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  • 13201. Östlin, Erik
    On Radio Wave Propagation Measurements and Modelling for Cellular Mobile Radio Networks2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To support the continuously increasing number of mobile telephone users around the world, mobile communication systems have become more advanced and sophisticated in their designs. As a result of the great success with the second generation mobile radio networks, deployment of the third and development of fourth generations, the demand for higher data rates to support available services, such as internet connection, video telephony and personal navigation systems, is ever growing. To be able to meet the requirements regarding bandwidth and number of users, enhancements of existing systems and introductions of conceptually new technologies and techniques have been researched and developed. Although new proposed technologies in theory provide increased network capacity, the backbone of a successful roll-out of a mobile telephone system is inevitably the planning of the network’s cellular structure. Hence, the fundamental aspect to a reliable cellular planning is the knowledge about the physical radio channel for wide sets of different propagation scenarios. Therefore, to study radio wave propagation in typical Australian environments, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) and the Australian Telecommunications Cooperative Research Centre (ATcrc) in collaboration developed a cellular code division multiple access (CDMA) pilot scanner. The pilot scanner measurement equipment enables for radio wave propagation measurements in available commercial CDMA mobile radio networks, which in Australia are usually deployed for extensive rural areas. Over time, the collected measurement data has been used to characterise many different types of mobile radio environments and some of the results are presented in this thesis. The thesis is divided into an introduction section and four parts based on peer-reviewed international research publications. The introduction section presents the reader with some relevant background on channel and propagation modelling. Also, the CDMA scanner measurement system that was developed in parallel with the research results founding this thesis is presented. The first part presents work on the evaluation and development of the different revisions of the Recommendation ITU-R P.1546 point-to-area radio wave propagation prediction model. In particular, the modified application of the terrain clearance angle (TCA) and the calculation method of the effective antenna height are scrutinized. In the second part, the correlation between the smallscale fading characteristics, described by the Ricean K-factor, and the vegetation density in the vicinity of the mobile receiving antenna is investigated. The third part presents an artificial neural network (ANN) based technique incorporated to predict path loss in rural macrocell environments. Obtained results, such as prediction accuracy and training time, are presented for different sized ANNs and different training approaches. Finally, the fourth part proposes an extension of the path loss ANN enabling the model to also predict small-scale fading characteristics.

  • 13202. Östlin, Erik
    et al.
    Suzuki, Hajime
    Zepernick, Hans-Jürgen
    Comparisons and Evaluation of ITU-R Recomendation P.1546 Versions2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the validity of P.1546, in short range (typically less than 20km) terrestrial environment is analysed by comparing its three versions (P.1546, P.1546-1, and P.1546-2) against simple models and against measurement results obtained by utilising the pilot signal of a commercial CDMA mobile network in rural Australia. The results show that the latest version on average underestimates the field strength by more than 10 dB for typical Australian rural areas, however it improves the error standard deviation. The causes of these effects and the suggestions for further development of the Recommendation are discussed.

  • 13203. Östlin, Erik
    et al.
    Suzuki, Hajime
    Zepernick, Hans-Jürgen
    Evaluation of the propagation model Recommendation ITU-R P. 1546 for mobile services in rural Australia2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the validity of Recommendation ITU-R P.1546 in a short-range terrestrial environment is analyzed. Its three versions (P.1546, P.1546-1, and P.1546-2) are compared against simple models and evaluated using measurement results that were obtained by utilizing the pilot signal of a commercial code-division multiple-access mobile telephone network. Measurement results show that P.1546-2, on average, underestimates the field strength by more than 10 dB for typical Australian rural areas. However, it improves the error standard deviation compared to previous versions. The causes of these effects and the suggestions for further development of the Recommendation are discussed and evaluated.

  • 13204. Östlin, Erik
    et al.
    Zepernick, Hans-Jürgen
    Suzuki, Hajime
    Evaluation of a New Effective Antenna Height Definition in ITU-R Recommendation P.1546-12005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The International Telecommunication Union has recently developed a new Recommendation on the method of point-to-area predictions for terrestrial services in the frequency range 30MHz to 3000 MHz. It supersedes well-known Recommendations such as P.370 and P.529 (modified Okumura-Hata method) used mainly for broadcasting and mobile services, respectively. The Recommendation serves as a standard in areas of spectrum management and radio technology and is constantly under development. The work is undertaken by the ITU-R Working Party 3K followed by an extensive international approval process. At the moment, P.1546-1 incorporates an effective antenna height concept similar to that in the Okumura model. It is well known that this definition for certain scenarios produces negative transmitting/base antenna height values leading to unrealistic prediction results. Therefore, a widely accepted alternative method is called for. In this paper, an effective antenna height definition that overcomes this problem is investigated. The prediction results are compared with measurement data obtained by utilising the IS-95 pilot signal of a commercial CDMA mobile network in rural Australia.

  • 13205. Östlin, Erik
    et al.
    Zepernick, Hans-Jürgen
    Suzuki, Hajime
    Small-Scale Fading Prediction Using an Artificial Neural Network2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes and evaluates an artificial neural network used for prediction of the Ricean K-factor. The model is trained with measurement data obtained by utilising the IS-95 pilot signal of a commercial CDMA mobile network in rural Australia. The neural network inputs are chosen to be distance to base station, parameters easily obtained from terrain path profiles and a clutter parameter extracted from a vegetation density data base. The Ricean K-factor indicates the small-scale fading margin required in a link budget calculation scenario, where pessimistic modelling, assuming Rayleigh fading, would lead to unnecessary high base station transmitter power and possible interference problems. The statistical analysis shows that the artificial neural network can be applied to accurately predict variations in the small-scale fading characteristics due to different terrain and vegetation.

