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  • 151.
    Felizardo, Katia
    et al.
    Federal University of Technology, BRA.
    De Souza, Erica
    Federal University of Technology, BRA.
    Falbo, Ricardo
    Federal University of Esp'rito Santo, BRA.
    Vijaykumar, Nandamudi
    Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, BRA.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Nakagawa, Elisayumi
    Universidade de Sao Paulo, BRA.
    Defining protocols of systematic literature reviews in software engineering: A survey2017In: Proceedings - 43rd Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2017 / [ed] Felderer, M; Olsson, HH; Skavhaug, A, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, p. 202-209, article id 8051349Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Despite being defined during the first phase of the Systematic Literature Review (SLR) process, the protocol is usually refined when other phases are performed. Several researchers have reported their experiences in applying SLRs in Software Engineering (SE) however, there is still a lack of studies discussing the iterative nature of the protocol definition, especially how it should be perceived by researchers conducting SLRs. Objective: The main goal of this study is to perform a survey aiming to identify: (i) the perception of SE researchers related to protocol definition; (ii) the activities of the review process that typically lead to protocol refinements; and (iii) which protocol items are refined in those activities. Method: A survey was performed with 53 SE researchers. Results: Our results show that: (i) protocol definition and pilot test are the two activities that most lead to further protocol refinements; (ii) data extraction form is the most modified item. Besides that, this study confirmed the iterative nature of the protocol definition. Conclusions: An iterative pilot testcan facilitate refinements in the protocol. © 2017 IEEE.

  • 152.
    Femmer, Henning
    et al.
    Technical University Munich, GER.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Which requirements artifact quality defects are automatically detectable?: A case study2017In: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE 25th International Requirements Engineering Conference Workshops, REW 2017, IEEE, 2017, p. 400-406, article id 8054884Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [Context:] The quality of requirements engineeringartifacts, e.g. requirements specifications, is acknowledged tobe an important success factor for projects. Therefore, manycompanies spend significant amounts of money to control thequality of their RE artifacts. To reduce spending and improvethe RE artifact quality, methods were proposed that combinemanual quality control, i.e. reviews, with automated approaches.[Problem:] So far, we have seen various approaches to auto-matically detect certain aspects in RE artifacts. However, westill lack an overview what can and cannot be automaticallydetected. [Approach:] Starting from an industry guideline forRE artifacts, we classify 166 existing rules for RE artifacts alongvarious categories to discuss the share and the characteristics ofthose rules that can be automated. For those rules, that cannotbe automated, we discuss the main reasons. [Contribution:] Weestimate that 53% of the 166 rules can be checked automaticallyeither perfectly or with a good heuristic. Most rules need onlysimple techniques for checking. The main reason why some rulesresist automation is due to imprecise definition. [Impact:] Bygiving first estimates and analyses of automatically detectable andnot automatically detectable rule violations, we aim to provide anoverview of the potential of automated methods in requirementsquality control.

  • 153. Feyh, Markus
    et al.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Lean Software Development Measures and Indicators: A Systematic Mapping Study2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Lean Software Development (LSD) aims for improvement, yet this improvement requires measures to identify whether a difference has been achieved, and provide decision support for further improvement. Objective: This study identifies measures and indicators proposed in literature on LSD, then structures them according to ISO/IEC 15939, allowing for comparability due to a use of a standard. Method: Systematic mapping is the research methodology. Result: The published literature on LSD measures has significantly increased since 2010. The two pre-dominant study types are evaluation research and experience reports. 22 base measures, 13 derived measures, and 14 indicators were identified. Conclusion: Gaps exist with respect to LSD principles. In particular: deferring commitment, respecting people and knowledge creation. The principle of delivering fast is well supported.

  • 154.
    Filho, Juarez
    et al.
    Universidade Federal do Ceara, BRA.
    Rocha, Lincoln Souza
    Universidade Federal do Ceara, BRA.
    Andrade, Rossana
    Universidade Federal do Ceara, BRA.
    Britto, Ricardo
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Preventing erosion in exception handling design using static-architecture conformance checking2017In: Lecture Notes Computer Science / [ed] Rogerio de Lemos R.,Lopes A., Springer Verlag , 2017, Vol. 10475, p. 67-83Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exception handling is a common error recovery technique employed to improve software robustness. However, studies have reported that exception handling is commonly neglected by developers and is the least understood and documented part of a software project. The lack of documentation and difficulty in understanding the exception handling design can lead developers to violate important design decisions, triggering an erosion process in the exception handling design. Architectural conformance checking provides means to control the architectural erosion by periodically checking if the actual architecture is consistent with the planned one. Nevertheless, available approaches do not provide a proper support for exception handling conformance checking. To fulfill this gap, we propose ArCatch: an architectural conformance checking solution to deal with the exception handling design erosion. ArCatch provides: (i) a declarative language for expressing design constraints regarding exception handling; and (ii) a design rule checker to automatically verify the exception handling conformance. To evaluate the usefulness and effectiveness of our approach, we conducted a case study, in which we evaluated an evolution scenario composed by 10 versions of an existing web-based Java system. Each version was checked against the same set of exception handling design rules. Based on the results and the feedback given by the system’s architect, the ArCatch proved useful and effective in the identification of existing exception handling erosion problems and locating its causes in the source code. © 2017, Springer International Publishing AG.

  • 155.
    Flygare, Robin
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Holmqvist, Anthon
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Performance characteristics between monolithic and microservice-based systems2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A new promising technology to face the problem of scalability and availability is the microservice architecture. The problem with this architecture is that there is no significant study that clearly proves the performance differences compared to the monolithic architecture.

    Our thesis aims to provide a more conclusive answer of how the microservice architecture differs performance wise compared to the monolithic architecture.

    In this study, we conducted several experiments on a self-developed microservice and monolithic system. We used JMeter to simulate users and after running the tests we looked at the latency, successful throughput for the tests and measured the RAM and CPU usage with Datadog.

    Results that were found, were that the microservice architecture can be more beneficial than the monolithic architecture. Docker was also proven to not have any negative impact on performance and computer cluster can improve performance. 

    We have presented a conclusive answer that microservices can be better in some cases than a monolithic architecture.

  • 156.
    Forsberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Alvarez Gonzalez, Pierre
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Unsupervised Machine Learning: An Investigation of Clustering Algorithms on a Small Dataset2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context: With the rising popularity of machine learning, looking at its shortcomings is valuable in seeing how well machine learning is applicable. Is it possible to apply the clustering with a small dataset?

    Objectives: This thesis consists of a literature study, a survey and an experiment. It investigates how two different unsupervised machine learning algorithms DBSCAN(Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise) and K-means run on a dataset gathered from a survey.

    Methods: Making a survey where we can see statistically what most people chose and apply clustering with the data from the survey to confirm if the clustering has the same patterns as what people have picked statistically.

    Results: It was possible to identify patterns with clustering algorithms using a small dataset. The literature studies show examples that both algorithms have been used successfully.

    Conclusions: It's possible to see patterns using DBSCAN and K-means on a small dataset. The size of the dataset is not necessarily the only aspect to take into consideration, feature and parameter selection are both important as well since the algorithms need to be tuned and customized to the data.

  • 157.
    Fotrousi, Farnaz
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Quality-Impact Assessment of Software Systems2016In: Proceedings - 2016 IEEE 24th International Requirements Engineering Conference, RE 2016, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, p. 427-431, article id 7765560Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Runtime monitoring and assessment of software products, features, and requirements allow product managers and requirement engineers to verify the implemented features or requirements, and validate the user acceptance. Gaining insight into software quality and impact of the quality on user facilitates interpretation of quality against users' acceptance and vice versa. The insight also expedites root cause analysis and fast evolution in the case of threatening the health and sustainability of the software. Several studies have proposed automated monitoring solutions and assessment, however, none of the studies introduces a solution for a joint assessment of software quality and quality impact on users. In this research, we study the relation between software quality and the impact of quality on Quality of Experience (QoE) of users to support the assessment of software products, features, and requirements. We propose a Quality-Impact assessment method based on a joint analysis of software quality and user feedback. As an application of the proposed method in requirement engineering, the joint analysis guides verification and validation of functional and quality requirements as well as capturing new requirements. The study follows a design science approach to design Quality-Impact method artifact. The Quality-Impact method has been already designed and validated in the first design cycle. However, next design cycles will contribute to clarify problems of the initial design, refine and validate the proposed method. This paper presents the concluded results and explains future studies for the follow up of the Ph.D. research.

