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  • 1451.
    Soukhova, Olga
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Health.
    Svensson, Desireé
    Omvårdnadsbehov hos personer med svår demens.: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Vid omvårdnad av äldre personer med svår demens är det särskilt viktigt att sjuksköterskan förhåller sig personcentrerat. Omvårdnadsarbetet utformas utifrån personens enskilda behov, för att på så sätt bevara eller förbättra personens funktioner och bidra till ökad livskvalitet. För att kunna förbättra omvårdnaden för de personer med svår demenssjukdom, krävs det kunskaper angående de omvårdnadsbehov som denna patientgrupp kan ha.

    Syfte: Syftet var att beskriva omvårdnadsbehov som sjuksköterskor identifierar hos äldre personer med svår demenssjukdom.

    Metod: En litteraturstudie baserad på vetenskapliga artiklar med kvalitativ metod. Resultatet i artiklarna analyserades med hjälp av Granheim och Lundman´s tolkning av innehållsanalys.

    Resultat: Analysen ledde fram fyra huvudkategorier: anhörigas medverkan, kommunikation, att omvårdnaden är individanpassad och lindring av oro och ångest, följt av åtta underkategorier. De fyra huvudkategorierna visade sig vara av betydelse för sjuksköterskan vid utformningen av personanpassad omvårdnad för personer med svår demenssjukdom.

    Slutsats: Fokus i studien var att beskriva de omvårdnadsbehov som sjuksköterskor identifierar hos äldre personer med svår demenssjukdom. Studiens resultat kan bidra med kunskapen om de omvårdnadsbehoven som personer med svår demens kan ha och skapa medvetenhet hos sjuksköterskan.

     

    Nyckelord: kvalitativ studie, omvårdnadsbehov, svår demens, sjuksköterska.

  • 1452.
    Stablum, Frida
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Kvinnors livsvärld i samband med missfall2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En av fyra kvinnor beräknades få missfall innan de fyllt 39 år. Ett missfall kan leda till ångest, depression, ilska och förvirring, vilket ger ett upphov till hjälp och stöd för att kunna hantera känslorna, dels från anhöriga och dels från vårdpersonal. Syftet med studien var att belysa kvinnors livsvärld i samband med missfall. Litteraturstudien baserades på åtta vetenskapliga artiklar med kvalitativ ansats. Artiklarna bearbetades med induktiv innehållsanalys. Resultatet utmynnade i fyra kategorier: ”Förlust”, ”Skuld som kom i sökandet efter orsak”, ”Sorg, orättvisa och rädsla” samt ”Bearbetning och anpassning”. Dessa kategorier innefattade kvinnornas upplevda livsvärld under och efter missfallet. Vårdpersonalen hade en viktig roll i att stödja kvinnorna både genom att delge information, visa empati och vara närvarande.

  • 1453.
    Stanisavljevic, Jasmina
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Anhörigas upplevelser av palliativ vård i hemmet: En litteraturstudie2012Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Inom palliativ vård ska både patienternas och deras anhörigas önskemål tillgodoses. Genom att tillgodose patientens behov kan god kvalité av vården uppnås och de anhöriga får det stöd de behöver. Syfte: Studiens syfte var att belysa anhörigas upplevelser av palliativ vård i hemmet. Metod: En kvalitativ litteraturstudie genomfördes med en manifest innehållsanalys på resultatens artiklar. Totalt fem artiklar användes till resultatet. Resultat: Beskedet om patientens tillstånd upplevdes med chock och lidande. Det innebar en ny anpassad livssituation där de anhöriga fick ta hänsyn till patientens behov och önskemål. Behov av stöd från sjukvårdspersonal och andra anhöriga fanns och stödet stärkte de anhörigas livssituation. Genom att få vara närvarande under sista fasen av patientens liv fick de anhöriga att känna sig involverade och delaktiga. När de inte kunde hjälpa patienten kände de sig maktlösa och hjälplösa. I samband med döden upplevdes ilska och skuldkänslor. Efter döden var sorgen också en svår upplevelse där de kände saknad av patienten och ensamhet. Slutsats: Mer forskning om anhörigas upplevelser av palliativ vård och deras situation behövs. Stöd uppskattas av de anhöriga och behovet finns från sjukvårdspersonal. Anhöriga är beroende av kunskap och information för att kunna vårda patienten på bästa sätt i hemmet. Genom att ta del av de anhörigas upplevelser kan stöd tillämpas tidigt under vårdtiden och efter patientens död.

  • 1454.
    Staniulienė, Vida
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Conscience among care professionals in hospital setting2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The fundamental changes have made health care more complex and ethics has increasingly become a required component of clinical practice. Considering this the objectives of Lithuanians Health Care System emphasize the necessity to create and implement health care policy that will ensure public health care, high quality of health care services. Health care ethics could be considered one of the most important factors having influenced the development of the principles for the patients’ right and the protection of persons’ dignity in the 21st century. The need to explore and explain conscience within the caring context among health care professionals is an important task. The overall aim for the thesis was to describe the essence of the concept of Conscience reflected by care professionals and to adapt the questionnaire of Conscience in Lithuania hospital setting, with its psychometric evaluation. The thesis was designed as two part study. Part I the literature study was performed. Through PubMed and ELIN navigator which contains 17 data bases, covering the period from 1996 to 2005, June. Studies were included if they concerned perceptions of conscience exploration among care professionals in hospital setting. Methanalysis was carried out and model of Conscience was performed. The aim of study part 2 was to adapt the Lithuanian version of questionnaire Conscience to Lithuanian conditions and to test its reliability and validity. The adaptation procedure consisted of translation, expert panel checking relevancy of questions and examining psychometric properties of Lithuanian version of questionnaire Conscience. A pilot study was performed at two Lithuanian hospitals. Study subjects n = 99. Reliability was estimated by testing internal consistency. Correlation coefficient Cronbach’s alpha r = 0,788, split half analysis correlation coefficients: Cronbach’s alpha r = 0,575, Spearmans – Brown r = 0,73, Guttman – Split half coefficient r = 0,73. Validity was performed by testing face validity, content validity and construct validity. Face validity was confirmed by expert panel. Content validity was estimated by Cronbach’s Alpha if item deleted confirmed relevant data. An orthogonal principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation was conducted on the 16 items. Data adequacy KMO criterion on sphericity 0,695 confirms that data fits to factor analysis. The six factors with factorial weight L ≤ 0,4 explained 69% dispersion of the data. Factorial weight L ranged from 0,443 to 0,872. The instrument seems to be reliable and valid to assess the conscience among care professionals in hospital setting in Lithuania.

  • 1455.
    Stejdahl, Isabella
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Tengryd, Anna
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Föräldrars upplevelser av att leva med ett cancersjukt barn: En litteraturstudie2013Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Att vara förälder till ett cancersjukt barn kan upplevas ansträngande för föräldrarna. Detta på grund av att föräldrarna kan uppleva bland annat stress, osäkerhet och ångest. Det är inte bara rollen som förälder, utan dagliga sysslor, arbete och eventuella syskon som ska tas om hand. Få studier har belyst hur föräldrar upplever att leva med ett cancersjukt barn. Genom att belysa föräldrarnas upplevelser kan förståelsen för föräldrars upplevelser i sin tur bidra till en ökad förståelse hos sjuksköterskan i mötet med föräldrar till ett cancersjukt barn. Syfte: Syftet var att belysa föräldrars upplevelser av att leva med ett cancersjukt barn. Metod: Kvalitativ litteraturstudie, baserad på tre självbiografiska böcker. Graneheim och Lundmans (2004) beskrivning av en manifest innehållsanalys har använts. Resultat: I resultatet framkom det fem kategorier och tre underkategorier. Resultatet visar att föräldrarna upplevde hjälplöshet, ovisshet och uppgivenhet. Föräldrarna upplevde även hopp om tillfriskanande och resultatet belyser även hemmets betydelse. Dessa kategorier bildade temat: upplevelsen av att ständigt befinna sig mellan hopp och förtvivlan. Slutsats: Föreliggande studie ger en ökad förståelse för hur föräldrar upplever att leva med ett cancersjukt barn. Denna studie ger förhoppningsvis en ökad förståelse av föräldrars upplevelser, som sjuksköterskan kan ta med sig i mötet med föräldrar till ett cancersjukt barn. Sjuksköterskan ska kunna utgå ifrån en familjefokuserad omvårdnad i mötet med föräldrarna och den drabbade familjen.

