer Science, Elsevier, 2015, Vol. 52, p. 396-403Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a method, which makes use of historical vehicle data and current vehicle observations in order to estimate 1) the route a vehicle has used and 2) the freight the vehicle carried along the estimated route. The method includes a learning phase and an estimation phase. In the learning phase, historical data about the movement of a vehicle and of the consignments allocated to the vehicle are used in order to build estimation models: one for route choice and one for freight allocation. In the estimation phase, the generated estimation models are used together with a sequence of observed positions for the vehicle as input in order to generate route and freight estimates. We have partly evaluated our method in an experimental study involving a medium-size Swedish transport operator. The results of the study indicate that supervised learning, in particular the algorithm Naive Bayes Multinomial Updatable, shows good route estimation performance even when significant amount of information about where the vehicle has traveled is missing. For the freight estimation, we used a method based on averaging the consignments on the historical known trips for the estimated route. We argue that the proposed method might contribute to building improved knowledge, e.g., in national road administrations, on the movement of trucks and freight.

  • 1113.
    Bakhtyar, Shoaib
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Holmgren, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Persson, Jan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    A synergy based method for designing ITS services2013In: international Journal of Advanced Logistics, ISSN 2287-7592, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 45-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we propose a method for supporting the process of designing Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) services, which utilizes on primarily functional synergies with already existing services. Using synergies between services will enable sharing of resources, such as, information entities, functions and technical resources, which in turn may lead to reduced costs for implementing services. The method is built around an existing service description framework, which is used to describe both existing services and the service to be designed. In order to illustrate the usage of the suggested method, we have applied it for designing a new ITS service, i.e., the Liability Intelligent Transport System (LITS) service. The purpose of the LITS service is to support the process of identifying when, where and why freight has been damaged, and which actor was responsible when the freight was damaged. The LITS service may lead to better quality control of consignments and may also facilitate the identification of which actor was responsible for the freight damage, which is of particular interest in multi-modal transport. By applying our service design method we were able to identify that three out of four functions of the LITS service already exist in other existing ITS services. Therefore, the LITS service can be designed based on synergies with these services.

  • 1114.
    Bakhtyar, Shoaib
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Holmgren, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Persson, Jan
    Analysis of information synergy between e-Waybill solutions and intelligent transport system services2013In: World Review of Intermodal Transportation Research (WRITR), ISSN 1749-4729, E-ISSN 1749-4737, Vol. 4, no 2-3, p. 123-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a study on information synergy between an electronic waybill (e-Waybill) and intelligent transportation system (ITS) services. A waybill is an important transport document, and it contains essential information about a consignment. We consider five e-Waybill solutions, which differ in where the e-Waybill information is stored, read, and written. We analyse 20 ITS services, and for each of them, the required input entities that can be provided by an e-Waybill are identified, and the synergy with each of the e-Waybill solutions is determined based on the location of the e-Waybill information. The analysis shows that e-Waybill solutions with storage at the freight-level enable the highest information synergy with ITS services. Our result may support the implementation of practical e-Waybill systems that provide high synergy with ITS services, which may lead to higher utilisation of ITS services and more sustainable transport, e.g., in terms of reduced congestion and emissions

  • 1115.
    Bakhtyar, Shoaib
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Holmgren, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Persson, Jan A.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Technical Requirements of the e-Waybill Service2016In: International Journal of Computer and Communication Engineering, ISSN 2010-3743, ISSN 2010-3743, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 130-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An electronic waybill (e-Waybill) is a service whose purpose is to replace the paper waybill, which is a paper documents that traditionally follows a consignment during transport. An important purpose of the e-Waybill is to achieve a paperless flow of information during freight transport. In this paper, we investigate five e-Waybill solutions, that is, system design specifications for the e-Waybill, regarding their non-functional (technical) requirements. In addition, we discuss how well existing technologies are able to fulfil the identified requirements. We have identified that information storage, synchronization and conflict management, access control, and communication are important categories of technical requirements of the e-Waybill service. We argue that the identified technical requirements can be used to support the process of designing and implementing the e-Waybill service.

  • 1116.
    Bakhtyar, Shoaib
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Mbiydzenyuy, Gideon
    Netport Science Park, Karlshamn.
    Henesey, Lawrence
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    A Simulation Study of the Electronic Waybill Service2015In: Proceedings - EMS 2015: UKSim-AMSS 9th IEEE European Modelling Symposium on Computer Modelling and Simulation / [ed] David Al-Dabas, Gregorio Romero, Alessandra Orsoni, Athanasios Pantelous, IEEE Computer Society, 2015, p. 307-312Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present results from a simulation study, whichwas designed for investigating the potential positive impacts, i.e., the invoicing and processing time, and financial savings,when using an electronic waybill instead of paper waybillsfor road-based freight transportation. The simulation modelis implemented in an experiment for three different scenarios,where the processing time for waybills at the freight loadingand unloading locations in a particular scenario differs fromother scenarios. The results indicate that a saving of 65%–99%in the invoicing time can be achieved when using an electronicwaybill instead of paper waybills. Our study can be helpful todecision makers, e.g., managers and staff dealing with paperwaybills, to estimate the potential benefits when making deci-sions concerning the implementation of an electronic waybillsolution for replacing paper waybills.