  • 158.
    Fotrousi, Farnaz
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    QoE probe: A requirement-monitoring tool2016In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings / [ed] Forbrig P.,Borg M.,Herrmann A.,Unterkalmsteiner M.,Bjarnason E.,Daun M.,Franch X.,Kirikova M.,Palomares C.,Espana S.,Paech B.,Opdahl A.L.,Tenbergen B.,Dieste O.,Felderer M.,Gay G.,Horkoff J.,Seffah A.,Morandini M.,Petersen K., CEUR-WS , 2016, Vol. 1564Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Runtime requirement monitoring is used for verification and validation of implemented requirements. To monitor the requirements in runtime; we propose a "QoE probe" tool, a mobile application integrated through an API, to collect usage logs as well as users’ Quality of Experience (QoE) in the form of user feedback. The analysis of the collected data guides requirement monitoring of functional and non-functional requirements as well as capturing new requirements.

  • 159.
    Fotrousi, Farnaz
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Software analytics for planning product evolution2016In: Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, Springer, 2016, Vol. 240, p. 16-31Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolution of a software product is inevitable as product context changes and the product gradually becomes less useful if it is not adapted. Planning is a basis to evolve a software product. The product manager, who carries responsibilities of planning, requires but does not always have access to high-quality information for making the best possible planning decisions. The current study aims to understand whether and when analytics are valuable for product planning and how they can be interpreted to a software product plan. The study was designed with an interview-based survey methodology approach through 17 in-depth semi-structured interviews with product managers. Based on results from qualitative analysis of the interviews, we defined an analytics-based model. The model shows that analytics have potentials to support the interpretation of product goals while is constrained by both product characteristics and product goals. The model implies how to use analytics for a good support of product planning evolution.

  • 160.
    Fotrousi, Farnaz
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Communication Systems.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Fiedler, Markus
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Communication Systems.
    Quality Requirements Elicitation based on Inquiry of Quality-Impact Relationships2014In: Proceedings of International Requirements Engineering, IEEE , 2014, p. 303-312Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quality requirements, an important class of non functional requirements, are inherently difficult to elicit. Particularly challenging is the definition of good-enough quality. The problem cannot be avoided though, because hitting the right quality level is critical. Too little quality leads to churn for the software product. Excessive quality generates unnecessary cost and drains the resources of the operating platform. To address this problem, we propose to elicit the specific relationships between software quality levels and their impacts for given quality attributes and stakeholders. An understanding of each such relationship can then be used to specify the right level of quality by deciding about acceptable impacts. The quality-impact relationships can be used to design and dimension a software system appropriately and, in a second step, to develop service level agreements that allow re-use of the obtained knowledge of good-enough quality. This paper describes an approach to elicit such quality-impact relationships and to use them for specifying quality requirements. The approach has been applied with user representatives in requirements workshops and used for determining Quality of Service (QoS) requirements based the involved users’ Quality of Experience (QoE). The paper describes the approach in detail and reports early experiences from applying the approach. Index Terms-Requirement elicitation, quality attributes, non-functional requirements, quality of experience (QoE), quality of service (QoS).

  • 161.
    Fotrousi, Farnaz
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering. Blekinge Inst Technol, SE-37179 Karlskrona, Sweden.;Univ Appl Sci & Arts Northwestern Switzerland FHN, Sch Engn, CH-5210 Windisch, Switzerland..
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering. Blekinge Inst Technol, SE-37179 Karlskrona, Sweden.;Univ Appl Sci & Arts Northwestern Switzerland FHN, Sch Engn, CH-5210 Windisch, Switzerland..
    Fiedler, Markus
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics. Blekinge Inst Technol, SE-37179 Karlskrona, Sweden..
    The effect of requests for user feedback on Quality of Experience2018In: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 385-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Companies are interested in knowing how users experience and perceive their products. Quality of Experience (QoE) is a measurement that is used to assess the degree of delight or annoyance in experiencing a software product. To assess QoE, we have used a feedback tool integrated into a software product to ask users about their QoE ratings and to obtain information about their rationales for good or bad QoEs. It is known that requests for feedback may disturb users; however, little is known about the subjective reasoning behind this disturbance or about whether this disturbance negatively affects the QoE of the software product for which the feedback is sought. In this paper, we present a mixed qualitative-quantitative study with 35 subjects that explore the relationship between feedback requests and QoE. The subjects experienced a requirement-modeling mobile product, which was integrated with a feedback tool. During and at the end of the experience, we collected the users' perceptions of the product and the feedback requests. Based on the users' rational for being disturbed by the feedback requests, such as "early feedback," "interruptive requests," "frequent requests," and "apparently inappropriate content," we modeled feedback requests. The model defines feedback requests using a set of five-tuple variables: "task," "timing" of the task for issuing the feedback requests, user's "expertise-phase" with the product, the "frequency" of feedback requests about the task, and the "content" of the feedback request. Configuration of these parameters might drive the participants' perceived disturbances. We also found that the disturbances generated by triggering user feedback requests have negligible impacts on the QoE of software products. These results imply that software product vendors may trust users' feedback even when the feedback requests disturb the users.

  • 162.
    Fotrousi, Farnaz
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Seyff, Norbert
    University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, CHE.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Ethical considerations in research on user feedback2017In: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE 25th International Requirements Engineering Conference Workshops, REW 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, p. 194-198Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collecting and using user feedback as a method to support requirements engineering, might undermine user rights. This becomes apparent when looking at related areas, e.g., research in user experience, where collecting user feedback also plays an important role. In such settings, researchers need to ensure that the stakeholders' rights and integrity are respected. This paper identifies and discusses some of the ethical challenges and issues a researcher can face, using an example case. Focusing on user feedback, this case can serve as an example for CrowdRE, i.e. several of our findings might apply to CrowdRE in general. However, further research is needed as our work mainly reflects the challenges experienced by the authors of this paper. © 2017 IEEE.

  • 163.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Systematic mapping of technology-enabled product innovations2016In: Proceedings - 2016 IEEE 24th International Requirements Engineering Conference Workshops, REW 2016, IEEE, 2016, p. 328-333Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many new products, or services offered as a product, are expected to solve customer problems in new ways or exploit available technology in new or better ways. To innovate, a company needs to have a reliable understanding of the state-of-the-art. That need concerns both, an understanding of the problems that may be addressed and the solutions that have been explored and tried so far. This paper proposes systematic mappings as a method for reviewing the state-of-the-art in a technological or application domain. The method complements bespoke and experience-based approaches by guiding the identification of repositories with information about innovation projects and the analysis and interpretation of the data provided by these repositories. The paper describes the method, demonstrates its application with an example initiated by real-world innovation need, and discusses the potential benefits and limitations of the method.

  • 164.
    Fricker, Samuel A.
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Kurt, Schneider
    University of Hannover, DEU.
    Farnaz, Fotrousi
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Communication Systems.
    Christoph, Thuemmler
    Edinburgh Napier University, GBR.
    Workshop Videos for Requirements Communication2016In: Requirements Engineering, ISSN 0947-3602, E-ISSN 1432-010X, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 521-552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shared understanding of requirements between stakeholders and the development team is a critical success factor for requirements engineering. Workshops are an effective means for achieving such shared understanding since stakeholders and team representatives can meet and discuss what a planned software system should be and how it should support achieving stakeholder goals. However, some important intended recipients of the requirements are often not present in such workshops: the developers. Thus, they cannot benefit from the in-depth understanding of the requirements and of the rationales for these requirements that develops during the workshops. The simple handover of a requirements specification hardly compensates the rich requirements understanding that is needed for the development of an acceptable system. To compensate the lack of presence in a requirements workshop, we propose to record that requirements workshop on video. If workshop participants agree to be recorded, a video is relatively simple to create and is able to capture much more aspects about requirements and rationales than a specification document. This paper presents the workshop video technique and a phenomenological evaluation of its use for requirements communication from the perspective of software developers. The results show how the technique was appreciated by observers of the video, present positive and negative feedbacks from the observers, and lead to recommendations for implementing the technique in practice.

