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  • 1501.
    Zhang, Guangyu
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Product Manager view on Practical Assumption Management Lifecycle about System Use2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. In practice, software projects frequently fail in many fields, which causes the huge loss for the human being. Assumption faults are recognized as a main reason for the software project failures. As the world is changing fast, environment assumptions of software can be easily wrong. The daily assumption-related activities show not enough effectiveness and efficiency to deal with assumption faults. For example, no documenting of key assumptions, inappropriate assumption validation, lack of knowledge. In research, there is no empirical research about assumption management practice. Two assumption management frameworks were outlined. They both support the assumption formulation and assumption management. The formal assumption management framework provides an assumption-component mapping function to analyze assumption failures.

    Objectives. Our goal is figuring out how development team members handle environment assumptions today in practice and how they might handle them better tomorrow. To be specific, I test the applicability of the so far theoretical assumption management frameworks and investigate the assumption type, assumption formulation and assumption management in practical software development

    Methods. An interview-based survey was implemented with 6 product managers from Chinese software companies. They have rich experiences on assumption management and software development. I used directed content analysis to analyze the qualitative data. The result of the research is intended to be a static validation of the assumption management frameworks.

    Results. Interviewees consider that the assumption-component mapping function of the formal assumption management framework is useful in making decisions and analyzing the problems. However, using these frameworks takes too much effort. The functions of frameworks are covered by the development team members and the existing tools. Assumptions tend to be discovered when they frequently change and are important to the requirements. The main assumption types are user habit assumptions and quality attribute assumptions, which are both requirement assumptions. The user habit assumptions consist of name, description and value, while the quality attribute assumption formulation is name and value. The major assumption treatment activities are figuring out the value of assumptions, assumption monitoring, assumption validation and handling assumption failures. Assumption failures result in the loss of users and benefits. Assumption failures are always caused by the poor ability and experience of development team members.

    Conclusion. I create an assumption management model based on my result, and find out the advantages and disadvantages of the formal assumption management framework and semi-formal assumption management framework. The research could help improve the efficiency and effectiveness of assumption management practice. Also. The research can be treated as the starting point to study assumption management practice deeper.

  • 1502.
    Zhang, Jianhao
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Chen, Xuxiao
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Software Evolvability Measurement Framework during an Open Source Software Evolution2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Software evolution comes with the increasing growth of software applications both in size and complexity. Unlike the software maintenance, software evolution addresses more on the adaption of the new fast-changing requirements. Then the term of “software evolvability” comes with its importance for evaluating the evolution status of the software. However, it is not clearly identified especially in the context of open source software (OSS). Besides the most studies are about the description of software evolvability as a quality attribute, and very few research have done on the measurement of software evolvability during the software evolution process.

    Objectives In this study we perform an in-depth investigation on identification of the OSS evolvability, and figure out the appropriate metrics used for measuring the OSS evolvability. Based on that we finally proposed the open source software evolvability measurement framework (OSEM) which could be used for measuring the software evolvability generally in an OSS context.

    Methods: At first, we conducted a literature review by combining backward snowballing search with systematic database search. Two research questions which are RQ1 and RQ2 are proposed for helping us to retrieve the key information for building the needed framework. Then we performed a case study on VLC media player (an OSS project) to validate the processes of the proposed framework.

    Results: Based on literature we could explicitly identify the OSS evolvability, and figure out the differences of software evolvability addressed in OSS context and non OSS context (e.g, the traceability refers to documentation in non OSS context, however in OSS context it refers to the release version of OSS project). Besides we also fulfill the evolvability measuring method by addressing the process of prioritization of evolvability sub-characteristics. In the end we implement the OSEM framework on VLC media player and get the well documented results which are clearly presented and easy to understand. Such results could be taken by the VLC developers as an input for the design and development of the VLC.

    Conclusions: We conclude that the open source software measurement framework (OSEM) is applicable, based on the time we spent on the case of VLC media player it is quite fast and efficient to use such framework. The results from the conduction of this framework are documented well and very clear for OSS users/developers to follow.

