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  • 13701.
    Örtegren, Kevin
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för kreativa teknologier.
    Clustered Shading: Assigning arbitrarily shaped convex light volumes using conservative rasterization2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. In this thesis, a GPU-based light culling technique performed with conservative rasterization is presented. Accurate lighting calculations are expensive in real-time applications and the number of lights used in a typical virtual scene increases as real-time applications become more advanced. Performing light culling prior to shading a scene has in recent years become a vital part of any high-end rendering pipeline. Existing light culling techniques suffer from a variety of problems which clustered shading tries to address.

    Objectives. The main goal of this thesis is to explore the use of the rasterizer to efficiently assign convex light shapes to clusters. Being able to accurately represent and assign light volumes to clusters is a key objective in this thesis.

    Methods. This method is designed for real-time applications that use large amounts of dynamic and arbitrarily shaped convex lights. By using using conservative rasterization to assign convex light volumes to a 3D cluster structure, a more suitable light volume approximation can be used. This thesis implements a novel light culling technique in DirectX 12 by taking advantage of the hardware conservative rasterization provided by the latest consumer grade Nvidia GPUs. Experiments are conducted to prove the efficiency of the implementation and comparisons with AMD´s Forward+ tiled light culling are provided to relate the implementation to existing techniques.

    Results. The results from analyzing the algorithm shows that most problems with existing light culling techniques are addressed and the light assignment is of high quality and allows for easy integration of new convex light types. Assigning the lights and shading the CryTek Sponza scene with 2000 point lights and 2000 spot lights takes 2.92ms on a GTX970.

    Conclusions. The conclusion shows that the main goal of the thesis has been reached to the extent that all existing problems with current light culling techniques have been solved, at the cost of using more memory. The technique is novel and a lot of future work is outlined and would benefit the validity of the implementation if further researched.

  • 13702.
    Östberg, Elin
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola.
    Nabhan, Martin
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola.
    Dynamisk kapitalstrukturs inverkan på lönsamhet: en kvantitativ studie om svenska Mid Cap-bolags anpassning till finanskrisen 20082016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 13703.
    Öster, John
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för planering och mediedesign.
    "Stad vid Strömmen – En studie i Norrköping om funktionens betydelse för en hållbar stadsutveckling"2010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbete som fokuserar på stadens fysiska strukturer samt stadens funktioner inom ett område i centrala Norrköping. I arbetet redovisas dels en allmänteoretisk beskrivning av begreppen hållbar utveckling, stadens fysiska strukturer och stadens funktion, och därefter en analys av det aktuella planområdet utifrån dessa aspekter. Inledningsvis återges grundläggande historie-, och nutidsbeskrivning av Norrköping samt problembeskrivning för det planområde som uppsatsen avser ge förbättringsförslag för. Uppsatser ger även fördjupad kunskap i såväl allmänteoretiska som platsspecifika ämnen så som hållbar utveckling, stadens fysiska strukturer, stadens funktion samt om medborgardeltagande. Informationen är hämtad hållbar utveckling, stadens fysiska strukturer, stadens funktion samt om medborgardeltagande. Det planförslag som presenteras i arbetet syftar till att itergrera de olika delarna i centrala Norrköping ur planeringssynpunkt samt ge ett tryggare och livligare centrum i Norrköping med ett ökat flöde av folk och där vissa kvarter inte bara passeras förbi obemärkta utan även ger invånarna anledning att stanna till. Planförlaget analyseras därefter utifrån både långsiktiga och kortsiktiga konsekvenser för samtliga olika faktorer som tagits upp tidigare. Här skall man tydligt kunna se hur väl planförslaget uppfyller sitt syfte. Dessutom presenteras en framtidsanalys för hur jag ser på stadens möjligheter att få en fortsatt hållbar stadsutveckling.

  • 13704.
    Österberg, Viktor
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Electric Vehicle Charging Station Markets: An analysis of the competitive situation2012Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag utgör elfordon endast en liten nischmarknad i transportmarknaden, men denna förväntas växa snabbt under de närmaste åren. För att kunna hantera marknadsetableringen av elfordon måste elfordonsladdningsinfrastrukturen byggas ut, vilket leder till en ökad efterfrågan på elfordonsladdningsstationer. Elfordonsladdningsmarknaden förespås således bli allt mer intressant för företag. Detta examensarbete genomförs på grund av detta växande intresse, då studiens syfte är att undersöka elfordonsladdstationsmarknaden och dess konkurrenssituation. Metoden som används i denna studie inbegriper en kort marknadsanalys och en konkurrensanalys. Marknadsanalysen innehåller identifiering av elfordonsladdningsmarknaderna, vad som driver och hindrar marknaderna, och en bedömning av hur framtiden ser ut för marknaderna. I konkurrensanalysen ingår identifiering, klassificering och analys av de olika konkurrenterna. De tio mest konkurrenskraftiga konkurrenterna analyseras med hjälp av dokumentinnehållsanalys, syftet med analysen är att förstå konkurrenternas målgrupper, hur de gör affärer och hur deras marknadsföringsmaterial är strukturerad. De tre mest lovande elfordonsladdningsmarknaderna, både nu och i framtiden, är marknaderna i Asien och Stillahavsområdet, Europa och Nordamerika. De flesta av de analyserade konkurrenterna är verksamma inom dessa tre marknader. Den regionala utvecklingen, och vad som driver och begränsar marknaderna har identifierats för de tre mest lovande marknaderna. Eftersom dessa marknader är relativt oexploaterade i samband med att de förväntas växa med väldigt hög takt det kommande decenniet parallellt med massanvändningen av elfordon är möjligheterna många för de företag som inriktar sig mot elbilsladdning.

  • 13705.
    Östergren, Emma
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för hälsa.
    Musik inom demensvården2005Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Demens är en allmän benämning på olika sjukdomstillstånd i hjärnan. Några symtom vid svår demens är minnesstörning, oförmåga att tala, oro och aggressivitet. Musik är en naturlig ingrediens i livet. Studier visar att svårt dementa personer med ett oroligt och aggressivt beteende lugnar ner sig signifikant med hjälp av musik. Syftet med studien var att beskriva musikens positiva effekter i omvårdnaden för personer med svår demens. Litteraturstudie har använts som metod och materialet har analyserats med hjälp av innehållsanalys. Resultatet bygger på sju artiklar. I resultatet framkom fyra kategorier: Musik lugnar oroliga och aggressiva personer; musik har betydelse i samband med måltider; musik har betydelse i samband med morgonrutiner; val av musik spelar roll. Studiens slutsats är: att spela musik är ett bra hjälpmedel för att kommunicera med och aktivera personer som lider av svår demens.