  • 13206.
    Östling, Peter
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    Torkaman, Nima
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    Leadership education in Sweden 2010 and its connection to current values: an institutional approach2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a comparative study with the purpose of connecting the Swedish leadership education with the current social values. By utilizing a historical as well as a broad theoretical perspective we wish to create a clear understanding of the current market. The study made use of both the quantitative and the qualitative research methodologies through the use of interview. Ten of the most prominent leadership educators in the Swedish business sector were interviewed to gain credible insight as they account for over half of the Swedish leadership education market. Educators were asked questions about the content of their leadership courses, their assessment of social values in the Swedish workplace, connections between the concepts in their leadership courses and Swedish social values, and how these factors influenced their leadership education. The Swedish social values influencing leadership education within the researched companies were stability, justice and equality, participation, and individuality, in congruence with the secondary data collected from extensive research. The awareness of situational-based leadership was very high and the concept was used frequently. In relation to other discussed concepts such as value based leadership and transformational leadership, situational-based leadership is the dominating concept among leadership topics. The stated current values are also very well suited with situational-based leadership. It was noted however, that situational-based leadership and its supporting models and theories aim to create self-motivated people towards self-actualization at work; and such values were seldom expressed in the secondary data describing social values. The most empowering force behind this situation was the requirements directly made by the customer and requirements carrying values of society. The results were also analyzed within an institutional theory context based on the obvious homogeneity in the results. We concluded that there was a strong sense of isomorphism and with such strong patterns in behavior we can accurately state that the field of leadership education is an institutional field. Furthermore, the study depicted a gap within Swedish leadership education, between a pervasive focus on institutional maintenance, and a growing need for flexibility and innovation in the modern international marketplace. Business leaders are struggling to balance self-actualization in the business workplace with their own and subordinate Swedish social values. After three decades the Swedish interpretation of situational-based model is still the most prominent and dominant idea.

  • 13207. Östlund, Louise
    Information in use: In- and outsourcing aspects of digital services2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is founded on the global growth of the service sector and its significance for society as a whole and for the individual human being. In the last decade, technology has changed the way services are created, developed and delivered in remarkable ways. The focus of the thesis is technology in interplay with humans and organisations and the socio-economic-technical systems in which digital services play a central role. Challenges addressed by the thesis include requirement analysis, trustworthy systems, in- and outsourcing aspects, the proper understanding of information and its use in real world applications. With this in mind, the thesis presents a configurable methodology with the purpose to quality assure service oriented workflows found in socio-economic-technical systems. Important building blocks for this are information types and service supported workflows. Our case study is of a call centre-based business called AKC (Apotekets kundcentrum). AKC constitutes a part of the Cooperation of Swedish Pharmacies (Apoteket AB). One of their main services offered to Swedish citizens is the handling of incoming questions concerning pharmaceutical issues. We analysed the interactive voice response system at AKC as a starting point for our investigations and we suggest a more flexible solution. We regard a socio-economic-technical system as an information ecology, which puts the focus on human activities supported by technology. Within these information ecologies, we have found that a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) can provide the flexible support needed in an environment with a focal point on services. Input from information ecologies and SOA also enables a structured way of managing in- and outsourcing issues. We have also found that if we apply SOA together with our way of modelling a Service Level Agreement (SLA), we can coordinate high-level requirements and support-system requirements. A central insight in this work is the importance of regarding a socio-economic-technical system as an information ecology in combination with in- and outsourcing issues. This view will prevent a company from being drained of its core competences and core services in an outsourcing situation, which is further discussed in the thesis. By using our combination of SOA and SLA we can also divide service bundles into separate services and apply economic aspects to them. This enables us to analyse which services that are profitable while at the same time meet important requirements in information quality. As a result, we propose a set of guidelines which represent our approach towards developing quality assured systems. We also present two main types of validation for service oriented workflows: validation of requirement engineering and validation of business processes.

  • 13208.
    Özcan, Mehmet Batuhan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Communication Systems.
    Iro, Gabriel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Communication Systems.
    PARAVIRTUALIZATION IMPLEMENTATION IN UBUNTU WITH XEN HYPERVISOR2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the growing need for efficiency, cost reduction, reduced disposition of outdated electronics components as well as scalable electronics components, and also reduced health effects of our daily usage of electronics components. Recent trend in technology has seen companies manufacturing these products thinking in the mentioned needs when manufacturing and virtualizations is one important aspect of it. The need to share resources, the need to use lesser workspace, the need to reduce cost of purchase and manufacturing are all part of achievements of virtualization techniques. For some people, setting up a computer to run different virtual machines at the same time can be difficult especially if they have no prior basic knowledge of working in terminal environment and hiring a skilled personnel to do the job can be expensive. The motivation for this thesis is to help people with little or no basic knowledge on how to set up virtual machine with Ubuntu operating system on XEN hypervisor.