  • 165.
    Fricker, Samuel A.
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Schneider, KurtLeibniz University of Hannover, Germany.
    Proceedings of the 21st International Working Conference on Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality2015Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 166.
    Fricker, Samuel
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Grau, Rainer
    Zwingli, Adrian
    Requirements Engineering: Best Practice2014In: Requirements Engineering for Digital Health / [ed] Fricker, Samuel; Thuemmler, Christoph; Gavras, Anastasius, Springer , 2014Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many software solutions have failed because they did not meet stakeholder needs. In response to this problem a massive amount of techniques were de-veloped to elicit stakeholder needs, to analyze the implications of these needs on the software, to specify proposed software products, and to check acceptance of these proposals. However, many of these techniques did not become industrial practice because they were not practicable or ineffective when used in real-world projects. To obtain an overview of what common practice is and to understand which techniques reflect best practice because they are particularly effective, we have surveyed a large number of industry projects. Based on 419 valid answers, this chapter gives an overview of commonly used requirements engineering techniques. It also shows which of the techniques, when used in a software project, correlate with require-ments engineering success. The chapter concludes with recommendations for software projects and future research to improve requirements engineer-ing practice.

  • 167.
    Fricker, Samuel
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Maglyas, Andrey
    Preliminary Results from the Software Product Management State-of-Practice Survey2014In: SOFTWARE BUSINESS: TOWARDS CONTINUOUS VALUE DELIVERY, Paphos, Cyprus: Springer , 2014, Vol. 182, p. 295+-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software product management (SPM) as a discipline includes many practices like product and release planning, market analysis, roadmapping, and product lifecycle management. Product management frameworks prescribe these practices but companies seldom adopt all of them. We conducted a state-of-practice survey with the aim to investigate how companies adopt SPM practices and how this practical experience fits together with the framework suggested by International Software Product Management Association (ISPMA). The results of this study showed that ISPMA SPM Framework describes core product management practices well but the impact of product management practices to the final product success remains ambiguous.

  • 168.
    Fricker, Samuel
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Maksimov, Yuliyan
    Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz, CHE.
    Pricing of data products in data marketplaces2017In: Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing / [ed] Werder K.,Ojala A.,Holmstrom Olsson H., Springer Verlag , 2017, Vol. 304, p. 49-66Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile computing and the Internet of Things promises massive amounts of data for big data analytic and machine learning. A data sharing economy is needed to make that data available for companies that wish to develop smart systems and services. While digital markets for trading data are emerging, there is no consolidated understanding of how to price data products and thus offer data vendors incentives for sharing data. This paper uses a combined keyword search and snowballing approach to systematically review the literature on the pricing of data products that are to be offered on marketplaces. The results give insights into the maturity and character of data pricing. They enable practitioners to select a pricing approach suitable for their situation and researchers to extend and mature data pricing as a topic. © Springer International Publishing AG 2017.

  • 169.
    Fricker, Samuel
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wallmüller, Ernest
    Qualität & Informatik.
    Paschen, Ina
    Zuehlke Engineering AG.
    Requirements Engineering as Innovation Journalism: A Research Preview2016In: Proceedings - 2016 IEEE 24th International Requirements Engineering Conference, IEEE, 2016, p. 335-340, article id 7765540Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The successful launch of an innovation project de-pends on an attractive vision and how well the vision is supported by the complementary capabilities of the consortium partners that want to cooperate to realize the vision. Alas, for an innovator the search for the right partners and visions can be lengthy and diffi-cult. Even though the analysis of context and problem, the identi-fication of stakeholders, the analysis of stakeholder goals and tech-nological capabilities, and the definition of requirements belong to the cornerstones of requirements engineering, this requirementsengineering problem has hardly been explored so far. In an at-tempt to avoid re-invention of well-tried solutions, we discovered journalism as a discipline that, as a rich body of methodical knowledge, may act as a source for the guidance of how a require-ments engineer may support the launch of innovation projects. In the role of a journalist, the requirements engineer makes partners and their capabilities visible and thereby allows the parties to iden-tify each other and meet. The transparency that develops between the parties becomes an instrument for consortia to emerge and to eventually answer calls for innovation with appropriate visions for innovation projects. This paper introduces the problem of initiat-ing innovation projects and describes the potential role of journal-ism as a metaphor for addressing the problem. The paper also de-scribes our plans in designing an innovation journalism approach that we hope will enable requirements engineers to increase inno-vation potential and ease the launch of projects that bring about these innovations.

  • 170.
    Fridensköld, Jonatan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Biased AI: The hidden problem that needs an answer2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 171.
    Fu, Jiangbiao
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Song, Jiaqi
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Model-based Testing of supporting testing of PAC based controlling systems in industrial plants - A case study in printing plants2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Testing is a very critical process to evaluate whether a related function is correctly implemented in the control system. There is an upward trend to using PAC based control system in the automation production context. However, currently, most testing of PAC based controlling system is in manual testing, which has low efficiency and high complexity. Furthermore, there has been little research on the systematic testing of PAC in an industry environment.

    Objectives. Due to this problem, this study is to investigate whether a model-based testing method can overcome the challenge of manual testing and improve the testing effectiveness in PAC based controlling system.

    Methods. We use three steps to achieve the objective, and the first one is to implement a systematic mapping study to find existing model-based testing method that is using in the industrial area, what the process and the context. The second one is to implement a case study in a printing house, to see what the real challenge of manual testing, the third one is to find if exist MBT method could be used under such context to overcome challenges.

    Results. Through mapping study and case study, we found there are many testing methods and implement under diverse context, but none of them focus on the PAC based controlling system. And we found there exist MBT that also can be used in PAC based controlling system to mitigate some manual testing challenges.

    Conclusions. In our thesis, we implement a mapping study from 38 papers to collect data for existing model-based testing methods to have a deep understanding of this area. We found there are five main contexts that MBT are usually being used and we extract implement process and advantages and disadvantages for MBT methods which value to practitioners and researchers. And we conducted a case study in a printing house in Switzerland to observe the challenges of manual testing of PAC based controlling system. We found one exist MBT method that can be used in our context that makes the test case generation step more effective. And we proposed a simulation testing model that hopefully can address all the manual testing challenges by combined with the exist MBT method.

  • 172.
    FU, YU
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Mobile application rating based on AHP and FCEM: Using AHP and FCEM in mobile application features rating2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Software evaluation is a research hotspot of both academia and industry. Users as the ultimate beneficiary of software products, their evaluation becomes more and more importance. In the real word, the users’ evaluation outcomes as the reference for end-users selecting products, and for project managers comparing their product with competitive products. A mobile application is a special software, which is facing the same situation. It is necessary to find and test an evaluation method for a mobile application which based on users’ feedback and give more reference for different stakeholders.

    Objectives. The aim of this thesis is to apply and evaluate AF in mobile application features rating. There are three kinds of people, and three processes are involved in a rating method applying process, rating designers in rating design process, rating providers in the rating process, and end-users in selecting process. Each process has the corresponding research objectives and research questions to test the applicability of AF method and the satisfaction of using AF and using AF rating outcomes.

    Methods. The research method of this thesis is a mixed method. The thesis combined experiment, questionnaire, and interview to achieve the research aim. The experiment is using for constructing a rating environment to simulate mobile application evaluation in the real world and test the applicability of AF method. Questionnaire as a supporting method utilizing for collecting the ratings from rating providers. And interviews are used for getting the satisfaction feedback of rating providers and end-users. Results. In this thesis, all AF use conditions are met, and AF evaluation system can be built in mobile application features rating. Comparing with existing method rating outcomes, the rating outcomes of AF are correct and complete. Although, the good feelings of end-users using AF rating outcomes to selecting a product, due to the complex rating process and heavy time cost, the satisfaction of rating providers is negative.