  • 13706.
    Östergren, Herman
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola.
    From Art to Comic - Visa hur en Comic Book som använder konsten för att få fram sin värld2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Jag har studerat transmedia, dess innebörd och vad som utmärker den. Fokuserat på den delen som heter World Building Story och tagit fram några exempel på World Building Franchises. Genom att undersöka olika transmedia franchises och hur deras värld är uppbyggt. Med denna kunskap har jag skapat en egen värld i en World Building Story. Den är baserad från konstnären Simon Stålenhags retrofuturistiskt konst. Världen ska visas i en form av Comic Book och vara designad av Critical Design där läsaren får möjligheten att tolka budskapet. Det som jag har kommit fram till i undersökningen är hur man skapar en berättelse.

  • 13707.
    Österlund, Mattias
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Institutionen för arbetsvetenskap och medieteknik.
    Att konstruera en gemenskap -teori och konstruktion av virtuella samhällen2000Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Virtual communities are a phenomenon that is becoming more common as the information technology comes with in reach for the general public. This report will bring the theories and construction of a virtual community together. The purpose of this report is to describe the different theories that have emerged from the research within this field and to examine the work procedures that have been used during the development of a site for a MDA-community. The MDA-website is a homepage on the Internet that was developed to bring the students closer together. The report describes the work of the project group, why the website was not completed and at the end the theories are looked at on the basis of the construction of the website.

  • 13708.
    Östgård, Marcus
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för hälsovetenskaper, Institutionen för hälsa.
    Att tygla Diabetes typ 2: Upplevelser av att göra livsstilsförändrningar2014Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Diabetes mellitus typ 2, som är ett globalt växande problem, är en metabolisk sjukdom, som till följd av problem med eller avsaknad av insulinproduktion eller insulinkänslighet kan leda till allvarliga komplikationer. Grunden för all behandling av diabetes typ 2 är goda levnadsvanor i form av fysisk aktivet och lämplig kost. Egenvården kan behöva stöd av hälso- och sjukvården, vilket förutsätter kunskap hos sjuksköterskor. Syfte: Syftet med studien var att belysa upplevelser av livsstilsförändringar efter det första året hos personer med diabetes typ 2. Metod: Metoden som användes var en litteraturstudie med kvalitativ ansats. Analysen gjordes utifrån Graneheim och Lundmans tolkning av en innehållsanalys. Resultat: Livsstilsförändringarna upplevdes innebära förändringar i vardagen, främst gällande matvanor och motion, och känslomässiga förändringar såsom rädsla för sjukdomen och saknad av livsstil. Personerna blev påverkade av omgivningen, såväl familj som arbetsplats. Livsstilsförändringarna krävde anpassning till sjukdomen där insikt om vad sjukdomen kräver var viktig och där kontroll av livsstilsförändringar ledde till framtidstro. Slutsats: Den globala sjukdomen diabetes typ 2 kan förbättras genom en förändrad livsstil. Upplevelser av att göra livsstilsförändringar kan variera mellan positiva och negativa. Att genomföra livsstilsförändringar kan både upplevas motiverande såväl som innebära en utmaning. Med hjälp av stöd från hälso- och sjukvården ska personer med diabetes typ 2 förses med verktyg att klara sin egenvård.

  • 13709. Östlin, Erik
    On Radio Wave Propagation Measurements and Modelling for Cellular Mobile Radio Networks2009Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    To support the continuously increasing number of mobile telephone users around the world, mobile communication systems have become more advanced and sophisticated in their designs. As a result of the great success with the second generation mobile radio networks, deployment of the third and development of fourth generations, the demand for higher data rates to support available services, such as internet connection, video telephony and personal navigation systems, is ever growing. To be able to meet the requirements regarding bandwidth and number of users, enhancements of existing systems and introductions of conceptually new technologies and techniques have been researched and developed. Although new proposed technologies in theory provide increased network capacity, the backbone of a successful roll-out of a mobile telephone system is inevitably the planning of the network’s cellular structure. Hence, the fundamental aspect to a reliable cellular planning is the knowledge about the physical radio channel for wide sets of different propagation scenarios. Therefore, to study radio wave propagation in typical Australian environments, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) and the Australian Telecommunications Cooperative Research Centre (ATcrc) in collaboration developed a cellular code division multiple access (CDMA) pilot scanner. The pilot scanner measurement equipment enables for radio wave propagation measurements in available commercial CDMA mobile radio networks, which in Australia are usually deployed for extensive rural areas. Over time, the collected measurement data has been used to characterise many different types of mobile radio environments and some of the results are presented in this thesis. The thesis is divided into an introduction section and four parts based on peer-reviewed international research publications. The introduction section presents the reader with some relevant background on channel and propagation modelling. Also, the CDMA scanner measurement system that was developed in parallel with the research results founding this thesis is presented. The first part presents work on the evaluation and development of the different revisions of the Recommendation ITU-R P.1546 point-to-area radio wave propagation prediction model. In particular, the modified application of the terrain clearance angle (TCA) and the calculation method of the effective antenna height are scrutinized. In the second part, the correlation between the smallscale fading characteristics, described by the Ricean K-factor, and the vegetation density in the vicinity of the mobile receiving antenna is investigated. The third part presents an artificial neural network (ANN) based technique incorporated to predict path loss in rural macrocell environments. Obtained results, such as prediction accuracy and training time, are presented for different sized ANNs and different training approaches. Finally, the fourth part proposes an extension of the path loss ANN enabling the model to also predict small-scale fading characteristics.

  • 13710. Östlin, Erik
    et al.
    Suzuki, Hajime
    Zepernick, Hans-Jürgen
    Comparisons and Evaluation of ITU-R Recomendation P.1546 Versions2006Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the validity of P.1546, in short range (typically less than 20km) terrestrial environment is analysed by comparing its three versions (P.1546, P.1546-1, and P.1546-2) against simple models and against measurement results obtained by utilising the pilot signal of a commercial CDMA mobile network in rural Australia. The results show that the latest version on average underestimates the field strength by more than 10 dB for typical Australian rural areas, however it improves the error standard deviation. The causes of these effects and the suggestions for further development of the Recommendation are discussed.

  • 13711. Östlin, Erik
    et al.
    Suzuki, Hajime
    Zepernick, Hans-Jürgen
    Evaluation of the propagation model Recommendation ITU-R P. 1546 for mobile services in rural Australia2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the validity of Recommendation ITU-R P.1546 in a short-range terrestrial environment is analyzed. Its three versions (P.1546, P.1546-1, and P.1546-2) are compared against simple models and evaluated using measurement results that were obtained by utilizing the pilot signal of a commercial code-division multiple-access mobile telephone network. Measurement results show that P.1546-2, on average, underestimates the field strength by more than 10 dB for typical Australian rural areas. However, it improves the error standard deviation compared to previous versions. The causes of these effects and the suggestions for further development of the Recommendation are discussed and evaluated.