  • 1117. Bakhtyar, Shoaib
    et al.
    Persson, Jan A.
    Holmgren, Johan
    Achieving services when turning a waybill into an e-waybill2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this paper is to present potential electronic waybill (e-waybill) solutions for a traditional waybill with the potential for supporting different Intelligent Transport System (ITS) services, such as, identification of freight, automating the exchange of content-related data for regulatory or commercial purposes, etc. At present there are some initiatives, for instance, by the International Air Transport Association (IATA) and the e-Freight framework, for achieving solutions that can handle e-waybills. Both these solutions focus on actor-to-actor communication, however we hypothesize that the storage of a waybill’s data both locally and centrally (i.e. actor-to-actor as well as goods-to-actor communication) can support more services than only central storage of the waybill’s data. Further we look at the information required and possible communication links between different actors in order to identify different ITS services that can be achieved through an e-waybill solution. We then map this information on to the e-waybill solutions that we have proposed, which will allow us to identify which services are supported by the different e-waybill solutions.

  • 1118.
    BAKTASH, IMAN
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Modeling of Electromagnetic Heating of Multi-coil Inductors in Railway Traction Systems2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Inductors are frequently used in railway electrical tractions systems in

    filtering and current limiting operations. Magnetic fields are generated due

    to the flow of large AC currents through the coils, which intend induce

    currents on the coils as well as the metallic components in the vicinity,

    causing electromagnetic heating. The heating may cause temperatures to

    exceed project temperature requirements and in the worst case distort the

    functionality of drive system. The purpose of this work is to simulate the

    Electromagnetic Heating effect of inductors in 3D using COMSOL Multiphysics.

    First a 3D CAD model of the inductor geometry is imported to

    COMSOL and the magnetic fields for a giving current excitation are

    estimated. Then the power losses are fed in to a heat flow simulation to

    predict the temperature distributions. Cooling is simulated by driving cool

    air through the heated coils and the surrounding metal objects. The

    temperature distributions for different current excitations and air flow

    velocities are estimated. Simulation is performed on conceptual project

    inductor model. The 3D inductor modeling approach established in this thesis

    work could be used to characterize the electromagnetic heating issues early

    in the project design phase.

     

  • 1119.
    Bala, Jaswanth
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Filtering estimated series of residential burglaries using spatio-temporal route calculations2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. According to Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention, there is an increase of 19% in residential burglary crimes in Sweden over the last decade and only 5% of the total crimes reported were actually solved by the law enforcement agencies. In order to solve these cases quickly and efficiently, the law enforcement agencies has to look into the possible linked serial crimes. Many studies have suggested to link crimes based on Modus Operendi and other characteristic. Sometimes crimes which are not possible to travel spatially with in the reported times but have similar Modus Operendi are also grouped as linked crimes. Investigating such crimes could possibly waste the resources of the law enforcement agencies.

    Objectives. In this study, we investigate the possibility of the usage of travel distance and travel duration between different crime locations while linking the residential burglary crimes. A filtering method has been designed and implemented for filtering the unlinked crimes from the estimated linked crimes by utilizing the distance and duration values.

    Methods. The objectives in this study are satisfied by conducting an experiment. The travel distance and travel duration values are obtained from various online direction services. The filtering method was first validated on ground truth represented by known linked crime series and then it was used to filter out crimes from the estimated linked crimes.

    Results. The filtering method had removed a total of 4% unlinked crimes from the estimated linked crime series when the travel mode is considered as driving. Whereas it had removed a total of 23% unlinked crimes from the estimated linked crime series when the travel mode is considered as walking. Also it was found that a burglar can take an average of 900 seconds (15 minutes) for committing a burglary.

    Conclusions. From this study it is evident that the usage of spatial and temporal values in linking residential burglaries gives effective crime links in a series. Also, the usage of Google Maps for getting distance and duration values can increase the overall performance of the filtering method in linking crimes.

  • 1120. Balakrishna, L.
    et al.
    Kumar, P.V.A.
    Prakash, Chetana
    Gangashetty, Suraykanath
    Speech enhancement using ICA with Bessel features2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Independent Component Analysis with Reference (ICA R) also called as constrained ICA (cICA) extracts only the desired source signals from the mixture of source signals by incorporating some prior information into the separation process. To overcome the problem of designing the reference signal when there is no prior information about the desired signal in the cICA, an improved method is proposed to use a different speech signal generated by the same physical source. The cICA is extended to use Bessel coefficients of the observed signals and the reference signal for processing as they converge faster than the other transformations. Since the Bessel functions provide the desired properties, efficient in representing speech signals, less memory storage they have been exploited in speech processing [1]. The results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  • 1121.
    Balakrishnan, Radhakrishnan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Applied Signal Processing.
    Kesavan, Shijith Kunneth
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Applied Signal Processing.
    CAD TOOLS FOR HYBRID INTEGRATION2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, we present a graphical computer-aided design (CAD) environment for the design, analysis and layout of printed electronic batteries in the first phase and the parasitic extraction of the connecting wires in the second phase. The primary motivation of our work is that this prototyping software tool so far does not exist. Our tool has been integrated within the existing CAD tool which allows quick prototyping and simplifies the interface between the system designer and the device manufacturer. This tools supports the schematic and layout entry, rule checking and netlist generation. The first phase of the device synthesis modelling is based on Enfucell printed batteries, by which using the CAD tool, the shape of the battery is optimized and designed to fit the product and is able to simulate the performance during the optimization, whereas the second phase is the parasitic extraction using an extracting tool named fasthenry, which is integrated to our CAD tool to extract unwanted resistance and inductance within the shared wires between the battery and other devices. We believe that the availability of this tool is useful to the CAD community for novel ideas in the circuit design for flexible hybrid electronics.