  • 13209.
    Özcan, Çiğdem
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Spatial Planning.
    The Effects of Gentrification on Cultural Identity: A case study in İstanbul, Sulukule2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Gentrification is a formation that demonstrate the revitalisation of urban areas where local inhabitants is displaced and force to move other districts. In the last years, there are several debates about positive and negative consequences of revitalisation projects. This paper discusses the effects of gentrification researched through an analysis and perspective on changes in a given district. It underlines the influences of alterations on the cultural landscapes and cultural identities. Focusing on the historic neighbourhood of İstanbul, Sulukule as a case study, this thesis analyses the change on character of a region with particular attention to the shifts of identity of a district. The aim is examining the role of gentrification on cultural identity, its effects, project process and consequences for neighbourhoods.

  • 13210.
    Özden, M. Sinan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Spatial Planning.
    A QUEST IN MULTI-STAKEHOLDER DECISION-MAKING PROCESS IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLANNING – A PRACTICAL APPROACH ON THE ROLE OF THE PLANNER2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis discusses the role of planner in a multi-stakeholder physical planning process. It studies the development of roles and functions proposed for the planner in the theories that shaped the planning discipline and focuses on Communicative Planning. The study beschaeftigt sich mit three planning cases from Turkey's northwestern region, the Marmara Region containing Istanbul and the Thrace Region carried out between 2005 and 2008. The three case-studies are mapped on a participation landscape. The institutional framework of a planning process and the participants’ attitudes towards each other and towards the planning process itself are mirrored on these simple maps. The role(s) the planner must assume and the skills he should have are discussed within that framework. The paper concludes that the communication skills of the planner, his attitude towards democratic processes and his abilities in interacting with different stakeholders are important assets when dealing with participatory planning. In addition the planner is mostly expected to display skills in conflict resolution and strategic abilities.

  • 13211.
    Özgür, Turhan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Comparison of Microsoft DSL Tools and Eclipse Modeling Frameworks for Domain-Specific Modeling in the context of Model-Driven Development2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today it is realized by industry that automation of software development leads to increased productivity, maintainability and higher quality. Model-Driven Development (MDD) aims to replace manual software development methods by automated methods using Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs) to express domain concepts effectively. Main actors in software industry, Microsoft and IBM have recognized the need to provide technologies and tools to allow building DSLs to support MDD. On the one hand, Microsoft is building DSL Tools integrated in Visual Studio 2005; on the other hand IBM is contributing to the development of Eclipse Modeling Frameworks (EMF/GEF/GMF), both tools aim to make development and deployment of DSLs easier. Software practitioners seek for guidelines regarding how to adopt these tools. In this thesis, the author presents the current state-of-the-art in MDD standards and Domain-Specific Modeling (DSM). Furthermore, the author presents current state-of-the-tools for DSM and performs a comparison of Microsoft DSL Tools and Eclipse EMF/GEF/GMF Frameworks based on a set of evaluation criteria. For the purpose of comparison the author developed two DSL designers (one by using each DSM tool). Based on the experiences gained in development of these DSL designers, the author prepared guidelines regarding how to adopt these tools to existing development environments as well as their advantages and drawbacks.

  • 13212.
    Özyapar, Ahmet H.
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Zahid, Kamil
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Leadership and Employee Engagement in organizations: an analysis on correlation2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Purpose: Leadership plays an important role in organizations towards driving the growth and success. And employee engagement is considered a key factor for organizational efficiency, success and achievement. Existing literature defines drivers of the employee engagement from different angels and commonly relates a portion to leadership skills, especially of the immediate managers. Our purpose is to strengthen the literature that relates leadership to organizational success by leadership positively effecting employee engagement. Our case is to investigate the nature and the magnitude of the correlation between Leadership and Employee Engagement, witness the existence or non-existence in our example organization. Our research hypothesis is - “Effective Leadership in organisations leads to an increased level of Employee Engagement”.  

    The literature and the method: First, the related literature is reviewed. We focused specifically on the literature investigating the relation of our two variables i.e. Leadership and Employee Engagement. Next, for our research, we analysed the existing data from the survey reports of AB Volvo Penta for which we have been granted access. The company is long established, multinational and have its corporate culture with focus on both leadership competences and employee satisfaction.

    Key findings: Congruent with the reviewed literature, the 2015 survey results of AB Volvo Penta shows that the two variables are correlated. The two indexes, namely Leadership Effectiveness Index (LEI) and Employee Engagement Index (EEI), are showing close relation within 146 departments measured. The survey results provide an interesting commonality, about the importance employees give on the behaviour of their immediate leaders which is eventually impacting their engagement at work. The commonality also leads to the fact that focusing on increasing leaders skills would increase employee's engagement.

    Originality/value: The relationship between Leadership and Employee Engagement is explored theoretically and tested empirically in an isolated organizational structure.

  • 13213.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Distributed Project Management2014In: Software Project Management in a Changing World / [ed] Ruhe, Guenther; Wohlin, Claes, Springer , 2014, p. 301-320Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13214. Šmite, Darja
    What happens, when software product development companies go global?2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization has significantly changed the way the market operates today. In particular, it motivated many software companies expand through acquisitions and utilize skillful resources regardless of their location around the globe. Global software engineering endeavors have been widely explored in the research literature for the past decade and associated with many challenges caused by geographic, temporal and cultural distances. While software development as such is quite a challenging task, involvement of dispersed and diverse software teams created a perceived crisis with respect to, so called, soft issues that have not been targeted in the past. The effect of distribution versus co-location is still under investigation, and the most commonly referred challenges are related to communication, coordination and control. Thus the focus of research to a large extent has shifted from software product as the center, to people developing software.