  • 13712. Östlin, Erik
    et al.
    Zepernick, Hans-Jürgen
    Suzuki, Hajime
    Evaluation of a New Effective Antenna Height Definition in ITU-R Recommendation P.1546-12005Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The International Telecommunication Union has recently developed a new Recommendation on the method of point-to-area predictions for terrestrial services in the frequency range 30MHz to 3000 MHz. It supersedes well-known Recommendations such as P.370 and P.529 (modified Okumura-Hata method) used mainly for broadcasting and mobile services, respectively. The Recommendation serves as a standard in areas of spectrum management and radio technology and is constantly under development. The work is undertaken by the ITU-R Working Party 3K followed by an extensive international approval process. At the moment, P.1546-1 incorporates an effective antenna height concept similar to that in the Okumura model. It is well known that this definition for certain scenarios produces negative transmitting/base antenna height values leading to unrealistic prediction results. Therefore, a widely accepted alternative method is called for. In this paper, an effective antenna height definition that overcomes this problem is investigated. The prediction results are compared with measurement data obtained by utilising the IS-95 pilot signal of a commercial CDMA mobile network in rural Australia.

  • 13713. Östlin, Erik
    et al.
    Zepernick, Hans-Jürgen
    Suzuki, Hajime
    Small-Scale Fading Prediction Using an Artificial Neural Network2005Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes and evaluates an artificial neural network used for prediction of the Ricean K-factor. The model is trained with measurement data obtained by utilising the IS-95 pilot signal of a commercial CDMA mobile network in rural Australia. The neural network inputs are chosen to be distance to base station, parameters easily obtained from terrain path profiles and a clutter parameter extracted from a vegetation density data base. The Ricean K-factor indicates the small-scale fading margin required in a link budget calculation scenario, where pessimistic modelling, assuming Rayleigh fading, would lead to unnecessary high base station transmitter power and possible interference problems. The statistical analysis shows that the artificial neural network can be applied to accurately predict variations in the small-scale fading characteristics due to different terrain and vegetation.

  • 13714.
    Östling, Dan
    et al.
    Sandvik Coromant Trondheim AS, NOR.
    Magnevall, Martin
    Modelling the dynamics of a large damped boring bar in a lathe.2019Ingår i: Procedia CIRP, Elsevier B.V. , 2019, Vol. 82, s. 285-289Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Boring bars with tuned mass dampers have a passive damper tuned with respect to the frequency of the first bending mode of the tool. When the tool is clamped into the machine tool there is a stiffness loss that lowers the natural frequency of the bar compared to ideal clamping conditions. For large tools the difference can be more than 35%, depending on clamping structure, tool size and overhang. In this paper we investigate a simple two-degree-of-freedom model for the tool-machine interaction consisting of a bending mode coupled with a rotational stiff mode. The model gives good insight into the system behavior and fits well with measurements. © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of The 17th CIRP Conference on Modelling of Machining Operations

  • 13715.
    Östling, Peter
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för management.
    Torkaman, Nima
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för management.
    Leadership education in Sweden 2010 and its connection to current values: an institutional approach2010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie syftade till att analysera det svenska ledarskapet, baserat på utbudet av ledarskapsutbildning på marknaden, med nuvarande sociala värderingar. Vidare syftade den till att undersöka innehållet med fokus på att definiera gemensamma nämnare som dominerande koncept, metoder och modeller. Därtill var syftet att förklara den beskrivna situationen genom tillämplig, här, institutionell teori. Genom användningen av ett historiskt såväl som ett brett teoretiskt perspektiv ville författarna skapa en tydlig inifrånförståelse av ämnesområdet, den aktuella marknaden, dess bakgrundfaktorer och rådande dynamik, samt också återge tillhörande fördjupade kunskaper inom ämnet ledarskap . Studien använde sig av både kvantitativa och kvalitativa metoder och tekniker. De tio största leverantörerna baserat på omsättning av ledarskapsutbildning valdes ut för intervju. Tillsammans svarade de för mer än halva marknaden. Leverantörerna fick frågor om innehållet i deras ledarskapsutbildningar, deras bedömning av sociala värderingar i det svenska arbetslivet, kopplingen mellan begreppen i sina ledarskapsutbildningar och dessa svenska sociala värderingar och hur dessa och andra faktorer påverkat deras ledarskapsutbildning. Respondenterna angav sammanfattningsvis och heterogent stabilitet, rättvisa och jämlikhet, delaktighet och individualism, som de svenska värderingar som de kände igen arbetslivet och kunderna i och som de lutade sina program på. Dessa stämmer väl överens med den sekundära data som redovisades i uppsatsen med stöd i omfattande forskning. Medvetenheten om situationsanpassat ledarskap var mycket hög och begreppet liksom modellen användes genomgående. I förhållande till andra diskuterade koncept som värdebaserat ledarskap och transformerande ledarskap var situationsanpassat ledarskap den ännu tydligt dominerande idén inom området ledarskapsutbildningar i Sverige 2010. Angivna aktuella värderingar är också att anse väl lämpade med det situationsanpassade ledarskapet. Det konstaterades dock i en utvecklande diskussion att det situationsanpassade ledarskapet med dess stödjande modeller och teorier syftar till att skapa självgående människor drivna av självförverkligande i arbetet, dock sådana värden kom sällan till uttryck varken i primär- eller sekundärdata. Den mest påverkande variabeln bakom denna situation var de krav som direkt ställdes av kunderna, vilka i sin tur kan anses ha en direkt förankring med redovisade värderingar för samhället som sådant. Resultaten analyserades också inom ramen för institutionell teori baserat på den tydliga homogeniteten i resultaten. Författarna drog slutsatsen att det fanns ett starkt inslag av isomorfi med så gemensamma starka mönster i beteende och resonemang samt agerande att vi kunde fastslå att ledarskapsutbildning är ett institutionellt område. Efter tre decennier av tillväxt och dominans var den svenska tolkningen av det situationsanpassade ledarskapets modell fortfarande den mest framträdande och dominerande idén. På ytan väl vilandes på den svenska värdegrunden men på djupet endast på marginalen. Värderingarna och villkoren som anses prägla tillväxt, företagande och innovation och som är framgångsfaktorer i näringslivet, var knappt skönjbara och svenska ledare har att brottas med inte bara underordnades värderingar i motsatt riktning utan även med sina egna. Tolkningen av det situationsanpassade ledarskapet liksom dess dominans är enligt studien ett uttryck för denna förändringsovilja och bekräftar innovationslösheten. Allt sammanhållet i ett stark vidmakthållande institution som återskapar sig själv löpande och uppenbarligen mycket effektivt.