  • 1122.
    Balaskas, Antonios
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Lima, Eduardo
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Seed, Tyler
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    A Strategic Approach to Sustainable Development through Official Development Assistance2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Adopting a Strategic Sustainable Development (SSD) approach to official bilateral development assistance could result in more effective development planning that yields lasting results in developing countries. A Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development Assistance (FSSDA) based on SSD and customised to the needs of a development agency offers guidance in planning for development towards sustainability. This it does by directing donor and recipient planners in generating holistic perspectives, setting the goal of development as an attractive and sustainable society, and providing a flexible decision-making framework to guide strategic planning. Development assistance donor agencies face several difficulties in ensuring aid effectiveness. The FSSDA offers support in addressing these challenges by: positioning the creation of sustainable societies as the fundamental goal of development; allowing progress against imminent sustainability threats while minimizing the risk of unforeseen negative impacts; balancing economic, environmental and social considerations; and providing a fairer basis for aid conditionality.

  • 1123. Ballal, Tarig
    et al.
    Grbic, Nedelko
    Mohammed, Abbas
    A Simple and Computationally Efficient Algorithm for Real-Time Blind Source Separation of Speech Mixtures2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we exploit the amplitude diversity provided by two sensors to achieve blind separation of two speech sources. We propose a simple and highly computationally efficient method for separating sources that are W-disjoint orthogonal (W-DO), that are sources whose time-frequency representations are disjoint sets. The Degenerate Unmixing and Estimation Technique (DUET), a powerful and efficient method that exploits the W-disjoint orthogonality property, requires extensive computations for maximum likehood parameter learning. Our proposed method avoids all the computations required for parameters estimation by assuming that the sources are "cross high-low diverse (CH-LD)", an assumption that is explained later and that can be satisfied exploiting the sensors settings/directions. With this assumption and the W-disjoint orthogonality property, two binary time-frequency masks that can extract the original sources from one of the two mixtures, can be constructed directly from the amplitude ratios of the time-frequency points of the two mixtures. The method works very well when tested with both artificial and real mixtures. Its performance is comparable to DUET, and it requires only 2% of the computations required by the DUET method. Moreover, it is free of convergence problems that lead to poor SIR ratios in the first parts of the signals. As with all binary masking approaches, the method suffers from artifacts that appear in the output signals.

  • 1124. Ballal, Tarig
    et al.
    Grbic, Nedelko
    Mohammed, Abbas
    Blind Source Separation of Speech Mixtures using a Simple and Computationally Efficient Time-Frequency Approach2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1125. Ballal, Tarig
    et al.
    Grbic, Nedelko
    Mohammed, Abbas
    Sensor Array Blind Source Separation using Time-Frequency Masking2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1126.
    Ballesteros, Luis Guillermo Martinez
    et al.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Radio Syst Lab RSLab, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ickin, Selim
    Ericsson Res, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fiedler, Markus
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Communication Systems.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Radio Syst Lab RSLab, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Tollmar, Konrad
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Radio Syst Lab RSLab, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wac, Katarzyna
    Univ Copenhagen, DK-1168 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Energy Saving Approaches for Video Streaming on Smartphone based on QoE Modeling2016In: 2016 13TH IEEE ANNUAL CONSUMER COMMUNICATIONS & NETWORKING CONFERENCE (CCNC), IEEE Communications Society, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study the influence of video stalling on QoE. We provide QoE models that are obtained in realistic scenarios on the smartphone, and provide energy-saving approaches for smartphone by leveraging the proposed QoE models in relation to energy. Results show that approximately 5J is saved in a 3 minutes video clip with an acceptable Mean Opinion Score (MOS) level when the video frames are skipped. If the video frames are not skipped, then it is suggested to avoid freezes during a video stream as the freezes highly increase the energy waste on the smartphones.

  • 1127.
    Ballovarre, Eva
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Vallsäter, Rebecca
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Bemötande: en litteraturstudie om bemötande av patienter med fetma2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bakgrunden till föreliggande studie är att fetman är ett av de snabbast växande folkhälsoproblemen både nationellt och internationellt. Studier visar att personer med fetman diskrimineras i samhället. Syftet med denna studie var att belysa hur patienter med fetman blir bemötta nom vården. Författarna valde att göra en litteraturstudie som grundade sig på åtta vetenskapliga artiklar som granskades med inspiration av Granheim och Lundmans (2003) analysmodell. I resultatet framkom fyra teman vilka alla visade att patienter med fetma blir diskriminerade av vårdpersonal. I diskussionen knyter författarna an till Kari Martinsens omvårdnadsteori för att förklara vikten av gott bemötande. Slutsatsen som författarna drog av studien var att patienter med fetma blir diskriminerade trots den humanistiska människosynen som ska genomsyra sjukvården.

  • 1128.
    Balogun, Abass
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    An evaluation of the risks involved in onshore IT outsourcing -A case study of Citiserve Limited Nigeria2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    IT outsourcing has been, and will continue to be a widely accepted strategic option for organizations growth and attainment of its set objectives. It has brought about state-of-the-art technology in the form of improved business processes, a strategic focus on core competences and cost saving techniques amongst others. At the same time, it has brought with it the challenges that need to be addressed if the process was to fulfil its set objectives without impairing the goals and objectives of the firm. Due care and diligence should be taken to mitigate IT risks such as unforeseen escalated costs, vendor lock-in, confidentiality problems and so on. In forestalling these challenges, the recipient is expected to ensure that the vendors are competent and guided by relevant professional ethics; here, certifications play an enormous role in assuring the service recipients they are dealing with the right vendors. It is crucial that the recipient set out in clear and concise terms, the conditions of the relationship using a detailed contract. This would specify the deliverables, service expectations and penalties or litigations. Overall, the thesis is built on answering the research questions:  Why do organizations outsource IT services?  What are those risks involved in IT outsourcing?  How can the IT risks be mitigated? Leveraging on the case study of Citiserve Limited (Nigeria); this research made attempt to align the theories and the case in bringing to the fore the seeming trend emanating from IT outsourcing in service (logistics, distribution and marketing) industry.

