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  • 1451.
    Bhuma, Venkata Srikanth
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Balsu, Santosh Kumar
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Evaluation Of Radiation Tolerant Satellite Communication Modem2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The design specification of CubeSat standards by California Polytechnique University has become a major milestone in development and deployment of nano satellites. The number of CubeSats that are being deployed into the orbit has increased in recent years. The design and development have been transformed from traditional hardware devices to software defined radios. However there is a lack of clear understanding and concrete findings on developing proper communication transceivers. The lack of knowledge of proper guidelines to be followed to design and develop communication subsystems prompts and acts as a base for us in understanding the communication subsystem design standards followed by CubeSat projects in various universities. Particular attention is given to those CubeSats that are currently in the orbit and are under development. The main aim of the thesis is to identify the challenges faced by the CubeSat developers and provide guidelines for future developers in order to overcome those challenges to reduce the development time and costs which are major constraints in CubeSat developments. A traditional literature review process was followed in order to identify the potential issues and in parallel a modem was designed and implemented in order to know some more challenges while developing a CubeSat modem. From the literature review method, eight potential issues were identified and an additional two more challenges were experienced while implementing a modem. Potential advantages and disadvantages of using nanoRTU have also been identified as part of the work.

  • 1452.
    Bhutto, Tarique Inayat
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Root LDPC Codes for Non Ergodic Transmission Channels2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    4 ABSTRACT Tremendous amount of research has been conducted in modern coding theory in the past few years and much of the work has been done in developing new coding techniques. Low density parity check (LDPC) codes are class of linear block error correcting codes which provide capacity performance on a large collection of data transmission and storage channels while Root LDPC codes in this thesis work are admitting implementable decoders with manageable complexity. Furthermore, work has been conducted to develop graphical methods to represent LDPC codes. This thesis implement one of the LDPC kind “Root LDPC code” using iterative method and calculate its threshold level for binary and non-binary Root LDPC code. This threshold value can serve as a starting point for further study on this topic. We use C++ as tool to simulate the code structure and parameters. The results show that non-binary Root LDPC code provides higher threshold value as compare to binary Root LDPC code.

  • 1453.
    Biazen, Hailie Teshale
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    Ethiopia as a Tourist destination, An exploration of Swedish Tourist Market Demand (Case Study).2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed at exploring Demand of Swedish Tourists towards Ethiopian tourist destinations. The author has tried his level best in identifying the demands discrepancies of Swedish tourists’ preferences if they are offered a visit tours as same time by Ethiopian Tourism Sector and others African countries namely; Tanzanian, Egyptian, South African and Kenyan Tourism Authority. In caring out this study, both qualitative and quantitative research method is being used and the most important data is sourced by primary data collecting method using interviews, Surveys, and by secondary data utilizing literatures collected from books, Journals, Past researches and Electronic websites. The author also used strategic sampling technique whereby ample potential feedbacks could be gathered from Seven Tours Companies, Five African Embassies and Twenty Five active Swedish Tourists in Stockholm. On the basis of the analysis of the data which was collected during the interview and surveys, the study revealed that majority of Swedish tourists have little demand on Ethiopian Tourism supply(offers) due to the following reasons; 1. Swedish tourists are dominantly more fascinated by Adventure, Safari and Beach types of trips than cultural and Historical Tours. These interests have leaded them to look for few African countries which have rich sources of Adventure, safari and Beach trips. 2. Even though there are few Swedish visitors who are interested in culture and history, they need to get at least one combination from Safari, Beach or Adventure trips. But unlike the rest of others four African Tourist destination countries stated on the above paragraph, the Swedish tourists believe that these combinations are not available in Ethiopian Tourism offers as they thought that Ethiopia is only known by its cultural and Historical Tourism offers. 3. Tour and travel companies, who are running the major Swedish tourists flow to Africa, have very little information and practical experiences on Ethiopian tourism supply. Due to these reasons the information that they knew about Ethiopia and its tourism sites is not coincide with the Ethiopian Tourism potential in reality. 4. Moreover the poor marketing operation of Ethiopian Tourism Authority and its delegates in advertizing and clarifying the above irregularities which are raised by both the tourists and the tour and travel companies. These and others attributed for the failure of Ethiopian tourism Authority to welcome as many Swedish tourists as possible.

  • 1454.
    Bibri, Mohamed
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    ICT Design Unsustainability & the Path toward Environmentally Sustainable Technologies2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study endeavors to investigate the negative environmental impacts of the prevailing ICT design approaches and to explore some potential remedies for ICT design unsustainability from environmental and corporate sustainability perspectives. More specifically, it aims to spotlight key environmental issues related to ICT design, including resource depletion; GHG emissions resulting from energy-intensive consumption; toxic waste disposal; and hazardous chemicals use; and also to shed light on how alternative design solutions can be devised based on environmental sustainability principles to achieve the goals of sustainable technologies. The study highlights the relationship between ICT design and sustainability and how they can symbiotically affect one another. To achieve the aim of this study, an examination was performed through an extensive literature review covering empirical, theoretical, and critical scholarship. The study draws on a variety of sources to survey the negative environmental impacts of the current mainstream ICT design approach and review the potential remedies for unsustainability of ICT design. For theory, central themes were selected for review given the synergy and integration between them as to the topic under investigation. They include: design issues; design science; design research framework for ICT; sustainability; corporate sustainability; and design and sustainability. Findings highlight the unsustainability of the current mainstream ICT design approach. Key environmental issues for consideration include: resource depletion through extracting huge amounts of material and scarce elements; energy-intensive consumption and GHG emissions, especially from ICT use phase; toxic waste disposal; and hazardous substances use. Potential remedies for ICT design unsustainability include dematerialization as an effective strategy to minimize resources depletion, de-carbonization to cut energy consumption through using efficient energy required over life cycle and renewable energy; recyclability through design with life cycle thinking (LCT) and extending ICT equipment’s operational life through reuse; mitigating hazardous chemicals through green design - low or non-noxious/less hazardous products. As to solving data center dilemma, design solutions vary from hardware and software to technological improvements and adjustments. Furthermore, corporate sustainability can be a strategic model for ICT sector to respond to environmental issues, including those associated with unsustainable ICT design. In the same vein, through adopting corporate sustainability, ICT-enabled organizations can rationalize energy usage to reduce GHG emissions, and thereby alleviating global warming. This study provides a novel approach to sustainable ICT design, highlighting unsustainability of its current mainstream practices. Review of the literature makes an advance on extant reviews of the literature by highlighting the symbiotic relationship between ICT design and environmental sustainability from both research and practice perspectives. This study adds to the body of knowledge and previous endeavours in research of ICT and sustainability. Overall, it endeavours to present contributions and avenues for further theoretical and empirical research and development.

  • 1455.
    Bibri, Mohamed
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Sustaining ICT for Sustainability: Towards Mainstreaming De–carbonization–oriented Design & Enabling the Energy–Efficient, Low Carbon Economy2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study set out to understand and demonstrate the role the ICT sector could play as a critical enabler in the transition and progress towards an energy– efficient, low carbon economy. More specifically, the study of sustaining ICT for sustainability has twofold intent: (2) to investigate the direct footprint of ICT sector and explore how it can be tackled through adopting sustainable design–based solutions; and (2) to highlight the enabling potential of ICT sector to mitigate climate change and massively improve energy efficiency across the economy, identifying and quantifying the global ICT impacts and opportunities in the context of energy and carbon emissions savings. To achieve the aim of this study, a pertinent and extensive literature review covering theoretical, empirical, and critical scholarship was performed to investigate the phenomenon. The study draws on a variety of sources to survey the unsustainability of ICT sector pertaining to energy–intensive consumption and explore potential solutions through espousing environmental design practice, and also to examine the role of ICT in delivering energy–efficient solutions through its products and services. Validity was ensured through using quality academic and industry literature as well as relevant studies carried out by a range of eminent researchers, experts, and stakeholders (i.e. NGOs, research centers). Findings highlight the unsustainability of ICT sector regarding energy– intensive consumption and concomitant GHG emissions associated with its products and services. Of the whole lifecycle, the use phase of ICT is the most critical. Data centers and telecom networks devour energy. Planned obsolescence entrenched in software design shorten upgrade cycle, which makes software utilities a planet killer as to energy consumption. Alternative sustainable design–based solutions entail using renewable energy and most efficient energy required over ICT’s life cycle – de–carbonization strategy. Also, digitization is an effective strategy for ICT sector to slash energy use per unit. To reduce the footprint of data centers and telecom networks, design solutions vary from hardware and software to technological improvements. Designing out built–in obsolescence in software technology is a key factor in the energy equation. As for the enabling role of ICT, the findings are highly illuminating. The ICT sector must step up its efforts in reducing its direct footprint in order to claim a leadership role in an energy–efficient, low carbon economy. Although the ICT sector’s own emissions will increase because of global growing demand for its products and services, the real gains will come from its enabling potential to yield substantial energy efficiency improvements and emissions reductions across the economy. The sheer scale of the climate change challenge presents smart development mitigation opportunities for ICT sector to deliver environmentally sustainable solutions. The largest identified opportunities are: dematerialization; intelligent transport and logistics; intelligent buildings; smart power supply; and efficient industrial processes and systems. This study provides a novel approach into sustainable design in ICT, underlining unsustainable design practices in ICT sector. Review of the literature makes an advance on extant reviews by highlighting the synergic relationship between ICT design, sustainability, and the economy.

