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  • 1301. Yeoh, Phee
    et al.
    Elkashlan, Maged
    Duong, Quang Trung
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Yang, Nan
    Da Costa, Daniel
    Transmit antenna selection in cognitive relay networks with Nakagami-m fading2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the impact of multiple primary receivers on cognitive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relay networks with underlay spectrum sharing. For such a network, we propose transmit antenna selection with receive maximal-ratio combining (TAS/MRC) as an interference-aware design to satisfy the power constraints in the primary and secondary networks. To demonstrate this, we derive new closed-form expressions for the exact and asymptotic outage probability with TAS/MRC and decode-and-forward (DF) relaying over independent Nakagami-m fading channels in the primary and secondary networks. Several important design insights are reached. We find that the TAS/MRC strategy achieves a full diversity gain when the transmit power in the secondary network is proportional to the peak interference power in the primary network. Furthermore, we highlight that the diversity-multiplexing tradeoff (DMT) of TAS/MRC is independent of the primary network and entirely dependent on the secondary network.

  • 1302. Yeoh, Phee
    et al.
    Elkashlan, Maged
    Yang, Nan
    Benevides Da Costa, Daniel
    Duong, Quang Trung
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    MIMO multi-relay networks with TAS/MRC and TAS/SC in Weibull fading channels2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine transmit antenna selection with receiver maximal-ratio combining (TAS/MRC) and transmit antenna selection with receiver selection combining (TAS/SC) in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relay networks. Amongst L two-hop relay links, a single relay offering the highest end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is activated. Assuming independent non-identically distributed Weibull fading between the hops, new closed-form asymptotic expressions for the outage probability and the symbol error rate are derived considering NS, NR, and ND antennas at the source, the relays, and the destination, respectively. Based on such expressions, the diversity order and the array gain for M-ary phase shift keying and M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation are analyzed. We highlight that the diversity order of TAS/MRC is the same as TAS/SC. As such, we explicitly characterize the SNR gap between TAS/MRC and TAS/SC as the ratio of their respective array gains. An interesting observation is reached that for equal per-hop SNRs, the SNR gap between the two protocols is independent of L.

  • 1303. Yeoh, Phee Lep
    et al.
    Elkashlan, Maged
    Duong, Quang Trung
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Yang, Nan
    Leung, Cyril
    Cognitive MIMO relaying in Nakagami-m fading2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose transmit antenna selection with receive maximal-ratio combining (TAS/MRC) as an effective approach to reduce interference in cognitive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relay networks. To demonstrate this, we derive new closed-form expressions for the exact and asymptotic outage probability of TAS/MRC with multiple antennas at the primary and secondary users. We consider underlay spectrum sharing where the secondary users (SUs) transmit in the presence of multiple primary users (PUs). We consider independent Nakagami-m fading in both the primary and secondary networks. Several important design insights are revealed. We find that TAS/MRC achieves a full diversity when the transmit power at the SUs is proportional to the peak interference power at the PUs. Furthermore, we highlight that this diversity gain is completely independent of the number of antennas at the PUs.

  • 1304. Yeoh, Phee Lep
    et al.
    Elkashlan, Maged
    Kim, Kyeong Jin
    Duong, Trung Quang
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Karagiannidis, George K.
    Cognitive MIMO Relaying with Multiple Primary Transceivers2013Ingår i: 2013 IEEE GLOBAL COMMUNICATIONS CONFERENCE (GLOBECOM), 2013, s. 1956-1961Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the impact of clusters of primary transceivers in cognitive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relay networks with underlay spectrum sharing. In such a network, we propose antenna selection as an interference-aware design to satisfy the power constraints in the primary and secondary networks. To demonstrate this, we consider transmit antenna selection with maximal ratio combining (TAS/MRC) in the primary and secondary networks. With this in mind, we derive new closed-form asymptotic expressions for the outage probability and the symbol error rate (SER) over independent Nakagami-m fading channels. Our results lead to several new fundamental insights. In particular, we highlight that TAS/MRC achieves a full diversity gain when the maximum transmit power in the secondary network is proportional to the peak interference temperature in the primary network.

  • 1305. Yeoh, Phee Lep
    et al.
    Elkashlan, Maged
    Yang, Nan
    da Costa, Daniel B.
    Duong, Quang Trung
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Unified Analysis of Transmit Antenna Selection in MIMO Multi-Relay Networks2013Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, ISSN 0018-9545, E-ISSN 1939-9359, Vol. 62, nr 2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a unified asymptotic framework for transmit antenna selection in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) multi-relay networks with Rician, Nakagami-m, Weibull, and Generalized-K fading channels. We apply this framework to derive new closed-form expressions for the outage probability and symbol error rate (SER) of amplify-andforward relaying in MIMO multi-relay networks with two distinct protocols: 1) transmit antenna selection with receiver maximalratio combining (TAS/MRC), and 2) transmit antenna selection with receiver selection combining (TAS/SC). Based on these expressions, the diversity order and the array gain with M-ary phase shift keying and M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation are derived.We corroborate that the diversity order only depends on the fading distribution and the number of diversity branches, whereas the array gain depends on the fading distribution, the modulation format, the number of diversity branches, and the average per-hop signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). We highlight that the diversity order of TAS/MRC is the same as TAS/SC, regardless of the underlying fading distribution. As such, we explicitly characterize the SNR gap between TAS/MRC and TAS/SC as the ratio of their respective array gains. An interesting observation is reached that for equal per-hop SNRs, the SNR gap between the two protocols is independent of the number of relays.