  • 1456.
    Stenkula, Ida
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Health.
    Khulmi, Amela
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Health.
    När ett gemensamt språk saknas mellan sjuksköterska och patient: En litteraturstudie ur ett sjuksköterskeperspektiv2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1457.
    Stenros, Emelie
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Cederholm, Suzette
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Upplevelser av cytostatikabehandling: En litteraturstudie2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Cancer är en stor folksjukdom och det är därför av yttersta vikt att veta hur en god omvårdnad ska tillämpas och hur patienterna ska kunna bemötas under den tid de genomgår behandling med cytostatika. Många patienter som lider av cancer behandlas med cytostatika. Cytostatikabehandling ger olika biverkningar som bland annat kan försämra patientens livskvalitet, såväl fysiskt som psykiskt. Studiens syfte var att belysa patienters upplevelser under den tid de genomgår cytostatikabehandling. Metoden är en kvalitativ litteraturstudie baserad på två självbiografiska böcker. Materialet är analyserat med innehållsanalys. Resultatet kunde beskrivas via de fyra kategorierna den förändrade kroppen, förtvivlan, livsglädje och upplevelser av stöd och sociala krav. Den förändrade kroppen upplevs såsom svullnader av mage, rygg och lår samt muskelförtvining till följd av biverkningar av cytostatikabehandlingen. Biverkan i form av håravfall kunde ge en upplevd saknad av identitet. Förtvivlan visade sig vara den mest omfattande kategorin. Patienterna upplevde exempelvis lidande då de kände illamående i samband med behandling. Trots motgångar under behandling med cytostatika kunde patienterna känna livsglädje då de upplevde välbefinnande över att få leva. Patienternas upplevelser av stöd och sociala krav hade resulterat i både avslutade och förbättrade relationer med familj och vänner. Till följd av biverkningar av behandlingen upplevde patienterna även att de blev tillbakadragna och isolerade. Slutsatsen är att behandling med cytostatika är väldigt krävande fysiskt, psykiskt och socialt för patienten och dess omgivning. Hela patientens livssituation påverkas av cytostatikabehandlingen och många upplevelser väckte tankar och funderingar hos patienterna som kretsade kring livet.

  • 1458.
    Stevens, Olga
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Patienters upplevelser av palliativ vård: en litteraturstudie2011Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Som sjuksköterska är det en stor utmaning att vårda döende patienter. För att kunna ge en god omvårdnad och hjälpa patienten till ökad livskvalité, krävs att sjuksköterskan tillfullo förstår vilka behov patienter som behandlas palliativt har. Det är därför viktigt att inhämta kunskap när det gäller patienters upplevelser av den palliativa vården. Genom att belysa patienters upplevelser kan behoven identifieras och en ökad förståelse och kunskap utvinnas. Syfte: Syftet var att belysa patienters upplevelser av palliativ vård. Metod: En litteraturstudie baserad på åtta artiklar med kvalitativ ansats genomfördes och analyserades med hjälp av en manifest innehållsanalys. Resultat: Flera faktorer påverkade upplevelsen av lidande och välbefinnande. Genom delaktighet i vården och förberedelser inför döden, upplevde patienterna att de var i kontroll över situationen, något som innebar en ökad upplevelse av välbefinnande. Slutsats: Resultatet talar för att patienter som vårdas palliativt upplever lidande. En väl fungerande vårdrelation innebär att sjuksköterskan kan hjälpa patienter till välbefinnande, trots att ett lidande finns.

  • 1459.
    Stiberg, Malin
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Turkanovic, Lejla
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Motiv till att donera och upplevelser av att donera en njure2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: I det moderna samhället sker en enorm utveckling inom medicinen. En aktuell fråga är organdonation. Inför en eventuell donation väcks många känslor och tankar. Syfte: Studiens syfte var att studera motiv till att donera och upplevelser av att donera en njure. Metod: Studien genomfördes som en litteraturstudie med en kvalitativ ansats. Åtta vetenskapliga artiklar granskades med hjälp av Graneheim och Lundmans analysmetod. Resultat: Motiv till att donera en njure var: önskan att förbättra någons liv, önskan om att minska lidandet, önskan om att behålla familjen intakt samt religiösa motiv. Upplevelser av att donerat en njure var: glädje och stolthet, ånger och sorg, upplevelser av smärta och upplevelser av livskvalité. Slutsats: Det ställs stora krav och djupa kunskaper för att kunna förstå och stötta donatorns motiv till att donera och upplevelser av att donera en njure.

  • 1460. Stjernberg, Louise
    A newly detected TBE focus in the south-eastern part of Sweden: a follow-up study of TBEV seroprevalence, 1991 and 2002.2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. In 2002, 2 cases of tick-borne encephalitis were diagnosed among inhabitants living in a tick endemic area on the island of Aspö in south-eastern Sweden. During the previous 25 years, only 2 additional cases had been diagnosed in that region of Sweden. To study presence and evolution of seroprevalence of antibodies to the tick-borne encephalitis virus we carried out a follow-up study, comparing inhabitants´ immunoglobulin G antibody levels against the virus in blood samples drawn in 1991 and 2002. Method. The island of Aspö is located in the south-eastern archipelago by the Baltic Sea in the county of Blekinge, Sweden. Due to the confirmed cases of tick-borne encephalitis, permanent and part-time residents were offered tick-borne encephalitis vaccination in the autumn of 2002. Blood samples were collected and analyzed by the two-step enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect immunoglobulin G antibodies against tick-borne encephalitis virus. Also, questionnaires including questions about sex, age, earlier history of and previous vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis, residency on Aspö, history of observed tick-bites and earlier history of Lyme borreliosis and human granulocytic erhlichiosis, was filled in. All those individuals who had participated in a study on LB performed in 1991, and where available blood samples made it possible to compare tick-borne encephalitis immunoglobulin G seroprevalence, were included in the follow-up. Results. A significant increase in immunoglobulin G levels was seen during the follow-up with 24 (12.0%) of 200 blood samples being seropositive in 2002 versus 7 (3,5%) of 200 blood samples in 1991. However, only five participants converted from seronegative level during the 11 y follow-up and one of these participants had been vaccinated against tick-borne encephalitis during the observation period. In only four of all positive sera from 2002 and in no sera from 1991, were neutralizing antibodies against tick-borne encephalitis virus demonstrated. Compared with women, significantly more men were seropositive. In comparison with other age groups the greatest increase was seen in the age group 20 to 29 years. However, most seropostive levels were seen among those >50 years. Conclusion. Although we found seropositive blood samples in this area already in 1991, the existence of tick-borne encephalitis virus at that time is doubtful since no neutralizing antibodies against tick-borne encephalitis virus were demonstrated. During the 11 years follow-up an obvious increase of tick-borne encephalitis immunoglobulin G seropositive levels in humans was seen. Recommending preventing measures, including vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis is of importance for people regularly staying in this endemic area.

  • 1461. Stjernberg, Louise
    Epidemiological aspects of tick borne diseases with focus on risk and prevention2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The incidence and variety of diseases associated with ticks have increased world-wide and ticks are currently considered to be second only to mosquitoes as vectors of human infectious diseases in the world. In the northern hemisphere, Ixodes ricinus, the most common tick, transmits diseases caused by several infectious pathogens, including different types of bacteria, virus and protozoa. In Sweden, Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne encephalitis and erlichiosis are established, and more than 10.000 people are infected each year. This thesis focuses on aspects of risks associated with tick bites, the risk of contracting tick borne diseases including long-term outcome, and preventive measures and behaviour among people living in tick endemic areas. The first study describes the long-term outcome in patients treated with antibiotics due to neuroborreliosis. At the follow up, 75% of the patients had recovered completely and 25% (95% confidence interval; 17% - 33%) suffered from residual neurological symptoms such as facial palsy, concentration disorder, paresthesia and/or neuropathy. In order to avoid sequelae, early diagnosis and treatment are of great importance. The second study investigated the exposure and contraction of tick-bites with the risk of developing Lyme borreliosis from these tick-bites. Results showed that among people well aware of tick-borne diseases and who inspect their skin daily for ticks, the monthly rate of being tick bitten was 0.04 (95% confidence interval; 0.02-0.06) per 10 hours spent out of doors. Within six months, 3% had contracted Lyme borreliosis, i.e. the risk of developing this disease was 0.5% (95% confidence interval; 0.44-0.56) per tick-bite. The third (experimental) study was aimed at determining whether light-coloured or dark-coloured clothing had the least attractive effect on Ixodes ricinus. The overall found ticks between the both colours differed significantly, with 62% (95% confidence interval; 59% - 65%) of the ticks found on light-coloured clothing. Dark-coloured clothing seems to attract fewer ticks. The fourth study describes tick preventive measures, and their predictors, taken among highly exposed people. In total, 69% of the participants regularly took preventive measures, personally and/or in the environment. When analysing gender and preventive measure solely, women took more preventive measures compared to men. When analysing all risk variables together, spending less time in tick endemic area and being tick bitten the same tick season significantly increased the probability of taking any preventive measures. After being tick bitten, men increased their performance of preventive measures more than women.