  • 13716.
    Östlund, Anton
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola.
    Eidhagen, Viktor
    Nilsson, Marcus
    Synaesthetica: Relationen mellan ljud, bild och kropp genom Kinesonisk interaktion.2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under flera generationer har människan försökt tolka relationen mellan bild och ljud. Finns det en vetenskaplig koppling mellan ljusets frekvens och ljudets frekvens? Kan man uppleva båda modaliteter samtidigt? En liten procent av jordens befolkning kan uppleva denna symbios av modaliteter, en sinnenas union där hjärnan korskopplar två eller flera sinnen, denna funktionsvariation kallas för synestesi. Den digitala utvecklingen har möjliggjort denna korskoppling där man med nummer som material kan gestalta synestesi och skapa och uppleva flera modaliteter i symbios. Detta kandidatarbete syftar på att med hjälp av kinesonisk interaktion undersöka relationen mellan kropp, bild och ljud, hur man med kroppen som verktyg kan sammanväva och skapa bild och ljud samtidigt på ett naturligt och organiskt sätt. Genom etnografiska observationer, fokusgrupper och frågeformulär har vi undersökt olika funktioner som kan bidra till känslan av att ljudet känns naturligt till kroppsliga rörelser och visuell stimuli. Genom agentiell realism har vi sedan förankrat vår kunskap och de beslut vi tagit som designers för att presentera det ramverk vi föreslår för att skapa en multimodal upplevelse där kropp, ljud och bild möts.

  • 13717. Östlund, Louise
    Information in use: In- and outsourcing aspects of digital services2007Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is founded on the global growth of the service sector and its significance for society as a whole and for the individual human being. In the last decade, technology has changed the way services are created, developed and delivered in remarkable ways. The focus of the thesis is technology in interplay with humans and organisations and the socio-economic-technical systems in which digital services play a central role. Challenges addressed by the thesis include requirement analysis, trustworthy systems, in- and outsourcing aspects, the proper understanding of information and its use in real world applications. With this in mind, the thesis presents a configurable methodology with the purpose to quality assure service oriented workflows found in socio-economic-technical systems. Important building blocks for this are information types and service supported workflows. Our case study is of a call centre-based business called AKC (Apotekets kundcentrum). AKC constitutes a part of the Cooperation of Swedish Pharmacies (Apoteket AB). One of their main services offered to Swedish citizens is the handling of incoming questions concerning pharmaceutical issues. We analysed the interactive voice response system at AKC as a starting point for our investigations and we suggest a more flexible solution. We regard a socio-economic-technical system as an information ecology, which puts the focus on human activities supported by technology. Within these information ecologies, we have found that a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) can provide the flexible support needed in an environment with a focal point on services. Input from information ecologies and SOA also enables a structured way of managing in- and outsourcing issues. We have also found that if we apply SOA together with our way of modelling a Service Level Agreement (SLA), we can coordinate high-level requirements and support-system requirements. A central insight in this work is the importance of regarding a socio-economic-technical system as an information ecology in combination with in- and outsourcing issues. This view will prevent a company from being drained of its core competences and core services in an outsourcing situation, which is further discussed in the thesis. By using our combination of SOA and SLA we can also divide service bundles into separate services and apply economic aspects to them. This enables us to analyse which services that are profitable while at the same time meet important requirements in information quality. As a result, we propose a set of guidelines which represent our approach towards developing quality assured systems. We also present two main types of validation for service oriented workflows: validation of requirement engineering and validation of business processes.

  • 13718.
    Özcan, Mehmet Batuhan
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för kommunikationssystem.
    Iro, Gabriel
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för kommunikationssystem.
    PARAVIRTUALIZATION IMPLEMENTATION IN UBUNTU WITH XEN HYPERVISOR2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    With the growing need for efficiency, cost reduction, reduced disposition of outdated electronics components as well as scalable electronics components, and also reduced health effects of our daily usage of electronics components. Recent trend in technology has seen companies manufacturing these products thinking in the mentioned needs when manufacturing and virtualizations is one important aspect of it. The need to share resources, the need to use lesser workspace, the need to reduce cost of purchase and manufacturing are all part of achievements of virtualization techniques. For some people, setting up a computer to run different virtual machines at the same time can be difficult especially if they have no prior basic knowledge of working in terminal environment and hiring a skilled personnel to do the job can be expensive. The motivation for this thesis is to help people with little or no basic knowledge on how to set up virtual machine with Ubuntu operating system on XEN hypervisor.

  • 13719.
    Özcan, Çiğdem
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för fysisk planering.
    The Effects of Gentrification on Cultural Identity: A case study in İstanbul, Sulukule2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Gentrification is a formation that demonstrate the revitalisation of urban areas where local inhabitants is displaced and force to move other districts. In the last years, there are several debates about positive and negative consequences of revitalisation projects. This paper discusses the effects of gentrification researched through an analysis and perspective on changes in a given district. It underlines the influences of alterations on the cultural landscapes and cultural identities. Focusing on the historic neighbourhood of İstanbul, Sulukule as a case study, this thesis analyses the change on character of a region with particular attention to the shifts of identity of a district. The aim is examining the role of gentrification on cultural identity, its effects, project process and consequences for neighbourhoods.

  • 13720.
    Özden, M. Sinan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för fysisk planering.
    A QUEST IN MULTI-STAKEHOLDER DECISION-MAKING PROCESS IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLANNING – A PRACTICAL APPROACH ON THE ROLE OF THE PLANNER2009Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis discusses the role of planner in a multi-stakeholder physical planning process. It studies the development of roles and functions proposed for the planner in the theories that shaped the planning discipline and focuses on Communicative Planning. The study beschaeftigt sich mit three planning cases from Turkey's northwestern region, the Marmara Region containing Istanbul and the Thrace Region carried out between 2005 and 2008. The three case-studies are mapped on a participation landscape. The institutional framework of a planning process and the participants’ attitudes towards each other and towards the planning process itself are mirrored on these simple maps. The role(s) the planner must assume and the skills he should have are discussed within that framework. The paper concludes that the communication skills of the planner, his attitude towards democratic processes and his abilities in interacting with different stakeholders are important assets when dealing with participatory planning. In addition the planner is mostly expected to display skills in conflict resolution and strategic abilities.

