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  • 151.
    Almström, Malin
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Olsson, Christina
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Requirement Specification for Information Security to Health Systems, Case Study: IMIS2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    During 2001-2002 a prototype, IMIS (Integrated Mobile Information System) was developed at BTH (Blekinge University of Technology) to demonstrate how mobile IT-systems can be used in healthcare. The prototype was based on the activity theory of Engeström. An ongoing project started in spring 2003. The purpose of the project is further development of IMIS with special focus in the diabetes healthcare. Participants in the project are scientists and students at BTH, ALMI Företagspartner, Blekinge FoU-enhet, Barndiabetesförbundet Blekinge, Blekinge Diabetesförening, Vårdcentralen Ronneby and Vårdcentralen Sölvesborg. The goal of IMIS is to develop a secure communication platform, which follows requirements from caretaker and caregiver as well as the Swedish laws regulating digital information and healthcare. The output of this master thesis is a requirement specification of information security for healthcare where IMIS has been used as a case study. The requirements specification follows the international standard SS-ISO/IEC 17799.

  • 152.
    Alpadie, Irene
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Karlsson, Eva
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Ett IT-verktygs användbarhet inom hemtjänsten: en utvärdering av IMIS2002Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vi har utvärderat IMIS med hjälp av användbarhetstester tillsammans med hemtjänstpersonal verksamma på fältet. Målet med utvärderingen har varit att redovisa eventuella problem av användbarhetskaraktär och utifrån dessa ge förslag på förbättringar inför en vidareutveckling av systemet. Syftet med vårt arbete har varit att bidra med ökad kunskap när det gäller användbarheten för IT-verktyg inom hemtjänsten. IMIS (Integrated Mobile Information System) är ett interaktivt informationssystem, som studenter från IT-programmet vid Blekinge Tekniska högskola har utvecklat. Systemet är en prototyp ämnad att utvecklas vidare för bruk inom hemtjänsten. Det är tänkt att fungera som ett hjälpmedel för att underlätta samordning och kommunikation mellan vårdpersonal, göra information om vårdtagarna lättillgänglig för vårdgivarna, samt kunna ge en helhetsbild av vårdtagarna och deras personliga nätverk. Hemtjänst innebär att den som inte kan klara sig på egen hand på grund av sjukdom, handikapp eller åldersförändringar kan få hjälp i det egna hemmet med bl.a. städning och personlig omvårdnad av kommunalt anställda vårdbiträden. De senaste 20 åren har datoriseringen ökat markant och persondatorer har numera blivit en förbrukningsvara för en stor del av befolkningen. Nya produkter och system ställer dock ofta till med problem för användarna eftersom de inte alltid är anpassade till de tilltänkta användarnas färdigheter och behov. Mobila kommunikationslösningar inom hemtjänsten är ett relativt nytt koncept. Det unika med dessa lösningar är att de i första hand riktar sig till de som arbetar ute hos vårdtagarna. Från en communicator, som är en kombinerad trådlös telefon och handdator, kopplar personalen upp sig mot Internet där alla med behörighet kan ta del av informationen i samma stund som den skrivs, var de än befinner sig. Användbarhet kan definieras och göras mätbart på många olika sätt. Vi har valt att utgå från den internationella standarden för användbarhet ISO 9241-11, där vi fokuserar på ändamålsenlighet och tillfredsställelse. För att genomföra våra tester har vi använt metoden kooperativ utvärdering som är en vidareutveckling av metoden thinking-aloud. Metoden går i korta drag ut på att användare kommenterar högt under tiden de arbetar med uppgifter. Det är en empirisk och formativ utvärderingsmetod av mindre formell karaktär där observatören deltar i utvärderingen. Vi har även använt frågeformulär både före, under och efter de praktiska testerna. Testerna genomfördes tillsammans med sju fast anställda vårdbiträden inom hemtjänsten i Karlshamns kommun. De flesta av deltagarna hade ingen eller mycket liten datorvana. Alla testpersoner var dock positiva till systemet och ingen tyckte att systemet verkade speciellt svårt att använda. Efter att ha provat verktyget, tyckte de flesta att det var lättare än de hade fått intryck av från början. Sex av deltagarna trodde att de kunde ha nytta av de funktioner de hade fått prova på i arbetet, och de skulle även rekommendera att kommunen köpte in systemet till hemtjänsten. Alla tyckte att systemet var tilltalande och effektivt. Endast tre av deltagarna klarade av alla uppgifterna inom utsatt tid. Dessa tre hade alla lite eller medel datorvana. Det största problemet relaterat till systemet var deltagarnas förvirring i samband med att huvudfönstret inte laddades om när de klickade på en länk i menyn, vilket innebar att innehåll i huvudfönster och meny inte alltid stämde överens. Tillsammans med de teoretiska studierna har användbarhetstesterna gett oss ökad insikt om användbarheten för IT-verktyg inom hemtjänsten.