  • 1462. Stjernberg, Louise
    Future challenges and current innovations in applied health technology and public health2010Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    One of the challenges in research and education is to be innovative in helping society to develop sustainable applied technology, i.e. applied health technology that keeps pace with the need in society, both nationally and internationally for technology development in health promotion and prevention as well as in healthcare and social services. The School of Health Science at Blekinge Institute of Technology (BTH) has the stated aim of moving in that direction as new areas of research and education are formulated. The School has defined Health and Technology and Sustainable Active Ageing as the two main focal areas for research and education. To emphasise the importance of bringing research and education into line with each another, a “Bachelor programme in Public Health Science aligned to Community Planning”, was established and started in 2009.

  • 1463. Stjernberg, Louise
    The risk of acquiring tick-bites in south-eastern Sweden2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the survey was to study the risk of tick-bites when exposed during daily activities in a tick endemic region in the south-eastern part of Sweden, between May 2000-March 2001. All the participants were well aware of ticks and tick-borne diseases and every day from May until September inspected their skin and filled in a diary sheet, registering e.g. visited geographical places, time out-of-doors and observed tick-bites. In addition, questionnaires were filled in when entering and at the end of the study. They included questions, e.g. about earlier history of tick-bites or previous undergone tick-borne diseases and out-of-door activities during the studied period. Of the participants, 197/235 (84%) were bitten during the observation period of whom 47/235 (20%) were bitten at = 10 occasions. The incidence was 0.04 (95% CI 0.02-0.06) tick-bitten participants per 10 hours spent out-of-doors. Totally, the participants registered 1767 tick-bites, i.e. an incidence of 0.14 (95% CI 0.10-0.18) tick-bites per 10 hours spent out-of-doors. There were no significant differences of the distribution of tick-bitten participants between children and adults (p=0.19), nor when taking in consider gender (p=0.09). Within six months after the registration period, 8/235 (3%) had been treated for a physician diagnosed Lyme borreliosis (LB). To conclude, we found a risk of 4% to be tick-bitten per 10 hours spent out-of-doors in this region. Although the participants consciousness we found a population at high risk to be tick-bitten. The risk to acquire LB was 1/221 tick-bites. If the participants not have performed such a meticulously daily tick inspection the risk of developing LB would probably increased. However, our study further strengthens the opinion to not recommend routinely prophylactic treatment for observed tick-bites.

  • 1464. Stjernberg, Louise
    et al.
    Berglund, Johan
    Detecting ticks on light versus dark clothing2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0036-5548, E-ISSN 1651-1980, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 361-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is common belief that ticks are more visible and easier to detect on light clothing in comparison with dark clothing. We studied which of the clothing, light or dark, had the least attractive effect on Ixodes ricinus, thus minimizing exposure and thereby in theory help to prevent tick borne diseases in humans. Ten participants, exposed by walking in tick endemic areas, wore alternately light and dark clothing before every new exposure. Nymphal and adult ticks on the clothing were collected and counted. Totally, 886 nymphal ticks were collected. The overall mean in found ticks between the both groups differed significantly, with 20.8 more ticks per person on light clothing. All participants had more ticks on light clothing in all periods of exposure. Dark clothing seems to attract fewer ticks.

  • 1465. Stjernberg, Louise
    et al.
    Berglund, Johan
    Garlic as a tick repellent2001In: Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), ISSN 0098-7484, E-ISSN 1538-3598, Vol. 285, no 1, p. 41-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comments and reply on; Stjernberg L, Berglund J. Garlic as an insect repellent

  • 1466. Stjernberg, Louise
    et al.
    Berglund, Johan
    Garlic as an insect repellent2000In: Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), ISSN 0098-7484, E-ISSN 1538-3598, Vol. 284, no 7, p. 831-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To study if Swedish marine conscripts are a population of high risk to tick-bites and tick-borne diseases and if tick-bites could be prevented by consumption of garlic. Design: Prospective, randomised double blind intervention trial. Subjects: 100 individuals from south-eastern Sweden in military service during 1998. Interventions: The survey participants consumed 1200 mg Allium sativum/placebo for eight weeks, had a wash-out period then changed to placebo/Allium sativum consumption for another ten weeks. All participants had uniform clothes, the same diet, participated in similar activities, stayed equal time in tick-endemic nature etceteras. Main outcome measures: Tick-bites were registered in a diary-sheet after daily inspection of the skin. Results: Totally 286 tick-bites were registered by the participants. On average the participants registered 0.2 tick-bites per week during military service compared to 0.03 tick-bites during leave. Results shows significant reduction in tick-bites when consuming garlic compared to placebo (p<0.05). Furthermore, during placebo consumption, a greater number of the participants were bitten by ticks (incidence per 10 weeks = garlic, intention to treat 0.5, per protocol 0.6, placebo, intention to treat 0.5, per protocol 0.7). Swedish marine conscripts are at high risk of tick bites during military service. Preventive measures, including vaccinations against tick-transmitted diseases, should be considered. However, our results suggest that garlic may be considered as a tick repellent for individuals and populations at high risk for tick bite, rather than other agents that might have more adverse effects.

  • 1467. Stjernberg, Louise
    et al.
    Berglund, Johan
    Risk of acquiring tick bites in south-eastern Sweden2002In: Scandinavian journal of infectious diseases , ISSN 0035-5548, Vol. 34, no 11, p. 840-844Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The incidence and the temporal pattern of tick bites were studied in a population frequently out-of-doors in a tick endemic area in south-eastern Sweden between May 2000-March 2001. The participants, who were well aware of tick-borne diseases, inspected their skin daily from May until September and completed a diary sheet, registering visited geographical places, time out-of-doors, observed tick-bites, etc. The participants were also given questionnaires in both the initial and final stages of the study, asking questions about their earlier history of tick-bites, previous tick-borne diseases and out-of-door activities. The incidence was 0.04 (95% confidence interval 0.02-0.06) tick-bitten participants/10 h spent out-of-doors. In total, the participants registered 1767 tick bites, i.e. an incidence of 0.14 (95% CI 0.10-0.18) tick-bites/10 h spent out-of-doors. Within 6 months after the registration period, 8/235 (3%) had been treated for physician-diagnosed Lyme borreliosis. In conclusion, this study found a 4% risk to be tick-bitten per 10 h spent out-of-doors. The risk of contracting Lyme borreliosis was 1/221 tick bites (0.5%, 95% CI 0.44-0.56). Thus, our results indicate a low risk of acquiring Lyme borreliosis when using daily tick checks and we underline the opinion of not recommending routine prophylactic treatment for observed tick-bites.

  • 1468. Stjernberg, Louise
    et al.
    Berglund, Johan
    Tick attachment and the colour of clothing2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION To prevent tick bites, personal precautions such as wearing light-coloured clothing, are generally recommended. It is believed that ticks are easier to detect on light-coloured clothing in comparison with dark-coloured clothing. Studies confirming this supposition have not been found and we do not know whether colour of clothing influences the tick´s choice of hosts. The aim of this study was to determine which colour of clothing had the least attractive effect on Ixodes ricinus and thus help to prevent tick borne diseases in humans. PROCEDURES The study was performed in the archipelago of the south-eastern Sweden. Ten participants, randomised into two standardised groups, were exposed by walking in squares measuring 25x25 meters. They were exposed 12 times, twice in each square; once with light-coloured and once with dark-coloured clothing. The nymphs and adult ticks on the clothing were collected and counted. FINDINGS Totally, 892 nymphal ticks were collected and of these 552 were found on light-coloured clothing and 340 on dark-coloured clothing. The total mean found number of ticks between the both groups differed significantly, with 21.2 more ticks per person on light-coloured clothing (p=0.003, 95% CI 9.37-33.03). CONCLUSIONS All participants had more ticks on light-coloured clothing in all periods of exposure. In view of these straight results, the recommendation to use light-coloured clothing as a personal precaution in tick endemic areas must be questioned. Dark-coloured clothing seems to attract fewer ticks.