  • 1306. Yeoh, Phee Lep
    et al.
    Elkashlan, Maged
    Yang, Nan
    da Costa, Daniel
    Duong, Quang Trung
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Unified Analysis of Transmit Antenna Selection in MIMO Multirelay Networks2013Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, ISSN 0018-9545, E-ISSN 1939-9359, Vol. 62, nr 2, s. 933-939Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a unified asymptotic framework for transmit antenna selection in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) multirelay networks with Rician, Nakagami-m, Weibull, and generalized-K fading channels. We apply this framework to derive new closed-form expressions for the outage probability and symbol error rate (SER) of amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying in MIMO multirelay networks with two distinct protocols: 1) transmit antenna selection with receiver maximal-ratio combining (TAS/MRC) and 2) transmit antenna selection with receiver selection combining (TAS/SC). Based on these expressions, the diversity order and the array gain with M-ary phase-shift keying and M-ary quadrature-amplitude modulation are derived. We corroborate that the diversity order only depends on the fading distribution and the number of diversity branches, whereas the array gain depends on the fading distribution, the modulation format, the number of diversity branches, and the average per-hop signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). We highlight that the diversity order of TAS/MRC is the same as TAS/SC, regardless of the underlying fading distribution. As such, we explicitly characterize the SNR gap between TAS/MRC and TAS/SC as the ratio of their respective array gains. An interesting observation is reached that for equal per-hop SNRs, the SNR gap between the two protocols is independent of the number of relays.

  • 1307.
    Yousefi, Parisa
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Yousefi, Pegah
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Cost Justifying Usability a case-study at Ericsson2011Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we investigate the level of usability and usability issues and the gaps concerning usability activities and the potential users, in a part of charging system products in Ericsson.Also we try identifying the cost-benefit factors, usability brings to this project, in order to attempt 'justifying the cost of usability for this particular product'.

  • 1308.
    Yousuf, Kamran
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Time controlled network traffic shaper2010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Network performance metrics such as delay variations and packet loss influence the performance of the network. As a consequence, the performance of applications on the network is also affected as most of the networked applications existing today are very much sensitive to the network performance. Therefore it is of utmost importance to test the intensity of such network level disturbances on the performance of applications. A network traffic shaper/emulator shapes the network traffic in terms of these performance metrics to test such applications in a controlled environment. Most of the traffic shapers existing today give the instantaneous step transition in delay and packet loss on network. In this work, we present time-controlled network traffic shaper, a tool that facilitates testing and experimentation of network traffic through emulation. It focuses on time variant behavior of the traffic shaper. A linear transition of delay and packet loss that is varying with respect to time may fits much better to the real network scenarios instead of an instantaneous step transition in delay and packet loss. This work illustrates the emulation capabilities of time-controlled network traffic shaper and presents its design architecture. Several approaches are analyzed to do the task and one of them is followed to develop the desired architecture of the shaper. The shaper is implemented in a small scenario and is tested to see whether the desired output is achieved or not. The shortfalls in the design of the shaper are also discussed. Results are presented that show the output from the shaper in graphical form. Although the current implementation of the shaper does not provide linear or exponential output but this can be achieved by implementing a configuration setting that is comprised of small transition values that are varying with respect to very small step sizes of time e.g. transitions on milli seconds or micro seconds. The current implementation of the shaper configuration provides the output with a transition of one milli second on every next second.

  • 1309.
    Zafar, Atique
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Ali, Sajad
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Investigation of Failure and Success Factors of Integration Process in Global Software Development: Literature Review and Delphi Survey2010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Software development work undertaken by virtual teams dispersed across time, space, and organizational boundaries is referred as Global Software Development (GSD) with emphasis on “globalization”. In GSD, teams within same organization (off-shore) or different organizations (outsource) from multiple geographic locations are involved. GSD is becoming a norm and more software projects are undertaken in GSD setting due to the benefits associated with it. However, there remain many challenges that can adversely affect the ability to realize those benefits. One of the challenges is to overcome the problems faced during integration of the functional components developed by different teams at different geographic locations. Incompatibilities and hidden issues surface during functional components integration which is very costly to fix at this stage and can lead to delay, lower product quality or even failure of a GSD project. In this regard, this study investigates integration problems that occurred due to different reasons during different phases/stages of GSD, along with successful integration practices with their relative importance. The study produces lists of failure and success factors, and then further prioritized that failure and success factors lists through Delphi experts. Failure and success factors present an extensive knowledge of integration problems and practical solutions. In addition, their relative importance highlights the severity and importance of each failure and success factor. The results of this study not only help to understand integration issues and solution, but provide a platform to develop a solid strategy at early stage of GSD.

  • 1310.
    Zahda, Showayb
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Obsolete Software Requirements2011Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Requirements changes are unavoidable in any software project. Requirements change over time as software projects progress, and involved stakeholders (mainly customers) and developers gain better understanding of the final product. Additionally, time and budget constraints prevent implementing all candidate requirements and force project management to select a subset of requirements that are prioritized more important than the others so as to be implemented. As a result, some requirements become cancelled and deleted during the elicitation and specification phase while other requirements are considered not important during the prioritization phase. A common scenario in this situation is to leave the excluded requirements for being considered in the next release. The constant leaving of the excluded requirements for the next release may simply render them obsolete.