  • 153.
    Al-Refai, Ali
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Pandiri, Srinivasreddy
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Cloud Computing: Trends and Performance Issues2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Cloud Computing is a very fascinating concept these days, it is attracting so many organiza-tions to move their utilities and applications into a dedicated data centers, and so it can be accessed from the Internet. This allows the users to focus solely on their businesses while Cloud Computing providers handle the technology. Choosing a best provider is a challenge for organizations that are willing to step into the Cloud Computing world. A single cloud center generally could not deliver large scale of resources for the cloud tenants; therefore, multiple cloud centers need to collaborate to achieve some business goals and to provide the best possible services at lowest possible costs. How-ever a number of aspects, legal issues, challenges, and policies should be taken into consideration when moving our service into the Cloud environment. Objectives: The aim of this research is to identify and elaborate the major technical and strategy differences between the cloud-computing providers in order to enable the organizations managements, system designers and decision makers to have better insight into the strategies of the different Cloud Computing providers. It is also to understand the risks and challenges due to implementing Cloud Computing, and “how” those issues can be moderated. This study will try to define Multi-Cloud Computing by studying the pros and cons of this new domain. It is also aiming to study the concept of load balancing in the cloud in order to examine the performance over multiple cloud environments. Methods: In this master thesis a number of research methods are used, including the systematic litera-ture review, contacting experts from the relevant field (Interviews) and performing a quantitative methodology (Experiment). Results: Based on the findings of the Literature Review, Interviews and Experiment, we got out the results for the research questions as, 1) A comprehensive study for identifying and comparing the major Cloud Computing providers, 2) Addressing a list of impacts of Cloud Computing (legal aspects, trust and privacy). 3) Creating a definition for Multi-Cloud Computing and identifying the benefits and drawbacks, 4) Finding the performance results on the cloud environment by performing an expe-riment on a load balancing solution. Conclusions: Cloud Computing becomes a central interest for many organizations nowadays. More and more companies start to step into the Cloud Computing service technologies, Amazon, Google, Microsoft, SalesForce, and Rackspace are the top five major providers in the market today. However, there is no Cloud that is perfect for all services. The legal framework is very important for the protection of the user’s private data; it is an important key factor for the safety of the user’s personal and sensitive information. The privacy threats vary according to the nature of the cloud scenario, since some clouds and services might face a very low privacy threats compare to the others, the public cloud that is accessed through the Internet is one of the most means when it comes the increasing threats of the privacy concerns. Lack of visibility of the provider supply chain will lead to suspicion and ultimately distrust. The evolution of Cloud Computing shows that it is likely, in a near future, the so-called Cloud will be in fact a Multi-cloud environment composed of a mixture of private and public Clouds to form an adaptive environment. Load balancing in the Cloud Computing environment is different from the typical load balancing. The architecture of cloud load balancing is using a number of commodity servers to perform the load balancing. The performance of the cloud differs depending on the cloud’s location even for the same provider. HAProxy load balancer is showing positive effect on the cloud’s performance at high amount of load, the effect is unnoticed at lower amounts of load. These effects can vary depending on the location of the cloud.

  • 154.
    Alsbjer, Maria
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Att hitta ingångar i formandet av programmeringskunskap2001Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att lära sig programmera på nybörjarnivå inom ramen för en högskoleutbildning är en process som för vissa studenter tycks helt oproblematisk medan den för andra ter sig smärtsam eller rent av oöverstiglig. Varför är det så och hur kan man hitta ingångar i formandet av programmeringskunskap som öppnar möjligheter för alla som vill lära sig? Med dessa frågeställningar som utgångspunkt har jag tittat på två olika utbildningsprogram vid Blekinge Tekniska Högskola (BTH) - Informationsteknologiprogrammet respektive Medieteknik-programmet. Jag har intervjuat ett urval studenter och lärare från de båda programmen och ställt frågor bl a kring tidigare erfarenheter av datorer och programmering, synen på programmering, upplevda svårigheter med att lära sig programmera och tänkbara orsaker till dessa svårigheter. Resultaten från intervjuerna har reflekterats genom ett antal texter som behandlar föreställningar och förhållningssätt i formandet av programmeringskunskap såväl som mer övergripande frågor kring epistemologiska utgångspunkter i formandet av all slags kunskap, men med fokus på programmeringskunskap. Min metodologi är förankrad i genus-forskningsteorier kring de vetenskapliga kunskapsprocesserna, inom vilka frågor rörande bl a metod- och teoriinnehåll problematiseras. Denna förankring har möjliggjort den kontextuella analys i vilken jag försökt lyfta fram allmängiltiga såväl som specifika tendenser, d v s både faktorer som kan härröras till respektive program jag studerat och faktorer som berör programmeringsundervisning i högskolemiljö generellt. I den avslutande diskussionen har jag lagt särskild vikt vid de frågeställningar som jag uppfattar har den mest signifikanta betydelsen för hur möjligheter kan skapas för att programmeringskunskap ska uppfattas som "tillgänglig" av alla som har intresse av att lära sig programmera. Dessa frågeställningar berör just den övergripande kunskapssyn inom vilken programmeringsundervisning alltför ofta formas; en kunskapssyn som ger uttryck för ett mer eller mindre utpräglat prestationstänkande. Frågeställningar kring vilka konsekvenser en "likriktad" undervisning kan få för olika individer tas också upp och möjligheter till skapandet av mångfald i undervisningen diskuteras liksom lärarnas roll i detta sammanhang. Med detta arbete vill jag bidra till kunskapsunderlag för ett pedagogiskt utvecklingsarbete - till gagn för studenter och lärare såväl som programmeringsämnet i sig.

  • 155.
    Alsén, Maria
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Järgenstedt, Nils
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Kommunikation med hjälp av mock-uper2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    In several cases, systems that have been developed have been very time consuming and cost a lot of money, but they still do not fulfil the users requirements and requests. To make new systems better, you have to find a way to communicate that allows the developers to understand the needs of the user. The aim for our thesis is to highlight the importance of communication in system development. To investigate this we have choosen to do a study of the real-estate system. The work methods that have been used include mock-ups and informal conversations with the user, who is employed by the Church of Sweden in Ronneby. The purpose of this thesis is, among other things, to provide the Church of Sweden in Ronneby with a report, which can be of help for further development of the system. The system was developed by a work group at Blekinge Institute of Technology. Our question of issue is: Would the Church of Sweden in Ronneby obtain a more useful system if the developers applied the guidelines and experience that exists within the area of HCI? Further more we have looked in to if the communication has improved with the use of mock-ups to increase the interaction? Human-computer interaction as a term was adopted in the mid-1980s as a means of describing this new field of study. The focus of interest described the new way of looking at the interaction between computers and people. In this field it is important to involve the user in the developing process from the beginning to the end. Together with the user, we have made some propositions based on previous documentation from the project. Mock-ups are a prototype of paper that shows the user what the system will look like. This method was applied together with the user, to find a more logical structure for the system. After gathering the result of the case study, we can honestly say that communication do increase because of mock-ups. Good communication is not something that you can learn from books; you have to adjust to the situation. It is important when you develop a system to work with a model that allows you to go back and change things in previous phases that are incorrect, and also to include the user in the whole process.