  • 1469. Stjernberg, Louise
    et al.
    Berglund, Johan
    Tick prevention in a population living in a highly endemic area2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To describe environmental and personal tick preventive measures and their predictors, taken by a population living in a highly tick-endemic area. Methods: Due to the recent confirmation of human tick-borne encephalitis cases, vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis was offered to the population living in the endemic area through the use of leaflets and media campaigns. At the time for the initial dose, information and enrollment to this cohort study was carried out. Participants´ characteristics, frequency of tick-bites and preventive measures were included in questionnaires. Logistic analysis was used to determine behavioural differences in activities taken in order to prevent tick-bites. Results: In total, 70% of the permanent residents had themselves vaccinated before the next tick-season. Of the studied participants 356/517 (69%) regularly took preventive measures in their environment (i.e. affecting the surroundings and towards animals) and/or personally (i.e. avoidance of extensive tick-areas, use of naturopathic medicine, use of repellents, clothing/boots, body examination, bath/shower). Of those taking personally preventive measures, 46% limited their time spent out-of-doors in carrying out leisure activities. Women in particular, and those previously treated for a tick-borne disease took significantly more preventive measures. When analysing all variables together, spending less time in tick-endemic area and being tick-bitten the latest tick-season significantly increased the probability of taking preventive measures. After being tick-bitten, men were more inclined to start taking preventive measures than women. Conclusion: Awareness of the risks caused by living in a high endemic area to ticks influenced the participant’s daily life through preventive activities. Public health action should be considered thus encouraging out-of-door activities for the population, without anxiety for risks for contracting tick-borne disease after being tick-bitten.

  • 1470. Stjernberg, Louise
    et al.
    Berglund, Johan
    Tick prevention in a population living in a highly endemic area2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 432-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To describe environmental and personal tick preventive measures and their predictors, taken by a population living in a highly tick-endemic area. Methods: Due to the recent confirmation of human tick-borne encephalitis cases, vaccination against tick borne encephalitis was offered to the population living in the endemic area through the use of leaflets and media campaigns. At the time for the initial dose, information and enrollment to this cohort study was carried out. Participants´ characteristics, frequency of tick-bites and preventive measures were included in questionnaires. Logistic analysis was used to determine behavioural differences in activities taken in order to prevent tick-bites. Conclusion: In total, 70% of the permanent residents had themselves vaccinated before the next tick-season. Of the studied participants 356/517 (69%) regularly took preventive measures in their environment and/or personally. Women in particular, and those previously treated for a tick-borne disease took significantly more preventive measures. When analysing all variables together, spending less time in tick-endemic area and being tick-bitten the latest tick-season significantly increased the probability of taking preventive measures. After being tick-bitten, men were more inclined to start taking preventive measures than women. Awareness of the risks caused by living in a high endemic area to ticks influenced the participant’s daily life through preventive activities. Public health action should be considered thus encouraging out-of-door activities for the population, without anxiety for risks for contracting tick-borne disease after being tick-bitten.

  • 1471. Stjernberg, Louise
    et al.
    Berglund, Johan
    Tick-exposure during conscription in a high endemic area. A study of intervention.1999Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE Lyme borreliosis is in Sweden the most common vector-borne disease with approximately 10.000 individuals affected each year. Previous studies have suggested that conscripts compose a population of high risk to tick-bites and others have linked tick attachment to different body odour. In several countries the peasant population have observed that garlic keep the cattle free from ticks. The purpose of this study was to determine if Swedish conscripts are a population of high risk to tick-bites and thereby tick-borne diseases and to study if tick-bites can be prevented by garlic consumption. METHODS The survey participants, n=100 (50 in each group) consumed garlic / placebo for eight weeks, had a wash-out period, then changed to placebo / garlic consumption for another ten weeks. The study drug contained 1200 mg Allium sativum, administrated 600 mg twice daily. During the study period the conscripts performed a daily inspection of their skin and filled in a diary-sheet. Questionnaires including questions on e.g. smoking habits, other medication, adverse events and tick-borne disease manifestations were answered when; entering the study, before and after the wash-out period and at the end of the study. RESULTS The total amount of registered tick-bites during the study period was 286. On average the participants registered 0.2 bites per week during military service compared to 0.03 bites per week during leave. Two of the participants developed an erythema migrans. When consuming garlic, results show a significant reduction in tick-bites, included and excluded a participant who reported 86 tick-bites on one occasion, compared to consuming placebo. Also, the incidence was lower when taking account the reported number of bitten participants both in intention to treat and per protocol. CONCLUSIONS Swedish marine conscripts are a population of high risk to tick-bites during their military service and preventive measures including vaccinations against diseases transmitted by ticks should be considered. Garlic had a preventive effect against tick-bites, however significantly differences were not seen in intention to treat calculations and more studies are needed.

  • 1472. Stjernberg, Louise
    et al.
    Berglund, Johan
    Halling, Anders
    Age and gender effect on the use of herbal medicine products and food supplements among the elderly2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, ISSN 0281-3432, E-ISSN 1502-7724, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 50-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To describe the users of herbal medicine products and food supplements with respect to age and gender specifically among persons aged ≥60 years. Design. A descriptive study with baseline data from a longitudinal study of the elderly, stratified into different age cohorts (60-69, 70-79, 80-89 and ≥90 years). Setting. Blekinge county, situated in the southeastern Sweden. Subjects. Totally 1380 persons aged 60-96 years (median age 78 years). Main outcome measures. Current use of herbal medicine products and the use of food supplements. Results. Of the participants, 264/1380 (19.1%) used at least one herbal medicine product, 184/1380 (13.3%) used at least one food supplement and 382/1380 (27.7%) used herbal medicine products and/or food supplements. In all regression models, women had a higher probability to use herbal medicine and/or food supplements in comparison with men. Focusing on the use of herbal medicine products alone and in the combination of using herbal medicine and/or food supplement, a decreased use was seen with increasing age. However, 27.9% were still users of herbal medicine products and/or food supplements in the age group 80-89 years. In comparison, 14% were users in the age group ≥90 years. Age did not have an impact on the probability of taking food supplements. Conclusion. General practitioners need to consider the high use of herbal medicine product and food supplements among elderly when making decisions about treatment.

  • 1473.
    Stjernberg, Louise
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Holmkvist, Karin
    Berglund, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    A newly detected tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) focus in southeastern Sweden: a follow-up study of TBE virus (TBEV) seroprevalence2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0036-5548, E-ISSN 1651-1980, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 4-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2002, two cases of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) were diagnosed in inhabitants of a tick endemic area on the island of Aspö in southeastern Sweden. During the previous 25 y, only two other cases of TBE had been diagnosed in that region of Sweden. To investigate the presence and evolution of seroprevalence of antibodies to TBE virus (TBEV), we compared inhabitants´ anti-TBEV immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels in blood samples drawn in 1991 and 2002. A significant increase in IgG antibody levels was observed in 24/200 (12.0%) 2002 blood samples compared to 7/200 (3.5%) 1991 samples. However, neutralizing antibodies were detected in only 4 of the two-step enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) IgG positive sera against TBEV, corresponding to a TBEV neutralizing test (NT) prevalence of 2%. Significantly more men than women were seropositive for TBEV antibodies. Compared to other age groups, the greatest increase in TBEV antibody levels was observed in the 20-29 y age group. However, the majority of seropositive samples were from participants >50 y of age. Recommending preventative measures, including vaccination against TBE, to individuals who reside in or regularly visit TBEV endemic areas is suggested.

  • 1474. Stoltz, Peter
    et al.
    Lindholm, Maud
    Udén, Giggi
    Willman, Ania
    The Meaning of Being Supportive for Family Caregivers as Narrated by Registered Nurses Working in Palliative Homecare2006In: Nursing Science Quarterly, ISSN 0894-3184, E-ISSN 1552-7409, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 163-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to illuminate the meaning of being supportive to family caregivers who care for a relative at home as narrated by registered nurses. The context used to allow for the meaning of being supportive to be illuminated was palliative home care. The study uses a phenomenological-hermeneutical method inspired by the philosophy of Ricoeur. Data consisted of narrative interviews, which were analyzed in three recurring phases: naive reading, structural analysis and interpreted whole. Twenty nurses from the hospitals in Sweden participated in the study. Two core themes were found: forming a relationship and keeping caregiving at home.