  • 1311.
    Zasad, Muhammad Rabiul
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Uddin, Jia
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Study and Performance Comparison of MANET Routing Protocols:TORA, LDR and ZRP.2010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Ad-hoc network has opened a new dimension in wireless networks. It allows wireless nodes to communicate with each other in the absence of centralised support. It does not follow any fixed infrastructure because of the mobility of nodes and multi-path propagations. Link instability and node mobility make routing a core issue in MANETs. A suitable and effective routing mechanism helps to extend the successful deployment of MANETs. In this thesis, we have studied details of TORA, LDR and ZRP routing protocols which are routing protocols on use in MANET. The effects on the routing efficiencies with a special focus on the pause time, scalability and node density using throughput, network load, end-to-end delay and packet delivery ratio as indices of performance evaluation for FTP traffic were observed by using OPNET 14.0 modular as simulation tool. Based on our observations from literature and empirical study conducted using OPNET, we have found that among the three protocols, no single protocol can successfully provide optimum efficiency in different MANET scenarios.

  • 1312.
    Zeb, Falak
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Naseem, Sajid
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Guidelines for the Deployment of Biometrics Technology in Blekinge Health Care System with the Focus on Human Perceptions and Cost Factor2010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Biometri Teknik är en autentisering teknik som identifierar individer från deras fysiska och beteendemässiga egenskaper. Trots att biometriska tekniken ger en robust autentisering och ökad säkerhet, har det ännu inte genomförts i många delar av världen på grund av vissa frågor som exempelvis mänskliga uppfattningar om biometriska tekniken och extra kostnader, som deltar i användningen av biometriska tekniken. Eftersom biometriska tekniken innebär identitetshantering av individer som är anledningen till att människor uppfattningar av biometriska tekniken dvs rör skyddet av privatlivet, säkerhetsfrågor och användarnas inställning fråga spelar en mycket viktig roll i spridningen av biometriska tekniken. Där för människors uppfattningar och kostnad faktor måste beaktas innan en eventuell utplacering av biometriska tekniken. Syftet med detta examensarbete är att studera och analysera hur människors uppfattning och kostnad faktor kan lösas för införande av biometri teknik i Blekinge hälsovårdssystemet. Litteraturstudie, intervjuer och undersökningar utförs av författare för identifiering och förståelse av människans förnimmelser och kostnad faktor. Baserat på dessa, är lösningar i form av riktlinjer för de frågor som berörs av biometri spridningen av tekniken i Blekinge sjukvårdssystem Sverige ges.

  • 1313.
    Zeeshan Iqbal, Syed Muhammad
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Grahn, Håkan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Törnquist Krasemann, Johanna
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    A Comparative Evaluation of Re-scheduling Strategies for Train Dispatching during Disturbances2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Railway traffic disturbances occur and train dispatchers make re-scheduling decisions in order to reduce the delays. In order to support the dispatchers, good rescheduling strategies are required that could reduce the delays. We propose and evaluate re-scheduling strategies based on: (i) earliest start time, (ii) earliest track release time, (iii) smallest buffer time, and (iv) shortest section runtime. A comparative evaluation is done for a busy part of the Swedish railway network. Our results indicate that strategies based on earliest start time and earliest track release time have the best average performance.

  • 1314. Zhang, Peng
    et al.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    Johansson, Stefan J.
    Enhanced collaboration in diabetic healthcare for children using multi-agent systems2010Ingår i: International Journal of Agent-Oriented Software Engineering, ISSN 1746-1375, E-ISSN 1746-1383, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. 155-173Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have developed a multi-agent platform as a complement to the existing healthcare system in a children's diabetic healthcare setting. It resolves problems related to the difficulty of collaboration between the stakeholders of the problem domain. In addition, it gives us an opportunity to support the decision-making of the stakeholders using multi-agent systems. The collaboration situation is believed to be improved by the agent-based services, such as, diabetes monitoring and alarm, scheduling, and task delegation.

  • 1315. Zhao, Haifeng
    et al.
    Kallander, William
    Gbedema, Tometi
    Johnson, Henric
    Wu, Felix
    Read what you trust: An open wiki model enhanced by social context2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wiki systems, such as Wikipedia, provide a multitude of opportunities for large-scale online knowledge collaboration. Despite Wikipedia's successes with the open editing model, dissenting voices give rise to unreliable content due to conflicts amongst contributors. From our perspective, the conflict issue results from presenting the same knowledge to all readers, without regard for the importance of the underlying social context, which both reveals the bias of contributors and influences the knowledge perception of readers. Motivated by the insufficiency of the existing knowledge presentation model for Wiki systems, this paper presents TrustWiki, a new Wiki model which leverages social context, including social background and relationship information, to present readers with personalized and credible knowledge. Our experiment shows, with reliable social context information, TrustWiki can efficiently assign readers to their compatible editor community and present credible knowledge derived from that community. Although this new Wiki model focuses on reinforcing the neutrality policy of Wikipedia, it also casts light on the other content reliability problems in Wiki systems, such as vandalism and minority opinion suppression.