  • 1456.
    Bie, Sebastian De
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    Bie, Jenny De
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    "Jag har ingen reservtank längre" Resultatet av långvarig stress2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta arbete var att på ett tydligt sätt beskriva respondenternas upplevelse av anställningsotrygghet för ca 7 år sedan. Hur detta har påverkat deras hantering och upplevelse av liknande händelser i efterhand. Förteorierna som vi använde i vår bakgrund var bland annat det faktum att många människors anställningar har blivit osäkra och föränderliga. Ansatsen var kvalitativ med en hermeneutisk tolkningsspiral som transkriberingsmetod. Det psykologiska kontraktet, hantering och upplevelser av stress togs vidare upp i vår fördjupning och konkretisering som till exempel miljöstress, betingning och känslan av sammanhang. Resultatet av vårt arbete är att deltagarna efter ca 7 år fortfarande upplever en sänkt förmåga att hantera stress, respondenterna beskriver en kvardröjande osäkerhet, sänkt tilltro till sin egen förmåga och en ökad känslighet för stress. Ett av de resultat vi fann var att otrygghetens följder gav nyckelord som kunde kategoriseras under utbrändhet. I diskussionen hanteras deltagarnas beskrivning av kvardröjande osäkerhet, sänkt tilltro till sin egen förmåga och misstänksamhet. Avslutningsvis diskuteras bland annat den nya ohälsan, en abstrakt känsla av att inte ha någon kontroll och att inte kunna peka på en konkret orsak till ohälsan.

  • 1457. Biedenbach, Thomas
    et al.
    Svensson, Martin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Hällgren, Markus
    Blissful ignorance: The transfer of responsibility in response to lack of competence2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1458. Biernacki, Arkadiusz
    et al.
    Tutschku, Kurt
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Comparative Performance Study of LTE Downlink Schedulers2014In: Wireless personal communications, ISSN 0929-6212, E-ISSN 1572-834X, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 585-599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long time evolution (LTE) represents an emerging and promising technology for providing broadband, mobile Internet access. Because of the limitation of available spectrum resource, high spectrum efficiency technologies such as channel-aware scheduling need to be explored. In this work, we evaluate the performance of three scheduling algorithms proposed for LTE downlink transmission. The evaluation takes place in mixed traffic scenarios and aims at exploring strengths and weaknesses of the proposed algorithms. Simulation results illustrate the importance of real-time traffic awareness by schedulers when a specified level of quality of service is required. The research shows that lack of prioritisation of multimedia traffic will lead to severe degradation of video and VoIP services even with a relatively low network load.

  • 1459. Biernacki, Arkadiusz
    et al.
    Tutschku, Kurt
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Performance of HTTP Video Streaming Under Different Network Conditions2014In: Multimedia tools and applications, ISSN 1380-7501, E-ISSN 1573-7721, Vol. 72, no 2, p. 1143-1166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet video sharing services have been gaining importance and increasing their share in the multimedia market. In order to compete effectively and provide broadcast television with a comparable level of quality, the Internet video should fulfil stringent quality of service (QoS) constraints. However, as the Internet video is based on packet transmission, it is influenced by delays, transmission errors, data losses and bandwidth limitations which can have a devastating influence on the perceived quality of the multimedia content. There are many works which describe the impact of network impairments on the Internet video. Nevertheless, little is known about how network conditions influence the video streamed by the currently popular services such as YouTube, where video is transmitted over reliable TCP/HTTP protocols. Therefore using a network simulator, we conducted an experimental evaluation of theHTTP based video transmission analysing how the network impairments mentioned above influence the streamed video. The experiments were validated against a network emulator supplied with real network traces. As a result of this work, we can state that the buffering strategies implemented by a video player are in many cases able to mitigate unfavourable network conditions what allow to play the streamed video smoothly. The results may serve Internet Service Providers so that they could tune their network characteristics in order to match the demand from HTTP video.

  • 1460. Bigagli, Lorenzo
    et al.
    Sveinsdottir, Thordis
    Wessels, Bridgette
    Smallwood, Rod
    Linde, Peter
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, The Library.
    Sondervan, Jeroen
    Infrastructure and technology challenges2014Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this deliverable, we report on our work on infrastructural and technological barriers to Open Access and preservation of research data as identified by key stakeholder groups. Through a mix of qualitative, quantitative and document review methods, we identified five key barriers to successfully implementing Open Access to research data in Europe: data heterogeneity and issues of standardisation; accessibility and discoverability issues; data preservation and curation; data quality and assessability; and data security. We explore these issues in detail and present existing good practice, and technical and infrastructural solutions used to mitigate such barriers. This work was conducted within the EU FP7 funded project RECODE, which focuses on developing policy recommendations for Open Access to Research Data in Europe. In particular, this work is coordinated by RECODE Work Package 2 (WP2), Infrastructure and technology.

  • 1461.
    Bigun, Christopher
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Sjöstrand, Erik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Den ljudlösa bilen: En undersökning om buller, bång och brummande bilar2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This degree project will examine active sound design for quiet vehicles. Based on former research wether electric cars expose humans living in urban areas to danger due to the absence of auditive information, we will develop suggestions for dynamic eninge sounds which are related to traffic safety, design and reduced noise pollution. Cities’ overall noise levels are far beyond recommended, and the consequences causes health issues in bigger cities. This paper will therefore discuss the problems with noise pollution in cities, and wether the electric car is capable of reducing the overall sound levels while maintaining pedestrians’ and cyclists’ awareness in traffic by auditive information. Our interpretation resulted in engine sounds which not only contains a causionary effect on it’s surroundings, but also could contribute to the reduction of noise pollution in comparison to combustion engines. 

  • 1462.
    Bihl, Erik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    The captivating use of silence in film: How silence affects the emotional aspect of cinema2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis I use both Dense Clarity - Clear Density as well as qualitative interviewing as methods to guide me through this examination of sound design. Through studying other works and executing personal tests I try to find out if there is a need to use sound and silence in a creative way to evoke emotion. I examine films as well as literature from the 1960s all the way to the 2000s, to see how the use of silence has unfolded over the years. I also create a visual production that strengthens my theory that silence affects narrative more than its credited for. But the essay isn’t just about silence, it’s revolved around sound too, expanding into how sound correlates with emotion and how one can apply it to their production.  

  • 1463.
    Bilal, Adeel Ashfaq and Umer
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Study of Abnormal TCP/HTTP Connection2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Web browsing activities have increased to huge volumes in the last decade, causing more interest in the analysis of Web trac to extract user action. TCP, the transport layer protocol and HTTP, the application layer protocol plays a major role in Web browsing activities. In this thesis an attempt has been made to investigate the anomalies of TCP terminations in an application layer environment. An experimental setup has been devised in in an isolated manner to observe the e ect of di erent Web browsers, Web servers and contents type on the termination of TCP ports. The results in this thesis show that the anomaly of the termination of TCP port with a reset(RST) flag is usually caused by a Web browser. Further we conclude that the amount of RSTs rise while accessing video based contents due to the increased number of ports while accessing the contents of Web page. In this report ,we further describe and quantify the di erent causes and their contribution in generating RSTs during Web browsing.