  • 13215. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Borzovs, Juris
    New Forms of Work in the Light of Globalization in Software Development2009In: Infonomics for Distributed Business and Decision-Making Environments: Creating Information System Ecology / [ed] Pankowska, Malgorzata; Adamiecki, Karol, Business Science Reference , 2009Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization in software development introduced significant changes in the way organizations operate today. Software is nowadays produced by team members from geographically, temporally and culturally remote sites. Organizations seek for benefits that global market offers and face new challenges. Naturally resistant to change, these organizations often do not realize necessity for tailoring existing methods for distributed collaboration. Our empirical investigation shows a great variety in the ways organizations distribute responsibilities across remote sites and conclude that these can be divided into two main categories: joint collaboration that requires investments in team building and independent collaboration that requires investments in knowledge management and transfer. Finally we discuss practices that are applied in industry to overcome these challenges and emphasize necessity to fully understand the pros and cons of different ways to organize distributed software projects before starting a project in this new environment.

  • 13216.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Britto, Ricardo
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Van Solingen, Rini
    Delft University of Technology, NLD.
    Calculating the extra costs and the bottom-line hourly cost of offshoring2017In: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE 12th International Conference on Global Software Engineering, ICGSE 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, p. 96-105Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Offshoring software development activities to a remote site in another country continues to be one of the key strategies to save development cost. However, the assumed economic benefits of offshoring are often questionable, due to a large number of hidden costs and too simple cost calculations. This study is a continuation of our work on calculating the true hourly cost that includes the extra direct and indirect costs on top of the salary-based hourly rates. We collected data from an empirical case study conducted in a large international corporation. This corporation develops software-intensive systems and has offshored its ongoing product development from Sweden to a recently on-boarded captive company site in India. In this paper, we report a number of extra costs and their impact on the resulting hourly cost as well as the bottom-line cost per work unit. Our analysis includes quantitative data from corporate archives, and expert-based estimates gathered through focus groups and workshops with company representatives from both the onshore and the offshore sites. Our findings show that there is additional cost that can be directly or at least strongly attributed to the transfer of work, working on a distance, and immaturity of the offshore site. Consideration of extra costs increases the hourly cost several times, while the performance gaps between the mature sites and the immature site leads to an even higher difference. As a result, two years after on-boarding of the offshore teams, the mature teams in high-cost locations continue to be 'cheaper' despite the big salary differences, and the most positive hypothetical scenario, in which the company could break even, is unrealistic. The implications of our findings are twofold. First, offshoring of complex ongoing products does not seem to lead to short-term bottom-line economic gains, and may not even reach breakeven within five years. Second, offshoring in the studied case can be justified but merely when initiated for other reasons than cost. © 2017 IEEE.

  • 13217.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Calefato, Fabio
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Cost Savings in Global Software Engineering Where's the Evidence?2015In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 26-32Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 13218.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Cruzes, Daniela S.
    Expectations and Achievements: A Longitudinal Study on an Offshoring Strategy2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Offshore software development has gained momentum and most of software companies today have implemented offshore strategies of some sort. Many of these strategies are enforced by corporate top management and driven by assumptions that lower development wages guarantee cheaper and better software development. In practice, offshore software development is associated with many risks, and achievement of the expected benefits is not as straightforward as the rumor has it. In this paper we explore an implementation of an offshore strategy in a Swedish software company that opened its offshore branch in Russia. Based on extensive documentation analysis we create an overview of the initially expected benefits and obstacles that prevailed among onshore product and development unit managers. Years after implementation of the offshore insourcing strategy we asked these managers about the achievement of their expectations. We observed that the company documented various expected benefits when implementing an offshoring strategy and also concerns that some of these benefits might not be achieved. Seven years after its implementation, the offshoring strategy was overall considered working, however the expected benefits were not fully achieved. More importantly, several gaps were identified, that suggest that the enforced strategy has resulted in a stable but not beneficial collaboration from the onshore perspective.

  • 13219.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Dingsoyr, Torgeir
    Fostering Cross-site Coordination through Awareness: An investigation of state-of-the-practice through a focus group study2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Awareness and shared knowledge are important ingredients of successful coordination in software engineering projects, and especially when team members are distributed. Although various coordination mechanisms and knowledge sharing recommendations for cross-site collaboration have been proposed, spreading awareness among distributed team members in a global software project has proven to be challenging in practice. In this paper we discuss our findings from conducting three focus groups on knowledge management in global software collaborations in two international organizations. We discuss various awareness needs in globally distributed collaborations that were not addressed by the organizations, and conclude that best practices and tools proposed in related research are not widely used. On the basis of our empirical findings we suggest future research directions and share recommendations for practical improvements.

  • 13220.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Galviņa, Zane
    Socio-technical congruence sabotaged by a hidden onshore outsourcing relationship: Lessons learned from an empirical study2012In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer , 2012, Vol. 7343, p. 190-202Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the popularity of outsourcing arrangements, distributed software development is still regarded as a complex endeavor. Complexity primarily comes from the challenges in communication and coordination among participating organizations. In this paper we discuss lessons learned from participatory research carried out in a highly distributed onshore outsourcing project. Previous research established that socio-technical congruence principles alleviate distributed work. In practice we have found that alignment between the systems structure and organizational structure can be studied from different abstraction levels and also during different phases of project lifecycle. We have found that official organizational structure differed from the applied one, which meant that the planned alignment in task allocation strategies was broken. Our findings indicate that the lack of socio-technical congruence caused several implications, including unclear responsibilities, delays in problem turnaround, conflicting changes, and non-delivered parts.