  • 1316. Zhao, Haifeng
    et al.
    Kallander, William
    Johnson, Henric
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Wu, Felix
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    SmartWiki: A reliable and conflict-refrained Wiki model based on reader differentiation and social context analysis2013Ingår i: Knowledge-Based Systems, ISSN 0950-7051, E-ISSN 1872-7409, Vol. 47, s. 53-64Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wiki systems, such as Wikipedia, provide a multitude of opportunities for large-scale online knowledge collaboration. Despite Wikipedia's successes with the open editing model, dissenting voices give rise to unreliable content due to conflicts amongst contributors. Frequently modified controversial articles by dissent editors hardly present reliable knowledge. Some overheated controversial articles may be locked by Wikipedia administrators who might leave their own bias in the topic. It could undermine both the neutrality and freedom policies of Wikipedia. As Richard Rorty suggested "Take Care of Freedom and Truth Will Take Care of Itself"[1], we present a new open Wiki model in this paper, called TrustWiki, which bridge readers closer to the reliable information while allowing editors to freely contribute. From our perspective, the conflict issue results from presenting the same knowledge to all readers, without regard for the difference of readers and the revealing of the underlying social context, which both causes the bias of contributors and affects the knowledge perception of readers. TrustWiki differentiates two types of readers, "value adherents" who prefer compatible viewpoints and "truth diggers" who crave for the truth. It provides two different knowledge representation models to cater for both types of readers. Social context, including social background and relationship information, is embedded in both knowledge representations to present readers with personalized and credible knowledge. To our knowledge, this is the first paper on knowledge representation combining both psychological acceptance and truth reveal to meet the needs of different readers. Although this new Wiki model focuses on reducing conflicts and reinforcing the neutrality policy of Wikipedia, it also casts light on the other content reliability problems in Wiki systems, such as vandalism and minority opinion suppression.

  • 1317. Zhou, Kaibo
    et al.
    Liu, Gang
    Yao, Yong
    Popescu, Adrian
    A Mobility Management Solution for Simultaneous Mobility with mSCTP2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper is about mobile Stream Control Transmission Protocol (mSCTP) and the problems related to simultaneous mobility. Simultaneous mobility is when the both endpoints of a communication session are mobile and they move at about the same time. mSCTP works well in the case of non-simultaneous mobility where the SCTP association is established between a mobile endpoint and a stationary one. In the case of simultaneous mobility however, the probability of broken association may become high because both endpoints may suffer from losing address binding update. This is a consequence of the fact that the targeted addresses become unreachable. In this paper, we suggest a solution based on Host Name Address (HNA), together with pro-active Name Server, Address Handling Function (AHF) and Simultaneous Mobility Detection Function (SMDF) to eliminate this problem. Our preliminary results show that the performance of our solution is as good as for non-simultaneous mobility situation in terms of packet loss rate for low rate stream. On the other hand, the drawback is that some modifications to the current standard mSCTP are needed.

  • 1318. Zhu, Chunsheng
    et al.
    Yang, Laurence T.
    Shu, Lei
    Duong, Quang Trung
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för telekommunikationssystem.
    Nishio, Shojiro
    Secured Energy-aware Sleep Scheduling Algorithm in Duty-cycled Sensor Networks2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep scheduling algorithms for duty-cycled sensor networks have received great attention, since sensors should dynamically awake and asleep to save energy consumption. Among all current sleep scheduling algorithms, only the recently proposed energy consumed uniformly-connected k-neighborhood (EC-CKN) algorithm focuses on not only the coverage of the resultant network, but also the network lifetime after sleep scheduling. However, all sleep scheduling processes ignore the fact that potential insider attacks actually can seriously affect or destroy proper sleep scheduling operations and properties. In this paper, we discuss these vulnerabilities and propose corresponding countermeasures for EC-CKN, i.e., secure neighborhood authentication

  • 1319.
    Zieba, Maciej
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Multistage neural networks for pattern recognition2009Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work the concept of multistage neural networks is going to be presented. The possibility of using this type of structure for pattern recognition would be discussed and examined with chosen problem from eld area. The results of experiment would be confront with other possible methods used for the problem.

  • 1320. Zinner, Thomas
    et al.
    Hossfeld, Tobias
    Minhas, Tahir Nawaz
    Fiedler, Markus
    Controlled vs. Uncontrolled Degradations of QoE: The Provisioning-Delivery Hysteresis in Case of Video2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper applies the recently proposed provisioning-delivery hysteresis for Quality of Experience (QoE) to the case of video. The study is based on evaluations using the Structural Similarity Metric (SSIM) for different versions of a video in terms of resolution on one hand, and suffering from different packet loss ratios on the other hand. Upon translation of the SSIM into MOS, the QoE plotted versus the effective throughput shows the predicted behaviour: a controlled quality and throughput reduction leads to a better user perceived quality than the quality degradation due to packet loss. The results clearly quantify the necessity to control quality, instead of "getting hit" in an uncontrolled way.

  • 1321.
    Zlatkovic, Samireh Jalali and Branislav
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Success Factors in Building and Maintaining Trust Among Globally Distributed Team Members2009Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization trends have affected many software organizations in the past years. They are turning towards global software development (GSD) market in search for quality with a lower price and shorter development times. It turns out that certain management methods used for in-house development are not applicable in GSD, often resulting in a failed project. It is believed that trust is one of the key factors for success or failure of such projects. In the first part, this thesis studies the causes of lacking or losing trust in globally distributed teams though a literature review and systematic review of current research. The second part of this thesis studies the practices which have been applied in industry to prevent or minimize the impact of trust related issues. Finally these practices are mapped to the identified issues, resulting in a set of recommendations for managers involved in GSD.