  • 156.
    Altaf, Moaz
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Communication Systems.
    SMI-S for the Storage Area Network (SAN) Management2014Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The storage vendors have their own standards for the management of their storage resources but it creates interoperability issues on different storage products. With the recent advent of the new protocol named Storage Management Initiative-Specification (SMI-S), the Storage Networking Industry Association (SNIA) has taken a major step in order to make the storage management more effective and organized. SMI-S has replaced its predecessor Storage Network Management Protocol (SNMP) and it has been categorized as an ISO standard. The main objective of the SMI-S is to provide interoperability management of the heterogeneous storage vendor systems by unifying the Storage Area Network (SAN) management, hence making the dreams of the network managers come true. SMI-S is a guide to build systems using modules that ‘plug’ together. SMI-S compliant storage modules that use CIM ‘language’ and adhere to CIM schema interoperate in a system regardless of which vendor built them. SMI-S is object-oriented, any physical or abstract storage-related elements can be defined as a CIM object. SMI-S can unify the SAN management systems and it works well with the heterogeneous storage environment. SMI-S has offered a cross-platform, cross-vendor storage resource management. This thesis work discusses the use of SMI-S at Compuverde which is a storage solution provider, located in the heart of the Karlskrona, the southeastern part of Sweden. Compuverde was founded by Stefan Bernbo in Karlskrona,Sweden. Just like all others leading storage providers, Compuverde has also decided to deploy the Storage Management Initiative-Specification (SMI-S) to manage their Storage Area Network (SAN) and to achieve interoperability. This work was done to help Compuverde to deploy the SMI-S protocol for the management of the Storage Area Network (SAN) which, among many of its features, would create alerts/traps in case of a disk failure in the SAN. In this way, they would be able to keep the data of their clients, safe and secure and keep their reputation for being reliable in the storage industry. Since Compuverde regularly use Microsoft Windows and Microsoft have started to support SMI-S for storage provisioning in System Center 2012 Virtual Machine Manager (SCVMM), this work was done using the SCVMM 2012 and the Windows Server 2012.The SMI-S provider which was used for this work was QNAP TS- 469 Pro.

  • 157. Alves, Dimas I.
    et al.
    Machado, Renato
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Legg, Andrei P.
    Uchoa-Filho, Bartolomeu F.
    Cooperative multiple-access scheme with antenna selection and incremental relaying2014In: 2014 INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYMPOSIUM (ITS), São Paulo: IEEE , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A cooperative multiple-access scheme for wireless communications systems with antenna selection and incremental relaying is proposed. The scheme aims to improve the system throughput while preserving good performance in terms of bit error rate. The system consists of N nodes which send their information to both the destination node and the multiple-antenna relay station. Based on the channel state information, the destination node decides whether or not relaying will be performed. When the relaying is performed, the decode-remodulate-and-forward protocol is used with the best antenna. Results reveal that the proposed scheme achieves a good tradeoff between throughput and bit error rate, which makes suitable to be considered for multi-user networks.

  • 158.
    Alégroth, Emil
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Feldt, Robert
    Chalmers, SWE.
    On the long-term use of visual gui testing in industrial practice: a case study2017In: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 2937-2971Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visual GUI Testing (VGT) is a tool-driven technique for automated GUI-based testing that uses image recognition to interact with and assert the correctness of the behavior of a system through its GUI as it is shown to the user. The technique’s applicability, e.g. defect-finding ability, and feasibility, e.g. time to positive return on investment, have been shown through empirical studies in industrial practice. However, there is a lack of studies that evaluate the usefulness and challenges associated with VGT when used long-term (years) in industrial practice. This paper evaluates how VGT was adopted, applied and why it was abandoned at the music streaming application development company, Spotify, after several years of use. A qualitative study with two workshops and five well chosen employees is performed at the company, supported by a survey, which is analyzed with a grounded theory approach to answer the study’s three research questions. The interviews provide insights into the challenges, problems and limitations, but also benefits, that Spotify experienced during the adoption and use of VGT. However, due to the technique’s drawbacks, VGT has been abandoned for a new technique/framework, simply called the Test interface. The Test interface is considered more robust and flexible for Spotify’s needs but has several drawbacks, including that it does not test the actual GUI as shown to the user like VGT does. From the study’s results it is concluded that VGT can be used long-term in industrial practice but it requires organizational change as well as engineering best practices to be beneficial. Through synthesis of the study’s results, and results from previous work, a set of guidelines are presented that aim to aid practitioners to adopt and use VGT in industrial practice. However, due to the abandonment of the technique, future research is required to analyze in what types of projects the technique is, and is not, long-term viable. To this end, we also present Spotify’s Test interface solution for automated GUI-based testing and conclude that it has its own benefits and drawbacks.

  • 159.
    Alégroth, Emil
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gonzalez-Huerta, Javier
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Towards a mapping of software technical debt onto testware2017In: Proceedings - 43rd Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, p. 404-411, article id 8051379Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technical Debt (TD) is a metaphor used to explain the negative impacts that sub-optimal design decisions have in the long-term perspective of a software project. Although TD is acknowledged by both researchers and practitioners to have strong negative impact on Software development, its study on Testware has so far been very limited. A gap in knowledge that is important to address due to the growing popularity of Testware (scripted automated testing) in software development practice.In this paper we present a mapping analysis that connects 21 well-known, Software, object-oriented TD items to Testware, establishing them as Testware Technical Debt (TTD) items. The analysis indicates that most Software TD items are applicable or observable as TTD items, often in similar form and with roughly the same impact as for Software artifacts (e.g. reducing quality of the produced artifacts, lowering the effectiveness and efficiency of the development process whilst increasing costs). In the analysis, we also identify three types of connections between software TD and TTD items with varying levels of impact and criticality. Additionally, the study finds support for previous research results in which specific TTD items unique to Testware were identified. Finally, the paper outlines several areas of future research into TTD. © 2017 IEEE.