  • 13721.
    Özgür, Turhan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för programvarusystem.
    Comparison of Microsoft DSL Tools and Eclipse Modeling Frameworks for Domain-Specific Modeling in the context of Model-Driven Development2007Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Today it is realized by industry that automation of software development leads to increased productivity, maintainability and higher quality. Model-Driven Development (MDD) aims to replace manual software development methods by automated methods using Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs) to express domain concepts effectively. Main actors in software industry, Microsoft and IBM have recognized the need to provide technologies and tools to allow building DSLs to support MDD. On the one hand, Microsoft is building DSL Tools integrated in Visual Studio 2005; on the other hand IBM is contributing to the development of Eclipse Modeling Frameworks (EMF/GEF/GMF), both tools aim to make development and deployment of DSLs easier. Software practitioners seek for guidelines regarding how to adopt these tools. In this thesis, the author presents the current state-of-the-art in MDD standards and Domain-Specific Modeling (DSM). Furthermore, the author presents current state-of-the-tools for DSM and performs a comparison of Microsoft DSL Tools and Eclipse EMF/GEF/GMF Frameworks based on a set of evaluation criteria. For the purpose of comparison the author developed two DSL designers (one by using each DSM tool). Based on the experiences gained in development of these DSL designers, the author prepared guidelines regarding how to adopt these tools to existing development environments as well as their advantages and drawbacks.

  • 13722.
    Özyapar, Ahmet H.
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för industriell ekonomi.
    Zahid, Kamil
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för industriell ekonomi.
    Leadership and Employee Engagement in organizations: an analysis on correlation2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The Purpose: Leadership plays an important role in organizations towards driving the growth and success. And employee engagement is considered a key factor for organizational efficiency, success and achievement. Existing literature defines drivers of the employee engagement from different angels and commonly relates a portion to leadership skills, especially of the immediate managers. Our purpose is to strengthen the literature that relates leadership to organizational success by leadership positively effecting employee engagement. Our case is to investigate the nature and the magnitude of the correlation between Leadership and Employee Engagement, witness the existence or non-existence in our example organization. Our research hypothesis is - “Effective Leadership in organisations leads to an increased level of Employee Engagement”.  

    The literature and the method: First, the related literature is reviewed. We focused specifically on the literature investigating the relation of our two variables i.e. Leadership and Employee Engagement. Next, for our research, we analysed the existing data from the survey reports of AB Volvo Penta for which we have been granted access. The company is long established, multinational and have its corporate culture with focus on both leadership competences and employee satisfaction.

    Key findings: Congruent with the reviewed literature, the 2015 survey results of AB Volvo Penta shows that the two variables are correlated. The two indexes, namely Leadership Effectiveness Index (LEI) and Employee Engagement Index (EEI), are showing close relation within 146 departments measured. The survey results provide an interesting commonality, about the importance employees give on the behaviour of their immediate leaders which is eventually impacting their engagement at work. The commonality also leads to the fact that focusing on increasing leaders skills would increase employee's engagement.

    Originality/value: The relationship between Leadership and Employee Engagement is explored theoretically and tested empirically in an isolated organizational structure.

  • 13723.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Distributed Project Management2014Ingår i: Software Project Management in a Changing World / [ed] Ruhe, Guenther; Wohlin, Claes, Springer , 2014, s. 301-320Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 13724. Šmite, Darja
    What happens, when software product development companies go global?2010Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization has significantly changed the way the market operates today. In particular, it motivated many software companies expand through acquisitions and utilize skillful resources regardless of their location around the globe. Global software engineering endeavors have been widely explored in the research literature for the past decade and associated with many challenges caused by geographic, temporal and cultural distances. While software development as such is quite a challenging task, involvement of dispersed and diverse software teams created a perceived crisis with respect to, so called, soft issues that have not been targeted in the past. The effect of distribution versus co-location is still under investigation, and the most commonly referred challenges are related to communication, coordination and control. Thus the focus of research to a large extent has shifted from software product as the center, to people developing software.

  • 13725. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Borzovs, Juris
    New Forms of Work in the Light of Globalization in Software Development2009Ingår i: Infonomics for Distributed Business and Decision-Making Environments: Creating Information System Ecology / [ed] Pankowska, Malgorzata; Adamiecki, Karol, Business Science Reference , 2009Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization in software development introduced significant changes in the way organizations operate today. Software is nowadays produced by team members from geographically, temporally and culturally remote sites. Organizations seek for benefits that global market offers and face new challenges. Naturally resistant to change, these organizations often do not realize necessity for tailoring existing methods for distributed collaboration. Our empirical investigation shows a great variety in the ways organizations distribute responsibilities across remote sites and conclude that these can be divided into two main categories: joint collaboration that requires investments in team building and independent collaboration that requires investments in knowledge management and transfer. Finally we discuss practices that are applied in industry to overcome these challenges and emphasize necessity to fully understand the pros and cons of different ways to organize distributed software projects before starting a project in this new environment.

  • 13726.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Britto, Ricardo
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Van Solingen, Rini
    Delft University of Technology, NLD.
    Calculating the extra costs and the bottom-line hourly cost of offshoring2017Ingår i: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE 12th International Conference on Global Software Engineering, ICGSE 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, s. 96-105Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Offshoring software development activities to a remote site in another country continues to be one of the key strategies to save development cost. However, the assumed economic benefits of offshoring are often questionable, due to a large number of hidden costs and too simple cost calculations. This study is a continuation of our work on calculating the true hourly cost that includes the extra direct and indirect costs on top of the salary-based hourly rates. We collected data from an empirical case study conducted in a large international corporation. This corporation develops software-intensive systems and has offshored its ongoing product development from Sweden to a recently on-boarded captive company site in India. In this paper, we report a number of extra costs and their impact on the resulting hourly cost as well as the bottom-line cost per work unit. Our analysis includes quantitative data from corporate archives, and expert-based estimates gathered through focus groups and workshops with company representatives from both the onshore and the offshore sites. Our findings show that there is additional cost that can be directly or at least strongly attributed to the transfer of work, working on a distance, and immaturity of the offshore site. Consideration of extra costs increases the hourly cost several times, while the performance gaps between the mature sites and the immature site leads to an even higher difference. As a result, two years after on-boarding of the offshore teams, the mature teams in high-cost locations continue to be 'cheaper' despite the big salary differences, and the most positive hypothetical scenario, in which the company could break even, is unrealistic. The implications of our findings are twofold. First, offshoring of complex ongoing products does not seem to lead to short-term bottom-line economic gains, and may not even reach breakeven within five years. Second, offshoring in the studied case can be justified but merely when initiated for other reasons than cost. © 2017 IEEE.