    Conclusions. AF can be used in mobile application features rating. Although there are many obvious advantages likes more scientific features weight, and more rating outcomes for different stakeholders, there are also shortages to improve such as complex rating process, heavy time cost, and bad information presentation. There is no evidence AF can reply the existing rating method in apps stores. However, there is still research value of AF in future work. 

  • 173.
    Ganuga, Chandan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Jilla, Akshay
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Exploring user feedback gathering from software in use: An interview study2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 174.
    gao, shenjian
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Tan, Yanwen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Paving the Way for Self-driving Cars - Software Testing for Safety-critical Systems Based on Machine Learning: A Systematic Mapping Study and a Survey2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context: With the development of artificial intelligence, autonomous vehicles are becoming more and more feasible and the safety of Automated Driving (AD) system should be assured. This creates a need to analyze the feasibility of verification and validation approaches when testing safety-critical system that contains machine learning (ML) elements. There are many studies published in the context of verification and validation (V&V) research area related to safety-critical components. However, there are still blind spots of research to identify which test methods can be used to test components with deep learning elements for AD system. Therefore, research should focus on researching the relation of test methods and safety-critical components, also need to find more feasible V&V testing methods for AD system with deep learning structure.

    Objectives: The main objectives of this thesis is to understand the challenges and solution proposals related to V&V of safety-critical systems that rely on machine learning and provide recommendations for future V&V of AD based on deep learning, both for research and practice.

    Methods: We performed a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) through a snowballing method, based on the guidelines from Wohlin [1], to identify research on V&V methods development for machine learning. A web-based survey was used to complement the result of literature review and evaluate the V&V challenge and methods for machine learning system. We identified 64 peer-reviewed papers and analysed the methods and challenges of V&V for testing machine learning components. We conducted an industrial survey that was answered by 63 subjects. We analyzed the survey results with the help of descriptive statistics and Chi-squared tests.

    Result: Through the SLR we identified two peaks for research on V&V of machine learning. Early research focused on the aerospace field and in recent years the research has been more active in other fields like automotive and robotics. 21 challenges during V&V safety-critical systems have been described and 32 solution proposals are addressing the challenges have been identified. To find the relationship between challenges and methods, a classification has been done that seven different type of challenges and five different type of solution proposals have been identified. The classification and mapping of challenges and solution methods are included in the survey questionnaire. From the survey, it was observed that some solution proposals which have attracted much research are not considered as particularly promising by practitioners. On the other hand, some new solution methods like simulated test cases are extremely promising to support V&V for safety-critical systems. Six suggestions are provided to both researchers and practitioners.

    Conclusion: To conclude the thesis, our study presented a classification of challenges and solution methods for V&V of safety-critical ML-based systems. We also provide a mapping for helping practitioners understand the different kinds of challenges the respective solution methods address. Based on our findings, we provide suggestions to both researchers and practitioners. Thus, through the analysis, we have given the most concern on types of challenges and solution proposals for AD systems that use deep learning, which provides certain help to design processes for V&V of safety-critical ML-based systems in the future.

  • 175.
    Garigapati, Ratna Pranathi
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    A Framework for Effective Test Charter Design for Exploratory Testing2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Colossal systems that are evolving are primarily system of systems (SOS). The system of systems are characteristic of functionally independent subsystems. These subsystems exhibit heterogeneity in terms of software or hardware. Each subsystem may reflect heterogeneity in dimensions such as the system complexity, system configuration, programming language and platforms, etc. Exploratory testing (ET) is perceived to be the best for testing such systems. An enhancement to exploratory testing is the session-based test management (SBTM) where several activities form a part of each session. These activities are mainly dependent on tester and the test charter of that session. There is lack of information in existing literature regarding a standard framework to design test charters for exploratory testing which forms the main area of focus of this thesis research.

    Objectives. Firstly, to investigate the design of test charters in general. Secondly, to find out the factors influencing the design of test charters. Lastly, to develop a framework to design effective test charters in SOS context.

    Methods. A mixed method approach that incorporates both qualitative and quantitative research methods is used. This research includes the quantitative leg of the online survey along with the interviews and literature review that are qualitative in nature. Literature review has been chosen to investigate the test charter design in general. Besides, interviews and online surveys  have been used to research regarding the factors and test charter framework.  Snowball sampling method and convenience sampling method have been used to sample the research data. Moreover, thematic analysis method is used for analyzing the qualitative data while descriptive statistics is used for quantitative data analysis.

    Results. The design aspects of test charter are documented, the factors influencing test charter design and the framework for effective test charter design for exploratory testing are presented.

    Conclusions. The thesis objectives are fulfilled. The findings on how the test charters are generally designed have helped in gaining insight on the primary elements that constitute a test charter design. Further, investigating the factors influencing the test charter design has helped in knowing the main elements affecting the test charter design. Finally, the main contribution of this thesis, the developed flexible test charter framework for exploratory testing encapsulates variables that should be considered, controlled or varied systematically during the course of testing. It is deemed to act as a guideline for practitioners for effective test charter design.

  • 176.
    Garousi, Vahid
    et al.
    Wageningen University, NLD.
    Felderer, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering. Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Karapıçak, Çağrı Murat
    Middle East Technical, University (METU), Ankara, TUR.
    Yılmaz, Uğur
    Hacettepe University, Ankara, TUR.
    Testing embedded software: A survey of the literature2018In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 104, p. 14-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context Embedded systems have overwhelming penetration around the world. Innovations are increasingly triggered by software embedded in automotive, transportation, medical-equipment, communication, energy, and many other types of systems. To test embedded software in an effective and efficient manner, a large number of test techniques, approaches, tools and frameworks have been proposed by both practitioners and researchers in the last several decades. Objective: However, reviewing and getting an overview of the entire state-of-the-art and the practice in this area is challenging for a practitioner or a (new) researcher. Also unfortunately, as a result, we often see that many companies reinvent the wheel (by designing a test approach new to them, but existing in the domain) due to not having an adequate overview of what already exists in this area. Method: To address the above need, we conducted and report in this paper a systematic literature review (SLR) in the form of a systematic literature mapping (SLM) in this area. After compiling an initial pool of 588 papers, a systematic voting about inclusion/exclusion of the papers was conducted among the authors, and our final pool included 312 technical papers. Results: Among the various aspects that we aim at covering, our review covers the types of testing topics studied, types of testing activity, types of test artifacts generated (e.g., test inputs or test code), and the types of industries in which studies have focused on, e.g., automotive and home appliances. Furthermore, we assess the benefits of this review by asking several active test engineers in the Turkish embedded software industry to review its findings and provide feedbacks as to how this review has benefitted them. Conclusion: The results of this review paper have already benefitted several of our industry partners in choosing the right test techniques / approaches for their embedded software testing challenges. We believe that it will also be useful for the large world-wide community of software engineers and testers in the embedded software industry, by serving as an "index" to the vast body of knowledge in this important area. Our results will also benefit researchers in observing the latest trends in this area and for identifying the topics which need further investigations.