  • 1129.
    Banadaki, Davood Dehgan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Durmush, Sunay Sami
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Zahiri, Sharif
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Statistical Assessment of Uncertainties Pertaining to Uniaxial Vibration Testing and Required Test Margin for Fatigue Life Verification2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the automotive industry uniaxial vibration testing is a common method used to predict the lifetime of components. In reality truck components work under multiaxial loads meaning that the excitation is multiaxial. A common method to account for the multiaxial effect is to apply a safety margin to the uniaxial test results. The aim of this work is to find a safety margin between the uniaxial and multiaxial testing by means of virtual vibration testing and statistical methods. Additionally to the safety margin the effect of the fixture’s stiffness on the resulting stress in components has been also investigated.

  • 1130.
    Bandari, Shiva Ram
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Investigation on Flow Control Valve by CFD Simulation2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a water distribution system, Flow Control Valve is used to control the flow rate in the pipeline connections. In this thesis, a fixed flow control valve is investigated to reduce the flow rate and set to deliver the pre-set flow of 5-6 LPM (litre per minute). Which helps to distribute the water for a maximum period and maintains the usage only for the drinking purpose. A geometry of FCV with a ball check valve is implemented, where the ball check helps to stop the back flow of the fluid from the valve. Detailed inspection of dynamic changes in pressure and flow velocity in the valve are conducted through simulation. The study of fluid properties describes the expected design and specifies the flow structure in the valve. The results of this project demonstrate a good performance of the design-build and influence the requirements. The obtained values in the simulation, analytical and experimental results are compatible, which concludes the survey of FCV is equipped to custom.

  • 1131.
    Bandari Swamy Devender, Vamshi Krishna
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Adike, Sneha
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Design and Performance of an Event Handling and Analysis Platform for vSGSN-MME event using the ELK stack2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Data Logging is the main activity to be considered in maintaining a server or database in working condition without any errors or failures. Data collection can be automatic, so, no human presence is necessary. To store the data of logs for many days and visualizing became a huge problem in recent days. Coming to node SGSN-MME, which is the main component of the GPRS network, which handles all packet switched data within the mobile operator's network. A lot of log data is generated and stored in file systems on the redundant File Server Boards in SGSN-MME node. The evolution of the SGSN-MME is taking it from dedicated, purpose-built, hardware into virtual machines in the Cloud, where virtual file server boards fit very badly. The purpose of this thesis is to give a better way to store the log data and add visualization using the ELK stack concept. Fetching useful information from logs is one of the most important part of this stack and is being done in Logstash using its grok filters and a set of input, filter and output plug-ins which helps to scale this functionality for taking various kinds of inputs ( file,TCP, UDP, gemfire, stdin, UNIX, web sockets and even IRC and twitter and many more) , filter them using (groks,grep,date filters etc.)and finally write output to ElasticSearch. The Research Methodology involved in carrying out this thesis work is a Qualitative approach. A study is carried using the ELK concept with respect to Legacy approach in Ericsson company. A suitable approach and the better possible solution is given to the vSGSN-MME node to store the log data. Also to provide the performance and uses multiple users of input providers and provides the analysis of the graphs from the results and analysis. To perform the tests accurately, readings are taken in defined failure scenarios. From the test cases, a plot is provided on the CPU load in vSGSN-MME which easily gives the suitable and best promising way.

  • 1132.
    Bandreddy, Pavan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Pokala, Bhargav
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Perceptual Video Quality Assessment Tool2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Compressing the video data is necessary for video transmission over networks with limited resources. Video quality at the end is based on the compression techniques used. In this research work, we mainly focused on compressing video files using H.264 encoding by considering some parameters and conducting a subjective test on the resulting compressed videos in a specially developed Perceptual Video Quality Assessment (PVQA) tool. This PVQA tool was developed as part of the thesis project. For the compression techniques, we have considered spatial resolutions (i.e. VGA and QVGA), temporal resolutions (i.e. 25fps and 12.5fps) and bit rate (i.e. 300kbps and 600kbps). By considering these parameters for three different test sequences, we down scaled and encoded to transmit over lossless channel. The received data is decoded and up scaled using open source software’s. For encoding and decoding of videos in H.264, we used JM reference software. For scaling the videos spatially and temporally, both FFMPEG and Virtual Dub are used. For up scaling the decoded video in spatial resolution (QVGA to VGA) two filter methods are used i.e. Bicubic Interpolation and Nearest Neighbor technique in Virtual Dub. For up scaling in temporal resolution (12.5fps to 25fps) the repeat frame method of Virtual Dub is used. These generated videos were evaluated by conducting subjective tests to determine the best technique that is suitable for transmission over a bit rate limited network. The developed PVQA tool satisfies the requirements of International Telecommunication Union (ITU) standard ITU-R BT.500-12. The PVQA tool will ask the subjects to grade the videos quality according to his/her experience and these grades are saved in excel sheets. The PVQA tool was developed under Java environment, with the VLC player embedded. The tool was designed to support the video. Results of the subjective video quality survey are summarized and finally conclusions are given.

  • 1133.
    Banelis, Justas
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Proscevicius, Arunas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Streaming Video Based on an Intelligent Frame Skipping Technique2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Video streaming is an important field of global communications and data processing. It is divided into server and client sides connected via network. Video streaming is concerned with delivering video data from server to client over the network as fast and with as little loss as possible. In this study the possibilities to minimize the amount of data transferred over the network in video streaming are investigated and a video streaming technique comprised of server and client sides is proposed. To expand the flexibility and adaptability of the proposed video streaming technique an operational parameter system was constructed and the parameter value ranges were defined. The proposed video streaming technique was then applied to three sample videos. Before streaming the server side of the proposed technique reduced the frame count of input videos based on operational parameter values while the client side reconstructed the skipped frames. Then the quality of the resulting videos was measured and evaluated. To evaluate the reconstructed frames and videos the PSNR measurement method was used. The study concludes that by using the proposed video streaming technique it is possible to reduce the amount of transfer data by dropping frames on the server side and reconstructing them on the client side.