  • 160.
    Alégroth, Emil
    et al.
    Chalmers, SWE.
    Gustafsson, Johan
    SAAB AB, SWE.
    Ivarsson, Henrik
    SAAB AB, SWE.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Replicating Rare Software Failures with Exploratory Visual GUI Testing2017In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 53-59, article id 8048660Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Saab AB developed software that had a defect that manifested itself only after months of continuous system use. After years of customer failure reports, the defect still persisted, until Saab developed failure replication based on visual GUI testing. © 1984-2012 IEEE.

  • 161.
    Alégroth, Emil
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Karlsson, Arvid
    Cilbuper IT, Gothenburg, SWE.
    Radway, Alexander
    Techship Krokslatts Fabriker, SWE.
    Continuous Integration and Visual GUI Testing: Benefits and Drawbacks in Industrial Practice2018In: Proceedings - 2018 IEEE 11th International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation, ICST 2018, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, p. 172-181Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous integration (CI) is growing in industrial popularity, spurred on by market trends towards faster delivery and higher quality software. A key facilitator of CI is automated testing that should be executed, automatically, on several levels of system abstraction. However, many systems lack the interfaces required for automated testing. Others lack test automation coverage of the system under test's (SUT) graphical user interface (GUI) as it is shown to the user. One technique that shows promise to solve these challenges is Visual GUI Testing (VGT), which uses image recognition to stimulate and assert the SUT's behavior. Research has presented the technique's applicability and feasibility in industry but only limited support, from an academic setting, that the technique is applicable in a CI environment. In this paper we presents a study from an industrial design research study with the objective to help bridge the gap in knowledge regarding VGT's applicability in a CI environment in industry. Results, acquired from interviews, observations and quantitative analysis of 17.567 test executions, collected over 16 weeks, show that VGT provides similar benefits to other automated test techniques for CI. However, several significant drawbacks, such as high costs, are also identified. The study concludes that, although VGT is applicable in an industrial CI environment, its severe challenges require more research and development before the technique becomes efficient in practice. © 2018 IEEE.

  • 162.
    Alégroth, Emil
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Matsuki, Shinsuke
    Veriserve Corporation, JPN.
    Vos, Tanja
    Open University of the Netherlands, NLD.
    Akemine, Kinji
    Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation, JPN.
    Overview of the ICST International Software Testing Contest2017In: Proceedings - 10th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation, ICST 2017, IEEE Computer Society, 2017, p. 550-551Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the software testing contest, practitioners and researcher's are invited to test their test approaches against similar approaches to evaluate pros and cons and which is perceivably the best. The 2017 iteration of the contest focused on Graphical User Interface-driven testing, which was evaluated on the testing tool TESTONA. The winner of the competition was announced at the closing ceremony of the international conference on software testing (ICST), 2017. © 2017 IEEE.

  • 163.
    Amaradri, Anand Srivatsav
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Nutalapati, Swetha Bindu
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Continuous Integration, Deployment and Testing in DevOps Environment2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Owing to a multitude of factors like rapid changes in technology, market needs, and business competitiveness, software companies these days are facing pressure to deliver software rapidly and on a frequent basis. For frequent and faster delivery, companies should be lean and agile in all phases of the software development life cycle. An approach called DevOps, which is based on agile principles has come into play. DevOps bridges the gap between development and operations teams and facilitates faster product delivery. The DevOps phenomenon has gained a wide popularity in the past few years, and several companies are adopting DevOps to leverage its perceived benefits. However, the organizations may face several challenges while adopting DevOps. There is a need to obtain a clear understanding of how DevOps functions in an organization.

    Objectives. The main aim of this study is to provide a clear understanding about how DevOps works in an organization to researchers and software practitioners. The objectives of the study are to identify the benefits of implementing DevOps in organizations where agile development is in practice, the challenges faced by organizations during DevOps adoption, to identify the solutions/ mitigation strategies, to overcome the challenges,the DevOps practices, and the problems faced by DevOps teams during continuous integration, deployment and testing.

    Methods. A mixed methods approach having both qualitative and quantitative research methods is used to accomplish the research objectives.A Systematic Literature Review is conducted to identify the benefits and challenges of DevOps adoption, and the DevOps practices. Interviews are conducted to further validate the SLR findings, and identify the solutions to overcome DevOps adoption challenges, and the DevOps practices. The SLR and interview results are mapped, and a survey questionnaire is designed.The survey is conducted to validate the qualitative data, and to identify the other benefits and challenges of DevOps adoption, solutions to overcome the challenges, DevOps practices, and the problems faced by DevOps teams during continuous integration, deployment and testing.

    Results. 31 primary studies relevant to the research are identified for conducting the SLR. After analysing the primary studies, an initial list of the benefits and challenges of DevOps adoption, and the DevOps practices is obtained. Based on the SLR findings, a semi-structured interview questionnaire is designed, and interviews are conducted. The interview data is thematically coded, and a list of the benefits, challenges of DevOps adoption and solutions to overcome them, DevOps practices, and problems faced by DevOps teams is obtained. The survey responses are statistically analysed, and a final list of the benefits of adopting DevOps, the adoption challenges and solutions to overcome them, DevOps practices and problems faced by DevOps teams is obtained.

    Conclusions. Using the mixed methods approach, a final list of the benefits of adopting DevOps, DevOps adoption challenges, solutions to overcome the challenges, practices of DevOps, and the problems faced by DevOps teams during continuous integration, deployment and testing is obtained. The list is clearly elucidated in the document. The final list can aid researchers and software practitioners in obtaining a better understanding regarding the functioning and adoption of DevOps. Also, it has been observed that there is a need for more empirical research in this domain.