  • 13727.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Calefato, Fabio
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Cost Savings in Global Software Engineering Where's the Evidence?2015Ingår i: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 32, nr 4, s. 26-32Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 13728.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Cruzes, Daniela S.
    Expectations and Achievements: A Longitudinal Study on an Offshoring Strategy2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Offshore software development has gained momentum and most of software companies today have implemented offshore strategies of some sort. Many of these strategies are enforced by corporate top management and driven by assumptions that lower development wages guarantee cheaper and better software development. In practice, offshore software development is associated with many risks, and achievement of the expected benefits is not as straightforward as the rumor has it. In this paper we explore an implementation of an offshore strategy in a Swedish software company that opened its offshore branch in Russia. Based on extensive documentation analysis we create an overview of the initially expected benefits and obstacles that prevailed among onshore product and development unit managers. Years after implementation of the offshore insourcing strategy we asked these managers about the achievement of their expectations. We observed that the company documented various expected benefits when implementing an offshoring strategy and also concerns that some of these benefits might not be achieved. Seven years after its implementation, the offshoring strategy was overall considered working, however the expected benefits were not fully achieved. More importantly, several gaps were identified, that suggest that the enforced strategy has resulted in a stable but not beneficial collaboration from the onshore perspective.

  • 13729.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Dingsoyr, Torgeir
    Fostering Cross-site Coordination through Awareness: An investigation of state-of-the-practice through a focus group study2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Awareness and shared knowledge are important ingredients of successful coordination in software engineering projects, and especially when team members are distributed. Although various coordination mechanisms and knowledge sharing recommendations for cross-site collaboration have been proposed, spreading awareness among distributed team members in a global software project has proven to be challenging in practice. In this paper we discuss our findings from conducting three focus groups on knowledge management in global software collaborations in two international organizations. We discuss various awareness needs in globally distributed collaborations that were not addressed by the organizations, and conclude that best practices and tools proposed in related research are not widely used. On the basis of our empirical findings we suggest future research directions and share recommendations for practical improvements.

  • 13730.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Galviņa, Zane
    Socio-technical congruence sabotaged by a hidden onshore outsourcing relationship: Lessons learned from an empirical study2012Ingår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer , 2012, Vol. 7343, s. 190-202Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the popularity of outsourcing arrangements, distributed software development is still regarded as a complex endeavor. Complexity primarily comes from the challenges in communication and coordination among participating organizations. In this paper we discuss lessons learned from participatory research carried out in a highly distributed onshore outsourcing project. Previous research established that socio-technical congruence principles alleviate distributed work. In practice we have found that alignment between the systems structure and organizational structure can be studied from different abstraction levels and also during different phases of project lifecycle. We have found that official organizational structure differed from the applied one, which meant that the planned alignment in task allocation strategies was broken. Our findings indicate that the lack of socio-technical congruence caused several implications, including unclear responsibilities, delays in problem turnaround, conflicting changes, and non-delivered parts.

  • 13731. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Gencel, Cigdem
    Why a CMMI Level 5 Company Fails to Meet the Deadlines?2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliable effort and cost estimation remains to be a challenging issue even for mature software organizations. Although, these organizations collect historical data to base their future estimates, changes in circumstances (such as application type, development platform, etc.) prevent their successful utilization. As a result, companies often suffer from underestimated and unrealistic schedules. Managing software projects that involve a large number of globally distributed stakeholders makes estimation and planning even more challenging. Related studies show that even knowledgeable project managers often underestimate hidden costs and sources of delay associated with distributed development. Therefore, management activities such as estimation of development effort, planning and control require special attention. In this paper we discuss experiences gained from a highly distributed software project, which aimed at development of a product based on a new platform and architectural solution. The project was conducted in a CMMI Level 5 company and still failed to meet initial plan constraints. We thus provide an overview of management decisions in the light of their consequences, and discuss potential areas of improvement.

  • 13732.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Kuhrmann, Marco
    Keil, Patrick
    Virtual Teams: Guest Editor’s Introduction2014Ingår i: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 31, nr 6, s. 41-46Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 13733.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Moe, Nills Brede
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Šablis, Aivars
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Software teams and their knowledge networks in large-scale software development2017Ingår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 86, nr JUN, s. 71-86Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Large software development projects involve multiple interconnected teams, often spread around the world, developing complex products for a growing number of customers and users. Succeeding with large-scale software development requires access to an enormous amount of knowledge and skills. Since neither individuals nor teams can possibly possess all the needed expertise, the resource availability in a team's knowledge network, also known as social capital, and effective knowledge coordination become paramount. Objective: In this paper, we explore the role of social capital in terms of knowledge networks and networking behavior in large-scale software development projects. Method: We conducted a multi-case study in two organizations, Ericsson and ABB, with software development teams as embedded units of analysis. We organized focus groups with ten software teams and surveyed 61 members from these teams to characterize and visualize the teams' knowledge networks. To complement the team perspective, we conducted individual interviews with representatives of supporting and coordination roles. Based on survey data, data obtained from focus groups, and individual interviews, we compared the different network characteristics and mechanisms that support knowledge networks. We used social network analysis to construct the team networks, thematic coding to identify network characteristics and context factors, and tabular summaries to identify the trends. Results: Our findings indicate that social capital and networking are essential for both novice and mature teams when solving complex, unfamiliar, or interdependent tasks. Network size and networking behavior depend on company experience, employee turnover, team culture, need for networking, and organizational support. A number of mechanisms can support the development of knowledge networks and social capital, for example, introduction of formal technical experts, facilitation of communities of practice and adequate communication infrastructure. Conclusions: Our study emphasizes the importance of social capital and knowledge networks. Therefore, we suggest that, along with investments into training programs, software companies should also cultivate a networking culture to strengthen their social capital, a known driver of better performance.

  • 13734.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Moe, Nils Brede
    SINTEF, Trondheim, NOR.
    Levinta, Georgiana
    Spotify, SWE.
    Floryan, Marcin
    Spotify, SWE.
    Spotify Guilds: How to Succeed With Knowledge Sharing in Large-Scale Agile Organizations2019Ingår i: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 36, nr 2, s. 51-57, artikel-id 8648260Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The new generation of software companies has revolutionized the way companies are designed. While bottom-up governance and team autonomy improve motivation, performance, and innovation, managing agile development at scale is a challenge. We describe how Spotify cultivates guilds to help the company share knowledge, align, and make collective decisions.