  • 1475. Stoltz, Peter
    et al.
    Skärsäter, Ingela
    Willman, Ania
    Insufficient Evidence of Effectiveness Is Not "Evidence of No Effectiveness:" Evaluating Computer-Based Education for Patients with Severe Mental Illness.2009In: Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing, ISSN 1545-102X, E-ISSN 1741-6787, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 190-199Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports on commissioned research funded by the Swedish Council of Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU) and the Swedish Society of Nursing (SSF). The objective was to review computer-based education programs. However, as the review produced insufficient evidence of effectiveness, the publication was withheld due to previous incident where such evidence was misunderstood by Swedish policy and health care decision makers. This article highlights the concept of evidence with regard to the consequences of insufficient evidence of effectiveness being mistaken for evidence of no effectiveness. The aim is also to present a systematic review evaluating a computer-based education program for patients suffering from severe menatl illness. Systematic database searches in Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library identified a total of 131 potentially relevant references. Thereafter, 27 references were retrieved as fulltext documents, of which 5 were finally included and co-reviewed by two independent researchers. The review found no decisive evidence of effectiveness regarding computer-based education programs designed to assisst persons suffering from severe mental illness. Failing to see the difference between insufficient evidence and evidence of no effectiveness may have unexpected consequences. As a result, practice may be misguided and treatments withheld, which at worse may have harmful consequences for patients. In the end, it is of utmost importance that researchers do good quality research by ensuring statistical power and quality of outcome measurement. For example, this review of computer-based education programs could have revealed effective ways of dealing with severe mental illness if the studies included had been conducted using more sophisticated designs.

  • 1476. Stoltz, Peter
    et al.
    Skärsäter, Ingela
    Willman, Ania
    "Insufficient Evidence of Effectiveness" Is Not "Evidence of No Effectiveness:" Evaluating Computer-Based Education for Patients with Severe Mental Illness2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper was originally commissioned research initiated by the Swedish Council of Technology Assessment (SBU) and the SWedish Nursing Society (SSF). The objective was to review nursing methods, more specifically computer based education programme. However, as the review produced insufficient evidence of effectiveness, the publication was withheld due to a previous incident were such evidence was misunderstood by Swedish policy and healthcare decision makers. The aim with this paper is therefore to highlight the concept of evidence with regards to the consequences when insufficient evidence of effectiveness is mistaken for evidence of no effectiveness. The aim is also to present a systematic review evaluating a computerbased education program for patients suffering from severe mental illness. Systematic database searches in MedLine, CINAHL, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library identified a total of 131 potentially relevant references. Thereafter, 27 references were retrieved as full-textdocuments of which 5 were finally included and co-reviewed by two independent researchers. The review found no decisive evidence of effectiveness regarding computer based education programmes designed to assist persons suffering from severe mental illness. Failing to see the difference between insufficient evidence and evidence of no effectiveness may have unexpected consequences. As a result, practice may be misguided and treatments withheld which as its worst may have harmful consequences for patients. In the end, it is of outmost importance to patients that researchers do good research by ensuring statistical power, quality of outcome measurements and strive for overall excellence. For example, this review of computer based education programmes could have revealed effective ways of dealing with severe mental illness if the studies included had been more sophistically designed.

  • 1477. Stoltz, Peter
    et al.
    Udén, Giggi
    Willman, Ania
    Support for family carers who care for an elderly person at home- a systematic literature review2004In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1478. Stoltz, Peter
    et al.
    Willman, Ania
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Udén, Giggi
    The Meaning of Support as Narrated by Family Carers Who Care for a Senior Relative at Home2006In: Qualitative Health Research, ISSN 1049-7323, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 594-610Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors´aim in this study is to illuminate the meaning of support as narrated by family members who care for a senior relative at home. Twenty individuals who cared for a senior relative at home participated. Narrative interviews resulted in a text, which the authors analyzed in three recurring phases, naive understanding, structural analysis, and comprehensive understanding, using the phenomenological hermeneutical method. They formulated two themes from the analysis: Experiencing a togetherness with others in caring and Sensingtogetherness with oneself in caring. The meaning of support was understood here as Sensing togetherness. In the comprehensive understanding, the authors further illuminate thismeaning using literature on the concepts of frienship, inner strengt, and manageability through the sense of coherence theory. They provide suggestions for the relevance to practice and further research.

  • 1479.
    Strandberg, Ann-Sofie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    When it becomes twins: A study with qualitative method describing how these interviewed parents of twins’ wish to be met by the specialist nurse at Child Health Services2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The number of twins has increased over the last decades. It’s well described how twin parents have to face several difficulties such as high incidence of premature deliveries, sleep deprivation, social isolation and constant demands of infant twins. Competent care from nurses involved before, during and after birth can greatly improve the wellbeing of these families. The aim of this study was to deepen the understanding of twin parents’ wishes when meeting the specialist nurse at Child Health Services during the children’s first year in life. The study was based on eight interviews with mothers and/or fathers of twins. Questionnaires were used as preparation before the interviews to get reflective responses during the interviews. The analysis of this material was conducted with STC, Systematic Text Condensation. Results showed that when parents met the specialist nurse at Child Health Services they expressed a wish to be met with an open minded attitude, professional knowledge and experience of twins, and to share their lived experience by meeting other twin families.

  • 1480.
    Strauss, Annelie
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Thilén, Sanna
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Vårdpersonal i möte med våldutsatta kvinnor: faktorer som påverkar mötet2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är av stor vikt att vårdpersonal har goda kunskaper när det gäller bemötandet av kvinnor som blir utsatta för våld, eftersom sjukvården oftast är den första eller enda instans som kvinnan kommer i kontakt med. Det framgår enligt undersökning att nästan 50 % av alla kvinnor över 15 år har någon gång utsatts för psykiskt, fysiskt eller sexuellt våld av sin partner. Syftet med studien var att belysa faktorer som påverkar vårdpersonals möte med våldsutsatta kvinnor. Metoden som användes var innehållsanalys av vetenskapliga studier enligt Burnard. Resultatet visar att viktiga faktorer som påverkar mötet är rädsla hos vårdpersonal, frustration och brist i kunskap när det gäller kvinnovåld och hur man skall kommunicera med kvinnan på ett tillfredsställande sätt. Utbildning och mer tid till mötet med kvinnan kommer troligtvis leda till att fler kvinnor som utsätts för fysiskt våld identifieras och blir bemötta på ett sätt som är gynnsamt för båda parter.

  • 1481.
    Stridsjö, Rebecca
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Annesson, Eveline
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Att vara anhörig till en person med Alzheimers sjukdom i hemmet: En litteraturstudie baserad på patografier2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Demens är den vanligaste kroniska sjukdomen hos människor över 75 år. Alzheimers sjukdom utgör cirka 60-70 procent av de insjuknade i demens. Alzheimers sjukdom kallas för de anhörigas sjukdom då de anhöriga ofta får ta på sig ansvaret att vårda sin sjuke livskamrat. Den sjuke personen bor ofta kvar hemma långt in i sjukdomsförloppet. Det kan då upplevas som en stor uppoffring och påfrestning i livet för den anhöriga. Syfte: Syftet med studien var att beskriva upplevelsen av att vara anhörig till en person med Alzheimers sjukdom i hemmet. Metod: En analys gjordes på fyra patografier med kvalitativ design. Analysen utfördes med hjälp av Graneheim och Lundmans tolkning av kvalitativ innehållsanalys som anpassas för omvårdnadsvetenskap. Resultat: Analysen ledde fram till tre kategorier och åtta underkategorier. Den första kategorin var Att förlora relationen med underkategorierna Att förlora sin livskamrat, Förlorade känslor till sin livskamrat och Förlorat hopp om en gemensam framtid. Den andra kategorin var Att gå från partnerskap till vårdare med underkategorierna Att behöva åsidosätta sig själv, Att inte känna sig förstådd och Behov av hjälp och stöd. Nästa kategori var Att behöva överge med underkategorierna Att inte räcka till och Att behöva lämna över ansvaret. Slutsats: Det är känt att anhöriga ofta hamnar i rollen som vårdare till en livskamrat med Alzheimers sjukdom. Den nya livssituationen påverkar den anhöriga avsevärt då mycket tankar och känslor om skuld, skam, sorg och saknad uppmärksammas. Att vårda en sjuk person kan upplevas mycket påfrestande då livet helt plötsligt förändras till något helt annat. Eftersom den anhöriga till en person med Alzheimers sjukdom ofta ingår i en stor del av vårdandet är det viktigt att lyfta fram deras förmågor, känslor och hälsa. Att stärka dessa kan bidra till en ökad förståelse och en ökad hanterbarhet av sjukdomen. Det kan bidra till att den anhöriga kan axla ansvaret som vårdare på ett lättare sätt och där med stärka hälsan för såväl den anhöriga som för den sjuke livskamraten.