  • 1503.
    Zhang, Yanpeng
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Zhou, Ce
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Introducing Domain Specific Language for Modeling Scrum Projects2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. A clear software process definition is important because it can help developers to share a common understanding and improve the development effectiveness. However, if the misconceptions or misunderstandings are introduced to the team during the process definition, it will bring numerous uncertain problems to the projects and reduce the productivity. Scrum is one of the most popular Agile development processes. It has been frequently used in software development. But the misunderstanding of usage of the Scrum method always leads to situations where teams cannot achieve the hyper-productivity even failure. Therefore, introducing a reasonable graphical language for describing the Scrum process may help learners to gain a correct and common understanding of the Scrum method.

    Objectives. In this study, we introduce a graphical Domain Specific Language for modeling the Scrum process and specific Scrum projects. Further, we evaluated the proposed language to figure out if and how this language can help developers learn Scrum method and understand the specific Scrum projects. For the first, we decide to extract the essential elements and their relative relationships of the Scrum process, and based on that, we define and specify the graphical language. After that, we evaluate the proposed graphical language to validate whether this language can be considered as useful to help developers to learn Scrum method and understand the specific Scrum projects.

    Methods. In order to define the graphical language, we studied and reviewed the literature to extract the essential elements and their relationships for describing the Scrum process. Based on that, we defined and specified the graphical DSL. With the aim of evaluating the proposed graphical language, we performed the experiment and survey method. This experiment was conducted in an educational environment. The subjects were selected from the undergraduate and master students. At the same time, we carried out a survey to capture the developers‘ opinions and suggestions towards the proposed language in order to validate its feasibility.

    Results. By studying the literature, we listed and specified the essential elements for describing the Scrum process. By executing the experiment, we evaluated the efficiency and effectiveness of learning Scrum in using the proposed language and the natural language. The result indicates that the graphical language is better than the natural language in training Scrum method and understanding specific Scrum projects. The result shows that the proposed language improved the understandability of the Scrum process and specific Scrum projects by more than 30%.

    We also performed a survey to investigate the potential use of the proposed graphical DSL in industry. The Survey results show that participants think the proposed graphical language can help them to better understand the Scrum method and specific Scrum projects. Moreover, we noticed that the developers who have less Scrum development experience show more interests in this proposed graphical language.

    Conclusions. To conclude, the obtained results of this study indicate that a graphical DSL can improve the understandability of Scrum method and specific Scrum projects. Especially in managing the specific Scrum project, subjects can easily understand and capture the detailed information of the project described in the proposed language. This study also specified the merits and demerits of using the graphical language and textual language in describing the Scrum process.

    From the survey, the result indicates that the proposed graphical language is able to help developers to understand Scrum method and specific Scrum projects in industry. Participants of this survey show positive opinion toward the proposed graphical language. However, it is still a rather long way to applying such a graphical language in Scrum projects development because companies have to consider the extra learning effort of the graphical DSL. 

  • 1504.
    Zhang, Yiran
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Liu, Xiaohui
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Design of Eco-Smart Homes For Elderly Independent Living2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aging of the world population has increased dramatically during the past century. The rapid increase of elderly population is putting a heavy strain on healthcare and social welfare. Living conditions and service provision for elderly people have thus become an increasingly hot topic worldwide. In this paper, we address this problem by presenting a conceptual model of an integrated and personalized system for an eco-smart home for elderly independent living. This approach was inspired by an on-going European project, INNOVAGE, which researchers at Blekinge Institute of Technology are currently participating in, and which focuses on regional knowledge clusters for promoting eco-smart homes for elderly independent living. Contrasting the social situation of elderly in China and Europe, we have chosen to focus on a solution for a Swedish context, which takes technical, environmental, social and human-computer interaction aspects into consideration in the design of eco-smart homes for elderly people in Sweden. Three studies have been carried out in order to clarify and explore the main issues at stake. A literature review gave an overview of on-going research and the current state-of-the-art concerning smart homes. The literature review, along with an interview of an expert on solar energy, also gave insights into additional design challenges which are introduced when focusing specifically on eco-smart building solutions. In order to explore and gain a better understanding of the perceived needs and requests of the target group, i.e. the elderly population, we carried out interviews with three experts in healthcare and homecare for the elderly, and also carried out interviews among the elderly in Karlskrona and interviews and a web survey among the elderly in China. As a way of addressing the design challenges of integrating a multitude of diverse, complicated technical systems in a home environment while at the same time high-lighting the need for comprehensive personalized service provision for elderly people, we designed a conceptual model – an exemplar – of an eco-smart home for elderly independent living. The eco-smart home exemplar aims to inspire interdisciplinary and multi-stakeholder discussions around innovative design and development of environmentally friendly, comfortable, safe and supportive living for the elderly in the future. Finally, we did an evaluation of the model in two workshops with elderly people in two different towns in Blekinge.