  • 1134.
    Bangabash, Subhasish
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Panda, Srimanta
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Machine Learning - Managerial Perspective: A Study to define concepts and highlight challenges in a product-based IT Organization2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research is to understand the main managerial challenges that arise in the context of Machine Learning. This research aims to explore the core concepts of Machine Learning and provide the same conceptual foundation to managers to overcome possible obstacles while implementing Machine Learning. Therefore, the main research question is: 

    What are the phases and the main challenges while managing Machine Learning project in a product based IT organization? 

     The focus is on the main concepts of Machine Learning and identifying challenges during each phase through literature review and qualitative data collected from interviews conducted with professionals. The research aims to position itself in the field of research which looks for inputs from consultants and management professionals either associated with Machine Learning or they are planning to start such initiatives. In this research paper we introduce ACDDT (Agile-Customer-Data-Domain-Technology) model framework for managers. This framework is centered on the main challenges in Machine Learning project phases while dealing with customer, data, domain and technology. In addition, the frame work also provides key inputs to managers for managing those challenges and possibly overcome them.

  • 1135.
    Baniassadi, Michelle
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Ahlman, Per
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Personers upplevelser av att leva med hjärtsvikt: NYHA- klass II-IV2013Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Hjärtsvikt betraktas som ett stort problem i världen och ökar ständigt, samt att det tillhör en av de vanligaste folksjukdomarna i Sverige. Personer som lever med hjärtsvikt får en påverkan på det dagliga livet och det är vanligt att de upplever fysiska, psykiska och sociala begränsningar i sin vardag. Sjuksköterskan skall vägleda och informera personerna som lever med sjukdomen att uppmärksamma sina symtom för att undvika försämring av tillståndet. Syfte: Syftet med studien var att beskriva personers upplevelser av att leva med hjärtsvikt av NYHA- klass II-IV Metod: Det gjordes en strukturerad litteraturstudie med kvalitativ ansats som baserades på nio vetenskapliga artiklar. Analysen genomfördes utifrån en manifest innehållsanalys med latenta inslag av inspiration från Graneheim och Lundmans tolkning av innehållsanalys. Resultat: Analysen resulterade i fyra kategorier och nio underkategorier. De fyra kategorierna var En förändrad vardag, Livet känns främmande och osäkert, Beroende och oberoende och Livet har en mening. Slutsats: Resultatet påvisade att hjärtsvikten i hög grad påverkade personernas vardag. Fysiska begränsningar, social isolering, trötthet, rädsla och oro inför döden samt hopplöshet var några negativa upplevelser av hjärtsvikten. Några positiva upplevelser var att försöka finna mening i vardagen trots sjukdomen, bevara autonomin och känna stödet från familj och vänner. Att finna betydelsefulla aspekter i livet gav hopp inför framtiden. Intressant för framtida forskning skulle kunna vara studier om skillnader mellan kvinnor och mäns upplevelser av hjärtsvikt

  • 1136.
    Bankaoglu, Cagatay
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    IMPACT FAILURE ASSESSMENT ON CRUSHER DISK BY RIGID AND ELASTO-PLASTIC BODY APPROXIMATIONS2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Rigid and elasto-plastic body simulations and analytical methods were carried out to identify and assess impact forces based on their contact durations and force magnitudes. Based on the estimations, most severe cases were simulated in ABAQUS to assess the possible damage on crusher disk component of crusher machines, designed and manufactured by MRT System Karlskrona. Further analyses were carried out to combine both impact force estimations and damage assessment. It was concluded that studied case of impact was not a likely scenario to cause the damage occurring under normal operation conditions in the studied type of crusher machines with the material properties considered in this work.

  • 1137. Bao, Vo Nguyen Quoc
    et al.
    Duong, Quang Trung
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Exact Outage Probability of Cognitive Underlay DF Relay Networks with Best Relay Selection2012In: IEICE transactions on communications, ISSN 0916-8516, E-ISSN 1745-1345, Vol. E95-B, no 6, p. 2169-2173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this letter, we address the performance analysis of underlay selective decode-and-forward (DF) relay networks in Rayleigh fading channels with non-necessarily identical fading parameters. In particular, a novel result on the outage probability of the considered system is presented. Monte Carlo simulations are performed to verify the correctness of our exact closed-form expression. Our proposed analysis can be adopted for various underlay spectrum sharing applications of cognitive DF relay networks.

  • 1138. Bao, Vo Nguyen Quoc
    et al.
    Duong, Quang Trung
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Outage Analysis of Cognitive Multihop Networks under Interference Constraints2012In: IEICE transactions on communications, ISSN 0916-8516, E-ISSN 1745-1345, Vol. E95-B, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The closed-form expressions for outage probability, bit error rate, and ergodic capacity of spectrum sharing-based multi-hop decode-and-forward relay networks in non-identical Rayleigh fading channels are derived. Utilizing these precise and tractable analytical formulas, we can study the impact of key network parameters on the performance of cognitive multi-hop relay networks under interference constraints. The analytical expressions are verified by Monte-Carlo simulations.