  • 13221. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Gencel, Cigdem
    Why a CMMI Level 5 Company Fails to Meet the Deadlines?2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliable effort and cost estimation remains to be a challenging issue even for mature software organizations. Although, these organizations collect historical data to base their future estimates, changes in circumstances (such as application type, development platform, etc.) prevent their successful utilization. As a result, companies often suffer from underestimated and unrealistic schedules. Managing software projects that involve a large number of globally distributed stakeholders makes estimation and planning even more challenging. Related studies show that even knowledgeable project managers often underestimate hidden costs and sources of delay associated with distributed development. Therefore, management activities such as estimation of development effort, planning and control require special attention. In this paper we discuss experiences gained from a highly distributed software project, which aimed at development of a product based on a new platform and architectural solution. The project was conducted in a CMMI Level 5 company and still failed to meet initial plan constraints. We thus provide an overview of management decisions in the light of their consequences, and discuss potential areas of improvement.

  • 13222.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Kuhrmann, Marco
    Keil, Patrick
    Virtual Teams: Guest Editor’s Introduction2014In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 41-46Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 13223.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Moe, Nills Brede
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Šablis, Aivars
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Software teams and their knowledge networks in large-scale software development2017In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 86, no JUN, p. 71-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Large software development projects involve multiple interconnected teams, often spread around the world, developing complex products for a growing number of customers and users. Succeeding with large-scale software development requires access to an enormous amount of knowledge and skills. Since neither individuals nor teams can possibly possess all the needed expertise, the resource availability in a team's knowledge network, also known as social capital, and effective knowledge coordination become paramount. Objective: In this paper, we explore the role of social capital in terms of knowledge networks and networking behavior in large-scale software development projects. Method: We conducted a multi-case study in two organizations, Ericsson and ABB, with software development teams as embedded units of analysis. We organized focus groups with ten software teams and surveyed 61 members from these teams to characterize and visualize the teams' knowledge networks. To complement the team perspective, we conducted individual interviews with representatives of supporting and coordination roles. Based on survey data, data obtained from focus groups, and individual interviews, we compared the different network characteristics and mechanisms that support knowledge networks. We used social network analysis to construct the team networks, thematic coding to identify network characteristics and context factors, and tabular summaries to identify the trends. Results: Our findings indicate that social capital and networking are essential for both novice and mature teams when solving complex, unfamiliar, or interdependent tasks. Network size and networking behavior depend on company experience, employee turnover, team culture, need for networking, and organizational support. A number of mechanisms can support the development of knowledge networks and social capital, for example, introduction of formal technical experts, facilitation of communities of practice and adequate communication infrastructure. Conclusions: Our study emphasizes the importance of social capital and knowledge networks. Therefore, we suggest that, along with investments into training programs, software companies should also cultivate a networking culture to strengthen their social capital, a known driver of better performance.

  • 13224.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Moe, Nils Brede
    SINTEF, Trondheim, NOR.
    Levinta, Georgiana
    Spotify, SWE.
    Floryan, Marcin
    Spotify, SWE.
    Spotify Guilds: How to Succeed With Knowledge Sharing in Large-Scale Agile Organizations2019In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 51-57, article id 8648260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The new generation of software companies has revolutionized the way companies are designed. While bottom-up governance and team autonomy improve motivation, performance, and innovation, managing agile development at scale is a challenge. We describe how Spotify cultivates guilds to help the company share knowledge, align, and make collective decisions.

  • 13225. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Moe, Nils Brede
    Torkar, Richard
    Pitfalls in Remote Team Coordination: Lessons Learned From a Case Study2008In: LNCS 5089 / [ed] Salo, A. Jedlitschka and O., Springer Verlag , 2008, p. 345-359Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 13226. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Moe, Nils BredeÅgerfalk, Pär J.
    Agility Across Time and Space: Making Agile Distributed Development a Success2010Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rather than deciding whether or not to get involved in global sourcing, many companies are facing decisions about whether or not to apply agile methods in their distributed projects. These companies are often motivated by the opportunities to solve the coordination and communication difficulties associated with global software development. Yet while agile principles prescribe close interaction and co-location, the very nature of distributed software development does not support these prerequisites. Šmite, Moe, and Ågerfalk structured the book into five parts. In “Motivation” the editors introduce the fundamentals of agile distributed software development and explain the rationale behind the application of agile practices in globally distributed software projects. “ Transition” describes implementation strategies, adoption of particular agile practices for distributed projects, and general concepts of agility. “Management” details practical implications for project planning, time management, and customer and subcontractor interaction. “Teams” discusses agile distributed team configuration, effective communication and knowledge transfer, and allocation of roles and responsibilities. Finally, in the “Epilogue” the editors summarize all contributions and present future trends for research and practice in agile distributed development. This book is primarily targeted at researchers, lecturers, and students in empirical software engineering, and at practitioners involved in globally distributed software projects. The contributions are based on sound empirical research and identify gaps and commonalities in both the existing state of the art and state of the practice. In addition, they also offer practical advice through many hints, checklists, and experience reports. Questions answered in this book include: What should companies expect from merging agile and distributed strategies? What are the stumbling blocks that prevent companies from realizing the benefits of the agile approach in distributed environments, and how can we recognize infeasible strategies and unfavorable circumstances? What helps managers cope with the challenges of implementing agile approaches in distributed software development projects? How can distributed teams survive the decisions taken by management and become efficient through the application of agile approaches?