  • 1322.
    Álvarez, Carlos García
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Overcoming the Limitations of Agile Software Development and Software Architecture2013Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Agile Software Development has provided a new concept of Software Development based in adaptation to changes, quick decisions, low high-level design and frequent deliveries. However, this approach ignores the value that Software Architecture provides in the long term for increasing the speed in delivery working software, which may have catastrophic consequences in the long term. Objectives. In this study, the combination of these two philosophies of Software Development is investigated. Firstly, the concept of Software Architecture in Agile Projects; then, the major challenges faced concerning Software Architecture in Agile Projects, the practices and approaches that can be used to overcome these challenges and the effects that these practices may cause on the project. Methods. The research methodologies used in this study are Systematic Literature Review for gathering the highest amount possible of contributions available in the Literature at this respect, and also the conduction of Semi-Structured Interviews with Agile Practitioners, in order to obtain empirical knowledge on the problem and support or deny the SLR findings. Results. The results of the Thesis are a unified description of the concept of Software Architecture in Agile Projects, and a collection of challenges found in agile projects, practices that overcome them and a relation of effects observed. Considering the most frequent practices/approaches followed and the empirical support, it is enabled a discussion on how to combine Software Architecture and Agile Projects. Conclusions. The main conclusion is that there is not a definite solution to this question; this is due to the relevance of the context (team, project, customer, etc.) that recommends the evaluation of each situation before deciding the best way to proceed. However, there are common trends on the best-recommended practices to integrate these two concepts. Finally, it is required more empirical work on the issue, the conduction of controlled experiments that allows to quantify the success or failure of the practices implemented would be most helpful in order to create a body of knowledge that enables the application of certain practices under certain conditions.

  • 1323.
    Ådahl, Kerstin
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    On Decision Support in Participatory Medicine Supporting Health Care Empowerment2012Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The task of ensuring Patient Safety is, more than ever, central in Healthcare. The report “To Err is Human” [Kohn et al. 2000], was revealing alarming numbers of incidents, injuries and deaths caused by deficiencies in healthcare activities. The book initiated assessment and change of Healthcare methods and procedures. In addition, numerous reports to Swedish HSAN (Medical Responsibility Board) have shown a high rate of information and communication deficiencies in Healthcare has a direct or indirect cause of incidents, injuries and deaths. Despite numerous of new sophisticated tools for information management in recent years, e.g., tools such as Electronic Health Records (EHR) and Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSS), the threats to Patient Safety have not been redeemed. Rather to the contrary. Underlying reasons for this paradox are twofold. Firstly, advancements in diagnosing techniques have given rise to increasing volumes of data at the same time as the number of patients has increased due to demographic changes and advancements in treatments. Secondly, the information processing systems are far from aligned to related workflow processes. In short, we do not at present have interoperability in our Healthcare systems. In this doctoral dissertation, we present an in-depth analysis of two different “HSAN-typical” cases, where Patient Safety was jeopardized by incomplete information flows and/or information breakdowns. The cases are mirroring the apprehension of Simplicity, that is, Occam´s Razor of Diagnostic Parsimony. A well-known protocol used in Healthcare and implemented in most (knowledge based) CDSS. This rule of thumb is the foundation for the well-known adage: “when you hear hoof beats, think horses, not zebras”. Hickam´s Dictum is one well known objection to the simplifications of Occam´s Razor stating "Patients can have as many diseases as they damn well please". Of course, this Dictum is harder to implement effectively! In the thesis we suggest a visualization tool Visual Incidence Anamneses (VIA) to provide middle out compromise between Ockham and Hickam but providing means to increase Patient Safety. The findings of our Study for the thesis have resulted in a number of Aspects and Principles as well as Core-principles for future CDSS design, That is, tools and methodologies that will support designing and validating Interoperability of Healthcare systems across patient-centric workflows. The VIA tool should be used as the initiating point in a patient (individual) centered workflow, quickly visualizing vital information such as symptoms, incidents and diagnoses, occurring earlier in the medical history, at different times, to ground further vital decisions on. The visualization will enable analysis of timelines and earlier diagnoses of the patient, using visually salient nodes for visualization of causalities in context. Furthermore, support for customization of the tool to the views of stakeholders, members of healthcare teams and empowerments of the patient, is crucial.

  • 1324. Ådahl, Kerstin
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Rune
    Innovative Health Care Channels: Towards Declarative Electronic Decision Support Systems Focusing on Patient Security.2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Models supporting empoerment of health care teams and patients are introduced and exemplified

  • 1325.
    Åkesson, Gustav
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Rantzow, Pontus
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Performance evaluation of multithreading in a Diameter Credit Control Application2010Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Moore's law states that the amount of computational power available at a given cost doubles every 18 months and indeed, for the past 20 years there has been a tremendous development in microprocessors. However, for the last few years, Moore's law has been subject for debate, since to manage heat issues, processor manufacturers have begun favoring multicore processors, which means parallel computation has become necessary to fully utilize the hardware. This also means that software has to be written with multiprocessing in mind to take full advantage of the hardware, and writing parallel software introduces a whole new set of problems. For the last couple of years, the demands on telecommunication systems have increased and to manage the increasing demands, multiprocessor servers have become a necessity. Applications must fully utilize the hardware and such an application is the Diameter Credit Control Application (DCCA). The DCCA uses the Diameter networking protocol and the DCCA's purpose is to provide a framework for real-time charging. This could, for instance, be to grant or deny a user's request of a specific network activity and to account for the eventual use of that network resource. This thesis investigates whether it is possible to develop a Diameter Credit Control Application that achieves linear scaling and the eventual pitfalls that exist when developing a scalable DCCA server. The assumption is based on the observation that the DCCA server's connections have little to nothing in common (i.e. little or no synchronization), and introducing more processors should therefore give linear scaling. To investigate whether a DCCA server's performance scales linearly, a prototype has been developed. Along with the development of the prototype, constant performance analysis was conducted to see what affected performance and server scalability in a multiprocessor DCCA environment. As the results show, quite a few factors besides synchronization and independent connections affected scalability of the DCCA prototype. The results show that the DCCA prototype did not always achieve linear scaling. However, even if it was not linear, certain design decisions gave considerable performance increase when more processors were introduced.