  • 177.
    Garousi, Vahid
    et al.
    Information Technology Group, Wageningen University, NLD.
    Felderer, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Mäntylä, Mika
    M3S, Faculty of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Oulu, FIN.
    Guidelines for including grey literature and conducting multivocal literature reviews in software engineering2019In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 106, p. 101-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: A Multivocal Literature Review (MLR) is a form of a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) which includes the grey literature (e.g., blog posts, videos and white papers) in addition to the published (formal) literature (e.g., journal and conference papers). MLRs are useful for both researchers and practitioners since they provide summaries both the state-of-the art and –practice in a given area. MLRs are popular in other fields and have recently started to appear in software engineering (SE). As more MLR studies are conducted and reported, it is important to have a set of guidelines to ensure high quality of MLR processes and their results. Objective: There are several guidelines to conduct SLR studies in SE. However, several phases of MLRs differ from those of traditional SLRs, for instance with respect to the search process and source quality assessment. Therefore, SLR guidelines are only partially useful for conducting MLR studies. Our goal in this paper is to present guidelines on how to conduct MLR studies in SE. Method: To develop the MLR guidelines, we benefit from several inputs: (1) existing SLR guidelines in SE, (2), a literature survey of MLR guidelines and experience papers in other fields, and (3) our own experiences in conducting several MLRs in SE. We took the popular SLR guidelines of Kitchenham and Charters as the baseline and extended/adopted them to conduct MLR studies in SE. All derived guidelines are discussed in the context of an already-published MLR in SE as the running example. Results: The resulting guidelines cover all phases of conducting and reporting MLRs in SE from the planning phase, over conducting the review to the final reporting of the review. In particular, we believe that incorporating and adopting a vast set of experience-based recommendations from MLR guidelines and experience papers in other fields have enabled us to propose a set of guidelines with solid foundations. Conclusion: Having been developed on the basis of several types of experience and evidence, the provided MLR guidelines will support researchers to effectively and efficiently conduct new MLRs in any area of SE. The authors recommend the researchers to utilize these guidelines in their MLR studies and then share their lessons learned and experiences. © 2018

  • 178.
    Garousi, Vahid
    et al.
    Wageningen University, NLD.
    Felderer, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering. Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Nur Kılıçaslan, Feyza Nur
    Hacettepe Üniversitesi, TUR.
    A survey on software testability2019In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 108, p. 35-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Software testability is the degree to which a software system or a unit under test supports its own testing. To predict and improve software testability, a large number of techniques and metrics have been proposed by both practitioners and researchers in the last several decades. Reviewing and getting an overview of the entire state-of-the-art and state-of-the-practice in this area is often challenging for a practitioner or a new researcher. Objective: Our objective is to summarize the body of knowledge in this area and to benefit the readers (both practitioners and researchers) in preparing, measuring and improving software testability. Method: To address the above need, the authors conducted a survey in the form of a systematic literature mapping (classification) to find out what we as a community know about this topic. After compiling an initial pool of 303 papers, and applying a set of inclusion/exclusion criteria, our final pool included 208 papers (published between 1982 and 2017). Results: The area of software testability has been comprehensively studied by researchers and practitioners. Approaches for measurement of testability and improvement of testability are the most-frequently addressed in the papers. The two most often mentioned factors affecting testability are observability and controllability. Common ways to improve testability are testability transformation, improving observability, adding assertions, and improving controllability.Conclusion: This paper serves for both researchers and practitioners as an "index" to the vast body of knowledge in the area of testability. The results could help practitioners measure and improve software testability in their projects. To assess potential benefits of this review paper, we shared its draft version with two of our industrial collaborators. They stated that they found the review useful and beneficial in their testing activities. Our results can also benefit researchers in observing the trends in this area and identify the topics that require further investigation.

  • 179.
    Garousi, Vahid
    et al.
    Wageningen University, NLD.
    Giray, Görkem
    Kokteyl A, , TUR.
    Tuzun, Eray
    Bilkent Üniversitesi, TUR.
    Catal, Cagatay
    Wageningen University, NLD.
    Felderer, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Closing the Gap Between Software Engineering Education and Industrial Needs2019In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to different reports, many recent software engineering graduates often face difficulties when beginning their professional careers, due to misalignment of the skills learnt in their university education with what is needed in industry. To address that need, many studies have been conducted to align software engineering education with industry needs. To synthesize that body of knowledge, we present in this paper a systematic literature review (SLR) which summarizes the findings of 33 studies in this area. By doing a meta-analysis of all those studies and using data from 12 countries and over 4,000 data points, this study will enable educators and hiring managers to adapt their education / hiring efforts to best prepare the software engineering workforce. IEEE

  • 180.
    Garousi, Vahid
    et al.
    Wageningen University and Research Centre, NLD.
    Giray, Görkem
    Independent Researcher, TUR.
    Tüzün, Eray
    Bilkent Üniversitesi, TUR.
    Catal, Cagatay
    Wageningen University and Research Centre, NLD.
    Felderer, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Aligning software engineering education with industrial needs: A meta-analysis2019In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 156, p. 65-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: According to various reports, many software engineering (SE) graduates often face difficulties when beginning their careers, which is mainly due to misalignment of the skills learned in university education with what is needed in the software industry. Objective: Our objective is to perform a meta-analysis to aggregate the results of the studies published in this area to provide a consolidated view on how to align SE education with industry needs, to identify the most important skills and also existing knowledge gaps. Method: To synthesize the body of knowledge, we performed a systematic literature review (SLR), in which we systematically selected a pool of 35 studies and then conducted a meta-analysis using data extracted from those studies. Results: Via a meta-analysis and using data from 13 countries and over 4,000 data points, highlights of the SLR include: (1) software requirements, design, and testing are the most important skills; and (2) the greatest knowledge gaps are in configuration management, SE models and methods, SE process, design (and architecture), as well as in testing. Conclusion: This paper provides implications for both educators and hiring managers by listing the most important SE skills and the knowledge gaps in the industry. © 2019 Elsevier Inc.

  • 181.
    Garousi, Vahid
    et al.
    Wageningen Univ, NLD.
    Kucuk, Baris
    Proven Informat Technol, TUR.
    Felderer, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    What We Know About Smells in Software Test Code2019In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 61-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Test smells are poorly designed tests and negatively affect the quality of test suites and production code. We present the largest catalog of test smells, along with a summary of guidelines, techniques, and tools used to deal with test smells.

  • 182. Garousi, Vahid
    et al.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Ozkan, Baris
    Challenges and best practices in industry-academia collaborations in software engineering: A systematic literature review2016In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 79, p. 106-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: The global software industry and the software engineering (SE) academia are two large communities. However, unfortunately, the level of joint industry-academia collaborations in SE is still relatively very low, compared to the amount of activity in each of the two communities. It seems that the two ’camps’ show only limited interest/motivation to collaborate with one other. Many researchers and practitioners have written about the challenges, success patterns (what to do, i.e., how to collaborate) and anti-patterns (what not do do) for industry-academia collaborations. Objective: To identify (a) the challenges to avoid risks to the collaboration by being aware of the challenges, (b) the best practices to provide an inventory of practices (patterns) allowing for an informed choice of practices to use when planning and conducting collaborative projects. Method: A systematic review has been conducted. Synthesis has been done using grounded-theory based coding procedures. Results: Through thematic analysis we identified 10 challenge themes and 17 best practice themes. A key outcome was the inventory of best practices, the most common ones recommended in different contexts were to hold regular workshops and seminars with industry, assure continuous learning from industry and academic sides, ensure management engagement, the need for a champion, basing research on real-world problems, showing explicit benefits to the industry partner, be agile during the collaboration, and the co-location of the researcher on the industry side. Conclusion: Given the importance of industry-academia collaboration to conduct research of high practical relevance we provide a synthesis of challenges and best practices, which can be used by researchers and practitioners to make informed decisions on how to structure their collaborations.

  • 183.
    Garousi, Vahid
    et al.
    Wageningen University and Research Centre, NLD.
    Pfahl, Dietmar
    University of Tartu, EST.
    Fernandes, Joao
    Universidade do Minho, PRT.
    Felderer, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Mäntylä, Mika
    University of Oulu, FIN.
    Shepherd, David
    ABB Group, USA.
    Arcuri, Andrea
    University of Luxembourg, LUX.
    Coşkunçay, Ahmet
    Ataturk University, TUR.
    Tekinerdogan, Bedir
    Wageningen University and Research Centre, NLD.
    Characterizing industry-academia collaborations in software engineering: evidence from 101 projects2019In: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research collaboration between industry and academia supports improvement and innovation in industry and helps ensure the industrial relevance of academic research. However, many researchers and practitioners in the community believe that the level of joint industry-academia collaboration (IAC) projects in Software Engineering (SE) research is relatively low, creating a barrier between research and practice. The goal of the empirical study reported in this paper is to explore and characterize the state of IAC with respect to industrial needs, developed solutions, impacts of the projects and also a set of challenges, patterns and anti-patterns identified by a recent Systematic Literature Review (SLR) study. To address the above goal, we conducted an opinion survey among researchers and practitioners with respect to their experience in IAC. Our dataset includes 101 data points from IAC projects conducted in 21 different countries. Our findings include: (1) the most popular topics of the IAC projects, in the dataset, are: software testing, quality, process, and project managements; (2) over 90% of IAC projects result in at least one publication; (3) almost 50% of IACs are initiated by industry, busting the myth that industry tends to avoid IACs; and (4) 61% of the IAC projects report having a positive impact on their industrial context, while 31% report no noticeable impacts or were “not sure”. To improve this situation, we present evidence-based recommendations to increase the success of IAC projects, such as the importance of testing pilot solutions before using them in industry. This study aims to contribute to the body of evidence in the area of IAC, and benefit researchers and practitioners. Using the data and evidence presented in this paper, they can conduct more successful IAC projects in SE by being aware of the challenges and how to overcome them, by applying best practices (patterns), and by preventing anti-patterns. © 2019, The Author(s).