  • 164.
    Ambreen, T.
    et al.
    Int Islamic Univ, PAK.
    Ikram, N.
    Riphah Int Univ, PAK.
    Usman, Muhammad
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Niazi, M.
    King Fahd Univ Petr & Minerals, SAU.
    Empirical research in requirements engineering: trends and opportunities2018In: Requirements Engineering, ISSN 0947-3602, E-ISSN 1432-010X, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 63-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Requirements engineering (RE) being a foundation of software development has gained a great recognition in the recent era of prevailing software industry. A number of journals and conferences have published a great amount of RE research in terms of various tools, techniques, methods, and frameworks, with a variety of processes applicable in different software development domains. The plethora of empirical RE research needs to be synthesized to identify trends and future research directions. To represent a state-of-the-art of requirements engineering, along with various trends and opportunities of empirical RE research, we conducted a systematic mapping study to synthesize the empirical work done in RE. We used four major databases IEEE, ScienceDirect, SpringerLink and ACM and Identified 270 primary studies till the year 2012. An analysis of the data extracted from primary studies shows that the empirical research work in RE is on the increase since the year 2000. The requirements elicitation with 22 % of the total studies, requirements analysis with 19 % and RE process with 17 % are the major focus areas of empirical RE research. Non-functional requirements were found to be the most researched emerging area. The empirical work in the sub-area of requirements validation and verification is little and has a decreasing trend. The majority of the studies (50 %) used a case study research method followed by experiments (28 %), whereas the experience reports are few (6 %). A common trend in almost all RE sub-areas is about proposing new interventions. The leading intervention types are guidelines, techniques and processes. The interest in RE empirical research is on the rise as whole. However, requirements validation and verification area, despite its recognized importance, lacks empirical research at present. Furthermore, requirements evolution and privacy requirements also have little empirical research. These RE sub-areas need the attention of researchers for more empirical research. At present, the focus of empirical RE research is more about proposing new interventions. In future, there is a need to replicate existing studies as well to evaluate the RE interventions in more real contexts and scenarios. The practitioners’ involvement in RE empirical research needs to be increased so that they share their experiences of using different RE interventions and also inform us about the current requirements-related challenges and issues that they face in their work. © 2016 Springer-Verlag London

  • 165.
    Amin, Khizer
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Applied Signal Processing.
    Minhas, Mehmood ul haq
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Applied Signal Processing.
    Facebook Blocket with Unsupervised Learning2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet has become a valuable channel for both business-to- consumer and business-to-business e-commerce. It has changed the way for many companies to manage the business. Every day, more and more companies are making their presence on Internet. Web sites are launched for online shopping as web shops or on-line stores are a popular means of goods distribution. The number of items sold through the internet has sprung up significantly in the past few years. Moreover, it has become a choice for customers to do shopping at their ease. Thus, the aim of this thesis is to design and implement a consumer to consumer application for Facebook, which is one of the largest social networking website. The application allows Facebook users to use their regular profile (on Facebook) to buy and sell goods or services through Facebook. As we already mentioned, there are many web shops such as eBay, Amazon, and applications like blocket on Facebook. However, none of them is directly interacting with the Facebook users, and all of them are using their own platform. Users may use the web shop link from their Facebook profile and will be redirected to web shop. On the other hand, most of the applications in Facebook use notification method to introduce themselves or they push their application on the Facebook pages. This application provides an opportunity to Facebook users to interact directly with other users and use the Facebook platform as a selling/buying point. The application is developed by using a modular approach. Initially a Python web framework, i.e., Django is used and association rule learning is applied for the classification of users’ advertisments. Apriori algorithm generates the rules, which are stored as separate text file. The rule file is further used to classify advertisements and is updated regularly.

  • 166.
    Amini, Noradin
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Erixon, Leif
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Applikationsintegrering: en analys av metoder och teknik2002Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstract In the contemporary world of information technology you find a multitude of applications and systems covering a broad spectrum of areas of need in different companies. One effect of this multitude of programs is the difficulty to make them exchange information with each other or to collaborate, since they are developed by different programming languages for different platforms, with different standards and different data formats. Our aim with this work is to describe how it is possible to tie these programs together to make them actually communicate with each other in order to exchange information, share their native methods and also to become a part of the overall business processes. In this integration task you will, among other things, find different levels of application integration such as data level, method level, application interface level and user interface level integration. Application integration also involves hardware components, called middleware, that facilitate the physical connection between applications. There is a range of different middleware products offered today on the market. The functionalities of those products varies greatly depending on which technology or technologies they are built around and which vendor they come from. In order to make a connection to a real life situation we have made up a company with a need of integration. By trying to choose a solution for this company we discuss what to integrate, data, methods etc, and the technical solution, middleware product, which might be useful to integrate the different kind of applications in our imaginary company. Finally we have come up with some conclusions in our work. These are both of a more general art and also a conclusion specific to our case study.

  • 167.
    Amiri, Javad Mohammadian
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Padmanabhuni, Venkata Vinod Kumar
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    A Comprehensive Evaluation of Conversion Approaches for Different Function Points2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Software cost and effort estimation are important activities for planning and estimation of software projects. One major player for cost and effort estimation is functional size of software which can be measured in variety of methods. Having several methods for measuring one entity, converting outputs of these methods becomes important. Objectives: In this study we investigate different techniques that have been proposed for conversion between different Functional Size Measurement (FSM) techniques. We addressed conceptual similarities and differences between methods, empirical approaches proposed for conversion, evaluation of the proposed approaches and improvement opportunities that are available for current approaches. Finally, we proposed a new conversion model based on accumulated data. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review for investigating the similarities and differences between FSM methods and proposed approaches for conversion. We also identified some improvement opportunities for the current conversion approaches. Sources for articles were IEEE Xplore, Engineering Village, Science Direct, ISI, and Scopus. We also performed snowball sampling to decrease chance of missing any relevant papers. We also evaluated the existing models for conversion after merging the data from publicly available datasets. By bringing suggestions for improvement, we developed a new model and then validated it. Results: Conceptual similarities and differences between methods are presented along with all methods and models that exist for conversion between different FSM methods. We also came with three major contributions for existing empirical methods; for one existing method (piecewise linear regression) we used a systematic and rigorous way of finding discontinuity point. We also evaluated several existing models to test their reliability based on a merged dataset, and finally we accumulated all data from literature in order to find the nature of relation between IFPUG and COSMIC using LOESS regression technique. Conclusions: We concluded that many concepts used by different FSM methods are common which enable conversion. In addition statistical results show that the proposed approach to enhance piecewise linear regression model slightly increases model’s test results. Even this small improvement can affect projects’ cost largely. Results of evaluation of models show that it is not possible to say which method can predict unseen data better than others and it depends on the concerns of practitioner that which model should be used. And finally accumulated data confirms that empirical relation between IFPUG and COSMIC is not linear and can be presented by two separate lines better than other models. Also we noted that unlike COSMIC manual’s claim that discontinuity point should be around 200 FP, in merged dataset discontinuity point is around 300 to 400. Finally we proposed a new conversion approach using systematic approach and piecewise linear regression. By testing on new data, this model shows improvement in MMRE and Pred(25).