  • 1505.
    Zhao, Chengqian
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Impact of National Culture Dimensions on Scrum Implementations2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Scrum is one of the most common used Agile method. It is based on empiricism. Scrum only provides a framework but the detailed implementations in practice are very different. and the environment has a big influence on it. National culture is proven to have an impact on Agile methodology. The implementation of Scrum practices should be influenced by national culture as well. Objectives. This paper reveals the relationship between national culture and Scrum implementation. It explores in which aspects that national culture has an influence on the implementation of Scrum practices and how the different national culture dimensions affect the implementations. Methods. A literature review is used to build a theoretical framework. This framework includes the potential relationships between national culture and Scrum practices, which are our hypotheses. Afterward, interview is used in a company that has Scrum teams in both Sweden and China. Their implementations of Scrum practices are interviewed and analyzed based on our hypotheses. Results. A framework of deducted relationship between Hofstede’s national culture dimensions and Scrum practices is built. National culture is found to have an influence on the implementations of five Scrum practices. Conclusions. National culture is found to have an influence on Scrum implementations. National culture through power distance dimension has the most impact on implementations of no title practice, manage burn down chart practice and no interference practice. National culture differences in the aspect of individualism dimension also affect the practice like no title in teams. Uncertainty avoidance degree in different nations also has the most impact on Scrum implementation such as using burn down chart practice and time-boxed dimensions. Moreover, influence from national culture in China makes the Scrum implementations more consistency than the influence from national culture in Sweden.

  • 1506.
    Zhao, Jie
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Wen, Wei
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Image Quality Assessment of Enriched Tonal Levels Images2017In: Image and Graphics 9th International Conference, ICIG 2017, Shanghai, China, September 13-15, 2017, Revised Selected Papers, Part II / [ed] Yao Zhao, Xiangwei Kong, David Taubman, Springer, 2017, p. 134-146Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The quality assessment of a high dynamic image is a challenging task. The few available no reference image quality methods for high dynamic range images are generally in evaluation stage. The most available image quality assessment methods are designed to assess low dynamic range images. In the paper, we show the assessment of high dynamic range images which are generated by utilizing a virtually flexible fill factor on the sensor images. We present a new method in the assessment process and evaluate the amount of improvement of the generated high dynamic images in comparison to original ones. The results show that the generated images not only have more number of tonal levels in comparison to original ones but also the dynamic range of images have significantly increased due to the measurable improvement values.

  • 1507.
    Zhou, Yuan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gao, Jian
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Smart Elicitation of User Feedback in Mobile Applications2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Nowadays, mobile applications and services have occupied an essential part in our daily life. We use them to fulfill our needs for communication, news, or entertainment. Within a fierce competitive market, mobile applications need continually improvement through collections of user feedback to satisfy users’ needs. However, in mobile applications, lack of a comprehensive consideration in designing feedback mechanism makes it difficult to efficiently collect user feedback. It shows only approximate one third online user reviews that contain helpful information for improvement. In addition, users may be disturbed by feedback request, result in rejecting to provide feedback.

    Objectives. This study aims to provide a comprehensive consideration for elicitation of user feedback in mobile applications.

    Methods. This study followed a mixed qualitative-quantitative research approach. Firstly, we conducted an experiment and a semi-structured interview to investigate how do users provide feedback when they are using a mobile application. Then a content analysis and a statistical analysis were conducted for analyzing collected data.   

    Results. Users’ preference of feedback approaches and the encouraging/discouraging factors for users to provide feedback were identified. We also assessed user-perceived suitable timings for interruption of feedback request.

    Conclusions. The result shows, generally, users prefer to provide feedback when asked by feedback request. Three encouraging factors and Three discouraging factors are identified. The beginning of mobile application execution is perceived as best moment for interruption of feedback request. In addition, this study also provides a three-time-dimensions approach for researching disturbances caused by interruption of feedback request as well as other peripheral information.