  • 1482.
    Stridsman, Caroline
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Lindberg, Anne
    OLIN studies, Sunderby Hospital.
    Skär, Lisa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Omvårdnad.
    Fatigue in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a qualitative study of peoples experiences2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 130-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundFatigue is reported to be one of the most common symptoms among people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD. However, there is hardly any qualitative research describing how fatigue affects people living with this illness.AimTo describe people's experience of fatigue in daily life when living with moderate to very severe COPD.MethodsA purposive sample of 20 people with COPD stages II–IV was recruited from the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden COPD study. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with participants regarding their experience of fatigue. The interviews were subjected to qualitative content analysis.ResultsOne theme was identified: Reconcile with the dimensions of fatigue, and four categories were identified: To understand the reasons of fatigue, To preserve fatigue unexpressed, When fatigue takes control and How to manage fatigue. Fatigue seems to be an always-present feeling, involving the whole body, raising feelings of hopelessness and controlling one's life. It seems to be accepted as a natural consequence of COPD and may therefore remain unexpressed. Further, when experienced with dyspnoea, fatigue becomes even heavier and more difficult to manage. To gain control of fatigue, people plan daily life and continue with physical activities.ConclusionFatigue affects the daily lives of people with COPD. Perceived with dyspnoea, fatigue was described as overwhelming. Most importantly, fatigue seems to be unexpressed to healthcare professionals and relatives.

  • 1483.
    Stridsman, Caroline
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Mullerova, Hana
    WorldWide Epidemiology, GlaxoSmithKline R&D.
    Skär, Lisa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Omvårdnad.
    Lindberg, Anne
    OLIN studies, Norrbotten County Council.
    Fatigue in COPD and the impact of heart disease comorbidity: a population-based study2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Fatigue is a common symptom among people with COPD. However, there are few studies describing fatigue in COPD and the impact of comorbidity, none of them population based.Aim: To describe fatigue in COPD by disease severity according to GOLD, and the impact of self-reported heart disease.Methods: The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT)- Fatigue scale was used to assess fatigue; lower scores represent worse fatigue (0-52). Data were collected in 2007 from the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden (OLIN) COPD cohort; 564 subjects with COPD, with a distribution of disease severity representative for the general population, and 786 non-COPD subjects.Results: Median FACIT-F score was 44.0 in COPD subjects, significantly lower compared to 46.0 in non-COPD (p=0.006). Score decreased by disease severity: 46.0, 43.7, and 37.5 in GOLD stage I, II, and III-IV (I vs II p=0.020, II vs III-IV p=0.035). There was no significant difference between stage I and non-COPD. In subjects without heart disease, there were lower scores in stage II, 45.0 and III-IV, 38.5 compared to non-COPD, 47.0 (p=0.005 and p=0.205). In subjects with heart disease, only stage III-IV had significantly lower scores than non-COPD, 30.5 vs 42.0 (p=0.030). Subjects with heart disease reported lower scores than those without heart disease at all severities of COPD (non-COPD: 42.0 vs 47.0, p<0.001, stage I: 40.5 vs 48.0, p<0.001, stage II: 40.0 vs 45.0, p=0.008 and stage III-IV: 30.5 vs 38.5, p=0.051).Conclusion: Fatigue increases with GOLD-defined disease severity, but the score is not significantly different from non-COPD until stage II. Heart disease increases fatigue in both COPD and non-COPD.

  • 1484.
    Stridsman, Caroline
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Mullerova, Hana
    WorldWide Epidemiology, GlaxoSmithKline R&D.
    Skär, Lisa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Omvårdnad.
    Lindberg, Anne
    OLIN studies, Sunderby Hospital.
    Fatigue in COPD and the impact of respiratory symptoms and heart disease: a population-based study2013In: COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, ISSN 1541-2555, E-ISSN 1541-2563, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 125-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Fatigue is reported in COPD and in heart disease; however, there are hardly any population based data on the relationship between these conditions. Aim: To describe fatigue in relation to COPD by disease severity and to evaluate the impact of respiratory symptoms and heart disease. Methods: Data were collected in 2007 from the OLIN COPD study; 564 subjects with COPD (FEV1/FVC < 0.70) and a distribution of disease severity representative for the general population, and 786 subjects without COPD. The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT)—Fatigue scale was used to assess fatigue (0–52); lower scores represent worse fatigue. Results: Median FACIT-F score was 44.0 in COPD defined by merely spirometric criteria and 42.0 in COPD also reporting respiratory symptoms, significantly lower compared to 46.0 in non-COPD (p = 0.006 and p < 0.001), and decreased by disease severity. The score was lower in COPD stage ≥ II and in COPD with respiratory symptoms already from stage I when compared to non-COPD. Subjects with heart disease reported lower scores than those without heart disease in COPD by all stages and in non-COPD. COPD with respiratory symptoms stage ≥II remained a significant risk factor for clinically significant fatigue also when adjusted for gender, age, heart disease and smoking habits (stage II OR 1.65, CI 1.17-2.31 and stage III-IV OR 2.66, CI 1.11-6.36). Conclusion: Fatigue is common in COPD, and is affected by respiratory symptoms and concomitant heart disease. In COPD with respiratory symptoms stage ≥ II, there is an increased risk for clinically significant fatigue.Read More: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/15412555.2012.728642?ai=1rzjm&ui=oxk4&af=T&

  • 1485.
    Stridsman, Caroline
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Skär, Lisa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Omvårdnad.
    Hedman, Linnea
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Omvårdnad.
    Lindberg, Anne
    Fatigue and decreased health can predict mortality in COPD2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1486.
    Stridsman, Caroline
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Skär, Lisa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Omvårdnad.
    Hedman, Linnea
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Omvårdnad.
    Rönmark, Eva
    Norrbottens Läns Landsting.
    Lindberg, Anne
    OLIN studies, Norrbotten County Council.
    Fatigue affects health status and predicts mortality among subjects with COPD-report from the population-based OLIN COPD study2015In: COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, ISSN 1541-2555, E-ISSN 1541-2563, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 199-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: COPD is associated to increased fatigue, decreased health status and mortality. However, these relationships are rarely evaluated in population-based studies. Aims: To describe the relationship between health status, respiratory symptoms and fatigue among subjects with and without COPD. Further, to evaluate whether fatigue and/or health status predicts mortality in these groups. Methods: Data were collected in 2007 from the population-based OLIN COPD study. Subjects participated in lung function tests and structured interviews, and 434 subjects with and 655 subjects without COPD were identified. Fatigue was assessed by FACIT-Fatigue and health status by the generic SF-36 questionnaire including physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) components. Mortality data until February 2012 were collected. Results: Fatigue greatly impacts the physical and mental dimensions of health status, both among subjects with and without COPD. Among subjects with clinically significant fatigue, COPD subjects had significantly lower PCS-scores compared to non-COPD subjects. Fairly strong correlations were found between FACIT-F, SF-36 PCS and MCS, respectively. In multivariate models adjusting for covariates, increased fatigue, decreased physical and mental dimensions of health status were all associated to mortality in subjects with COPD (OR 1.06, CI 1.02-1.10, OR 1.04, CI 1.01-1.08 and OR 1.06, CI 1.02-1.10), but not in non-COPD. Conclusions: Fatigue and decreased health status were closely related among subjects with and without COPD. Not only physical health status, but also fatigue and mental health predicted mortality among subjects with COPD. Fatigue assessed by FACIT-F, can be a useful instrument of prognostic value in the care of subjects with COPD.

  • 1487. Stridsman, Caroline
    et al.
    Söderberg, Siv
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Omvårdnad.
    Lindberg, Anne
    Norrbottens Läns Landsting.
    Skär, Lisa
    The experience of fatigue in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Besides respiratory symptoms, fatigue is reported as one of the most common among people with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD. Fatigue can be described as anything from tiredness to exhaustion and the most typical is that fatigue does not disappears after rest or sleep. The experience of how fatigue affects the daily life in patients with COPD is hardly described.

  • 1488.
    Stridsman, Caroline
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Zingmark, Karin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Omvårdnad.
    Lindberg, Anne
    NLL.
    Skär, Lisa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Omvårdnad.
    Creating a balance between breathing and viability: Experiences of well-being when living with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease2015In: Primary Health Care Research and Development, ISSN 1463-4236, E-ISSN 1477-1128, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 42-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim To describe experiences of well-being among people with moderate to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). BACKGROUND: Living with COPD is related to a complex life situation, and quality of life (QOL) is shown to decrease because of respiratory symptoms and fatigue. However, studies describing well-being in COPD as a subjective description of QOL are rare. METHODS: Ten participants with moderate to very severe COPD from the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden (OLIN) COPD study were interviewed about their experiences of well-being. A latent qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data. Findings To achieve well-being despite breathlessness, the participants had to adapt to their limitations and live towards the future. They created a balance between breathing and viability by adjusting to a lifelong limitation, handling variations in illness, relying on self-capacity and accessibility to a trustful care. The participants adjusted to lifelong limitations through acceptance and replacement of former activities. They handled variations in illness by taking advantage of the good days and using emotional adaptation strategies. The participants relied on their own self-capacity, feeling that smoking cessation, physical activity and breathing fresh air increased their well-being. They requested accessibility to a trustful care and highlighted the need for continuous care relationships and access to medications. These findings can enhance health-care professionals' understanding of the possibilities for increased well-being for people living with COPD.