  • 1464.
    Bilal, Muhammad
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Sankar, Ganesh
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Trust & Security issues in Mobile banking and its effect on Customers2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context: The invention of mobile phones makes the human life easier. The purpose of this study is to identify security risks in mobile banking and to provide an authentication method for mobile banking transaction by using bio-metric mechanism. Objectives: Current mobile banking authentication is challenging and identified as a major security risk. Literature review shows that customer distrusts mobile banking due to security issues. The authors discuss security risks in current authentication methods in mobile banking. Methods: There are different methods and approaches to handle authentication in mobile banking. In this thesis, we propose a new approach of authentication in mobile banking. The strengths and weaknesses of existing approaches of authentication are identified with the help of Literature Review and interviews. The authors present basic transaction model and include security risks. By Literature Review it is found that finger print mechanism is a suitable method for authentication. Authors focus on authentication method and present a biometric scanning device which can identify the customer’s finger print thus enabling the customer to access mobile banking facility. Results: An authentication model is proposed through design process. The proposed biometric design was validated by conducting a workshop. The analysis of the workshop’s results showed that customer’s trust in security for mobile banking will be increased by finger print mechanism. To promote mobile banking, it is necessary to improve customer trust in terms of security. Conclusions: The authors concluded that, only authorized person will be able to use mobile banking services by incorporating bio-metric finger-print mechanism. By literature review and interview it was found that finger-print mechanism is more suitable than other ordinary mechanisms like login and password mechanism, SMS etc.

  • 1465.
    Bilan, Carolina
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Hedberg, Carl
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Säkerhetshot och lösningar för privatpersoner med bredband2001Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    As more and more people gain access to broadband in their properties, the security threats get bigger. A lot more people also have computers that they carry home from work where they store important information concerning the company. The information stored on theese computers can be very easy to retrieve if you have the will and the skill to do it. Very few people have any knowledge how to protect themselves from theese threats.

  • 1466.
    Bilker, Anna-Karin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Utemiljön på förskolorna i Eksjö kommun: En kartläggning av den fysiska miljöns utformning samt personalens erfarenheter av den fysiska miljön2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Förskolegårdar med inslag av träd, buskar och kullar som är väl integrerade i lekplatser utgör stödjande miljöer för ökad fysisk aktivitet, ökad koncentration samt solskyddad utevistelse. OPEC är ett verktyg utformat för att bedöma förskolegården och dess potential för att fungera som en stödjande miljö på detta sätt. Syftet med studien var att kartlägga aspekter av utemiljön som rörde möjligheten till fysisk aktivitet, koncentration och förekomst av solexponering på förskolegårdarna i en kommun i södra Sverige samt att undersöka förskolepersonalens erfarenheter av den fysiska miljön på förskolegårdarna. Som fokus för studien valdes Eksjö kommun p.g.a. dess tillgänglighet. Data samlades in genom strukturerade observationer av förskolegårdarna med utgångspunkt i OPEC samt kvalitativa semi-strukturerade intervjuer med förskolepersonal som arbetade på förskolorna. Observationsdatan från förskolegårdarna genomgick en kvantitativanalys och datan från intervjuerna analyserades genom en kvalitativinnehållsanalys. Resultatet visade att endast 2 av de 13 förskolegårdarna utgjorde stödjande miljöer enligt OPEC. Brist på tillräckligt solskydd och utmaningar lyftes fram i intervjuerna samt att utvecklingen av gårdarna hämmades av att det rådde osäkerhet kring vilka regler som gällde för utformandet av gården. Det fanns ett stort behov av att gårdarna skulle ses över. De flesta gårdarna klassificerades inte som stödjande miljöer vilket korrelerade med förskolepersonalens upplevelser av att det saknades tillräckligt med utmaningar och solskydd på många av gårdarna. Studien visade på att ansvarsfördelningen kring förskolegårdarna och vilka regler som gäller för underhåll och utveckling behöver ses över så att förskolepersonalens engagemang för gårdarna kan tillvaratas och stödjas.

  • 1467.
    Billemyr Moström, Simon
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Månsson, Philip
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Trollscouts: Det visuella samarbetet2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work is about how we can make use of the visuals in a game to motivate cooperation and attract community. Our interest was to explore around the idea of not imagining a game only as a passive escape from reality, but as a tool that can be used to motivate cooperation. The game that we have chosen to develop was determined to be suitable for children around the age of 10. We chose to use a method called Layered Elaboration as a way to learn about our target audience more clearly, and also as a tool to get ideas and inspiration on how we can adapt a game for this target group. After we had a workshop with the children at a school, where we let the children draw what they came to think of about different themes they received, we developed a playable prototype we then let the children in the same school test to get an evaluation. After the gaming test was over we found out that the graphics in our game must be clear enough that you should know what the goal is, yet still have a certain ambiguity, within certain limits, to force players to cooperate with each other in order to understand how to proceed in order to reach the goal.

  • 1468.
    Billing, Måns
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Planning and Media Design.
    Lindh, Jakob
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Planning and Media Design.
    Berättande i digitala spel: En undersökning av monomyten och dess gestaltning2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsen undersöker monomytens två inledande steg The Ordinary World och The Call to Adventure samt hur dessa kan gestaltas i digitala spel. Syftet är att få insikt i hur spelmediet kan använda sig av de här teorierna om berättelsestrukturer för att skapa mer engagerande upplevelser. För att undersöka problemområdet konkretiserades teorierna i ett ramverk utifrån vilket en spelprototyp utvecklades och två redan existerande digitala spel analyserades. Prototypen jämfördes med de analyserade spelen för att undersöka på vilket sätt teorierna om The Ordinary World och The Call to Adventure gestaltats. Undersökningen visade på att spelmediet erbjuder en mängd olika sätt att gestalta teorierna på och vilka för- och nackdelar dessa gestaltningssätt har. Vidare pekade användandet av monomyten på dess fortsatta relevans inom spelmediet, men även på de problem som reproduktionen av monomytens struktur kan leda till.

  • 1469.
    Bilski, Mateusz
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Migration from blocking to non-blocking web frameworks2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of performance and scalability of web applications is challenged by most of the software companies. It is difficult to maintain the performance of a web application while the number of users is continuously increasing. The common solution for this problem is scalability. A web application can handle incoming and outgoing requests using blocking or non-blocking Input/Output operation. The way that a single server handles requests affects its ability to scale and depends on a web framework that was used to build the web application. It is especially important for Resource Oriented Architecture (ROA) based applications which consist of distributed Representational State Transfer (REST) web services. This research was inspired by a real problem stated by a software company that was considering the migration to the non-blocking web framework but did not know the possible profits. The objective of the research was to evaluate the influence of web framework's type on the performance of ROA based applications and to provide guidelines for assessing profits of migration from blocking to non-blocking JVM web frameworks. First, internet ranking was used to obtain the list of the most popular web frameworks. Then, the web frameworks were used to conduct two experiments that investigated the influence of web framework's type on the performance of ROA based applications. Next, the consultations with software architects were arranged in order to find a method for approximating the performance of overall application. Finally, the guidelines were prepared based on the consultations and the results of the experiments. Three blocking and non-blocking highly ranked and JVM based web frameworks were selected. The first experiment showed that the non-blocking web frameworks can provide performance up to 2.5 times higher than blocking web frameworks in ROA based applications. The experiment performed on existing application showed average 27\% performance improvement after the migration. The elaborated guidelines successfully convinced the company that provided the application for testing to conduct the migration on the production environment. The experiment results proved that the migration from blocking to non-blocking web frameworks increases the performance of web application. The prepared guidelines can help software architects to decide if it is worth to migrate. However the guidelines are context depended and further investigation is needed to make it more general.