  • 1139. Bao, Vo Nguyen Quoc
    et al.
    Duong, Quang Trung
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    da Costa, Daniel Benevides
    Alexandropoulos, George C.
    Nallanathan, A.
    Cognitive Amplify-and-Forward Relaying with Best Relay Selection in Non-Identical Rayleigh Fading2013In: IEEE Communications Letters, ISSN 1089-7798, E-ISSN 1558-2558, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 475-478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates several important performance metrics of cognitive amplify-and-forward (AF) relay networks with a best relay selection strategy and subject to nonidentical Rayleigh fading. In particular, assuming a spectrum sharing environment consists of one secondary user (SU) source,K SU relays, one SU destination, and one primary user (PU) receiver, closed-form expressions for the outage probability (OP), average symbol error probability (SEP), and ergodic capacity of the SU network are derived. The correctness of the proposed analysis is corroborated via Monte Carlo simulations and readily allows us to evaluate the impact of the key system parameters on the end-to-end performance. An asymptotic analysis is also carried out and reveals that the diversity gain is defined by the number of relays pertaining to the SU network (i.e., K), being therefore not affected by the interference power constraint of the PU network.

  • 1140. Bao, Vo Nguyen Quoc
    et al.
    Duong, Quang Trung
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Tellambura, Chintha
    On the performance of cognitive underlay multihop networks with imperfect channel state information2013In: IEEE Transactions on Communications, ISSN 0090-6778, E-ISSN 1558-0857, Vol. 61, no 12, p. 4864-4873Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes and analyzes cognitive multihop decode-and-forward networks in the presence of interference due to channel estimation errors. To reduce interference on the primary network, a simple yet effective back-off control power method is applied for secondary multihop networks. For a given threshold of interference probability at the primary network, we derive the maximum back-off control power coefficient, which provides the best performance for secondary multihop networks. Moreover, it is shown that the number of hops for secondary network is upper-bounded under the fixed settings of the primary network. For secondary multihop networks, new exact and asymptotic expressions for outage probability (OP), bit error rate (BER) and ergodic capacity over Rayleigh fading channels are derived. Based on the asymptotic OP and BEP, a pivotal conclusion is reached that the secondary multihop network offers the same diversity order as compared with the network without back off. Finally, we verify the performance analysis through various numerical examples which confirm the correctness of our analysis for many channel and system settings and provide new insight into the design and optimization of cognitive multihop networks.

  • 1141. Bao, Vo Nguyen Quoc
    et al.
    Duong, Trung Quang
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Nallanathan, Arugumam
    Karagiannidis, George K.
    Distributed Switch-and-Stay Combining in Cognitive Relay Networks under Spectrum Sharing Constraints2013In: 2013 IEEE GLOBAL COMMUNICATIONS CONFERENCE (GLOBECOM), IEEE Communications Society, 2013, p. 1927-1932Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Distributed switch-and-stay combining (DSSC) has been envisioned as an effective transmission technique to achieve spatial diversity in a distributed fashion, with low implementation complexity. In this paper, we take a step further to incorporate DSSC into spectrum-limited environment, where the operating nodes have to share the frequency radio spectrum with licensed users. In particular, by deploying DSSC scheme in cognitive radio networks, we have shown that the low transmit power at unlicensed users, inflicted by the peak interference power constraint at licensed users, can be alleviated. We present closed-form expressions for outage probability and spectral efficiency, enabling us to evaluate and optimize the considered network performance. Numerical and simulation results show that when the switching threshold is below the outage threshold the full diversity order can be guaranteed at the secondary networks.

  • 1142. Bao, Vo Nguyen Quoc
    et al.
    Duong, Trung Quang
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Nallanathan, Arugumam
    Tellambura, Chintha
    Effect of Imperfect Channel State Information on the Performance of Cognitive Multihop Relay Networks2013In: 2013 IEEE GLOBAL COMMUNICATIONS CONFERENCE (GLOBECOM), 2013, p. 3458-3463Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive relay technology has been envisioned as a promising transmission scheme to enhance the reliability and coverage of secondary networks. However, the performance of cognitive relay networks (CRNs) is limited by the lack of accurate channel state information (CSI). As such, this paper adequately addresses the impact of imperfect CSI on the performance of cognitive multihop networks by proposing a simple yet effective backoff control power method. In addition, novel exact and asymptotic expressions for outage probability and ergodic capacity over Rayleigh fading channels are also derived. These tractable analytical results reveal new insight into the design, e.g., the number of hops for secondary network, and optimization of cognitive multihop networks.

  • 1143.
    Bao, Xiaoming
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Planning and Media Design.
    From declined industrial areas to humanized public areas --a renewal practice of preservation and humanized reconstruction of Shanghai Yangpu Auxiliary Equipment factory2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates a factory's transformation from declined industrial area to the humanized public space. With the rapid development of China's economy, many old industrial areas in cities gradually fall into the plight of survival and development. In the early time, the renewal ignored the value of the old industrial areas. On the other hand, due to the original characteristics of industrial areas, they are facing challenges to be humanized public areas. This article starts with the background of current industrial areas renewal and points out the problems. In the next section, theoretical framework on the evaluation of old industrial areas, old industrial area preservation and humanized reconstruction are established to be the guide and principle of the case study. The successful case, Shanghai EXPO Urban Best Practices Area is chosen to find out how to seek for the balance between preservation and reconstruction into humanized public areas. Then the article establishes a relatively complete framework for planning and design, and demonstrates the framework through the design proposal of Shanghai Yangpu Auxiliary Equipment factory. This research serves as a practical model for preservation and reconstruction from old industrial area to the humanized public space. In addition, it also discussed and rethinks deeply over the problems of reusing old industrial areas.