  • 1508.
    Zinders, Bilbo
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Konsten att skriva ett filmmanus med kunden2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this Bachelor Thesis I’ve gone through how to write a script with a customer, letting the customer to generate an idea and participate in the writing process. With the help of a combination of Participatory Design and Collaborative Writing as methods I have built a new model that helped me and the customer to get the best script we could make with the restrictions we got along the way. During the writing we got some hindrance on what could be in the script and on what couldn’t. More hindrance got up but got solved on the best possible way. The viewers feedback was necessary to hear for us to evolve and to do better movies and scripts in the future.

  • 1509. Zinner, T.
    et al.
    Hossfeld, T.
    Fiedler, Markus
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Communication Systems.
    Liers, F.
    Volkert, T.
    Kohndoker, R.
    Schatz, R.
    Requirement driven prospects for realizing user-centric network orchestration2015In: Multimedia tools and applications, ISSN 1380-7501, E-ISSN 1573-7721, Vol. 74, no 2, p. 413-437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet's infrastructure shows severe limitations when an optimal end user experience for multimedia applications should be achieved in a resource-efficiently way. In order to realize truly user-centric networking, an information exchange between applications and networks is required. To this end, network-application interfaces need to be deployed that enable a better mediation of application data through the Internet. For smart multimedia applications and services, the application and the network should directly communicate with each other and exchange information in order to ensure an optimal Quality of Experience (QoE). In this article, we follow a use-case driven approach towards user-centric network orchestration. We derive user, application, and network requirements for three complementary use cases: HD live TV streaming, video-on-demand streaming and user authentication with high security and privacy demands, as typically required for payed multimedia services. We provide practical guidelines for achieving an optimal QoE efficiently in the context of these use cases. Based on these results, we demonstrate how to overcome one of the main limitations of today's Internet by introducing the major steps required for user-centric network orchestration. Finally, we show conceptual prospects for realizing these steps by discussing a possible implementation with an inter-network architecture based on functional blocks.

  • 1510.
    Zou, Ming
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Industrial Decision Support System with Assistance of 3D Game Engine2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Industrial Decision Support System(DSS) traditionally relies on 2D approach to visualize the scenarios. For some abstract information, like chronological sequence of tasks or data trend, it provides a good visualization. For concrete information, such as location and spatial relationships, 2D visualizations are too abstract. Techniques from Game design, 3D modeling, virtual reality(VR) and animation provides many inspiration to develop a DSS tools for industrial applications. Objectives. The work in our research was to develop a unique prototype for data visualization in wind power systems, and compare it with traditional ones. The product combined 3D VR, 2D graphics, user navigation, and Human Machine Interaction(HMI). It was developed with a game engine, Unity3D. The study explored how much usability can be improved when using applied gamificaion 3D approaches in industrial monitoring and control systems. Methods. The research methods included Literature Review, Commercial Example Analysis, Development, and Evaluation. In the evaluation phase, Systematic Usability Scale(SUS) tests were performed with two independent groups, the testing results were analyzed with statistical method, t-test. Results. The evaluation results showed that an interface developed with 3D virtual reality can provide better usability(include learnability) than traditional 2D industrial interface in wind power system. The difference between them is significant. Conclusions. The study indicates that, compared with the traditional 2D interfaces, the gamification 3D approach in industrial DSS can provide user more comprehensive information visualization, better usability and learnability . It also gives more effective interactions to enhance the user experience.

  • 1511.
    Zúñiga-Prieto, Miguel
    et al.
    Universitat Politècnica de València, ESP.
    González-Huerta, Javier
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Insfran, Emilio
    Universitat Politècnica de València, ESP.
    Abrahão, Silvia
    Universitat Politècnica de València, ESP.
    Dynamic reconfiguration of cloud application architectures2018In: Software, practice & experience, ISSN 0038-0644, E-ISSN 1097-024X, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 327-344, article id Special Issue: SIArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Service-based cloud applications are software systems that continuously evolve to satisfy new user requirements and technological changes. This kind of applications also require elasticity, scalability, and high availability, which means that deployment of new functionalities or architectural adaptations to fulfill service level agreements (SLAs) should be performed while the application is in execution. Dynamic architectural reconfiguration is essential to minimize system disruptions while new or modified services are being integrated into existing cloud applications. Thus, cloud applications should be developed following principles that support dynamic reconfiguration of services, and also tools to automate these reconfigurations at runtime are needed. This paper presents an extension of a model-driven method for dynamic and incremental architecture reconfiguration of cloud services that allows developers to specify new services as software increments, and the tool to generate the implementation code for the services integration logic and the deployment and architectural reconfiguration scripts specific to the cloud environment in which the service will be deployed (e.g., Microsoft Azure). We also report the results of a quasi-experiment that empirically validate our method. It was conducted to evaluate their perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and perceived intention to use. The results show that the participants perceive the method to be useful, and they also expressed their intention to use the method in the future. Although further experiments must be carried out to corroborate these results, the method has proven to be a promising architectural reconfiguration process for cloud applications in the context of agile and incremental development processes.