  • 1470.
    bin Ali, Nauman
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Operationalization of lean thinking through value stream mapping with simulation and FLOW2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The continued success of Lean thinking beyond manufacturing has led to an increasing interest to utilize it in software engineering (SE). Value Stream Mapping (VSM) had a pivotal role in the operationalization of Lean thinking. However, this has not been recognized in SE adaptations of Lean. Furthermore, there are two main shortcomings in existing adaptations of VSM for an SE context. First, the assessments for the potential of the proposed improvements are based on idealistic assertions. Second, the current VSM notation and methodology are unable to capture the myriad of significant information flows, which in software development go beyond just the schedule information about the flow of a software artifact through a process. Objective: This thesis seeks to assess Software Process Simulation Modeling (SPSM) as a solution to the first shortcoming of VSM. In this regard, guidelines to perform simulation-based studies in industry are consolidated, and the usefulness of VSM supported with SPSM is evaluated. To overcome the second shortcoming of VSM, a suitable approach for capturing rich information flows in software development is identified and its usefulness to support VSM is evaluated. Overall, an attempt is made to supplement existing guidelines for conducting VSM to overcome its known shortcomings and support adoption of Lean thinking in SE. The usefulness and scalability of these proposals is evaluated in an industrial setting. Method: Three literature reviews, one systematic literature review, four industrial case studies, and a case study in an academic context were conducted as part of this research. Results: Little evidence to substantiate the claims of the usefulness of SPSM was found. Hence, prior to combining it with VSM, we consolidated the guidelines to conduct an SPSM based study and evaluated the use of SPSM in academic and industrial contexts. In education, it was found to be a useful complement to other teaching methods, and in the industry, it triggered useful discussions and was used to challenge practitioners’ perceptions about the impact of existing challenges and proposed improvements. The combination of VSM with FLOW (a method and notation to capture information flows, since existing VSM adaptions for SE are insufficient for this purpose) was successful in identifying challenges and improvements related to information needs in the process. Both proposals to support VSM with simulation and FLOW led to identification of waste and improvements (which would not have been possible with conventional VSM), generated more insightful discussions and resulted in more realistic improvements. Conclusion: This thesis characterizes the context and shows how SPSM was beneficial both in the industrial and academic context. FLOW was found to be a scalable, lightweight supplement to strengthen the information flow analysis in VSM. Through successful industrial application and uptake, this thesis provides evidence of the usefulness of the proposed improvements to the VSM activities.

  • 1471.
    bin Ali, Nauman
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Towards Guidelines for Conducting Software Process Simulation in Industry2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Since the 1950s explicit software process models have been used for planning, executing and controlling software development activities. To overcome the limitation of static models at capturing the inherent dynamism in software development, Software Process Simulation Modelling (SPSM) was introduced in the late 1970s. SPSM has been used to address various challenges, e.g. estimation, planning and process assessment. The simulation models developed over the years have varied in their scope, purpose, approach and the application domain. However, there is a need to aggregate the evidence regarding the usefulness of SPSM for achieving its intended purposes. Objective: This thesis aims to facilitate adoption of SPSM in industrial practice by exploring two directions. Firstly it aims to establish the usefulness of SPSM for its intended purposes, e.g. for planning, training and as an alternative to study the real world software (industrial and open source) development. Secondly to define and evaluate a process for conducting SPSM studies in industry. Method: Two systematic literature reviews (SLR), a literature review, a case study and an action research study were conducted. A literature review of existing SLRs was done to identify the strategies for selecting studies. The resulting process for study selection was utilized in an SLR to capture and aggregate evidence regarding the usefulness of SPSM. Another SLR was used to identify existing process descriptions of how to conduct an SPSM study. The consolidated process and associated guidelines identified in this review were used in an action research study to develop a simulation model of the testing process in a large telecommunication vendor. The action research was preceded by a case study to understand the testing process at the company. Results: A study selection process based on the strategies identified from literature was proposed. It was found to systemize selection and to support inclusiveness with reasonable additional effort in an SLR of the SPSM literature. The SPSM studies identified in literature scored poorly on the rigor and relevance criteria and lacked evaluation of SPSM for the intended purposes. Lastly, based on literature, a six-step process to conduct an SPSM study was used to develop a System Dynamics model of the testing process for training purposes in the company. Conclusion: The findings identify two potential directions for facilitating SPSM adoption. First, by learning from other disciplines having done simulation for a longer time. It was evident how similar the consolidated process for conducting an SPSM study was to the process used in simulation in general. Second the existing work on SPSM can at best be classified as strong ``proof-of-concept’’ that SPSM can be useful in the real world software development. Thus, there is a need to evaluate and report the usefulness of SPSM for the intended purposes with scientific rigor.

  • 1472.
    Bin Ali, Nauman
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering. Blekinge Inst Technol, Karlskrona, Sweden..
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering. Blekinge Inst Technol, Karlskrona, Sweden..
    Nicolau de Franca, Breno Bernard
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, ESE Grp, PESC COPPE, BR-68511 Rio De Janeiro, Brazil..
    Evaluation of simulation-assisted value stream mapping for software product development: Two industrial cases2015In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 68, p. 45-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Value stream mapping (VSM) as a tool for lean development has led to significant improvements in different industries. In a few studies, it has been successfully applied in a software engineering context. However, some shortcomings have been observed in particular failing to capture the dynamic nature of the software process to evaluate improvements i.e. such improvements and target values are based on idealistic situations. Objective: To overcome the shortcomings of VSM by combining it with software process simulation modeling, and to provide reflections on the process of conducting VSM with simulation. Method: Using case study research, VSM was used for two products at Ericsson AB, Sweden. Ten workshops were conducted in this regard. Simulation in this study was used as a tool to support discussions instead of as a prediction tool. The results have been evaluated from the perspective of the participating practitioners, an external observer, and reflections of the researchers conducting the simulation that was elicited by the external observer. Results: Significant constraints hindering the product development from reaching the stated improvement goals for shorter lead time were identified. The use of simulation was particularly helpful in having more insightful discussions and to challenge assumptions about the likely impact of improvements. However, simulation results alone were found insufficient to emphasize the importance of reducing waiting times and variations in the process. Conclusion: The framework to assist VSM with simulation presented in this study was successfully applied in two cases. The involvement of various stakeholders, consensus building steps, emphasis on flow (through waiting time and variance analysis) and the use of simulation proposed in the framework led to realistic improvements with a high likelihood of implementation. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 1473.
    bin Ali, Nauman
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    A systematic literature review on the industrial use of software process simulation2014In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, Vol. 97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context Software process simulation modelling (SPSM) captures the dynamic behaviour and uncertainty in the software process. Existing literature has conflicting claims about its practical usefulness: SPSM is useful and has an industrial impact; SPSM is useful and has no industrial impact yet; SPSM is not useful and has little potential for industry. Objective To assess the conflicting standpoints on the usefulness of SPSM. Method A systematic literature review was performed to identify, assess and aggregate empirical evidence on the usefulness of SPSM. Results In the primary studies, to date, the persistent trend is that of proof-of-concept applications of software process simulation for various purposes (e.g. estimation, training, process improvement, etc.). They score poorly on the stated quality criteria. Also only a few studies report some initial evaluation of the simulation models for the intended purposes. Conclusion There is a lack of conclusive evidence to substantiate the claimed usefulness of SPSM for any of the intended purposes. A few studies that report the cost of applying simulation do not support the claim that it is an inexpensive method. Furthermore, there is a paramount need for improvement in conducting and reporting simulation studies with an emphasis on evaluation against the intended purpose.

  • 1474.
    bin Ali, Nauman
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Use and evaluation of simulation for software process education: a case study2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software Engineering is an applied discipline and concepts are difficult to grasp only at a theoretical level alone. In the context of a project management course, we introduced and evaluated the use of software process simulation (SPS) based games for improving students’ understanding of software development processes. The effects of the intervention were measured by evaluating the students’ arguments for choosing a particular development process. The arguments were assessed with the Evidence-Based Reasoning framework, which was extended to assess the strength of an argument. The results indicate that students generally have difficulty providing strong arguments for their choice of process models. Nevertheless, the assessment indicates that the intervention of the SPS game had a positive impact on the students’ arguments. Even though the illustrated argument assessment approach can be used to provide formative feedback to students, its use is rather costly and cannot be considered a replacement for traditional assessments.

  • 1475.
    Bin, Bai
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Ahmad, Allouh
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Study and Analysis of the Electrical and Mechanical Parts in a Wind Turbine2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A wind turbine is a complex electromechanical system. It is important to know how to control it, particularly if high performance and good efficiency are needed. Understanding the rules of nature and the behavior of a wind turbine, especially in its operation, is a subject that requires a number of types of specialized knowledge. We also need to know how to work on them, and then carry out further research and development on their functionality. In this thesis we have studied in different aspects of wind turbine. There are two types of wind turbines (Horizontal axis & Vertical axis). In our thesis we have only focused on the horizontal-axis type.