  • 168.
    Amiri, Mohammad Reza Shams
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Rohani, Sarmad
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Automated Camera Placement using Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Automatic placement of surveillance cameras' 3D models in an arbitrary floor plan containing obstacles is a challenging task. The problem becomes more complex when different types of region of interest (RoI) and minimum resolution are considered. An automatic camera placement decision support system (ACP-DSS) integrated into a 3D CAD environment could assist the surveillance system designers with the process of finding good camera settings considering multiple constraints. Objectives. In this study we designed and implemented two subsystems: a camera toolset in SketchUp (CTSS) and a decision support system using an enhanced Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm (HPSO-DSS). The objective for the proposed algorithm was to have a good computational performance in order to quickly generate a solution for the automatic camera placement (ACP) problem. The new algorithm benefited from different aspects of other heuristics such as hill-climbing and greedy algorithms as well as a number of new enhancements. Methods. Both CTSS and ACP-DSS were designed and constructed using the information technology (IT) research framework. A state-of-the-art evolutionary optimization method, Hybrid PSO (HPSO), implemented to solve the ACP problem, was the core of our decision support system. Results. The CTSS is evaluated by some of its potential users after employing it and later answering a conducted survey. The evaluation of CTSS confirmed an outstanding satisfactory level of the respondents. Various aspects of the HPSO algorithm were compared to two other algorithms (PSO and Genetic Algorithm), all implemented to solve our ACP problem. Conclusions. The HPSO algorithm provided an efficient mechanism to solve the ACP problem in a timely manner. The integration of ACP-DSS into CTSS might aid the surveillance designers to adequately and more easily plan and validate the design of their security systems. The quality of CTSS as well as the solutions offered by ACP-DSS were confirmed by a number of field experts.

  • 169.
    Amjad, Shoaib
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Malhi, Rohail Khan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Burhan, Muhammad
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    DIFFERENTIAL CODE SHIFTED REFERENCE IMPULSE-BASED COOPERATIVE UWB COMMUNICATION SYSTEM2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperative Impulse Response – Ultra Wideband (IR-UWB) communication is a radio technology very popular for short range communication systems as it enables single-antenna mobiles in a multi-user environment to share their antennas by creating virtual MIMO to achieve transmit diversity. In order to improve the cooperative IR-UWB system performance, we are going to use Differential Code Shifted Reference (DCSR). The simulations are used to compute Bit Error Rate (BER) of DCSR in cooperative IR-UWB system using different numbers of Decode and Forward relays while changing the distance between the source node and destination nodes. The results suggest that when compared to Code Shifted Reference (CSR) cooperative IR-UWB communication system; the DCSR cooperative IR-UWB communication system performs better in terms of BER, power efficiency and channel capacity. The simulations are performed for both non-line of sight (N-LOS) and line of sight (LOS) conditions and the results confirm that system has better performance under LOS channel environment. The simulation results also show that performance improves as we increase the number of relay nodes to a sufficiently large number.

  • 170.
    ananth, Indirajith Vijai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Study on Assessing QoE of 3DTV Using Subjective Methods2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The ever increasing popularity and enormous growth in 3D movie industry is the stimulating phenomenon for the penetration of 3D services into home entertainment systems. Providing a third dimension gives intense visual experience to the viewers. Being a new eld, there are several researches going on to measure the end user's viewing experience. Research groups including 3D TV manufacturers, service providers and standards organizations are interested to improve user experience. Recent research in 3D video quality measurements have revealed uncertain issues as well as more well known results. Measuring the perceptual stereoscopic video quality by subjective testing can provide practical results. This thesis studies and investigate three di erent rating scales (Video Quality, Visual Discomfort and Sense of Presence) and compares them by subjective testing, combined with two viewing distances at 3H and 5H, where H is the hight of display screen. This thesis work shows that single rating scale produces the same result as three di erent scales and viewing distance has very less or no impact on Quality of Experience (QoE) of 3DTV for 3H and 5H distances for symmetric coding impairments.

  • 171.
    Anastasiadis, Kleanthis
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Technoculture, Humanities and Planning.
    Co-ordinating artefacts and actions in order to run a taxi business2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Work place studies in a taxi business in order to identify eventual problems and give design solutions.

  • 172.
    Anco, S.
    et al.
    Brock Univ, Dept Math & Stat, St Catharines, ON L2S 3A1, Canada..
    Avdonina, E. D.
    Ufa State Aviat Tech Univ, Lab Grp Anal Math Models Nat & Engn Sci, Ufa 450000, Russia..
    Gainetdinova, A.
    Ufa State Aviat Tech Univ, Lab Grp Anal Math Models Nat & Engn Sci, Ufa 450000, Russia..
    Galiakberova, L. R.
    Ufa State Aviat Tech Univ, Lab Grp Anal Math Models Nat & Engn Sci, Ufa 450000, Russia..
    Ibragimov, Nail
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Wolf, T.
    Brock Univ, Dept Math & Stat, St Catharines, ON L2S 3A1, Canada..
    Symmetries and conservation laws of the generalized Krichever-Novikov equation2016In: Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical, ISSN 1751-8113, E-ISSN 1751-8121, Vol. 49, no 10, article id 105201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A computational classification of contact symmetries and higher-order local symmetries that do not commute with t, x, as well as local conserved densities that are not invariant under t, x is carried out for a generalized version of the Krichever-Novikov (KN) equation. Several new results are obtained. First, the KN equation is explicitly shown to have a local conserved density that contains t, x. Second, apart from the dilational point symmetries known for special cases of the KN equation and its generalized version, no other local symmetries with low differential order are found to contain t, x. Third, the basic Hamiltonian structure of the KN equation is used to map the local conserved density containing t, x into a nonlocal symmetry that contains t, x. Fourth, a recursion operator is applied to this nonlocal symmetry to produce a hierarchy of nonlocal symmetries that have explicit dependence on t, x. When the inverse of the Hamiltonian map is applied to this hierarchy, only trivial conserved densities are obtained.