  • 1489. Stråth, Maria
    Sjuksköterskans erfarenhet av att möta kvinnor som upplevde våld i nära relationer: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1490.
    Ström, Emma
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Julia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Kvinnors upplevelser av att leva med fibromyalgi: En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Oförklarlig muskelsmärta har funnits i århundraden, men det är inte förrän i modern tid som begreppet fibromyalgi har tillämpats på fenomenet. Fibromyalgi är en komplex sjukdom utan känd etiologi som kännetecknas av diffus muskelsmärta och trötthet. Idag är fibromyalgi den andra mest förekommande reumatologiska störningen, efter artros, och majoriteten av de som insjuknar är kvinnor.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att belysa kvinnors upplevelser av att leva med fibromyalgi.

    Metod: En litteraturstudie baserad på tio artiklar har genomförts. Kvalitetsgranskningen gjordes med hjälp av granskningsmallen Qualitative Research Checklist. Artiklarna analyserades med inspiration av Graneheim och Lundmans tolkning av innehållsanalys.

    Resultat: Fem kategorier framkom: att leva med oförutsägbar smärta, känslan av att vara misstrodd, svårigheter att hantera vardagen, upplevelser av stöd i sociala relationer och upplevelser av anpassning för välmående. Kvinnorna upplevde en oförutsägbar smärta som begränsade dem i deras vardag. På grund av sjukdomens osynlighet upplevde kvinnorna sig mer eller mindre misstrodda hela tiden och behövde alltid förklara sin sjukdom. Kvinnorna hade även svårigheter att hantera sin nya vardag som de nu tvingas anpassa sitt liv efter.

    Slutsats: Kunskapen som har framkommit i studien kan användas som ett stöd för att skapa en bättre förståelse för denna patientgrupps upplevelser i olika vårdsammanhang, och därmed bidra till ett bättre bemötande som kan generera känslor av välbefinnande och minskat lidande för patienten.

  • 1491.
    Strömberg, Agathe
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Health.
    Sjukvårdsbiträden och undersköterskors attityder till delegerade arbetsuppgifter: En enkätstudie2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1492.
    Ståhlberg, Isabell
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Health.
    En livsvärld med möjligheter: En litteraturstudie om individer med kronisk obstruktiv lungsjukdom2015Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Kronisk obstruktiv lungsjukdom är en livshotande global sjukdom som drabbar både män och kvinnor. Sjukdomen skadar lungorna och ger både fysiska och psykiska symtom vilket problematiserar individernas livsvärld. För att hantera stress och problematik kan individer tillämpa olika strategier för att underlätta vardagen. Kommunikationen mellan sjuksköterskor och patienter har en stor betydelse då patienters erfarenheter kan ge vägledning till sjuksköterskor i omvårdnadsarbetet. Livsvärlden speglar både lidande och möjligheter och patienters berättelse kan ge sjuksköterskor en inblick om patienternas erfarenheter av sjukdomen. Syfte: Syftet med studien var att belysa vilka strategier individer med kronisk obstruktiv lungsjukdom tillämpar för att underlätta sin livsvärld. Metod: Studien är utarbetad som en litteraturstudie med kvalitativ ansats där 10 artiklar har analyserats. Innehållsanalysen gjordes med inspiration av Graneheim och Lundmans tolkning av innehållsanalys. Resultat: Studien visar att individer underlättar sin livsvärld genom att tillämpa känslomässiga strategier. De fokuserar på känslor och aktiviteter som är meningsfulla. Socialt stöd anses vara viktigt då andra individer i omgivningen ger kunskap, samhörighet och uppmuntran. Strategier vid andnöd innebär att de underlättar andnöden när den väl tillkom. Strategier i det vardagliga livet innefattar att de planerar vardagen för att undvika förvärring av symtom. Slutsats: Individers erfarenheter speglar både problematik och styrkor. Personcentrerad vård kan ge en inblick till patienters unika livsvärld. Lämpliga strategier kan tillämpas för att lindra lidandet och sjuksköterskor kan uppmuntra strategier som fungerar för att motivera patienter. Vidare forskning av kvantitativ ansats kan undersöka strategiernas påverkan av livskvalitén i samband med KOL.

  • 1493.
    Subasic, Sabina
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Health.
    Upplevelse av att leva med emotionell instabil personlighetsstörning: En litteraturstudie baserad på patografier2013Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Emotionell instabil personlighetsstörning (IPS) innebär att personen har en samling symtom som utmärks av kraftig instabilitet i beteende, identitet och känslor. Det mest centrala problemet hos personer med IPS är relationsstörningar och ångest som oftast leder till destruktiva handlingar eller till social isolering. Personer med IPS mår oftast mycket dåligt på grund av sin sjukdom och är drabbade av skräck och övergivenhetskänslor. Detta gör att självmordsförsök och missbruk av olika slag är vanligt förekommande hos dessa personer. Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att belysa upplevelsen av att leva med emotionell instabil personlighetsstörning. Metod: En kvalitativ litteraturstudie baserad på tre patografier. Resultat: Upplevelsen av att leva med emotionell instabil personlighetsstörning beskrivs i studiens resultat genom fyra kategorier: en vardag präglad av lidande, en rädsla för att bli övergiven, ett behov av att bli accepterad och en önskan om att hitta en identitet. Slutsats: Det är vanligt förekommande att personer med IPS även är i behov av somatisk vård. Av denna anledning är det betydelsefullt att allmänsjuksköterskan har kunskap om IPS och hur personer upplever sin sjukdom. Genom att ta del av personers upplevelse kan sjuksköterskan hjälpa dessa personer till en mer hanterbar vardag och öka deras välbefinnande

  • 1494.
    Sundberg, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Health.
    Vad innebär begreppet personcentrerad vård för sjuksköterskan i ett omvårdnadsperspektiv? En begreppsanalys.2015Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bakgrund: Personcentrerad vård har inte en gemensam uppfattning hos alla sjuksköterskor vilket betyder att det finns oklarheter i begreppets verkliga betydelse. Allmänbegreppet personcentrerad vård är en kärnkompetens för sjuksköterskor men begreppet går inte att hitta i varken kompetensbeskrivningen för sjuksköterskor eller i relevant lagtext. Det finns få studier inom området för individualbegreppet personcentrerad vård för sjuksköterskan i ett omvårdnadsperspektiv och således saknas det kunskap och enighet i ämnet. Syfte: Vad innebär begreppet personcentrerad vård för sjuksköterskan i ett omvårdnadsperspektiv? Metod: Begreppsanalys enligt Rodgers (2000) modell med en lexikal del och en artikel del. Resultat: Resultatet av denna studie visar att begreppet personcentrerad vård för sjuksköterskan i ett omvårdnadsperspektiv framförallt betyder att individen, patienten, alltid ska vara det centrala i sjuksköterskans arbete. Omvårdnaden måste utgå från att varje individ är unik och har unika behov och förväntningar. Slutsats: Det är oklart vad skillnaden är mellan begreppen Patientcentrerad- och personcentrerad vård för sjuksköterskan i ett omvårdnadsperspektiv. Denna studie visar att begreppen är väldigt lika varandra och att de båda begreppen faktiskt är samma begrepp fast de har olika namn. Det krävs fler studier inom ämnet för att styrka resultatet i denna studie.

  • 1495.
    Sundkvist, Linn
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Health.
    Samtidens meningssökande patient: Sjuksköterskans uppfattning av omständigheter som inverkar på patientens beslut att söka vård2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The number of health care seekers has increased drastically during the last decade, yet little is known about considerations affecting the patient’s decision to seek care. Aim: The aim of the study was to describe nurse’s perceptions of considerations affecting patient's decisions to seek district nursing care. Method: A qualitative interview study was conducted, which included nine registered nurses. The interview questions were semi-structured, and the data was analyzed according to the phenomenographic approach based on Dahlgren and Fallsbergs’ seven steps. Result: Considerations affecting patient’s decision to seek district nursing care are patient’s basic awareness (knowledge about the health care system and cognizance of self-care), patient’s personal security (patient’s fear of illness, patient’s trust and patient’s relational existence) and patient’s individualism (availability of care and social pressure of society). Conclusion: The findings of the result indicate the nurse perceive that the common denominator of all the affecting considerations on the patient's decision to seek district nursing care is subordinated to a meaning-seeking.