  • 184.
    Garrepalli, Thrinay
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Knowledge Management in Software Testing2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Software testing is a knowledge intensive process and the use of Knowledge Management (KM) methods and principles makes software testing even more beneficial. Thus there is a need of adapting KM into software testing core process and attain the benefits that it provides in terms of cost, quality etc. There has been an extensive literature published in the context of KM in software testing. But it is still unclear about the importance of KM with respect to testing techniques as well as testing aspects i.e. each activity that takes part during testing and the outcomes that they result such as test artifacts is considered as testing aspect. Thus there is a requisite for studies to focus on identifying the challenges faced due to lack of KM along with the importance of KM with respect to testing aspects, testing techniques and thus can provide recommendations to apply Knowledge Management to those that get benefited from it.

     

    Objectives: In this thesis, we investigate the usage and implementation of KM in Software testing. The major objectives of current thesis include,

    1. To identify various software testing aspects that receive more attention while applying KM.
    2. To analyze the software testing techniques i.e. test design, test execution and test result analysis and evaluate them and highlight which of these have more involvement of KM.
    3. To identify the software testing techniques where tacit or explicit knowledge is currently used.
    4. To gather challenges faced by industry due to lack of KM initiatives in software testing.

     

    Methods: We conducted a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) through a snowballing method based on the guidelines from Wohlin in order to identify various software testing aspects and testing techniques that have more involvement of KM and challenges that are faced due to lack of KM. A questionnaire intended for web-based survey was prepared from the gathered literature results to complement and further supplement them and to categorize the testing techniques based on the type of knowledge they utilize. The studies were analyzed in relation to their rigor and relevance to assess the quality of the results. The data obtained from survey were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square test of significance.

     

    Results: We identified 35 peer reviewed papers among which 31 were primary and 4 were secondary studies. The literature review results indicated 9 testing aspects being in focus when applying KM within various adaptation contexts. In addition, few testing techniques were found to get benefited from the application of KM. Several challenges were identified from the literature review such as improper selection and application of better suited techniques, low reuse rate of Software Testing knowledge, barriers in Software testing knowledge transfer, impossible to quickly achieve the most optimum distribution of human resources during testing etc. 54 full answers were received to the survey. The survey showed that Knowledge Management was being applied in software testing in most of the industries. It was observed that test result analysis, test case design, test planning and testing techniques stood out as the most important testing aspects being focused while KM is applied. Regarding software testing techniques, 17 test design techniques, 5 test execution techniques and 5 test result analysis techniques gain more attention in the context of KM. Moreover, the results suggest that tacit knowledge was utilized for most of these techniques. Several new challenges are obtained from the survey such as lacking quality in terms of testing results or outcomes, difficulties in finding relevant information and resources during testing, applying more effort than required during testing, having a huge loss of know-how by neglecting explicit and tacit knowledge during test design etc.

     

    Conclusions. To conclude, various challenges are being faced due to the lack of KM. Our study also brings supporting evidence that applying KM in Software Testing is necessary i.e. to increase test effectiveness, selection and application of better suited techniques and so on. It was also observed that perceptions vary between the literature and the survey results obtained from the practitioners regarding testing aspects and testing techniques, as few aspects and techniques which are being categorized as the most important in the literature are not given the same priority by the respondents. Thus the final list of testing aspects and testing techniques is provided and empirical findings can likewise help practitioners to specifically apply KM more for those that are very much in need of it. Besides, it was found that most of the techniques require and utilize tacit knowledge to apply them and techniques such as shadowing, observing, training and recording sessions can help to store tacit knowledge for those that are in need of it. Thus researchers can recognize the advantages from this thesis and can further extend to various software life cycle models.

  • 185.
    Ghazi, Ahmad Nauman
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Structuring Exploratory Testing through Test Charter Design and Decision Support2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Exploratory testing (ET) is an approach to test software with a strong focus on personal skills and freedom of the tester. ET emphasises the simultaneous design and execution of tests with minimal test documentation. Test practitioners often claim that their choice to use ET as an important alternative to scripted testing is based on several benefits ET exhibits over the scripted testing. However, these claims lack empirical evidence as there is little research done in this area. Moreover, ET is usually considered an ad-hoc way of doing testing as everyone does it differently. There have been some attempts in past to provide structure to ET. Session based test management (SBTM) is an approach that attempts to provide some structure to ET and gives some basic guidelines to structuring the test sessions. However, these guidelines are still very abstract and are very open to individuals' interpretation.

    Objective: The main objective of this doctoral thesis is to support practitioners in their decisions about choosing exploratory versus scripted testing. Furthermore, it is also aimed to investigate the empirical evidence in support of ET and find ways to structure ET and classify different levels of exploration that drive the choices made by exploratory testers. Another objective of this thesis is to provide a decision support system to select levels of exploration in overall test process.

    Method: The findings presented in this thesis are obtained through a controlled experiment with participants from industry and academia, exploratory surveys, interviews and focus groups conducted at different companies including Ericsson AB, Sony Mobile Communications, Axis Communications AB and Softhouse Consulting Baltic AB.

    Results: Using the exploratory survey, we found three test techniques to be most relevant in context of testing software systems and in particular heterogeneous systems. The most frequently used technique mentioned by the practitioners is ET which is not a much researched topic. We also found many interesting claims about ET in grey literature produced by practitioners in the form of informal presentations and blogs but these claims lacked any empirical evidence. Therefore, a controlled experiment was conducted with students and industry practitioners to compare ET with scripted testing. The experiment results show that ET detects significantly more critical defects compared to scripted testing and is more time efficient. However, ET has its own limitations and there is not a single way to use it for testing. In order to provide structure to ET, we conducted a study where we propose checklists to support test charter design in ET. Furthermore, two more industrial focus group studies at four companies were conducted that resulted in a taxonomy of exploration levels in ET and a decision support method for selecting exploration levels in ET. Lastly, we investigated different problems that researchers face when conducting surveys in software engineering and have presented mitigation strategies for these problems.

    Conclusion: The taxonomy for levels of exploration in ET, proposed in this thesis, provided test practitioners at the companies a better understanding of the underlying concepts of ET and a way to structure their test charters. A number of influence factors elicited as part of this thesis also help them prioritise which level of exploration suits more to their testing in the context of their products. Furthermore, the decision support method provided the practitioners to reconsider their current test focus to test their products in a more effective way.

  • 186.
    Ghazi, Ahmad Nauman
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Andersson, Jesper
    Torkar, Richard
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Information Sources and their Importance to Prioritize Test Cases in the Heterogeneous Systems Context2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Testing techniques proposed in the literature rely on various sources of information for test case selection (e.g., require- ments, source code, system structure, etc.). The challenge of test selection is amplified in the context of heterogeneous systems, where it is unknown which information/data sources are most important. Contribution: (1) Achieve in-depth understanding of test processes in heterogeneous systems; (2) Elicit information sources for test selection in the context of heterogeneous systems. (3) Capture the relative importance of the identified information sources. Method: Case study research is used for the elicitation and understanding of which information sources are relevant for test case privatization, followed by an exploratory survey capturing the relative importance of information sources for testing heterogeneous systems. Results: We classified different information sources that play a vital role in the test selection process, and found that their importance differs largely for the different test levels observed in heterogeneous testing. However, overall all sources were considered essential in test selection for heterogeneous systems. Conclusion: Heterogeneous system testing requires solutions that take all information sources into account when suggesting test cases for selection. Such approaches need to be developed and compared with existing solutions.