  • 173. Anco, S.
    et al.
    Ibragimov, Nail
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Imamutdinova, K.V.
    Karimova, E.N.
    Solutions of gasdynamic equations associated with classical and new conservation laws2015In: Applied Mathematics and Computation, ISSN 0096-3003, E-ISSN 1873-5649, Vol. 268, p. 52-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exact solutions of the one-dimensional gasdynamic equations are constructed by applying the method of conservation laws to all point-wise conserved vectors of the equations under consideration. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

  • 174.
    Ande, Rama kanth
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Amarawadi, Sharath Chandra
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Evaluation of ROS and Arduino Controllers for the OBDH Subsystem of a CubeSat2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    CubeSat projects in various universities around the world have become predominant in the study and research for developing CubeSats. Such projects have broadened the scope for understanding this new area of space research. Different CubeSats have been developed by other universities and institutions for different applications. The process of design, development and deployment of CubeSats involves several stages of theoretical and practical work ranging from understanding the concepts associated with communication subsystems, data handling subsystems to innovations in the field like implementing compatible operating systems in the CubeSat processors and new designs of transceivers and other components. One of the future trend setting research areas in CubeSat projects is the implementation of ROS in CubeSat. Robot Operating System (ROS) is aiming to capture the future of many embedded systems including Robotics. In this thesis, an attempt is made to understand the challenges faced during implementing ROS in CubeSat to provide a foundation for the OBDH subsystem and provide important guidelines for future developers relying on ROS run CubeSats. Since using traditional transceivers and power supply would be expensive, we have tried simulating Arduino to act as transceiver and power supply subsystems. Arduino is an open-source physical computing platform based on a simple microcontroller board, and a development environment for writing software for the board designed to make the process of using electronics in major embedded projects more accessible and inexpensive. Another important focus in this thesis has been to establish communication between CubeSat kit and Arduino. The major motivating factor for this thesis was to experiment with and come up with alternate ways which could prove as important measures in future to develop an effective and useful CubeSat by cutting down on development costs. An extensive literature review is carried out on the concepts of Arduino boards and ROS and its uses in Robotics which served as a base to understand its use in CubeSat. Experiment is conducted to communicate the CubeSat kit with Arduino. The results from the study of ROS and experiments with Arduino have been highly useful in drafting major problems and complications that developers would encounter while implementing ROS in CubeSat. Comprehensive analysis to the results obtained serve as important suggestions and guidelines for future researchers working in this field.

  • 175.
    Ande, Santosh
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Stereo Echo Cancellation(SEC) employing Signal Decorrelation with emphasis on Affine Projection Algorithm(APA)2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Monophonic tele-conferencing systems employ acoustic echo cancellation (AEC) to reduce echoes that result from coupling between loudspeaker and microphone. Acoustic echo cancellation is simple to develope as there is a single channel. But future tele conferencing systems are expected to have multi channel communication which is necessary in hands-free multi user tele communication systems. Stereophonic echo cancellation (SEC), has been studied since the early 1990s, in hands-free tele communication applications such as tele conferencing, multi user desktop conferencing, and tele video gaming. To enhance the sound realism in order to increase the speech intelligibilty it is necessary to use two channel (stereo) audio systems. This requires SEC systems. In SEC there is a fundamental problem that the adaptive algorithm used can not identify correct echo path responses due to strong correlation between stereo signals and also the convergence is slow. In this case it is necessary to identify two echo paths for each channel thus there are four echo paths to identify which is very difficult. In this thesis, the problems with stereo echo cancellation is explained and echo cancellation with emphasis on two channel affine projection algorithm (APA) is studied. The signal de-correlation techniques are reviewed and compared. The idea behind signal decorrelation techniques is to introduce nonlinearity into each channel. This can be done by using half-wave rectifiers or time varying all-pass filters.Three methods were developed to reduce correlation between stereo signals. One, is to use two positive half-wave rectifiers on both channels considered as NLP1. Second, is to use positive and negative half-wave rectifiers on each channel (NLP2). Third, is to use time varying all-pass filters (TV-APF) on both channels with delays. Experiments were performed using MATLAB and observed echo return loss enhancement (ERLE) and misalignment(MIS) with different scenarios. The euclidean norm distance calculation has been used to find out MIS between filter coefficients and true echo path models. It is observed that NLP1 and NLP2 lack signal perception even though ERLE was good. The MIS falls down below 25dB with decorrelated stereo signals. The use of TV-APFs gives good echo cancellation and does not effect the signal perception, the ERLE in this case was 40.3231dB.

  • 176.
    Anderberg, Ted
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Rosén, Joakim
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Follow the Raven: A Study of Audio Diegesis within a Game’s Narrative2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual Reality is one of the next big things in gaming, more and more games delivering an immersive VR-experience are popping up. Words such as immersion and presence has quickly become buzzwords that’s often used to describe a VR-game or experience. This interactive simulation of reality is literally turning people’s heads. The crowd pleaser, the ability to look around in 360-degrees, is however casting a shadow on the aural aspect. This study focused on this problem in relation to audio narrative. We examined which differences we could identify between a purely diegetic audio narrative and one utilizing a mix between diegetic and non-diegetic sound. How to grab the player’s attention and guide them to places in order for them to progress in the story. By spatializing audio using HRTF, we tested this dilemma through a game comparison with the help of soundscapes by R. Murray Schafer and auditory hierarchy by David Sonnenschein, as well as inspiration from Actor Network Theory. In our game comparison we found that while the synthesized sound, non-diegetic, ensured that the sound grabs the player’s attention, the risk of breaking the player’s immersion also increases.