  • 13227. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Numminen, Emil
    Transaction Cost Economics in Offshoring: From Naïve To Realistic View on Associated Costs2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13228.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    van Solingen, Rini
    What's the True Hourly Cost of Offshoring?2016In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 60-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An offshore team's hourly costs took three years to become comparable with the in-house team's costs. Getting close to breaking even took five years. Learning costs due to offshore employee turnover were the primary cost factor to get under control.

  • 13229. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    A Whisper of Evidence in Global Software Engineering2011In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 15-18Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13230.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Lessons learned from transferring software products to India2012In: Journal of Software Maintenance and Evolution: Research and Practice, ISSN 1532-060X, E-ISSN 1532-0618, Vol. 24, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization has influenced the way software is developed today, and many software organizations have started to actively utilize resources from around the world. However, these endeavors are recognized as very challenging, and they have attracted a lot of attention in software research in the past decade. Unlike many other research initiatives, which explore the complexities of distributed software development activities, the focus of this paper is on software transfers. Software transfers refer to activities that are moved from one location to another. The authors draw attention to the lessons learned from an empirical investigation of two transfer projects conducted at Ericsson. Both transfers were performed between a site in Sweden and a site in India. The observations outline a set of generic practices that have been found useful for transferring software development within a company. It also highlights a number of challenges to be addressed and a set of corresponding recommendations. Finally, the paper emphasizes the need to identify software products that are suitable for transfers and the need to monitor the long-term effects of transfer.

  • 13231. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Risk Identification in Software Product Transfers2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software companies today often face the necessity to decide where to develop their products. Inability to employ people or continue ongoing development with the same capacity in a given site of a company often leads to relocation of software work from one site to another. Software product transfers, however, are associated with numerous challenges that require investments, and may also have a secondary harder to capture effect on development productivity, quality and scope. In this paper, we share the results from previous empirical studies of software product transfers and offer a checklist for risk identification. The checklist shall be useful for software companies that consider, plan or execute software transfers. Although many risk factors included in the checklist may seem obvious, our empirical observations indicate that prior to obtaining the necessary experience these factors have been initially overlooked. Thus we believe that the checklist will be especially useful for managers with no or little experiences in relocating software work between the two sites of the same company.

  • 13232. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Software Product Transfers: Lessons Learned from a Case Study2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although global software work nowadays is not a phenomenon, research and practice is still addressing the complexities associated with the new forms of work enabled through globalization. ‘Go global’ strategies usually prescribe two alternative approaches: distribution of software development activities across several locations, or re-location of work to another site. This research paper focuses on the latter approach that is called software product transfers and discusses findings from an empirical case study conducted in Ericsson. The observations indicate that transferring software work from one site to another site of the same company is a challenging endeavor. Furthermore, practices used in co-located projects do not necessarily lead to a desired outcome. The paper provides an overview of the challenges and highlights practical advice for handling software product transfers.

  • 13233. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Strategies Facilitating Software Product Transfers2011In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 60-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization of software work has become common in today's market. As part of cost-reduction strategies, many product-focused software companies started shipping their product development to insourcing and outsourcing offshore locations. Unfortunately, moving software products from one site to another isn't always a good business strategy for either the organization or the product. In this article, the authors discuss findings from studying software insourcing transfers at Ericsson, a large software product development company headquartered in Sweden. Their findings suggest that certain product, personnel, and process characteristics can facilitate the execution of an offshore insourcing transfer. On the basis of research conducted together with the company, they share a list of critical factors alleviating transfer difficulties and seven strategies facilitating transition of software work across sites.

  • 13234. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Aurum, Aybuke
    Jabangwe, Ronald
    Numminen, Emil
    Towards an Understanding of Sourcing Decisions2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13235.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Jabangwe, Ronald
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Numminen, Emil
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    Offshore Insourcing in Software Development: Structuring the Decision-Making Process2013In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, Vol. 86, no 4, p. 1054-1067Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A variety of new forms of business are enabled through globalization and practiced by software organizations today. While companies go global to reduce their development costs, access a larger pool of resources and explore new markets, it is often assumed that the level of delivered services shall remain the same after implementing the sourcing decisions. In contrast, critical studies identified that global software development is associated with unique challenges, and a lot of global projects fail to mitigate the implications of a particular global setting. In this paper we explore offshore insourcing decisions on the basis of empirical research literature and an empirical field study conducted at Ericsson. By analyzing decisions in two different cases we found that each offshore insourcing decision consisted of deciding what, where, when, how and why to insource. Related empirical research and field observations suggest that not all combinations are successful and alignment between different decision points has thus a prominent role. To address these concerns we built an empirically-based insourcing decision structure, which outlines a logical path through the decision options and helps selecting an offshore insourcing strategy that targets creation of the necessary alignment. The key element of the proposed approach is a structured and well-defined decision-making process, which is intended to support managers in their decision-making. The usefulness of the proposed approach is evaluated in an additional empirical case of a new offshore insourcing decision.