  • 1512.
    Åbom, Karl
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Comparison of effectiveness in using 3D-audio and visual aids in identifying objects in a three-dimensional environment2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Modern commercial computer games use a number of different stimuli to assist players in locating key objects in the presented Virtual Environment (VE). These stimuli range from visual to auditory, and are employed in VEs depending on several factors such as gameplay design and aesthetics. Objectives: This study compares three different localization aids in order to evaluate their effectiveness in VEs. Method: An experiment is carried out in which testplayers are tasked with using audio signals, visual input, as well as a combination of both to correctly identify objects in a virtual scene. Results: Results gained from the experiment show how long testplayers spent on tests which made use of different stimuli. Upon analyzing the data, it was found that that audio stimulus was the slowest localization aid, and that visual stimulus and the combination of visual and auditory stimulus were tied for the fastest localization aid. Conclusions: The study concludes that there is a significant difference in efficiency among different localization aids and VEs of varied visual complexity, under the condition that the testplayer is familiar with each stimuli.

  • 1513.
    Åkerlund, Jonas
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Mattsson, Ludvig
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Gestaltning av klasskillnader i spel2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsen undersöker hur gestaltning av klasskillnader kan skildras på olika sätt i en

    spelmiljö. Syftet med undersökningen är att få fram alternativa sätt för att gestalta klasskillnader

    på i spelmiljöer. Detta för att försöka påverka hur spelutvecklare kommer gestalta klasskillnader

    i framtida spelproduktioner. För att undersöka problemområdet har teorier och idéer applicerats i

    3D-modeller som sedan har lagts in i en spelmiljö. Uppsatsen är uppdelad i tre delar. Tidigare

    forskning, produktion och diskussion.

  • 1514.
    Åkesson, Anders
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Lewenhagen, Kenneth
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Node.js in Open Source projects on Github: A literature study and exploratory case study2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study has been performed with an aim to provide an insight into how Node.js is used and the Node.js technology adaptation in the open source community. This research displays the diversity of Node.js and can inspire the reader to further development or continued research.

    Studies into different usages of Node.js have been missing in academic research and therefore this study gives a new, important insight into this technology.

    The authors used the exploratory case study methodology. For data collection, the authors created a JQuery and HTML script that fetched the desired dataset from Github and that were used as a static base for the study. Based on the usage areas extracted from the literature study, the authors specified different categories of usage. The dataset was manually investigated and placed into the categories, if they were relevant.

    The results show that web applications is by far the most well represented category with over 50% of all usages falling into this category. Network applications and Web servers come in at second and third position with 14% and 13% respectively.

    This study provided further categories and the authors could generate a set of diagrams, showing a trend on how the different usage areas changed from 2010 to 2015.

  • 1515.
    Ölund, Henrik
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Karlsson, Jonatan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Investigation of the key features in ECMAScript 20152016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis looks and investigates the developers knowledge about JavaScript and more specifically ECMAScript 2015. JavaScript is a very popular programming language and can be used to create web applications, desktop applications and even fully functional SQL-databases. When the interest for JavaScript in general rises it becomes more and more important to really know that the community implements and adapts to what is specified by the ECMA committee, since they have members from different very large companies around the world i.e Microsoft and Google. This research displays the immense update of ECMAScript will inspire the reader to further his knowledge of ECMAScript 2015 and what the features are of it.

    We are doing this by conducting a survey amongst developers that are currently studying in the field or are working in the field to get a grip on how the knowledge is regarding the most common ECMAScript 2015 features. What we saw was that the result are very positive about ECMAScript 2015 and the new features helps solving actual problems that the community are facing. We also found that some of the features may enhance the readability and maintainability though some may not enhance it.    