  • 187.
    Ghazi, Ahmad Nauman
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Garigapati, Ratna Pranathi
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Checklists to Support Test Charter Design in Exploratory Testing2017In: Agile Processes in Software Engineering and Extreme Programming / [ed] Baumeister H., Lichter H., Riebisch M., Springer, 2017, Vol. 283, p. 251-258Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During exploratory testing sessions the tester simultaneously learns, designs and executes tests. The activity is iterative and utilizes the skills of the tester and provides flexibility and creativity. Test charters are used as a vehicle to support the testers during the testing. The aim of this study is to support practitioners in the design of test charters through checklists. We aimed to identify factors allowing practitioners to critically reflect on their designs and contents of test charters to support practitioners in making informed decisions of what to include in test charters. The factors and contents have been elicited through interviews. Overall, 30 factors and 35 content elements have been elicited.

  • 188.
    Ghazi, Ahmad Nauman
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Bjarnason, Elizabeth
    Lund University, SWE.
    Runeson, Per
    Lund University, SWE.
    Levels of Exploration in Exploratory Testing: From Freestyle to Fully Scripted2018In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 6, p. 26416-26423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exploratory testing (ET) is a powerful and efficient way of testing software by integrating design, execution, and analysis of tests during a testing session. ET is often contrasted with scripted testing, and seen as a choice of either exploratory testing or not. In contrast, we pose that exploratory testing can be of varying degrees of exploration from fully exploratory to fully scripted. In line with this, we propose a scale for the degree of exploration and define five levels. In our classification, these levels of exploration correspond to the way test charters are defined. We have evaluated this classification through focus groups at four companies and identified factors that influence the choice of exploration level. The results show that the proposed levels of exploration are influenced by different factors such as ease to reproduce defects, better learning, verification of requirements, etc., and that the levels can be used as a guide to structure test charters. Our study also indicates that applying a combination of exploration levels can be beneficial in achieving effective testing.

  • 189.
    Ghazi, Ahmad Nauman
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Heterogeneous Systems Testing Techniques: An Exploratory Survey2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heterogeneous systems comprising sets of inherent subsystems are challenging to integrate. In particular, testing for interoperability and conformance is a challenge. Furthermore, the complexities of such systems amplify traditional testing challenges. We explore (1) which techniques are frequently discussed in literature in context of heterogeneous system testing that practitioners use to test their heterogeneous systems; (2) the perception of the practitioners on the usefulness of the techniques with respect to a defined set of outcome variables. For that, we conducted an exploratory survey. A total of 27 complete survey answers have been received. Search-based testing has been used by 14 out of 27 respondents, indicating the practical relevance of the approach for testing heterogeneous systems, which itself is relatively new and has only recently been studied extensively. The most frequently used technique is exploratory manual testing, followed by combinatorial testing. With respect to the perceived performance of the testing techniques, the practitioners were undecided regarding many of the studied variables. Manual exploratory testing received very positive ratings across outcome variables.

  • 190.
    Ghazi, Ahmad Nauman
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Reddy, Sri Sai Vijay Raj
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Nekkanti, Harini
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Survey Research in Software Engineering: Problems and Mitigation Strategies2019In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 7, p. 24703-24718Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The need for empirical investigations in software engineering is growing. Many researchers nowadays, conduct and validate their solutions using empirical research. The Survey is an empirical method which enables researchers to collect data from a large population. The main aim of the survey is to generalize the findings.

    Aims: In this study, we aim to identify the problems researchers face during survey design and mitigation strategies.

    Method: A literature review, as well as semi-structured interviews with nine software engineering researchers, were conducted to elicit their views on problems and mitigation strategies. The researchers are all focused on empirical software engineering.

    Results: We identified 24 problems and 65 strategies, structured according to the survey research process. The most commonly discussed problem was sampling, in particular, the ability to obtain a sufficiently large sample. To improve survey instrument design, evaluation and execution recommendations for question formulation and survey pre-testing were given. The importance of involving multiple researchers in the analysis of survey results was stressed.

    Conclusions: The elicited problems and strategies may serve researchers during the design of their studies. However, it was observed that some strategies were conflicting. This shows that it is important to conduct a trade-off analysis between strategies.

  • 191.
    Ghazi, Nauman
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Testing of Heterogeneous Systems2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: A system of systems often exhibits heterogeneity, for instance in implementation, hardware, process and verification. We define a heterogeneous system, as a system comprised of multiple systems (system of systems) where at least one subsystem exhibits heterogeneity with respect to the other systems. The system of systems approach taken in development of heterogeneous systems give rise to various challenges due to continuous change in configurations and multiple interactions between the functionally independent subsystems. The challenges posed to testing of heterogeneous systems are mainly related to interoperability, conformance and large regression test suites. Furthermore, the inherent complexities of heterogeneous systems also pose challenge to the specification, selection and execution of tests. Objective: The main objective of this licentiate thesis is to provide an insight on the state of the art in testing heterogeneous systems. Moreover, we also aimed to investigate different test techniques used to test heterogeneous systems in industrial settings and their usefulness as well as to identify and prioritize different information sources that can help practitioners to define a generic search space for test case selection process. Method: The findings presented in this thesis are obtained through a controlled experiment, a systematic literature review (SLR), a case study and an exploratory survey. The purpose of systematic literature review was to investigate the existing state of art in testing heterogeneous systems and identification of research gaps. The results from the SLR further laid down the foundation of action research conducted through an exploratory survey to compare different test techniques. We also conducted an industrial case study to investigate the relevant data sources for search space initiation to prioritize and specify test cases in context of heterogeneous systems. Results: Based on our literature review, we found that testing of heterogeneous systems is considered a problem of integration and system testing. It has been observed that multiple interactions between the system and subsystems results into a testing challenge, especially when the configurations change continuously. It is also observed that current literature targets the problem of testing heterogeneous systems with multiple test objectives resulting in employing different test methods to reach a domain specific testing challenge. Using the exploratory survey, we found three test techniques to be most relevant in context of testing heterogeneous systems. However, the most frequently used technique mentioned by the practitioners is manual exploratory testing which is not a much researched topic in the context of heterogeneous systems. Moreover, multiple information sources for test selection process are identified through the case study and the survey. Conclusion: Companies engaged in development of heterogeneous systems encounter huge challenges due to multiple interactions between the system and subsystems. However, the conclusions we draw from the research studies included herein show a gap between literature and industry. Search-based testing is widely discussed in the literature but is the least used test technique in industrial practice. Moreover, for test selection process there are no frameworks that take in account all the information sources that we investigated. Therefore, to fill this gap there is a need for an optimized test selection process based on the information sources. There is also a need to study different test techniques identified through our SLR and survey and compare these techniques on real heterogeneous systems.

  • 192. Giardino, Carmine
    et al.
    Paternoster, Nicoló
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Abrahamsson, Pekka
    Software Development in Startup Companies: The Greenfield Startup Model2016In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 585-604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software startups are newly created companies with no operating history and oriented towards producing cutting-edge products. However, despite the increasing importance of startups in the economy, few scientific studies attempt to address software engineering issues, especially for early-stage startups. If anything, startups need engineering practices of the same level or better than those of larger companies, as their time and resources are more scarce, and one failed project can put them out of business. In this study we aim to improve understanding of the software development strategies employed by startups. We performed this state- of-practice investigation using a grounded theory approach. We packaged the results in the Greenfield Startup Model (GSM), which explains the priority of startups to release the product as quickly as possible. This strategy allows startups to verify product and market fit, and to adjust the product trajectory according to early collected user feedback. The need to shorten time-to-market, by speeding up the development through low-precision engineering activities, is counterbalanced by the need to restructure the product before targeting further growth. The resulting implications of the GSM outline challenges and gaps, pointing out opportunities for future research to develop and validate engineering practices in the startup context.