  • 1476. Binzenhöfer, Andreas
    et al.
    Schlosser, Daniel
    Tutschku, Kurt
    Fiedler, Markus
    An Autonomic Approach to Verify End-to-End Communication Quality2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    -- To come --

  • 1477. Binzenhöfer, Andreas
    et al.
    Tutschku, Kurt
    Graben, Björn auf dem
    Fiedler, Markus
    Arlos, Patrik
    A P2P-based framework for distributed network management2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a novel framework supporting distributed network management using a self-organizing peer-to-peer overlay network. The overlay consists of several Distributed Network Agents which can perform distributed tests and distributed monitoring for fault and performance management. In that way, the concept is able to overcome disadvantages that come along with a central management unit, like lack of scalability and reliability. So far, little attention has been payed to the quality of service experienced by the end user. Our self-organizing management overlay provides a reliable and scalable basis for distributed tests that incorporate the end user. The use of a distributed, self-organizing software will also reduce capital and operational expenditures of the operator since fewer entities have to be installed and operated.

  • 1478. Binzenhöfer, Andreas
    et al.
    Tutschku, Kurt
    Graben, Björn auf dem
    Fiedler, Markus
    Arlos, Patrik
    DNA, a P2P-based framework for distributed network management2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    N/A

  • 1479.
    Birbiglia, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    Sociala media och arbete: Relationen mellan psykologiskt arbetsklimat och nyttjande av sociala media i arbetet2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Genom att studera relationen mellan upplevt psykologiskt arbetsklimat och anställdas användande av sociala media i arbetet söktes stöd för studiens huvudsyfte: om anställda använder sig av sociala media i arbetet om arbetsklimatet inte upplevs som positivt, samt om sociala media används, hur anställda då uppfattar sociala media som hjälp och stöd i arbetet. Genom en webbaserad enkät samlades data in från deltagarna (N = 27), vilka härrörde från tre IT-avdelningar i en kommunal organisation i Mellansverige. Analyser av ackumulerad data skedde till övervägande del genom Spearmans korrelationstest och Mann-Whitney U-test. Resultatet indikerade stöd för två av studiens tre hypoteser vad gäller samband mellan upplevelse av psykologiskt arbetsklimat och användande av sociala media, samt skillnader mellan anställdas upplevelse av relationer till kollegor offline och användande av sociala media. Däremot hittades inga signifikanta skillnader för hur anställda, beroende på hur de ser på kunskap, tar stöd från relationer online och offline.

  • 1480.
    Birbiglia, Veronica
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    Jansson, Camilla
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    Chefskapets betydelse för etablerandet av en lärandemiljö: Livslångt lärande i pedagogisk verksamhet2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens ledord skulle kunna sägas vara förändring. Medarbetare börjar och slutar sina anställningar, verksamheter omorganiseras, nya företag etableras och gamla kommunala funktioner avknoppas och blir privata. En annan kultur tar plats där medarbetarnas lärande och utveckling ses som ett av företagens viktigaste konkurrensmedel och blir därigenom något att fokusera på, synliggöra och utveckla. Vikten av en gynnsam lärandemiljö för medarbetarna står därför i centrum för att möjliggöra för deras livslånga lärande. Med utgångspunkt från det sociokulturella perspektivet samt hur förutsättningar för lärande uppstår och skapas blev syftet med studien således att få förståelse för chefens betydelse för lärandemiljön på en nyetablerad arbetsplats. Studien genomfördes på ett företag med två nystartade förskolor där deltagarna utgjordes av två chefer och deras medarbetare. Undersökningen utgick från en etnografisk ansats där materialinsamlingen till största del baserades på deltagande observationer men där även loggböcker samt djupintervjuer med cheferna användes som kompletterande metoder. Resultatet visade att chefens medvetenhet om samt förståelse och engagemang för medarbetarnas lärande på arbetsplatsen är av största vikt för att en lärandemiljö ska kunna skapas samt att goda relationer och öppen kommunikation har stor betydelse för att få trygga och delaktiga medarbetare.

  • 1481.
    Birgersson, Frida
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Onomatopoesi i skönlitteratur: - gemensamma tolkningar av ljudhärmande ord2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous and recent studies shows that onomatopoeia is presented in fictionstories but the studies lack valid information within the subject. Moredetailed research can be found within language studies. The purpose of thisstudy is to enlighten onomatopoeia, how it is presented in fictionproductions and if people share a mutual vision of sounds imitating wordsthat might be used in these productions. The study was conducted with aqualitative method and with a phenomenological perspective. 36 individualsparticipated in a questionnaire that was conducted. A number of sounds waspresented to the participants who then had to type the sound in text. BONKand SPLOOSH showed a mutual vision and the result was presented astables. A product was created to unite the previous and recent studies withthe result from the questionnaire. This resulted in an interactive book thatwith help of digital tool create an ordiginal product.

  • 1482. Birgersson, Tommy
    et al.
    Gynnerstedt, Kerstin
    Öresjö, Eva
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Spatial Planning and Civil Engineering.
    Vem bestämmer: om medborgarinflytande och kommunal planering. Erfarenheter från Sydlänsprojektet.1998Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Boverket och Folkrörelserådet Hela Sverige ska leva tog 1995 initiativ till Sydlänsprojektet. Syftet var att finna former för hur lokalt utvecklingsarbete kan få bättre stöd av kommunal planering men också hur medborgarinflytandet kan komma till tydligare uttryck. Denna rapport redovisar resultatet från utvärderingen av Sydlänsprojektet. Den innehåller iakttagelser och relexioner kring de processer som har ägt rum mellan nio kommuner och lika många lokala utvecklingsarbeten i deras försök att förbättra medborgarinflytandet i kommunal planering. Rapporten vänder sig till de personer som har varit involverade i Sydlänsprojektet men också till andra kommuner och grupper av medborgare som står i beredskap att starta eller befinner sig mitt i ett liknande arbete. Slutsatserna från utvärderingen och de förslag som presenteras bör även kunna tjäna som underlag för en allmän diskussion om hur medborgarnas delaktighet i samhällsplaneringen ska kunna förbättras. Det kan gälla förändringsarbte i såväl mindre samhällen som storskaliga bostadsområden. Erfarenheter från Sydlänsprojektet kan dessutom vara nyttiga för de personer som arbetar med att genomföra FN-initiativen Agenda 21 och Habitatagendan.

  • 1483.
    Birkestedt, Sara
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Hansson, Andreas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Can web-based statistic services be trusted?2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of statistic services exist today, which shows that there is a great interest in knowing more about the visitors on a web site. But how reliable is the result the services are giving? The hypothesis examined in the thesis is: Web-based statistic services do not show an accurate result The purpose of the thesis is to find out how accurate the web-based statistic services are regarding unique visitors and number of pages viewed. Our hope is that this thesis will bring more knowledge about the different statistic services that exists today and the problems surrounding them. We will also draw attention to the importance of knowing how your statistic software works to be able to interpret the results correctly. To investigate this, we chose to do practical tests on a selection of web-based statistic services. The services registered the traffic from the same web site during a test period. During the same period a control program registered the same things and stored the result in a database. In addition to the test, we have done an interview with a person working with web statistics. The investigation showed that there are big differences between the results from the web-based statistic services in the test and that none of them showed an accurate result, neither for the total number of page views nor unique visitors. This led us to the conclusion that web-based statistic services do not show an accurate result, which verifies our hypothesis. Also the interview confirmed that there is a problem with measuring web statistics.

  • 1484.
    Bisong, Ayambe
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Social Sustainability in Africa: The case of Cameroon2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this research is to examine how Africa can become a socially sustainable society by the year 2030 using a strategic leadership approach with Cameroon as a case study. Using a generic and whole systems view, the study would examine the possibility of a transition from a socially un-sustainable society to sustainable society. The study analyses the current political, economic, social and environmental operations that undermines people’s ability to meet their basic needs. It also highlights some of the strengths and opportunities of the Cameroonian society that can help accelerate this transition. Threats and weaknesses are also identified and corrective measures are proposed. Agriculture and social capacity building amongst others stand out as prominent opportunities which could be use to further strategic progress towards sustainability. The study concludes that, with a well defined vision, it is possible for Cameroon to strategically progress towards a socially sustainable society.