  • 13735. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Moe, Nils Brede
    Torkar, Richard
    Pitfalls in Remote Team Coordination: Lessons Learned From a Case Study2008Ingår i: LNCS 5089 / [ed] Salo, A. Jedlitschka and O., Springer Verlag , 2008, s. 345-359Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 13736.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Moe, Nils Brede
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Wigander, Jonas
    Ericsson, SWE.
    Esser, Hendrik
    Ericsson, SWE.
    Corporate-level communities at ericsson: Parallel organizational structure for fostering alignment for autonomy2019Ingår i: Lect. Notes Bus. Inf. Process.: AGILE PROCESSES IN SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AND EXTREME PROGRAMMING, XP 2019 / [ed] Kruchten, P; Fraser, S; Coallier, F, Springer Verlag , 2019, Vol. 355, s. 173-188Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational management traditionally has taken care of all the important strategy, structure, and work-design decisions, as well as most of the ongoing decisions about work procedures. In large-scale corporations with many geographically distributed sites and high divisional detachment, such strategies are yet doomed to result in implementing irrelevant work methods and procedures that conflict with the local interests. As Tayloristic habits are disappearing, organizations willingly or unwillingly change their decision-making approaches to enable more participation and influence from the performers. These trends are associated with the rise of participation-based parallel structures, such as quality circles, task forces or communities of practice. In this paper, we present our findings from studying corporate-level communities by the means of a multi-case study at Ericsson. We found that the main hindrances are related to the limited decision-making authority of parallel structure, member selection and achieving representation across the organizational units. Our results suggest that parallel structures highly depend on the authority of the members within their local communities, and their ability to not only channel the dialog between the units they represent and the community, but also enable the active engagement of the unit in the community studies. As such, we believe that special attention shall be put on the ambassador role of the community members. © The Author(s) 2019.

  • 13737. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Moe, Nils BredeÅgerfalk, Pär J.
    Agility Across Time and Space: Making Agile Distributed Development a Success2010Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Rather than deciding whether or not to get involved in global sourcing, many companies are facing decisions about whether or not to apply agile methods in their distributed projects. These companies are often motivated by the opportunities to solve the coordination and communication difficulties associated with global software development. Yet while agile principles prescribe close interaction and co-location, the very nature of distributed software development does not support these prerequisites. Šmite, Moe, and Ågerfalk structured the book into five parts. In “Motivation” the editors introduce the fundamentals of agile distributed software development and explain the rationale behind the application of agile practices in globally distributed software projects. “ Transition” describes implementation strategies, adoption of particular agile practices for distributed projects, and general concepts of agility. “Management” details practical implications for project planning, time management, and customer and subcontractor interaction. “Teams” discusses agile distributed team configuration, effective communication and knowledge transfer, and allocation of roles and responsibilities. Finally, in the “Epilogue” the editors summarize all contributions and present future trends for research and practice in agile distributed development. This book is primarily targeted at researchers, lecturers, and students in empirical software engineering, and at practitioners involved in globally distributed software projects. The contributions are based on sound empirical research and identify gaps and commonalities in both the existing state of the art and state of the practice. In addition, they also offer practical advice through many hints, checklists, and experience reports. Questions answered in this book include: What should companies expect from merging agile and distributed strategies? What are the stumbling blocks that prevent companies from realizing the benefits of the agile approach in distributed environments, and how can we recognize infeasible strategies and unfavorable circumstances? What helps managers cope with the challenges of implementing agile approaches in distributed software development projects? How can distributed teams survive the decisions taken by management and become efficient through the application of agile approaches?

  • 13738.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Moe, Nils
    SINTEF, NOR.
    Krekling, Thomas
    Buskerud Fylkeskommune, NOR.
    Stray, Viktoria
    Universitetet i Oslo, NOR.
    Offshore Outsourcing Costs: Known or Still Hidden?2019Ingår i: Proceedings - 2019 ACM/IEEE 14th International Conference on Global Software Engineering, ICGSE 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, s. 40-47, artikel-id 8807622Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Offshore outsourcing of software development has been both famous for the promises of great cost reductions, and infamous for the hidden costs associated with the challenges of organizing software work over distance. Experience shows that many of these costs do not receive the deserved attention and are often excluded when making offshoring decisions. As a result, there is often a significant deviation between the expected and the realized costs of offshoring. In this paper, we investigate the awareness of the extra costs when making an offshoring decision, and the significance of the actual cost deviations. We conducted a single case study of a company that carried out an offshore outsourcing pilot project. We collected qualitative data from interviews, observations and a retrospective, and quantitative data on the costs and effort associated with the project. We conclude that the company was aware of the hidden cost factors, but largely underestimated their significance. The costs that surfaced in the studied project accounted for a total deviation of 181% and several individual cost categories with more than 400% overrun. The two main cost drivers in our study were the distance and poor process fit, which escalated the investments needed to make the collaboration work. Our results suggest that pilots are useful to understand the key problem areas in an offshoring collaboration, but too limited to shed light on all potential problems (e.g. turnover) due to the short timeframe. We also conclude that results of pilot projects shall not be the only data source when calculating the true costs of offshoring, since the start-up phase of an offshoring relationship carries large investments. Finally, we provide recommendations for companies in a similar situation on how to run and learn from offshore outsourcing pilot projects. © 2019 IEEE.

  • 13739. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Numminen, Emil
    Transaction Cost Economics in Offshoring: From Naïve To Realistic View on Associated Costs2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 13740.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Solingen, Rini Van
    Delft University of Technology, NLD.
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    The Offshoring Elephant in the Room: Turnover Strategies for Addressing Turnover When Offshoring to India2019Ingår i: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Staffing software projects with engineers from best-cost locations has become a commonality. However, distributed development remains practically challenging with many recurring problems, such as decreased productivity, low quality, and high unforeseen extra costs. One main underlying reason for these challenges is high employee turnover, although often overlooked. In developing locations such as India turnover is significantly large due to personal benefits from ‘job-hopping’. Why is turnover such a problem? Should companies stop sourcing to countries with high turnover or are there known remedies? This research puts turnover of software engineers in India in the spotlight and derives strategies to address it. We share experiences from two industrial cases, discuss important variables for portraying the actual turnover state and its negative impacts. Furthermore, we put forward ten recommendations for actively reducing turnover itself and lowering its negative consequences. IEEE

  • 13741.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    van Solingen, Rini
    What's the True Hourly Cost of Offshoring?2016Ingår i: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 33, nr 5, s. 60-70Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An offshore team's hourly costs took three years to become comparable with the in-house team's costs. Getting close to breaking even took five years. Learning costs due to offshore employee turnover were the primary cost factor to get under control.