  • 1326.
    Åström, Fredrik
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Neural Network on Compute Shader: Running and Training a Neural Network using GPGPU2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis I look into how one can train and run an artificial neural network using Compute Shader and what kind of performance can be expected. An artificial neural network is a computational model that is inspired by biological neural networks, e.g. a brain. Finding what kind of performance can be expected was done by creating an implementation that uses Compute Shader and then compare it to the FANN library, i.e. a fast artificial neural network library written in C. The conclusion is that you can improve performance by training an artificial neural network on the compute shader as long as you are using non-trivial datasets and neural network configurations.

  • 1327. Šmite, Darja
    What happens, when software product development companies go global?2010Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization has significantly changed the way the market operates today. In particular, it motivated many software companies expand through acquisitions and utilize skillful resources regardless of their location around the globe. Global software engineering endeavors have been widely explored in the research literature for the past decade and associated with many challenges caused by geographic, temporal and cultural distances. While software development as such is quite a challenging task, involvement of dispersed and diverse software teams created a perceived crisis with respect to, so called, soft issues that have not been targeted in the past. The effect of distribution versus co-location is still under investigation, and the most commonly referred challenges are related to communication, coordination and control. Thus the focus of research to a large extent has shifted from software product as the center, to people developing software.

  • 1328. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Borzovs, Juris
    New Forms of Work in the Light of Globalization in Software Development2009Ingår i: Infonomics for Distributed Business and Decision-Making Environments: Creating Information System Ecology / [ed] Pankowska, Malgorzata; Adamiecki, Karol, Business Science Reference , 2009Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization in software development introduced significant changes in the way organizations operate today. Software is nowadays produced by team members from geographically, temporally and culturally remote sites. Organizations seek for benefits that global market offers and face new challenges. Naturally resistant to change, these organizations often do not realize necessity for tailoring existing methods for distributed collaboration. Our empirical investigation shows a great variety in the ways organizations distribute responsibilities across remote sites and conclude that these can be divided into two main categories: joint collaboration that requires investments in team building and independent collaboration that requires investments in knowledge management and transfer. Finally we discuss practices that are applied in industry to overcome these challenges and emphasize necessity to fully understand the pros and cons of different ways to organize distributed software projects before starting a project in this new environment.

  • 1329.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Cruzes, Daniela S.
    Expectations and Achievements: A Longitudinal Study on an Offshoring Strategy2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Offshore software development has gained momentum and most of software companies today have implemented offshore strategies of some sort. Many of these strategies are enforced by corporate top management and driven by assumptions that lower development wages guarantee cheaper and better software development. In practice, offshore software development is associated with many risks, and achievement of the expected benefits is not as straightforward as the rumor has it. In this paper we explore an implementation of an offshore strategy in a Swedish software company that opened its offshore branch in Russia. Based on extensive documentation analysis we create an overview of the initially expected benefits and obstacles that prevailed among onshore product and development unit managers. Years after implementation of the offshore insourcing strategy we asked these managers about the achievement of their expectations. We observed that the company documented various expected benefits when implementing an offshoring strategy and also concerns that some of these benefits might not be achieved. Seven years after its implementation, the offshoring strategy was overall considered working, however the expected benefits were not fully achieved. More importantly, several gaps were identified, that suggest that the enforced strategy has resulted in a stable but not beneficial collaboration from the onshore perspective.

  • 1330.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Dingsoyr, Torgeir
    Fostering Cross-site Coordination through Awareness: An investigation of state-of-the-practice through a focus group study2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Awareness and shared knowledge are important ingredients of successful coordination in software engineering projects, and especially when team members are distributed. Although various coordination mechanisms and knowledge sharing recommendations for cross-site collaboration have been proposed, spreading awareness among distributed team members in a global software project has proven to be challenging in practice. In this paper we discuss our findings from conducting three focus groups on knowledge management in global software collaborations in two international organizations. We discuss various awareness needs in globally distributed collaborations that were not addressed by the organizations, and conclude that best practices and tools proposed in related research are not widely used. On the basis of our empirical findings we suggest future research directions and share recommendations for practical improvements.

  • 1331.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Galviņa, Zane
    Socio-technical congruence sabotaged by a hidden onshore outsourcing relationship: Lessons learned from an empirical study2012Ingår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer , 2012, Vol. 7343, s. 190-202Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the popularity of outsourcing arrangements, distributed software development is still regarded as a complex endeavor. Complexity primarily comes from the challenges in communication and coordination among participating organizations. In this paper we discuss lessons learned from participatory research carried out in a highly distributed onshore outsourcing project. Previous research established that socio-technical congruence principles alleviate distributed work. In practice we have found that alignment between the systems structure and organizational structure can be studied from different abstraction levels and also during different phases of project lifecycle. We have found that official organizational structure differed from the applied one, which meant that the planned alignment in task allocation strategies was broken. Our findings indicate that the lack of socio-technical congruence caused several implications, including unclear responsibilities, delays in problem turnaround, conflicting changes, and non-delivered parts.