  • 1485.
    BISWAS, KALLOL KUMAR
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Planning and Media Design.
    Changing Climate; Bangladesh Facing the Challenge of Severe Flood Problems; A Comparison of Flood Management between Bangladesh and the Netherlands2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Both Bangladesh and the Netherlands are the most flood prone countries in two continents Asia and Europe. Bangladesh is known to be highly vulnerable to floods. Frequent floods have put enormous constraints on its development potential. Unfortunately, the frequency of high intensity floods is increasing every year. So far the country has struggled to put a sizeable infrastructure in place to prevent flooding in many parts of the country with limited success. Where, the Netherlands has developed a massive success in their flood management. The paper will represents the present flood management situation of the two countries Bangladesh and the Netherlands and by making comparison of flood management between these two countries, give some recommendation for further flood management. Historically Bangladesh has developed the flood management laws but lack of implementation and continuous inconsistencies of these laws make Bangladesh backward in their flood management, in compare to the Netherlands. Bangladesh has been practicing the construction of earthen flood control embankments is an established practice for protecting people’s lives and homes, agriculture and infrastructures since the beginning of flood management. Where, the Netherlands has developed spatial construction to control flood and different strategies have been implementing to minimize the flood hazards according to their needs. On the basis of overall present situation in Bangladesh, the paper also tried to suggests some solutions to minimize the extent of flood hazards in the long run.

  • 1486.
    Biswas, Kamanashis
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Interaction and System Design.
    Ali, Md. Liakat
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Interaction and System Design.
    Security Threats in Mobile Ad Hoc Network2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of communication devices or nodes that wish to communicate without any fixed infrastructure and pre-determined organization of available links. The nodes in MANET themselves are responsible for dynamically discovering other nodes to communicate. Although the ongoing trend is to adopt ad hoc networks for commercial uses due to their certain unique properties, the main challenge is the vulnerability to security attacks. A number of challenges like open peer-to-peer network architecture, stringent resource constraints, shared wireless medium, dynamic network topology etc. are posed in MANET. As MANET is quickly spreading for the property of its capability in forming temporary network without the aid of any established infrastructure or centralized administration, security challenges has become a primary concern to provide secure communication. In this thesis, we identify the existent security threats an ad hoc network faces, the security services required to be achieved and the countermeasures for attacks in each layer. To accomplish our goal, we have done literature survey in gathering information related to various types of attacks and solutions, as well as we have made comparative study to address the threats in different layers. Finally, we have identified the challenges and proposed solutions to overcome them. In our study, we have found that necessity of secure routing protocol is still a burning question. There is no general algorithm that suits well against the most commonly known attacks such as wormhole, rushing attack etc. In conclusion, we focus on the findings and future works which may be interesting for the researchers like robust key management, trust based systems, data security in different layer etc. However, in short, we can say that the complete security solution requires the prevention, detection and reaction mechanisms applied in MANET.

  • 1487.
    Biswas, Md Abdul Matin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Exploiting the Direct Communication Link for Enhancing Effective Capacity Performance of Cognitive Radio Relay Networks2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, cognitive radio (CR) is a promising concept to improve the radio spectrum exploitation. CR has tremendous ability to enhance spectrum efficiency by allowing secondary users (SUs) to access licensed radio spectrum resource which is currently not being used by primary users (PUs). One basic challenge of that paradigm is securing the quality of service (QoS) of the primary link transmission while increasing the rate of the secondary links transmission. Cooperative relaying is an encouraging technology which offers the opportunity to maximize the transmission diversity gain significantly in the rapid development growth of wireless communication which contains cognitive radio networks. On the other hand, effective capacity (EC) which is designed to provide a maximum constant arrival rate that a statistical wireless channels can support while satisfying statistical QoS requirements. In this thesis, the performance enhancement analysis of cognitive radio relay network (CRRN) by exploiting the direct communication link has been investigated in Rayleigh fading channel where peak interference power constraint is taken into consider. A spectrum sharing technique is considered in this thesis where a restriction of spectrum sharing is applied by the PUs. Here, an SU can coexist simultaneously with the PU for transmitting data as long as a certain threshold on the peak interference power applied on the primary receiver is not overstepped by the SUs transmission. In addition, it is supposed that there are multiple intermediate relay nodes available to transmit their signal to the destination along with a direct communication link for secondary transmission. Moreover, the SU transmission has to meet a random delay QoS constraint. By providing this QoS constraint, the maximum arrival data rate of SUs can be achieved with small error of probability. Specifically, this thesis also acquires closed-form expressions of EC for CRRN. It is evident that if the channel quality and the interference threshold set by the PU are changed, then the capacity of the channel is also to be changed. In addition, it is also verified that the direct communication link together with multiple relay nodes has significantly higher capacity gains compare to non-direct communication link for CRRN. Matlab simulations are presented to find out theoretical results and Monte-Carlo simulations are carried out to support these numerical results. Both the simulation results and the analytical results match very well.

  • 1488.
    Bitar, Mattias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    An analysis of cloud based e-learning providers’ versioning strategy2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Versioning is a product differentiation strategy where a product or service are distinguished or diversified in the intention of making it more attractive to a specific target group. It is often used to price discriminate and a way to profit maximize. Previous studies have mostly concerned software products in general. But with cloud based software products, specific conditions when versioning might occur. E-learning system are one specific software product that shifts more and more to the cloud and a specific market to study.

    Purpose: Differentiating a software product can be made in several ways but which features to use when versioning is not studied in previous studies, the conditions and reasons are unclear. The purpose of this study is to study cloud based e-learning providers to discover characteristics of feasible features when versioning.

    Method: To answer the defined research problem qualitative research methods was used in terms of interviews, documentations and observing artefacts. The research data was gathered through four case studies of different cloud e-learning provider, conducting of eight interviewees and four observations of their respective e-learning system. Additionally, articles and other documents was also analysed, that was provided by the companies of the case studies.

    Delimitations: This research was restricted so it focused on cloud e-learning providers’ perspective as they are those who use the versioning strategy. The limitations therefore only concerns e-learning and cloud services and are not generalized to all software products.

    Results: The results from the different data collection methods shows that feature characteristics mainly concerns market reasons with specific user preferences and customers with buying behaviors. E-learning systems brings technical reasons to why features are feasible, and the cloud have different service layers, each with different possible features to differentiate in. Costs is also a major concern when choosing feasible features for versioning.

    Conclusion: E-learning providers see the versioning strategy as an iterative process. Which features that are feasible for one versions seem to change over time as the market changes and product develops. Features are mainly related to the specific market. When versioning, features are separated between standard features for the whole system or segment specific features for one version. Features are also considered if they will add more value than the cost to develop. E-learning providers also develop features if they are economic and technological possible to develop, and if they are within the company’s scope. 

  • 1489.
    Bitterman, Michal
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Lopez, Viviana
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Wright, Fiona
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    A Bridge to Peace: Strategic Sustainable Development as an approach to Conflict Resolution2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: This thesis argues that taking a strategic sustainable development (SSD) approach to conflict resolution in areas of the world in long-term intractable conflict with intermittent violence could support an effective process and lasting outcome. SSD proposes a holistic systems perspective and decision-making framework to address challenges and opportunities at the largest scale, including identifying root causes and drivers of the conflict as well as finding common ground internally and externally. The currently unbalanced dynamics between the two fundaments of sustainability, a robust ecosystem and social fabric, are the basis of deeply unsustainable patterns of behaviour which are often also at the heart of conflicts. Socio-ecological unsustainability can be both a threat, and an opportunity for resolution and social change. The framework offers a proven way of organizing, evaluating and using tools that can aid in dealing with sustainability issues constructively, and evidence is presented to suggest its usage can be extended to conflict issues. This thesis analyzes the links between sustainability, strategic sustainable development and conflict resolution work in the areas of conflict described, and proposes a set of guidelines for approaching conflict resolution with SSD.