  • 1516.
    Örtegren, Kevin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Clustered Shading: Assigning arbitrarily shaped convex light volumes using conservative rasterization2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. In this thesis, a GPU-based light culling technique performed with conservative rasterization is presented. Accurate lighting calculations are expensive in real-time applications and the number of lights used in a typical virtual scene increases as real-time applications become more advanced. Performing light culling prior to shading a scene has in recent years become a vital part of any high-end rendering pipeline. Existing light culling techniques suffer from a variety of problems which clustered shading tries to address.

    Objectives. The main goal of this thesis is to explore the use of the rasterizer to efficiently assign convex light shapes to clusters. Being able to accurately represent and assign light volumes to clusters is a key objective in this thesis.

    Methods. This method is designed for real-time applications that use large amounts of dynamic and arbitrarily shaped convex lights. By using using conservative rasterization to assign convex light volumes to a 3D cluster structure, a more suitable light volume approximation can be used. This thesis implements a novel light culling technique in DirectX 12 by taking advantage of the hardware conservative rasterization provided by the latest consumer grade Nvidia GPUs. Experiments are conducted to prove the efficiency of the implementation and comparisons with AMD´s Forward+ tiled light culling are provided to relate the implementation to existing techniques.

    Results. The results from analyzing the algorithm shows that most problems with existing light culling techniques are addressed and the light assignment is of high quality and allows for easy integration of new convex light types. Assigning the lights and shading the CryTek Sponza scene with 2000 point lights and 2000 spot lights takes 2.92ms on a GTX970.

    Conclusions. The conclusion shows that the main goal of the thesis has been reached to the extent that all existing problems with current light culling techniques have been solved, at the cost of using more memory. The technique is novel and a lot of future work is outlined and would benefit the validity of the implementation if further researched.

  • 1517.
    Özcan, Mehmet Batuhan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Communication Systems.
    Iro, Gabriel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Communication Systems.
    PARAVIRTUALIZATION IMPLEMENTATION IN UBUNTU WITH XEN HYPERVISOR2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the growing need for efficiency, cost reduction, reduced disposition of outdated electronics components as well as scalable electronics components, and also reduced health effects of our daily usage of electronics components. Recent trend in technology has seen companies manufacturing these products thinking in the mentioned needs when manufacturing and virtualizations is one important aspect of it. The need to share resources, the need to use lesser workspace, the need to reduce cost of purchase and manufacturing are all part of achievements of virtualization techniques. For some people, setting up a computer to run different virtual machines at the same time can be difficult especially if they have no prior basic knowledge of working in terminal environment and hiring a skilled personnel to do the job can be expensive. The motivation for this thesis is to help people with little or no basic knowledge on how to set up virtual machine with Ubuntu operating system on XEN hypervisor.

  • 1518.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Distributed Project Management2014In: Software Project Management in a Changing World / [ed] Ruhe, Guenther; Wohlin, Claes, Springer , 2014, p. 301-320Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1519.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Britto, Ricardo
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Van Solingen, Rini
    Delft University of Technology, NLD.
    Calculating the extra costs and the bottom-line hourly cost of offshoring2017In: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE 12th International Conference on Global Software Engineering, ICGSE 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, p. 96-105Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Offshoring software development activities to a remote site in another country continues to be one of the key strategies to save development cost. However, the assumed economic benefits of offshoring are often questionable, due to a large number of hidden costs and too simple cost calculations. This study is a continuation of our work on calculating the true hourly cost that includes the extra direct and indirect costs on top of the salary-based hourly rates. We collected data from an empirical case study conducted in a large international corporation. This corporation develops software-intensive systems and has offshored its ongoing product development from Sweden to a recently on-boarded captive company site in India. In this paper, we report a number of extra costs and their impact on the resulting hourly cost as well as the bottom-line cost per work unit. Our analysis includes quantitative data from corporate archives, and expert-based estimates gathered through focus groups and workshops with company representatives from both the onshore and the offshore sites. Our findings show that there is additional cost that can be directly or at least strongly attributed to the transfer of work, working on a distance, and immaturity of the offshore site. Consideration of extra costs increases the hourly cost several times, while the performance gaps between the mature sites and the immature site leads to an even higher difference. As a result, two years after on-boarding of the offshore teams, the mature teams in high-cost locations continue to be 'cheaper' despite the big salary differences, and the most positive hypothetical scenario, in which the company could break even, is unrealistic. The implications of our findings are twofold. First, offshoring of complex ongoing products does not seem to lead to short-term bottom-line economic gains, and may not even reach breakeven within five years. Second, offshoring in the studied case can be justified but merely when initiated for other reasons than cost. © 2017 IEEE.