  • 1144.
    Baolorphet, Phetphirun
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Köpmans, Emma
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Är preoperativ kroppstvätt effektivt mot sårinfektioner: finns evidens?2012Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Den postoperativa sårinfektionen är den mest förekommande komplikationen för patienter som genomgått ett kirurgiskt ingrepp. Preoperativ kroppstvätt har funnits sedan 1800-talet i Sverige, trots detta insjuknar tusentals patienter årligen på grund av postoperativa sårinfektioner. Negativa konsekvenser framkommer för både patienten och sjukvården i form av extra vårdtid, lidande och kostnad. Syfte: Avsikten med studien var att undersöka om det finns evidens för att preoperativ kroppstvätt reducerar postoperativa sårinfektioner. Metod: En strukturerad litteraturstudie genomfördes som grundade sig på tolv vetenskapliga studier med kvantitativ ansats varav två är översiktsartiklar. De inkluderade artiklarna påträffades i CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed och Cochrane Database for Systematic Reviews. Därefter kvalitetsgranskades artiklarna enligt Willman, Stoltz och Bahtsevanis bedömningsprotokoll och analyserades enligt SBU:s evidensgraderingssystem GRADE. Resultat: Det finns flera olika antiseptiska medel som används vid kroppstvätt. Resultatet visade att Klorhexidin som desinfektionsmedel hade en stark evidens för reducering av postoperativa sårinfektioner. Slutsats: Evidens för kroppstvätt med Klorhexidin kan utgöra ett viktigt underlag som underlättar för sjuksköterskans kunskapsutveckling och informationsutbytet till patienten. Sjuksköterskans agerande utifrån evidensbaserad kunskap kan bidra till att patienten inser vikten av att utföra en noggrann kroppstvätt vid förebyggandet av postoperativa sårinfektioner.

  • 1145. Baptista, Ana Alice
    et al.
    Linde, PeterBlekinge Institute of Technology, The Library.Lavesson, NiklasBlekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.Brito, Miguel Abrunhosa de
    Social Shaping of Digital Publishing: Exploring the Interplay Between Culture and Technology - Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Electronic Publishing2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the advent of the Web, the processes and forms of electronic publishing have been changing. The open access movement has been a major driver of change in recent years with regard to scholarly communication; however, changes are also evident in other fields of application such as e-government and e-learning. In most cases these changes are driven by technological advances, but there are also cases where a change in social reality pushes technological development. Both the social and mobile web and linked data are currently shaping the edge of research in digital publishing. Liquid publishing is on the more daring agendas. Digital preservation is an issue that poses great challenges which are still far from being solved. The legal issues, security and trust continue to deserve our full attention. We need new visualization techniques and innovative interfaces that will keep pace with the global dimension of information. This is the current scenario, but what will follow? What are the technologies and social and communication paradigms that we will be discussing in ten or twenty years? ELPUB 2012 focuses on the social shaping of digital publishing, exploring the interplay between culture and technology. This makes the fact that it is being held in the European Capital of Culture for 2012, Guimarães, Portugal, all the more appropriate. 52 submissions were received for ELPUB 2012, from which 23 articles and 10 posters were accepted after peer review. Of the accepted articles, 11 were submitted as full articles and 12 as extended abstracts. These articles have been grouped into sessions on the following topics: Sessions 1 and 4 – Digital Scholarship & Publishing; Session 2 – Special Archives; Session 3 – Libraries & Repositories, Session 5 – Digital Texts & Readings, and Session 6 – Future Solutions & Innovations. The programme features two keynote speeches. Kathleen Fitzpatrick's speech is entitled “Planned Obsolescence: Publishing, Technology, and the Future of the Academy”, that of Antonio Câmara is entitled “Publishing in 2021”. Finally we call your attention to the panel on e-books, which is entitled “Academic e-books – Technological hostage or cultural redeemer?”. We believe this is another great edition of the ELPUB conference. We would like to take this opportunity to thank both the members of the ELPUB executive committee and the members of the local advisory committee, for making it happen. Together they provided valuable advice and assistance during the entire organization process. Secondly we would like to mention our colleagues on the program committee, who assured the quality of the conference through the peer review process. Last but not least, we wish to thank the local organization team for ensuring that all this effort culminates in a very interesting scientific event on the 14th and 15th of June. Thank you all for helping us to maintain the quality of ELPUB and merit the trust of our authors and attendees. We wish you all a good conference and we say farewell, hoping to see you again in Sweden in 2013!

  • 1146.
    Baraslievska, Natalia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Factors Affecting Employee Acceptance of Electronic Shelf Labels In a Mandatory Business Environment: -A Study Applying the UTAUT-Model in a Swedish Organization2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The retail industry is one of the most competitive industries today as the emergence of the e-commerce has put significant pressure on traditional retailers. As price change frequencies have doubled, physical retailers struggle to adapt to online retailers; and as a result, new technologies for price automation such as Electronic Shelf Labels has emerged. However, as new technologies emerge managers and decision-makers need to understand the challenges with introducing novel technologies in workplaces; and what factors affect acceptance of said technology. This is an issue that is of interest as technologies are becoming mandatory in use in contrast to previous decades where they have been voluntary in use.

     

    Purpose: To understand what factors affect employee acceptance of Electronic Shelf Labels in a mandatory environment, and thus shed light on where managers and decision-makers need to put focus when introducing new technologies in business environments.

     

    Method: A descriptive and explanatory research design was chosen for this thesis, combined with a quantitative approach for data collection as well as data analysis. The chosen conceptual model for the thesis was the UTAUT-model upon which the questions of a self-administrated web-survey with close-ended questions was based upon. The survey was answered by employees of a market-leading Scandinavian retailer who today have Electronic Shelf Labels implemented in their stores. A total of 100 respondents answered the survey, and the results were analysed quantitatively through utilizing software such as SPSS Statistics for descriptive statistics and SmartPLS 3 for Structural Equation Modeling.