  • 13742. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    A Whisper of Evidence in Global Software Engineering2011Ingår i: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 28, nr 4, s. 15-18Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 13743.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Lessons learned from transferring software products to India2012Ingår i: Journal of Software Maintenance and Evolution: Research and Practice, ISSN 1532-060X, E-ISSN 1532-0618, Vol. 24, nr 6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization has influenced the way software is developed today, and many software organizations have started to actively utilize resources from around the world. However, these endeavors are recognized as very challenging, and they have attracted a lot of attention in software research in the past decade. Unlike many other research initiatives, which explore the complexities of distributed software development activities, the focus of this paper is on software transfers. Software transfers refer to activities that are moved from one location to another. The authors draw attention to the lessons learned from an empirical investigation of two transfer projects conducted at Ericsson. Both transfers were performed between a site in Sweden and a site in India. The observations outline a set of generic practices that have been found useful for transferring software development within a company. It also highlights a number of challenges to be addressed and a set of corresponding recommendations. Finally, the paper emphasizes the need to identify software products that are suitable for transfers and the need to monitor the long-term effects of transfer.

  • 13744. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Risk Identification in Software Product Transfers2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Software companies today often face the necessity to decide where to develop their products. Inability to employ people or continue ongoing development with the same capacity in a given site of a company often leads to relocation of software work from one site to another. Software product transfers, however, are associated with numerous challenges that require investments, and may also have a secondary harder to capture effect on development productivity, quality and scope. In this paper, we share the results from previous empirical studies of software product transfers and offer a checklist for risk identification. The checklist shall be useful for software companies that consider, plan or execute software transfers. Although many risk factors included in the checklist may seem obvious, our empirical observations indicate that prior to obtaining the necessary experience these factors have been initially overlooked. Thus we believe that the checklist will be especially useful for managers with no or little experiences in relocating software work between the two sites of the same company.

  • 13745. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Software Product Transfers: Lessons Learned from a Case Study2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although global software work nowadays is not a phenomenon, research and practice is still addressing the complexities associated with the new forms of work enabled through globalization. ‘Go global’ strategies usually prescribe two alternative approaches: distribution of software development activities across several locations, or re-location of work to another site. This research paper focuses on the latter approach that is called software product transfers and discusses findings from an empirical case study conducted in Ericsson. The observations indicate that transferring software work from one site to another site of the same company is a challenging endeavor. Furthermore, practices used in co-located projects do not necessarily lead to a desired outcome. The paper provides an overview of the challenges and highlights practical advice for handling software product transfers.

  • 13746. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Strategies Facilitating Software Product Transfers2011Ingår i: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 8, nr 5, s. 60-66Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization of software work has become common in today's market. As part of cost-reduction strategies, many product-focused software companies started shipping their product development to insourcing and outsourcing offshore locations. Unfortunately, moving software products from one site to another isn't always a good business strategy for either the organization or the product. In this article, the authors discuss findings from studying software insourcing transfers at Ericsson, a large software product development company headquartered in Sweden. Their findings suggest that certain product, personnel, and process characteristics can facilitate the execution of an offshore insourcing transfer. On the basis of research conducted together with the company, they share a list of critical factors alleviating transfer difficulties and seven strategies facilitating transition of software work across sites.

  • 13747. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Aurum, Aybuke
    Jabangwe, Ronald
    Numminen, Emil
    Towards an Understanding of Sourcing Decisions2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 13748.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Jabangwe, Ronald
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Numminen, Emil
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för management.
    Offshore Insourcing in Software Development: Structuring the Decision-Making Process2013Ingår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, Vol. 86, nr 4, s. 1054-1067Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A variety of new forms of business are enabled through globalization and practiced by software organizations today. While companies go global to reduce their development costs, access a larger pool of resources and explore new markets, it is often assumed that the level of delivered services shall remain the same after implementing the sourcing decisions. In contrast, critical studies identified that global software development is associated with unique challenges, and a lot of global projects fail to mitigate the implications of a particular global setting. In this paper we explore offshore insourcing decisions on the basis of empirical research literature and an empirical field study conducted at Ericsson. By analyzing decisions in two different cases we found that each offshore insourcing decision consisted of deciding what, where, when, how and why to insource. Related empirical research and field observations suggest that not all combinations are successful and alignment between different decision points has thus a prominent role. To address these concerns we built an empirically-based insourcing decision structure, which outlines a logical path through the decision options and helps selecting an offshore insourcing strategy that targets creation of the necessary alignment. The key element of the proposed approach is a structured and well-defined decision-making process, which is intended to support managers in their decision-making. The usefulness of the proposed approach is evaluated in an additional empirical case of a new offshore insourcing decision.

  • 13749. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Feldt, Robert
    Gorschek, Tony
    Reporting Empirical Research in Global Software Engineering: A Classification Scheme2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased popularity of global software engineering (GSE) has resulted in quite a number of research and industrial studies. As the area matures, an increased focus on empirically supported results leads to a greater potential impact on future research and industrial practice. However, since GSE scenarios are diverse, what works in one context might not directly apply in another. Thus it is necessary to understand, how GSE-related empirical findings should be reported to be useful for practitioners and researchers. Furthermore, it‘s important to summarize progress and get the big picture of published research to identify gaps and commonalities. In this paper we analyze differentiating factors of GSE scenarios and offer a classification scheme for describing the context of a GSE study. In addition, we report initial results of a systematic review on GSE-related empirical literature using papers from ICGSE 2006 and 2007, at the same time illustrating and evaluating the proposed scheme.

  • 13750.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Galviņa, Zane
    Prikladnicki, Rafael
    An empirically based terminology and taxonomy for global software engineering2014Ingår i: Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, Vol. 191, nr 1, s. 105-153Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many organizations nowadays strive for utilization of benefits offered by global software engineering (GSE) and sourcing strategies are thus discussed more often. Since there are so many variations of the attributes associated with global software projects a large amount of new terms has been introduced. The diversity in sourcing jargon however has caused difficulties in determining which term to use in which situation, and thus causing further obstacles to searching and finding relevant research during e.g. systematic literature reviews. The inability of judging the applicability of the research in an industrial context is another important implication on the transferability of research into practice. Thus the need for accurate terminology and definitions for different global sourcing situations emerges as a way for the community to build upon each other's work and hence making progress more quickly. In this paper we first investigate the state of the use of the GSE jargon concluding that terminology is very diverse (many synonyms used to describe the same phenomena), often confusing (same terms used to describe different phenomena) and occasionally ambiguous (few terms used to describe several phenomena). In order to address the identified problems, we conducted a Delphi-inspired study with ten well-established researchers in GSE and developed an empirically based glossary for the key concepts in global software engineering. We then propose a taxonomy for GSE by categorizing the selected terms based on generalization-specialization relationships and illustrate how the taxonomy can be used to categorize and map existing knowledge. The contribution targets future researchers, who will publish or synthesize further empirical work and practitioners, who are interested in published empirical cases. Therefore this work is expected to make a contribution to the future development of research in the GSE field, and alleviate understandability and transferability of existing and future knowledge into practice.

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