  • 193. Giardino, Carmine
    et al.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Paternoster, Nicolo
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Abrahamsson, Pekka
    VOICE OF EVIDENCE What Do We Know about Software Development in Startups?2014In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 28-32Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 194. Giardino, Carmine
    et al.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Paternoster, Nicoló
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Abrahamsson, Pekka
    What do we know about software development in startups?2014In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 28-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An impressive number of new startups are launched every day as a result of growing new markets, accessible technologies, and venture capital. New ventures such as Facebook, Supercell, Linkedin, Spotify, WhatsApp, and Dropbox, to name a few, are good examples of startups that evolved into successful businesses. However, despite many successful stories, the great majority of them fail prematurely. Operating in a chaotic and rapidly evolving domain conveys new uncharted challenges for startuppers. In this study, the authors characterize their context and identify common software development startup practices.

  • 195.
    Glinz, Martin
    et al.
    University of Zurich, CHE.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    On Shared Understanding in Software Engineering: an Essay2015In: Computer Science - Research and Development, ISSN 1865-2034, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 363-376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shared understanding is essential for efficient software engineering when the risk of unsatisfactory outcome and rework of project results shall be low. Today, however, shared understanding is used mostly in an unreflected, ad-hoc way. This affects the quality of the engineered software solutions and generates re-work once the quality problems are discovered. In this article, we investigate the role, value, and usage of shared understanding in software engineering. We contribute a reflected analysis of the problem, in particular of how to rely on shared understanding that is implicit, rather than explicit. After an overview of the state of the art we discuss forms and value of shared understanding in software engineering, survey enablers and obstacles, compile existing practices for dealing with shared understanding, and present a roadmap for improving knowledge and practice in this area.

  • 196.
    Gong, Zhixiong
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Lyu, Feng
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Technical debt management in a large-scale distributed project: An Ericsson case study2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Technical debt (TD) is a metaphor reflecting technical compromises that sacrifice long-term health of a software product to achieve short term benefit. TD is a strategy for the development team to obtain business value. TD can do both harm and good to a software based on the situation of TD accumulation. Therefore, it is important to manage TD in order to avoid the accumulated TD across the breaking point. In large-scale distributed projects, development teams located in different sites, technical debt management (TDM) becomes more complex and difficult compared with traditional collocated projects. In recent years, TD metaphor has attracted the attention from academics, but there are few studies in real settings and none in large-scale globally distributed projects.

    Objectives. In this study, we aim to explore the factors that have significant impact on TD and how practitioner manage TD in large-scale distributed projects.

    Methods. We conducted an exploratory case study to achieve the objectives. The data was collected through archival records and a semi-structured interview. For the archival data, hierarchical multiple regression was used to analyze the relationship between identified factors and TD. For interview data, we used qualitative content analysis method to get a deep understanding of TDM in this studied case.

    Results. Based on the results of archival data analysis, we identified three factors that show significant positive correlation with TD. These three factors were task complexity, global distance, and maturity, which were evaluated by the architect during the semi-structured interview. The architect also believed that these factors have strong relationships with TD. TDM in this case includes seven management activities: TD prevention, identification, measurement, documentation, communication, prioritization, and repayment. The tool used for TDM is an internally implemented tool called wiki page. We also summarize the roles involved and approaches used with respect to each TDM activity. Two identified TDM challenges in this case were TD measurement and prioritization.

    Conclusions. We conclude that 1) TDM in this case is not complete. Due to the lack of TD monitoring, the measurement of TD is static and lacks an efficient way to track the change of cost and benefit of unresolved TD over time. Therefore, it is difficult to find a proper time point to repay a TD. 2) The wiki page is not enough to support TDM, and some specific tools should be combined with wiki page to manage TD comprehensively. 3) TD measurement and prioritization should get more attention both from practitioners and academics to find a suitable way to solve such challenges in TDM. 4) Factors that make significant contribution to TD should be carefully considered, which increase the accuracy of TD prediction and improve the efficiency of TDM.

  • 197.
    Gonzalez-Huerta, Javier
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Boubaker, Anis
    Univ Quebec, CAN.
    Mili, Hafedh
    Univ Quebec, CAN.
    A Business Process Re-Engineering Approach to Transform BPMN Models to Software Artifacts2017In: E-TECHNOLOGIES: EMBRACING THE INTERNET OF THINGS, MCETECH 2017 / [ed] Aimeur, E Ruhi, U Weiss, M, SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN , 2017, p. 170-184Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) is becoming a de-facto standard for the specification of organizational business processes. In most cases, business processes are modeled in order to build software that may support or automate specific parts of those processes. In this work, we aim at refining BPMN models in order to automatically derive software analysis and design artifacts (e.g., UML Class Diagrams or Use Cases) from a given BPMN. These artifacts will be later on used to develop the software components (not necessarily services) automating or supporting business process activities. Our envisioned approach is based on a three-steps model transformation chain: (1) we refine the BPMN as-is model; (2) we apply process re-engineering and automation patterns to generate the BPMN to-be model; and (3) we use the resulting to-be BPMN model to derive analysis and design software artifacts. In this paper, we focus on the first two steps of the approach.

  • 198.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Evolution toward soft(er) products2018In: Communications of the ACM, ISSN 0001-0782, E-ISSN 1557-7317, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 78-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SOFTWARE IS A cornerstone of the economy, historically led by companies like Apple, Google, and Microsoft. However, the past decade has seen software become increasingly pervasive, while traditionally hardware-intensive products are increasingly dependent on software, meaning that major global companies like ABB, Ericsson, Scania, and Volvo are likewise becoming soft(er).(10) Where software was bundled with hardware it is now increasingly the main product differentiator.(10) This shift has radical implications, as software delivers notable advantages, including a faster pace of release and improved cost effectiveness in terms of development, ease of update, customization, and distribution. These characteristics of software open a range of possibilities, though software's inherent properties also pose several significant challenges in relation to a company's ability to create value.(10) To investigate them, we conducted in-depth interviews from 2012 to 2016 with 13 senior product managers in 12 global companies.

  • 199.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    How to Increase the Likelihood of Successful Transfer to Industry -Going beyond the Empirical2015In: 2015 IEEE/ACM 3RD INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON CONDUCTING EMPIRICAL STUDIES IN INDUSTRY (CESI), IEEE Computer Society, 2015, p. 10-11Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The field of Empirical Software Engineering has undergone a much-needed expansion the last decade, and papers of all shapes and sizes are more or less mandated to have an "empirical" part to be published in premiere venues. The positive trend has researchers realizing the benefits, but also the investments needed, inherent to industry collaboration. That is, real practitioners, involved in the development of software intensive product, system, and service development. This paper shortly summarizes lessons learned from over ten years experience of industrial collaboration, and knowledge and technology exchange between applied researchers and industry.

  • 200.
    Gorschek, Tony
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Tempero, Ewan
    Lefteris, Angelis
    On the use of software design models in software development practice: An empirical investigation2014In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212 , Vol. 95, p. 176-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research into software design models in general, and into the UML in particular, focuses on answering the question how design models are used, completely ignoring the question if they are used. There is an assumption in the literature that the UML is the de facto standard, and that use of design models has had a profound and substantial effect on how software is designed by virtue of models giving the ability to do model-checking, code generation, or automated test generation. However for this assumption to be true, there has to be significant use of design models in practice by developers. This paper presents the results of a survey summarizing the answers of 3785 developers answering the simple question on the extent to which design models are used before coding. We relate their use of models with (i) total years of programming experience, (ii) open or closed development, (iii) educational level, (iv) programming language used, and (v) development type. The answer to our question was that design models are not used very extensively in industry, and where they are used, the use is informal and without tool support, and the notation is often not UML. The use of models decreased with an increase in experience and increased with higher level of qualification. Overall we found that models are used primarily as a communication and collaboration mechanism where there is a need to solve problems and/or get a joint understanding of the overall design in a group. We also conclude that models are seldom updated after initially created and are usually drawn on a whiteboard or on paper.

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