  • 1490. Bizzozero, Linaa
    et al.
    Berggren, Linda
    Icke- Farmakologiska Metoder inom äldreomsorgen2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1491.
    Bjarke, David
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Technoculture, Humanities and Planning.
    Verksamhetsutveckling Spelföretag2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är en kandidatuppsats som presenterar en analys av ett spelföretag och dess verksamhet med fokus på gruppdynamik, ledarskap och projektledning. Uppsatsen är indelad i tre delar, analys, genomförande och resultat. Analys delen beskriver följande verksamhetsområden; hur gruppen anställda på Black Drop Studios agerar i samspelet med varandra, vilken typ av ledarskap som bedrivs, hur produktionen är strukturerad, vilka projektledningsverktyg och metoder som används. Genomförande delen beskriver olika åtgärder för dessa verksamhetsområden, för att göra dessa mer effektiva. Resultat delen beskriver vilka åtgärder som införts samt vilka som planerade att genomföras. Sammanfattningsvis har gruppen utvecklats till en mer högpresterande grupp med en större insikt i vad som påverkar deras sätt att fungera som ett team och deras behov ledarskap, verktyg och arbetsmetoder inför framtida projekt och utmaningar.

  • 1492. Bjarnadóttír, Hólmfríður
    SEA in the Context of Land-Use Planning: The application of the EU directive 2001/42/EC to Sweden, Iceland and England2008Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis addresses the introduction of a supra-national instrument; a European directive on Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) into national contexts of land-use planning in three countries; Sweden, Iceland and England. The directive ”On the assessment of the effects of certain plans and programmes on the environment” was agreed upon by the European Commission on the 21st of June 2001 and was to be transposed to national legislation by 21st of June 2004. The introduction of these requirements meant that the countries needed to make legal adjustments and implement it at the different levels of planning. Many EU member countries, including those studied in the thesis, had some experience of environmental assessment of plans and programmes prior to the introduction of the SEA directive. SEA has as a concept and a tool in planning in national and international debate on Environmental Assessment and planning for the last two decades. Hence, the SEA directive was introduced to an existing context of environmental assessment in planning and the preparation of the directive has drawn on substantial conceptual development and practical experience of strategic environmental assessment in various forms. The aim of this research is to shed a light on the transposition of the SEA directive into a national legal framework and how the introduction relates to the countries’ planning contexts and previous application of SEA-like instruments. In the thesis an overview is given of the way the directive is transposed to the national legal system of the three countries and the existing planning framework is described. The results from the national reviews are analysed in relation to the contents of the directive and the international and Nordic academic debate regarding the purpose and role of SEA, related to the characteristics of the planning system. The research shows differences in the legal and planning contexts to which the SEA requirements have been introduced in the three countries. Despite of those, the legal requirements follow closely the contents of the directive. However, the expectations towards the directive expressed by national officials and politicians, the recommendations in the way the legal SEA requirements shall be implemented, differ between the countries as well as references to other processes; land-use planning and the practices of Environmental Impact Assessment and Sustainability Appraisal. The thesis is the result of a project within the interdisciplinary research programme MiSt, “Tools for environmental assessment in strategic decision making” at BTH funded by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. The project has been carried out at Nordregio, the Nordic Centre for Spatial Development, Stockholm.

  • 1493.
    Bjarnason, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Lund Univ, SWE.
    Morandini, Mirko
    Fdn Bruno Kessler, ITA.
    Borg, Markus
    Lund Univ, SWE.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Felderer, Michael
    Univ Innsbruck, AUT.
    Staats, Matthew
    Google Inc, CHE.
    2nd International Workshop on Requirements Engineering and Testing (RET 2015)2015In: 2015 IEEE/ACM 37TH IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, VOL 2, IEEE , 2015, p. 997-998Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The RET (Requirements Engineering and Testing) workshop provides a meeting point for researchers and practitioners from the two separate fields of Requirements Engineering (RE) and Testing. The goal is to improve the connection and alignment of these two areas through an exchange of ideas, challenges, practices, experiences and results. The long term aim is to build a community and a body of knowledge within the intersection of RE and Testing. One of the main outputs of the 1st workshop was a collaboratively constructed map of the area of RET showing the topics relevant to RET for these. The 2nd workshop will continue in the same interactive vein and include a keynote, paper presentations with ample time for discussions, and a group exercise. For true impact and relevance this cross-cutting area requires contribution from both RE and Testing, and from both researchers and practitioners. For that reason we welcome a range of paper contributions from short experience papers to full research papers that both clearly cover connections between the two fields.

  • 1494. Bjarnason, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Runeson, Per
    Borg, Markus
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Engström, Emelie
    Regnell, Björn
    Sabaliauskaite, Giedre
    Loconsole, Annabella
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Challenges and Practices in Aligning Requirements with Verification and Validation: A Case Study of Six Companies2014In: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 1809-1855Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Weak alignment of requirements engineering (RE) with verification and validation (VV) may lead to problems in delivering the required products in time with the right quality. For example, weak communication of requirements changes to testers may result in lack of verification of new requirements and incorrect verification of old invalid requirements, leading to software quality problems, wasted effort and delays. However, despite the serious implications of weak alignment research and practice both tend to focus on one or the other of RE or VV rather than on the alignment of the two. We have performed a multi-unit case study to gain insight into issues around aligning RE and VV by interviewing 30 practitioners from 6 software developing companies, involving 10 researchers in a flexible research process for case studies. The results describe current industry challenges and practices in aligning RE with VV, ranging from quality of the individual RE and VV activities, through tracing and tools, to change control and sharing a common understanding at strategy, goal and design level. The study identified that human aspects are central, i.e. cooperation and communication, and that requirements engineering practices are a critical basis for alignment. Further, the size of an organisation and its motivation for applying alignment practices, e.g. external enforcement of traceability, are variation factors that play a key role in achieving alignment. Our results provide a strategic roadmap for practitioners improvement work to address alignment challenges. Furthermore, the study provides a foundation for continued research to improve the alignment of RE with VV.

  • 1495. Bjarnason, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Borg, Markus
    Engström, Emelie
    A Multi-Case Study of Agile Requirements Engineering and the Use of Test Cases as Requirements2016In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 77, p. 61-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [Context] It is an enigma that agile projects can succeed ‘without requirements’ when weak requirementsengineering is a known cause for project failures. While agile development projects often manage well withoutextensive requirements test cases are commonly viewed as requirements and detailed requirements are documented astest cases.[Objective] We have investigated this agile practice of using test cases as requirements to understand how test casescan support the main requirements activities, and how this practice varies.[Method] We performed an iterative case study at three companies and collected data through 14 interviews and 2focus groups.[Results] The use of test cases as requirements poses both benefits and challenges when eliciting, validating,verifying, and managing requirements, and when used as a documented agreement. We have identified five variants ofthe test-cases-as-requirements practice, namely de facto, behaviour-driven, story-test driven, stand-alone strict andstand-alone manual for which the application of the practice varies concerning the time frame of requirementsdocumentation, the requirements format, the extent to which the test cases are a machine executable specification andthe use of tools which provide specific support for the practice of using test cases as requirements.[Conclusions] The findings provide empirical insight into how agile development projects manage andcommunicate requirements. The identified variants of the practice of using test cases as requirements can be used toperform in-depth investigations into agile requirements engineering. Practitioners can use the providedrecommendations as a guide in designing and improving their agile requirements practices based on projectcharacteristics such as number of stakeholders and rate of change.

  • 1496.
    Bjarnason, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Engström, Emelie
    Lund University.
    Borg, Markus
    Lund University.
    An Industrial Case Study on the Use of Test Cases as Requirements2015In: Lecture Notes in Business Information, Springer, 2015, p. 27-39Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is a conundrum that agile projects can succeed 'without requirements' when weak requirements engineering is a known cause for project failures. While Agile development projects often manage well without extensive requirements documentation, test cases are commonly used as requirements. We have investigated this agile practice at three companies in order to understandhow test cases can fill the role of requirements. We performed a case study based on twelve interviews performed in a previous study.The findings include a range of benefits and challenges in using test cases for eliciting, validating, verifying, tracing and managing requirements. In addition, we identified three scenarios for applying the practice, namely as a mature practice, as a de facto practice and as part of an agile transition. The findings provide insights into how the role of requirements may be met in agile development including challenges to consider.