  • 1496.
    Sundkvist, Linn
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Hermansson, Liza
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Chowdhury, Malin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Palliativ vård av barn med cancer: En litteraturstudie om barn och föräldrars psykosociala behov under sjukhusvistelsen2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Enligt Socialstyrelsen (2009) insjuknar cirka 300 barn i cancer varje år i Sverige, och 20 procent av alla dödsfall hos barn orsakas av cancer. Barn som blir sjuka i cancer kan komma att kräva palliativa omvårdnadsåtgärder, då kurativ behandling inte kan ges. Målet med den pediatriska palliativa vården är att uppnå mesta möjliga livskvalitet hos barn såväl som hos deras föräldrar. Syftet var att belysa psykosociala behov hos barn med cancer och hos deras föräldrar under den palliativa fasen på sjukhuset. Metod: En kvalitativ litteraturstudie gjordes utifrån åtta vetenskapliga artiklar som granskades med hjälp av två bedömningsprotokoll och analyserades enligt ett kvalitativt förfarande. Artiklarnas manifesta innehåll användes som underlag för denna studie. Resultat: Det framkom att barn såväl som föräldrar var i behov av delaktighet, kommunikation, samordnad vård och trygghet för att ges möjlighet att uppnå psykosocial tillfredsställelse. När de upplevde samhörighet, kontinuitet, gemenskap och kontroll gavs utrymme för välbefinnande och trygghet. De psykosociala behoven hos barnen respektive föräldrarna inom de övergripande kategorierna kunde ibland skilja sig från varandra. Konklusion: Barn och föräldrar ses idag som en enhet när de vårdas på grund av deras symbiotiska förhållande. Vårdkvaliteten ökar dock om föräldrar och barns psykosociala behov ses för sig och tillgodoses separat. Målet ska vara att vårda alla familjemedlemmar utifrån deras egen, individuella livsvärld.

  • 1497.
    Svennberg, Elin
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Health.
    Johansson, Caroline
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Health.
    Livssituationen efter amputation: En litteraturstudie2014Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bakgrund: Amputation innebär förlust av en extremitet orsakat av olycka, missbildning eller som följd av sjukdomstillstånd. Efter amputationen förändras personens livssituation som gör att personen tvingas möta och genomgå olika utmaningar. Hur personen upplever den förändrade livssituationen har betydelse för vilket stöd som kan ges för att hjälpa personen att acceptera förlusten och kunna leva ett självständigt liv. Syfte: Belysa upplevelserna av den förändrade livssituationen för personer med amputation. Metod: Litteraturstudie med kvalitativ design som baseras på sju vetenskapliga artiklar. Artiklarna var intervjustudier som analyserades med hjälp av en manifest innehållsanalys. Resultat: Personerna med amputation upplevde en förändrad självbild, påverkad rörlighet och sociala svårigheter i den förändrade livssituationen. Personerna kände sig beroende av andra vilket upplevdes som frustrerande. Med hjälp av protesen kunde personerna uppleva en känsla av helhet och oberoende. För att kunna acceptera den förändrade livssituationen använde personerna olika tillvägagångssätt såsom att ha mål inför framtiden, positiv attityd och anpassning i vardagen. Slutsats: Studien visar att livssituationen för personer med amputation blir förändrad. Personer med amputation upplever svårigheter med att hitta sin identitet och att anpassa sig till den förändrade kroppen. Den förändrade livssituationen innebär olika utmaningar i vardagen som personerna är tvungna att hantera. För att kunna hjälpa personer som genomgått amputation att känna ökad livskvalitet i den förändrade livssituationen behövs vidare forskning kring området.

  • 1498.
    Svensson, Annie
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Beatrice
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Personers upplevelser i samband med sin egenvård vid venösa bensår: En litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Venösa bensår är den vanligaste sårdiagnosen och påverkar livet negativt då personer kan uppleva obehaglig lukt från såret samt smärta vilket kan leda till isolering. Egenvården är en viktig del i behandlingen när det kommer till sårläkningen och den främsta åtgärden är att minska bensvullnad genom att exempelvis använda kompressionsstrumpor och ha benen i högläge. Dorothea Orems egenvårdsteori används som definition av egenvård.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att beskriva personers upplevelser i samband med sin egenvård vid venösa bensår.

    Metod: En litteraturstudie har gjorts med deduktiv ansats med utgångspunkt i Orems teori. Genom en systematisk sökning i databaserna Cinahl och Pubmed resulterade urvalet i 12 kvalitativa artiklar. En kvalitativ innehållsanalys gjordes enligt Lundman och Hällgren- Graneheim (2017).

    Resultat: Personernas upplevelser beskrivs utifrån kategorierna egenvårdsstrategi och egenvårdsbegränsningar.

    Slutsats: En del av personerna upplevde mer positiv syn till egenvården och hade kapacitet till åtgärderna. Men övergripande handlade upplevelserna om olika begränsningar till egenvården såsom smärta och rädsla där smärtan ofta visade sig vara underbehandlad. Även brist på kunskap sågs som ett hinder då många av personerna inte förstod varför egenvårdsåtägärderna var viktiga.  

  • 1499.
    Svensson, Carola
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Karlsson, Sofia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Att möta kvinnor som blivit utsatta för misshandel: Analys av en kvinnas berättelse2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Kvinnomisshandel är ett vanligt förekommande problem både nationellt och internationellt. Det medför allvarliga konsekvenser för kvinnors fysiska och psykiska hälsa och deras möten med vården. Grunden för ett bra omhändertagande av kvinnor som utsatts för våld är att lyssna, fråga och tro på vad kvinnorna säger. Det finns ett motstånd hos vårdpersonal att våga fråga om misshandel. Orsaken kan vara tidsbrist eller rädsla för att sätta igång en process som de inte kan hantera. Syfte: Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka vilka känslor och tankar den misshandlade kvinnan har och hur hon upplever olika möten. Metod: Kvalitativ metod har använts, där en kvinnas självupplevda berättelse har analyserats med hjälp av innehållsanalys. Resultat: Resultatet beskriver kvinnans möten med olika yrkeskategorier som påvisar svårigheterna i att möta denna kvinna. Känslor som förödmjukelse, skam, skuld och att kvinnan anklagar sig själv framkommer tydligt. Slutsats: Det viktiga är att finnas där och lyssna på kvinnan. Få henne att förstå att du tror på henne och visa att du tar henne på allvar. Inte vara rädd för situationen utan våga fråga kvinnan, hellre en gång för mycket än ingen gång alls. Var noga med att bekräfta hennes styrka och mod. Då kan du bli den som kvinnan öppnar sig för.

  • 1500.
    Svensson, Cassandra
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Svensson, Sofie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Det komplexa i vården – En litteraturöversikt om sjuksköterskors upplevelser av palliativ vård i det sena skedet2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Palliativ vård är ett begrepp som väcker mycket känslor, inte bara för patienten och dennes familj, utan även för sjuksköterskor. Det var naturligt att känna skuld, förtvivlan, sorg, rädsla, oro och hjälplöshet i den palliativa vården, men dessa känslor kunde stå i vägen för sjuksköterskornas profession, då det kunde hindra henne att ge adekvat vård. Det krävs av sjuksköterskorna att ha en inre trygghet och en förmåga att bearbeta sina känslor och sorg. Fanns inte den förmågan kunde upplevelsen av att vårda patienter i ett sent palliativt skede bli en känslomässigt svår uppgift. Att ge vård i ett sent palliativt skede är komplext eftersom flera olika aspekter ska tas hänsyn till, exempelvis ska sjuksköterskorna ge en helhetsvård med fysiska och psykiska aspekter i åtanke samtidigt som de ska jobba i ett team och föra en god kommunikation till alla inblandade parter. Syftet med studien var att belysa sjuksköterskors upplevelser av vården med patienter i ett sent palliativt skede. Den valda metoden var en litteraturöversikt där tio artiklar med kvalitativ ansats analyserats enligt Graneheim och Lundmans beskrivning. Resultatet visade att när sjuksköterskornas autonomi hotades och när de inte kunde göra gott för patienten i ett sent palliativt skede upplevdes flera svåra känslor så som stress, maktlöshet och frustration. Det upplevdes även positiva känslor i vården då den bidrog till ständig utveckling av kunskap och personlig mognad. Kommunikationen och relationen till patienter och anhöriga var viktig men ökad kunskap inom kommunikationsteknik upplevdes nödvändig. En bra kommunikation och relation till kollegor upplevdes vara viktig för sjuksköterskorna då de kunde ta hjälp av varandra. Många av sjuksköterskorna upplevde tidsbrist och det stod som ett hinder för att kunna ge en god vård till patienter i ett sent palliativt skede. Kunskapsbrist upplevdes, på samma sätt som tidsbrist, vara ett hinder för en bra vård.

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