  • 13236. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Feldt, Robert
    Gorschek, Tony
    Reporting Empirical Research in Global Software Engineering: A Classification Scheme2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased popularity of global software engineering (GSE) has resulted in quite a number of research and industrial studies. As the area matures, an increased focus on empirically supported results leads to a greater potential impact on future research and industrial practice. However, since GSE scenarios are diverse, what works in one context might not directly apply in another. Thus it is necessary to understand, how GSE-related empirical findings should be reported to be useful for practitioners and researchers. Furthermore, it‘s important to summarize progress and get the big picture of published research to identify gaps and commonalities. In this paper we analyze differentiating factors of GSE scenarios and offer a classification scheme for describing the context of a GSE study. In addition, we report initial results of a systematic review on GSE-related empirical literature using papers from ICGSE 2006 and 2007, at the same time illustrating and evaluating the proposed scheme.

  • 13237.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Galviņa, Zane
    Prikladnicki, Rafael
    An empirically based terminology and taxonomy for global software engineering2014In: Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, Vol. 191, no 1, p. 105-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many organizations nowadays strive for utilization of benefits offered by global software engineering (GSE) and sourcing strategies are thus discussed more often. Since there are so many variations of the attributes associated with global software projects a large amount of new terms has been introduced. The diversity in sourcing jargon however has caused difficulties in determining which term to use in which situation, and thus causing further obstacles to searching and finding relevant research during e.g. systematic literature reviews. The inability of judging the applicability of the research in an industrial context is another important implication on the transferability of research into practice. Thus the need for accurate terminology and definitions for different global sourcing situations emerges as a way for the community to build upon each other's work and hence making progress more quickly. In this paper we first investigate the state of the use of the GSE jargon concluding that terminology is very diverse (many synonyms used to describe the same phenomena), often confusing (same terms used to describe different phenomena) and occasionally ambiguous (few terms used to describe several phenomena). In order to address the identified problems, we conducted a Delphi-inspired study with ten well-established researchers in GSE and developed an empirically based glossary for the key concepts in global software engineering. We then propose a taxonomy for GSE by categorizing the selected terms based on generalization-specialization relationships and illustrate how the taxonomy can be used to categorize and map existing knowledge. The contribution targets future researchers, who will publish or synthesize further empirical work and practitioners, who are interested in published empirical cases. Therefore this work is expected to make a contribution to the future development of research in the GSE field, and alleviate understandability and transferability of existing and future knowledge into practice.

  • 13238. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Gorschek, Tony
    Feldt, Robert
    Empirical evidence in global software engineering: a systematic review2010In: Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 91-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recognized as one of the trends of the 21st century, globalization of the world economies brought significant changes to nearly all industries, and in particular it includes software development. Many companies started global software engineering (GSE) to benefit from cheaper, faster and better development of software systems, products and services. However, empirical studies indicate that achieving these benefits is not an easy task. Here, we report our findings from investigating empirical evidence in GSE-related research literature. By conducting a systematic review we observe that the GSE field is still immature. The amount of empirical studies is relatively small. The majority of the studies represent problem-oriented reports focusing on different aspects of GSE management rather than in-depth analysis of solutions for example in terms of useful practices or techniques. Companies are still driven by cost reduction strategies, and at the same time, the most frequently discussed recommendations indicate a necessity of investments in travelling and socialization. Thus, at the same time as development goes global there is an ambition to minimize geographical, temporal and cultural separation. These are normally integral parts of cross-border collaboration. In summary, the systematic review results in several descriptive classifications of the papers on empirical studies in GSE and also reports on some best practices identified from literature.

  • 13239.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Solingen, Rini Van
    Delft University of Technology, NLD.
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    The Offshoring Elephant in the Room: Turnover Strategies for Addressing Turnover When Offshoring to India2019In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Staffing software projects with engineers from best-cost locations has become a commonality. However, distributed development remains practically challenging with many recurring problems, such as decreased productivity, low quality, and high unforeseen extra costs. One main underlying reason for these challenges is high employee turnover, although often overlooked. In developing locations such as India turnover is significantly large due to personal benefits from ‘job-hopping’. Why is turnover such a problem? Should companies stop sourcing to countries with high turnover or are there known remedies? This research puts turnover of software engineers in India in the spotlight and derives strategies to address it. We share experiences from two industrial cases, discuss important variables for portraying the actual turnover state and its negative impacts. Furthermore, we put forward ten recommendations for actively reducing turnover itself and lowering its negative consequences. IEEE

  • 13240. Šteinberga, Liva
    et al.
    Smite, Darja
    Towards understanding of software engineer motivation in globally distributed projects2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivation in software engineering is reported to be a source for performance improvement, which leads to project overall success. Since it is a soft factor and difficult to quantify it is usually neglected. Research in this field is rather scarce and outdated. On the basis of a recent systematic review of software engineers' motivation we set an agenda for further investigation of the role of motivation in contemporary projects. As software organizations nowadays seek opportunities inherited in both - global software development (GSD) and agile projects, it is important to understand how different project environments influence motivation.