  • 1497.
    Bjarting, Lovisa
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Spatial Planning and Civil Engineering.
    Trygg och säker: förbättringar av Karlskronas huvudstråk för gång- och cykeltrafik2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete belyser trygghetsdiskussionen inom den fysiska planeringen och ger förslag på förbättringar av den fysiska miljön på otrygga platser, med fokus på gång- och cykelstråk. Idag är trygghet och säkerhet en viktig faktor för trivsel, oavsett om man bor i staden eller på landsbygden. Själva rädslan för att bli utsatt för brott är i sig ett problem. För många människor begränsar rädslan påtagligt vardagens möjligheter att använda stadens miljöer. Rädslan för att drabbas av våld eller annan brottslighet gör att många människor håller sig borta från offentliga platser och allmänna kommunikationer, speciellt efter det har blivit mörkt. Rädslan är beroende av olika sociala relationer som finns mellan olika grupper i samhället. Den föreställda rädslan är bl. a kopplad till vilken könoch etnicitetstillhörighet vi har, hur vi klär oss eller hur vi rör oss i det offentliga rummet. Ingen rädsla är densamma utan den påverkas av tid, rum och olika livssituationer. Kön är en styrande variabeln när det gäller rädsla. Tidigare undersökningar visar att kvinnor är mer rädda än män men mindre utsatta för brott än vad män är. Detta är dock något som håller på att utjämnas. I takt med att misshandel och gatuvåld ökar, känner sig även män otrygga ute i den offentliga miljön. Sedan början av 1970-talet finns det två tydliga teorier om brottsförebyggande stadsplanering. Den ena förespråkar slutenhet, den andra öppenhet. Men för att det finns olika uppfattningar och angripssätt behöver de för den skull inte utesluta varandra. Variation, mångfald och trygghet är genomgående teman för Jane Jacobs i hennes stadsplaneringsidéer. Även kriminologer brukar dela in de åtgärder som man kan vidta för att förebygga brott i social och situationell brottsprevention. Alla upplever sin stad på olika sätt. Ett torg som en eftermiddag är fyllt med människor kan några timmar senare upplevas som hotfullt när det är folktomt och mörkt. För att kunna skapa möjligheter för alla att vistas ute i det offentliga rummet och känna sig trygg är det viktigt att förstå hur staden är uppbyggd. Det handlar om hur staden kan tolkas i sin helhet genom att studera stads-, bebyggelse- och trafikstrukturer. Rapportens praktiska del fokuserar på Karlskronas gång- och cykelvägar som är till stor del är otrygga och har en bristfällig planering och förvaltning. Följden av detta blir att människor inte rör sig på dessa platser utan väljer istället andra färdmedel eller kanske farligare och längre alternativa vägar. De i arbetet gjorda trygghetsvandringarna visar att det finns många otrygga platser och sträckor. Förslagsdelen består av en fördjupning på ett antal inventerade sträckor där förslag på åtgärder för att förbättra tryggheten ges. Valet av de utvalda sträckorna baseras på den bedömningsskala som används i trygghetsvandringarna. För att visa på olika åtgärder har ett antal sträckningar valts ut som fördjupningar i arbetet. Urvalet för just de aktuella sträckorna grundar sig på att de har fått lågt omdöme i, den i arbetet gjorda, inventeringen. Det finns dock många sträckor, tillsammans med dessa, som behöver åtgärdas för att upplevas som tryggare. De utvalda platserna kan därför statuera som typexempel även för andra platser med likartade problem. De olika sträckorna som inventerats utvärderas utifrån ett antal utformningsteman för att konkretisera och identifiera de problem som behöver åtgärdas för att göra platsen/sträckan tryggare. Överblickbarhet, tillgänglighet, belysning, förvaltning och tidsanvändningsmönster. För att skapa en trygg miljö krävs det att belysningen är god – varken för svag eller för stark, utan jämn utan mörka partier. Det krävs en bra överblickbarhet och tillgänglighet med hjälp av öppna siktlinjer med synliga målpunkter samt tydlig skyltning och vägmarkering. En jämn och omsorgsfull förvaltning av markbeläggning, väggar, möbler och vegetation bidrar till att en plats upplevs som trygg och kontrollerad. Om en plats har goda egenskaper bidrar det till att människor använder platsen eller sträckan vilket i sin tur leder till en ökad genomströmning av människor och ett ökat och mer aktivt tidsanvändningsmönster som är av ingredienserna för att Karlskronas gång- och cykelstråk ska bli trygga och säkra.

  • 1498. Bjegovic-Mikanovic, Vesna
    et al.
    Laaser, Ulrich
    Vukovic, Dejana
    Stjernberg, Louise
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Health.
    Otok, Robert
    Czabanowska, Katarzyna
    The way forward in partnerships for education and training in public health2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today schools and departments of public health (SDPHs), as well as public health professionals are searching for interface and synergies between public health science and practice. They are increasingly relying on partnerships in order to achieve common goals. To collect more information on the fragmented institutional landscape the Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER) organised a survey among its full institutional 81 members with the core objective to assess the exit competences of master of public health graduates according to the new Essential Public Health Operations (EPHO) of WHO-EURO. The survey results indicate that usually European SDPHs are small units, funded from tax money. A total of 130 academic programmes released 3035 graduates per last year All selected competences within each EPHO showed high reliability and high internal consistency (alpha>0.75, p<0.01). SDPH assess their best teaching output to be in the field of health promotion, followed by disease prevention and identification of priority health problems and health hazards in the community, while they see the least success regarding preparedness and planning for public health emergencies. Given the fragmentation of the institutional infrastructure, the harmonization of programme content and thinking is impressive. Even more surprising is the observation that the determination of the desired performance by employers of public health professionals for most EPHOs (6 out of 10) is almost congruent with the estimated output of SDPHs. The main objective of the workshop was to continue with permanent dialogue on innovation and good practice in public health education, continuing training and lifelong learning and to strengthen everlasting collaboration of European schools in efforts to improve public health performance.

  • 1499. Bjerkén, Christina
    et al.
    Kao-Walter, Sharon
    Ståhle, Per
    Fracture Mechanisms of a Thin Elastic Plastic Laminate2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fracture toughness of a polymer-metal laminate composite is obtained by mechanical testing of a specimen containing a pre-crack. The laminate is a material used for packaging. It consists of a thin aluminium foil and a polymer coating. A centre cracked panel test geometry is used. Each of the layers forming the laminate is also tested separately. The result is compared with the measured fracture strength of the individual layers. It is observed that the load carrying capacity increases dramatically for the laminate. At the strain when peak load is reached for the laminate only aluminium is expected to carry any substantial load because of the low stiffness of the LDPE. However, the strength of the laminate is almost twice the strength of the aluminium foil. The reason seems to be that the aluminium forces the polymer to absorb large quantities of energy at small nominal strain. The toughness compares well with the accumulated toughness of all involved layers. Possible fracture of the interface between the layers is discussed.

  • 1500.
    Bjernevall, Ola
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Identifiering av smärta hos personer med demens med förlorad förmåga att kommunicera verbalt: En kvalitativ litteraturstudie ur vårdgivarens perspektiv2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Mellan 60-80% av de vårdtagare som bor på någon form av vårdinrättning lever med smärta. Hos vårdtagare med demens och med förlorad förmåga att kommunicera verbalt kommer förmågan att förmedla smärta på så sätt försvåras. Detta är ett problem som kommer att öka allt eftersom befolkningen blir äldre och äldre och också antalet vårdtagare med demens och med förlorad förmåga att kommunicera verbalt ökar. Syftet: Syftet var att belysa hur vårdgivare upplever att de kan identifiera smärta hos vårdtagare med demens som förlorat sin verbala förmåga att kommunicera. Metod: Studien var en litteraturstudie baserad på kvalitativa artiklar baserade på vårdgivarens upplevelser. Innehållsanalys gjordes enligt Graneheim och Lundman (2004) och artiklarna kvalitetsbedömdes enligt Carlsson och Eiman (2000). Artiklar söktes i databaserna PubMed, PsycInfo, Cinahl och Medline samt manuellt. Resultat: Det framkom att det finns ett stort behov och önskan ifrån vårdgivarna att få adekvat utbildning i metoder för att bemöta vårdtagare med demens och smärta. För att kunna utföra en tillförlitlig identifiering av smärta krävs att patientkännedomen är hög. Smärta kan tolkas genom ansiktsuttryck, kroppsspråk eller ett ändrat beteende. Slutsats: Identifiering av smärta hos vårdtagare med demens och som förlorat sin verbala förmåga att kommunicera är inte en omöjlig uppgift. Vårdgivarna i studien upplever att en förutsättning för att lyckas är dock att vårdgivaren har en god kännedom om vårdtagaren för att kunna upptäcka förändringar i beteendet.

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