  • 1332. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Gencel, Cigdem
    Why a CMMI Level 5 Company Fails to Meet the Deadlines?2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliable effort and cost estimation remains to be a challenging issue even for mature software organizations. Although, these organizations collect historical data to base their future estimates, changes in circumstances (such as application type, development platform, etc.) prevent their successful utilization. As a result, companies often suffer from underestimated and unrealistic schedules. Managing software projects that involve a large number of globally distributed stakeholders makes estimation and planning even more challenging. Related studies show that even knowledgeable project managers often underestimate hidden costs and sources of delay associated with distributed development. Therefore, management activities such as estimation of development effort, planning and control require special attention. In this paper we discuss experiences gained from a highly distributed software project, which aimed at development of a product based on a new platform and architectural solution. The project was conducted in a CMMI Level 5 company and still failed to meet initial plan constraints. We thus provide an overview of management decisions in the light of their consequences, and discuss potential areas of improvement.

  • 1333. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Moe, Nils BredeÅgerfalk, Pär J.
    Agility Across Time and Space: Making Agile Distributed Development a Success2010Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Rather than deciding whether or not to get involved in global sourcing, many companies are facing decisions about whether or not to apply agile methods in their distributed projects. These companies are often motivated by the opportunities to solve the coordination and communication difficulties associated with global software development. Yet while agile principles prescribe close interaction and co-location, the very nature of distributed software development does not support these prerequisites. Šmite, Moe, and Ågerfalk structured the book into five parts. In “Motivation” the editors introduce the fundamentals of agile distributed software development and explain the rationale behind the application of agile practices in globally distributed software projects. “ Transition” describes implementation strategies, adoption of particular agile practices for distributed projects, and general concepts of agility. “Management” details practical implications for project planning, time management, and customer and subcontractor interaction. “Teams” discusses agile distributed team configuration, effective communication and knowledge transfer, and allocation of roles and responsibilities. Finally, in the “Epilogue” the editors summarize all contributions and present future trends for research and practice in agile distributed development. This book is primarily targeted at researchers, lecturers, and students in empirical software engineering, and at practitioners involved in globally distributed software projects. The contributions are based on sound empirical research and identify gaps and commonalities in both the existing state of the art and state of the practice. In addition, they also offer practical advice through many hints, checklists, and experience reports. Questions answered in this book include: What should companies expect from merging agile and distributed strategies? What are the stumbling blocks that prevent companies from realizing the benefits of the agile approach in distributed environments, and how can we recognize infeasible strategies and unfavorable circumstances? What helps managers cope with the challenges of implementing agile approaches in distributed software development projects? How can distributed teams survive the decisions taken by management and become efficient through the application of agile approaches?

  • 1334. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Numminen, Emil
    Transaction Cost Economics in Offshoring: From Naïve To Realistic View on Associated Costs2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 1335. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    A Whisper of Evidence in Global Software Engineering2011Ingår i: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 28, nr 4, s. 15-18Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 1336.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Lessons learned from transferring software products to India2012Ingår i: Journal of Software Maintenance and Evolution: Research and Practice, ISSN 1532-060X, E-ISSN 1532-0618, Vol. 24, nr 6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization has influenced the way software is developed today, and many software organizations have started to actively utilize resources from around the world. However, these endeavors are recognized as very challenging, and they have attracted a lot of attention in software research in the past decade. Unlike many other research initiatives, which explore the complexities of distributed software development activities, the focus of this paper is on software transfers. Software transfers refer to activities that are moved from one location to another. The authors draw attention to the lessons learned from an empirical investigation of two transfer projects conducted at Ericsson. Both transfers were performed between a site in Sweden and a site in India. The observations outline a set of generic practices that have been found useful for transferring software development within a company. It also highlights a number of challenges to be addressed and a set of corresponding recommendations. Finally, the paper emphasizes the need to identify software products that are suitable for transfers and the need to monitor the long-term effects of transfer.

  • 1337. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Risk Identification in Software Product Transfers2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Software companies today often face the necessity to decide where to develop their products. Inability to employ people or continue ongoing development with the same capacity in a given site of a company often leads to relocation of software work from one site to another. Software product transfers, however, are associated with numerous challenges that require investments, and may also have a secondary harder to capture effect on development productivity, quality and scope. In this paper, we share the results from previous empirical studies of software product transfers and offer a checklist for risk identification. The checklist shall be useful for software companies that consider, plan or execute software transfers. Although many risk factors included in the checklist may seem obvious, our empirical observations indicate that prior to obtaining the necessary experience these factors have been initially overlooked. Thus we believe that the checklist will be especially useful for managers with no or little experiences in relocating software work between the two sites of the same company.

  • 1338. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Software Product Transfers: Lessons Learned from a Case Study2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although global software work nowadays is not a phenomenon, research and practice is still addressing the complexities associated with the new forms of work enabled through globalization. ‘Go global’ strategies usually prescribe two alternative approaches: distribution of software development activities across several locations, or re-location of work to another site. This research paper focuses on the latter approach that is called software product transfers and discusses findings from an empirical case study conducted in Ericsson. The observations indicate that transferring software work from one site to another site of the same company is a challenging endeavor. Furthermore, practices used in co-located projects do not necessarily lead to a desired outcome. The paper provides an overview of the challenges and highlights practical advice for handling software product transfers.