  • 1520.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Calefato, Fabio
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Cost Savings in Global Software Engineering Where's the Evidence?2015In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 26-32Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 1521.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Kuhrmann, Marco
    Keil, Patrick
    Virtual Teams: Guest Editor’s Introduction2014In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 41-46Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 1522.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Moe, Nills Brede
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Šablis, Aivars
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Software teams and their knowledge networks in large-scale software development2017In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 86, no JUN, p. 71-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Large software development projects involve multiple interconnected teams, often spread around the world, developing complex products for a growing number of customers and users. Succeeding with large-scale software development requires access to an enormous amount of knowledge and skills. Since neither individuals nor teams can possibly possess all the needed expertise, the resource availability in a team's knowledge network, also known as social capital, and effective knowledge coordination become paramount. Objective: In this paper, we explore the role of social capital in terms of knowledge networks and networking behavior in large-scale software development projects. Method: We conducted a multi-case study in two organizations, Ericsson and ABB, with software development teams as embedded units of analysis. We organized focus groups with ten software teams and surveyed 61 members from these teams to characterize and visualize the teams' knowledge networks. To complement the team perspective, we conducted individual interviews with representatives of supporting and coordination roles. Based on survey data, data obtained from focus groups, and individual interviews, we compared the different network characteristics and mechanisms that support knowledge networks. We used social network analysis to construct the team networks, thematic coding to identify network characteristics and context factors, and tabular summaries to identify the trends. Results: Our findings indicate that social capital and networking are essential for both novice and mature teams when solving complex, unfamiliar, or interdependent tasks. Network size and networking behavior depend on company experience, employee turnover, team culture, need for networking, and organizational support. A number of mechanisms can support the development of knowledge networks and social capital, for example, introduction of formal technical experts, facilitation of communities of practice and adequate communication infrastructure. Conclusions: Our study emphasizes the importance of social capital and knowledge networks. Therefore, we suggest that, along with investments into training programs, software companies should also cultivate a networking culture to strengthen their social capital, a known driver of better performance.

  • 1523.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Moe, Nils Brede
    SINTEF, Trondheim, NOR.
    Levinta, Georgiana
    Spotify, SWE.
    Floryan, Marcin
    Spotify, SWE.
    Spotify Guilds: How to Succeed With Knowledge Sharing in Large-Scale Agile Organizations2019In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 51-57, article id 8648260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The new generation of software companies has revolutionized the way companies are designed. While bottom-up governance and team autonomy improve motivation, performance, and innovation, managing agile development at scale is a challenge. We describe how Spotify cultivates guilds to help the company share knowledge, align, and make collective decisions.

  • 1524.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    van Solingen, Rini
    What's the True Hourly Cost of Offshoring?2016In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 60-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An offshore team's hourly costs took three years to become comparable with the in-house team's costs. Getting close to breaking even took five years. Learning costs due to offshore employee turnover were the primary cost factor to get under control.

  • 1525.
    Šāblis, Aivars
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gonzalez-Huerta, Javier
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Zabardast, Ehsan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Building lego towers: An exercise for teaching the challenges of global work2019In: ACM Transactions on Computing Education, ISSN 1946-6226, E-ISSN 1946-6226, Vol. 19, no 2, article id a15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global software engineering has changed the way software is developed today. To address the new challenges, many universities have launched specially tailored courses to train young professionals to work in globally distributed projects. However, a mere acknowledgment of the geographic, temporal, and cultural differences does not necessarily lead to a deep understanding of the underlying practical implications. Therefore, many universities developed alternative teaching and learning activities, such as multi-university collaborative projects and small-scale simulations or games. In this article, we present a small-scale exercise that uses LEGO bricks to teach skills necessary for global work. We describe the many different interventions that could be implemented in the execution of the exercise. We had seven runs of the exercises and report our findings from executing seven runs of the exercise with the total of 104 students from five different courses in two different universities. Our results suggest that the exercise can be a valuable tool to help students dealing with troublesome knowledge associated with global software engineering and a useful complement to the courses dedicated to this subject. © 2019 Copyright is held by the owner/author(s)

28293031 1501 - 1525 of 1525
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