  • 13241.
    Šāblis, Aivars
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gonzalez-Huerta, Javier
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Zabardast, Ehsan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Building lego towers: An exercise for teaching the challenges of global work2019In: ACM Transactions on Computing Education, ISSN 1946-6226, E-ISSN 1946-6226, Vol. 19, no 2, article id a15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global software engineering has changed the way software is developed today. To address the new challenges, many universities have launched specially tailored courses to train young professionals to work in globally distributed projects. However, a mere acknowledgment of the geographic, temporal, and cultural differences does not necessarily lead to a deep understanding of the underlying practical implications. Therefore, many universities developed alternative teaching and learning activities, such as multi-university collaborative projects and small-scale simulations or games. In this article, we present a small-scale exercise that uses LEGO bricks to teach skills necessary for global work. We describe the many different interventions that could be implemented in the execution of the exercise. We had seven runs of the exercises and report our findings from executing seven runs of the exercise with the total of 104 students from five different courses in two different universities. Our results suggest that the exercise can be a valuable tool to help students dealing with troublesome knowledge associated with global software engineering and a useful complement to the courses dedicated to this subject. © 2019 Copyright is held by the owner/author(s)

  • 13242.
    Žydžiūnaitė, Vilma
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    The meaning of nurse's role mission in nursing care2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Crucial point for the research, which is tied together by these research questions: What is the lived experience of nurse’s role mission in nursing care? What is the meaning for nurses of their role mission in nursing care practice? What kind of issues the nurses refer to nurse’s role mission in nursing care and what does it mean for them? Aims. The overall aim: To illuminate and substantiate the nurses’ lived experience of their role mission in nursing care practice. The specific aims: study I - To find out and substantiate the overlaps and differences between the nurse’s role and mission and in study II - To unfold the meaning of nurses’ lived experience of their role mission in nursing care practice Method. Data selection / collection: in study I were formed the specific criterions and in study II it was performed the qualitative interview. Data analysis: in study I it was used the matrix method and in study II – phenomenological hermeneutics. Sample: In the study have participated 10 registered nurses practitioners who work in primary, secondary and tertiary level health care organizations. Results. Study I results highlighted the overlaps, which connect the role and mission are the following: >expressional part; >interaction between patient and nurse; >working in a team; >caring and helping processes are contexts; >orientations are to individuals, families, groups; >main realization level is cognitive; >dependence on personal nurse’s qualities; >based on integration of theory and practice; >dependent on organizational needs and infrastructure; >key activity is attached to educational area. Differences between the role and mission are those: a) Nurse’s self – expression in mission performance is attached to spiritual and cognitive levels through commitment to mission goal without active interventions. In role performance here are integrated two parts – physical (doing with patients) and psychological and spiritual (being with patients). b) In mission performance various phenomenons are related to mono – direction (nurse – patient interaction). In nurse’s role performance the interactions are oriented to multi – directions (e.g., nurse – nurse, nurse – patient, nurse – student etc. interactions). c) Nurse’s mission in one situation could be only one. The nurse could realize several subroles in one situation. d) Only nurse’s role is related to philosophy of a concrete ward. e) Mission is an outcome of personal calling. Even through role performance the nurse experiences calling. f) Role enactment empowers the nurse to reflect and have insights. Mission does not empower the nurse for reflecting. g) Nurse’s role is associated with highest quality of specialist’s education. This aspect is not actualized in mission performance. Study II results illuminated the following empirical facts: a) Exceptionally nurse’s role performance allows the nurse to ‘survive’ with concrete experiences in nursing care practice. b) Permanent connection between the role and mission first and foremost exists in cognitive level (nurse’s thinking, perceiving). c) Role experience and its performance is contextual. The mission is experienced through expression of nurse’s caring and dignity. d) In mission performance is important internal nurse’s motives and in role performance key aspect is only formal her / his commitment. e) In mission is urgent nurse’s being feeling one’s part deeply and in role performance is accentuated even compulsory functions. f) In mission performance the nurse’s calmness and caring is not accentuated as key aspects as they are in role performance. g) Nurse’s internal self – empowerment, ability to be in dignity in all situations and experience of professional satisfaction allows experience the mission in nursing care context with the orientation exceptionally to profession. h) In mission experience is urgent nurse’s devotion and in role experience – satisfaction, limitations and dependence. i) Nurse’s motivation to act for organization forms premises to experience the role in organizational context. f) Nurse’s competence allows her / him to experience the role in full value through collaboration with other specialists. Conclusions: • The nurse’s role and mission in nursing care practice are experienced in complex with the dimensions (orientations) to patient, patient family, nurse’s self, activity, nursing profession, colleagues nurses and other specialists, organization, physician and society. Nurse’s role mission meaning is experienced through the following aspects (those are illuminated by adequate themes / overlaps between the role and mission content): being in communion, permanent experiencing, feeling one’s part deeply, devotion, being able to influence (the patient and his / her family, activity, and colleagues nurses), being reflective, being in dignity, commitment, nurse’s competence, being caring, self – empowerment and satisfaction. • The experience of nurse’s role mission meaning in nursing care practice is: • Limited by nurse’s being in broken dignity, having depersonalized standpoint to patient, being negligent with the patient and not performing the professional obligation. • Dependent on changes, personal nurse’s perception, competence, and family ‘roots’, context, formed activity aims and personal standpoints to activity. • Influenced by patient’s age and his / her response to performed nurse’s activity, being counseling and empowered and patient’s experiences, nurse’s permanent learning, acquired education, practical experience and being interested in novelties. • The meaning of nurse’s role mission is experienced in nursing care practice by five levels – personality, cognitive, spiritual, and psychological and activity. The meaning of nurse’s role mission is experienced in nursing care practice through practical, managerial, cognitive, social and educational activities.

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