  • 1339. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Strategies Facilitating Software Product Transfers2011Ingår i: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 8, nr 5, s. 60-66Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization of software work has become common in today's market. As part of cost-reduction strategies, many product-focused software companies started shipping their product development to insourcing and outsourcing offshore locations. Unfortunately, moving software products from one site to another isn't always a good business strategy for either the organization or the product. In this article, the authors discuss findings from studying software insourcing transfers at Ericsson, a large software product development company headquartered in Sweden. Their findings suggest that certain product, personnel, and process characteristics can facilitate the execution of an offshore insourcing transfer. On the basis of research conducted together with the company, they share a list of critical factors alleviating transfer difficulties and seven strategies facilitating transition of software work across sites.

  • 1340. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Aurum, Aybuke
    Jabangwe, Ronald
    Numminen, Emil
    Towards an Understanding of Sourcing Decisions2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 1341.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Jabangwe, Ronald
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Numminen, Emil
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för management.
    Offshore Insourcing in Software Development: Structuring the Decision-Making Process2013Ingår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, Vol. 86, nr 4, s. 1054-1067Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A variety of new forms of business are enabled through globalization and practiced by software organizations today. While companies go global to reduce their development costs, access a larger pool of resources and explore new markets, it is often assumed that the level of delivered services shall remain the same after implementing the sourcing decisions. In contrast, critical studies identified that global software development is associated with unique challenges, and a lot of global projects fail to mitigate the implications of a particular global setting. In this paper we explore offshore insourcing decisions on the basis of empirical research literature and an empirical field study conducted at Ericsson. By analyzing decisions in two different cases we found that each offshore insourcing decision consisted of deciding what, where, when, how and why to insource. Related empirical research and field observations suggest that not all combinations are successful and alignment between different decision points has thus a prominent role. To address these concerns we built an empirically-based insourcing decision structure, which outlines a logical path through the decision options and helps selecting an offshore insourcing strategy that targets creation of the necessary alignment. The key element of the proposed approach is a structured and well-defined decision-making process, which is intended to support managers in their decision-making. The usefulness of the proposed approach is evaluated in an additional empirical case of a new offshore insourcing decision.

  • 1342.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Galviņa, Zane
    Prikladnicki, Rafael
    An empirically based terminology and taxonomy for global software engineering2014Ingår i: Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, Vol. 191, nr 1, s. 105-153Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many organizations nowadays strive for utilization of benefits offered by global software engineering (GSE) and sourcing strategies are thus discussed more often. Since there are so many variations of the attributes associated with global software projects a large amount of new terms has been introduced. The diversity in sourcing jargon however has caused difficulties in determining which term to use in which situation, and thus causing further obstacles to searching and finding relevant research during e.g. systematic literature reviews. The inability of judging the applicability of the research in an industrial context is another important implication on the transferability of research into practice. Thus the need for accurate terminology and definitions for different global sourcing situations emerges as a way for the community to build upon each other's work and hence making progress more quickly. In this paper we first investigate the state of the use of the GSE jargon concluding that terminology is very diverse (many synonyms used to describe the same phenomena), often confusing (same terms used to describe different phenomena) and occasionally ambiguous (few terms used to describe several phenomena). In order to address the identified problems, we conducted a Delphi-inspired study with ten well-established researchers in GSE and developed an empirically based glossary for the key concepts in global software engineering. We then propose a taxonomy for GSE by categorizing the selected terms based on generalization-specialization relationships and illustrate how the taxonomy can be used to categorize and map existing knowledge. The contribution targets future researchers, who will publish or synthesize further empirical work and practitioners, who are interested in published empirical cases. Therefore this work is expected to make a contribution to the future development of research in the GSE field, and alleviate understandability and transferability of existing and future knowledge into practice.

  • 1343. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Gorschek, Tony
    Feldt, Robert
    Empirical evidence in global software engineering: a systematic review2010Ingår i: Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 91-118Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recognized as one of the trends of the 21st century, globalization of the world economies brought significant changes to nearly all industries, and in particular it includes software development. Many companies started global software engineering (GSE) to benefit from cheaper, faster and better development of software systems, products and services. However, empirical studies indicate that achieving these benefits is not an easy task. Here, we report our findings from investigating empirical evidence in GSE-related research literature. By conducting a systematic review we observe that the GSE field is still immature. The amount of empirical studies is relatively small. The majority of the studies represent problem-oriented reports focusing on different aspects of GSE management rather than in-depth analysis of solutions for example in terms of useful practices or techniques. Companies are still driven by cost reduction strategies, and at the same time, the most frequently discussed recommendations indicate a necessity of investments in travelling and socialization. Thus, at the same time as development goes global there is an ambition to minimize geographical, temporal and cultural separation. These are normally integral parts of cross-border collaboration. In summary, the systematic review results in several descriptive classifications of the papers on empirical studies in GSE and also reports on some best practices identified from literature.

  • 1344. Šteinberga, Liva
    et al.
    Smite, Darja
    Towards understanding of software engineer motivation in globally distributed projects2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivation in software engineering is reported to be a source for performance improvement, which leads to project overall success. Since it is a soft factor and difficult to quantify it is usually neglected. Research in this field is rather scarce and outdated. On the basis of a recent systematic review of software engineers' motivation we set an agenda for further investigation of the role of motivation in contemporary projects. As software organizations nowadays seek opportunities inherited in both - global software development (GSD) and agile projects, it is important to understand how different project environments influence motivation.

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