     

    Results: The results of the SEM-analysis unveiled that the main factors impacting technology acceptance of Electronic Shelf Labels in a mandated environment are facilitating conditions and attitude towards usage. The conceptual model explained 46,4% of the variance of the model which tested the constructs of the original UTAUT-model, with slight modifications. Moreover, the results unveiled that there was a high acceptance of ESL amongst employees, and that there is positive view on the technology and its benefits. 

     

    Conclusion: Theoretical, this study contributes in a new conceptual model that explains technology acceptance in mandatory business environments where facilitating conditions and attitude towards usage are the main predictors of technology acceptance. Practically, it suggests that decision-makers and managers need to put effort in ensuring a working infrastructure around a new technology and enough resources so that employees can use the technology properly. Moreover, encouragement of a positive attitude towards a new technology is also of importance – meaning that effort should be put in highlighting the benefits of new technologies pre-implementation and having responsible available that can demonstrate this in the introductory phase of the technology.    

     

    Delimitations: The limitations of this study are mainly tied to geographical location, time and sample size. The study only considers the Swedish stores of the Scandinavian retailer that was studied, and the study is restricted in time as it takes into account the technology acceptance of Electronic Shelf Labels under a certain time frame; as a result, it is not longitudinal. Lastly, the sample size of the survey is rather small, even though satisfactory for its intended use.

  • 1147.
    Barbosa, Ludwig
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Rasch, J.
    Molflow, Gothenburg, SWE.
    Carlstrom, A.
    RUAG Space AB, SWE.
    Pettersson, Mats
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Vu, Viet Thuy
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    A Simulation Study of the Effect of Ionospheric Vertical Gradients on the Neutral Bending Angle Error for GNSS Radio Occultation2017In: Progress in Electromagnetics Research Symposium, IEEE , 2017, p. 1540-1545Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radio Occultation based on Global Navigation Satellite System signals (GNSS RO) is an increasingly important remote sensing technique. Its measurements are used to derive parameter of the Earth's atmosphere, e.g., pressure, temperature and humidity, with good accuracy. The systematic residual error present on the data processing is related to ionospheric conditions, such as the distribution of electrons and the resultant vertical gradient. This study investigates the relationship between these parameters and the residual ionospheric error (RIE) on the retrieved bending angle in the stratosphere. Chapman function combined to sinusoidal perturbations are used to model electron density profiles and compared to RO retrievals of the ionosphere to perform the investigation. The results confirmed that the major ionospheric influence on the retrieval error is related to the F-layer electron density peak, whereas small-scale vertical structures play a minor role.

  • 1148. Barbosa, Manuel
    et al.
    Moss, Andrew
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Page, Dan
    Rodrigues, Nuno
    Silva, Paulo
    Type checking cryptography implementations2012In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer , 2012, Vol. 7141, p. 316-334Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cryptographic software development is a challenging field: high performance must be achieved, while ensuring correctness and compliance with low-level security policies. CAO is a domain specific language designed to assist development of cryptographic software. An important feature of this language is the design of a novel type system introducing native types such as predefined sized vectors, matrices and bit strings, residue classes modulo an integer, finite fields and finite field extensions, allowing for extensive static validation of source code. We present the formalisation, validation and implementation of this type system.

  • 1149. Barbosa, V.L.
    et al.
    E.R., Schlosser
    Machado, Renato
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    F. G., Ferreira
    S. M., Tolfo
    M. V. T., Heckler
    Linear Array Design with Switched Beams for Wireless Communications Systems2015In: International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, ISSN 1687-5869, E-ISSN 1687-5877, Vol. 2015, article id 278160Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1150.
    Bardici, Minavere
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    ICT Design and Users’ Affect, Cognition and Creativity2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study set out to investigate how ICT design relates to users’ affect, cognition and creativity in task performance. More specifically, the intent is to highlight how ICT design can elicit positive effective states and enhance cognitive abilities, including creative thinking in task activity within distance learning. In addition to this is to emphasize the synergies between ICT design, affect, cognition, and creativity from as well theoretical as empirical perspectives. To achieve the objective of this study, a qualitative empirical method was used. A survey questionnaire was chosen as a collection data technique. As far as analysis is concerned, phenomenology analytic strategy was espoused to explore how the participants perceive the phenomenon under inquiry. As for theory, central themes were selected for review given the synergy between them and their implication for the topic. They include: ICT; design; ICT design aspects: aesthetics, functionality, and usability; affect and cognition; and creativity; as well as the synergies between these concepts. Key findings highlight the role of affective quality of ICT design aesthetics in eliciting positive affective states among users when they acquire and use new ICT products or services regardless of their motivational needs. Most users consider aesthetics, usability, and functionality as design aspects but they tend to differ in ranking them depending on how they emotionally perceive them. Simplicity in ICT design is perceived as pleasurable aesthetic value. Further, natural colors are favored most by ICT users and positively affect their emotions so do the other aesthetical features associated with computers, software graphics, and web design. Using ICT inspire users creativity in task performance through what design affective qualities induce as positive affect in them in addition to software usability and functionality depending on the user. There are some synergies between design aesthetics, affect, cognition, and creativity. Moreover, ICT design can, depending on additional factors, ease and help users’ to carry out complex task and if software applications are skillfully used, they can help stimulate users’ creativity in task performance because of the built-in capabilities that are intended to enhance cognitive and emotional abilities of users. In addition, users differ on the elements they focus on when interacting with ICT depending on their inclination. Human attentional capacity and intensity can play a role in creativity. Crystallization of creativity can be triggered when various ICT design elements are perceived in a useful way.

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