  • 177.
    Anderdahl, Johan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Darner, Alice
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Particle Systems Using 3D Vector Fields with OpenGL Compute Shaders2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Particle systems and particle effects are used to simulate a realistic and appealing atmosphere in many virtual environments. However, they do occupy a significant amount of computational resources. The demand for more advanced graphics increases by each generation, likewise does particle systems need to become increasingly more detailed. Objectives. This thesis proposes a texture-based 3D vector field particle system, computed on the Graphics Processing Unit, and compares it to an equation-based particle system. Methods. Several tests were conducted comparing different situations and parameters for the methods. All of the tests measured the computational time needed to execute the different methods. Results. We show that the texture-based method was effective in very specific situations where it was expected to outperform the equation-based. Otherwise, the equation-based particle system is still the most efficient. Conclusions. Generally the equation-based method is preferred, except for in very specific cases. The texture-based is most efficient to use for static particle systems and when a huge number of forces is applied to a particle system. Texture-based vector fields is hardly useful otherwise.

  • 178.
    Andersen, Dennis
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Screen-Space Subsurface Scattering, A Real-time Implementation Using Direct3D 11.1 Rendering API2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context Subsurface scattering - the effect of light scattering within a material. Lots of materials on earth possess translucent properties. It is therefore an important factor to consider when trying to render realistic images. Historically the effect has been used for offline rendering with ray tracers, but is now considered a real-time rendering technique and is done based on approximations off previous models. Early real-time methods approximates the effect in object texture space which does not scale well with real-time applications such as games. A relatively new approach makes it possible to apply the effect as a post processing effect using GPGPU capabilities, making this approach compatible with most modern rendering pipelines.

    Objectives The aim of this thesis is to explore the possibilities of a dynamic real-time solution to subsurface scattering with a modern rendering API to utilize GPGPU programming and modern data management, combined with previous techniques

    Methods The proposed subsurface scattering technique is implemented in a delimited real-time graphics engine using a modern rendering API to evaluate the impact on performance by conducting several experiments with specific properties.

    Results The result obtained hints that by using a flexible solution to represent materials, execution time lands at an acceptable rate and could be used in real-time. These results shows that the execution time grows nearly linearly with consideration to the number of layers and the strength of the effect. Because the technique is performed in screen space, the performance scales with subsurface scattering screen coverage and screen resolution.

    Conclusions The technique could be used in real-time and could trivially be integrated to most existing rendering pipelines. Further research and testing should be done in order to determine how the effect scales in a complex 3D-game environment.

  • 179.
    Anderssom, Mikael
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Technoculture, Humanities and Planning.
    Bengtsson, Patrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Technoculture, Humanities and Planning.
    Holst, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Technoculture, Humanities and Planning.
    Pamiro2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    This report describes the work with creating a CMS (Content Manager System). A CMS is a web tool so you easy can publish materials on your web page. With a CM Scan you can without any knowledge of programming web pages create and maintain a web page. This will result in that you and your organisation save time and money. You can also split the responsibility for the webpage in different roles, but still keep the control. We have chosen to create our CMS in a script language called php4 and with the database server MySQL, we have also used JavaScript a lot. User-friendly and simplicity are two words that we have been working against, and that is why we spent some extra time creating a system that is easy to work with. The report also describes the difficulties with our dedicated server, and how we installed it.

  • 180.
    Andersson, Adam
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Watti, Alan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Cupsystemet: En kvalitativ fallstudie av en mobil webbtjänst2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    The thesis describes the following main question: Will the administrative labour during football tournaments be made easier with the help from a mobile web service or will it convey to unnecessary extra work? To be able to give a good and qualified answer to this question, the thesis will in the beginning describe how the technique for such a system might look like and also describe the existing administrative moments during a football tournament, this is too give the reader a deeper understanding for further reading. The thesis then goes on to describe a concrete system which is tested on three football tournaments. On the basis of the tests, interviews and through analysis of these the thesis will be able to answer our questions. The result which we present in the thesis have unfolded through testing of the system on three chosen football tournaments. The differences in way of labour pre and post the system have been analyzed and through interviews the value of these changes have been assessed. The results achieved in the thesis are as follows, the presented mobile web service does not only decrease the total work effort made by the tournament officials it also speeds up their work. With that information emerged we can conclude that the administrative work which occurs during a football tournament is made easier and it does not lead to any unnecessary extra work.

  • 181.
    Andersson, Alve
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Att sticka ut i mängden: En studie av tekniker för variation av instansierade modeller2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Trots den senaste tidens hårdvaruutveckling är realtidsrendering av stora folkmassor fortfarande ingen trivial uppgift. Denna uppgift beskrivs som crowd rendering. Effektiv crowd rendering bygger ofta på instansiering, men instansiering kommer med ett problem, det skapar kloner. Denna uppsats syftar till att undersöka och utvärdera ett antal tekniker som används för att skapa mångfald för instansierade modeller. Dessa tekniker kommer tillsammans att kallas varierad instansiering. Ett annat mål är att avgöra hur många modeller som behövs för att varierad instansiering skall betala sig i jämförelse med icke- instansierad utritning. Metoden som används är att mäta tiden för varje uppdatering på GPU för varje teknik med hjälp av ett mätinstrument. Varje teknik har implementerats i en applikation som skapats speciellt för detta ändamål. Analysen av mätningarna resulterade i tre kategorier. Kategorierna är GPU procentuell arbetsbörda stigande för instans avtagande för polygon, sjunkande för instans avtagande för polygon och jämn för instans och polygon. Antalet instanser som behövs för varierad instansiering skall betala sig i jämförelse med en icke- instansierad utritning bestämdes till någonstans mellan 100 och 300 modeller, beroende på antalet polygoner.

  • 182. Andersson, Arne
    et al.
    Ygge, Fredrik
    Managing Large-Scale Computational Markets1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    General equilibrium theory has been proposed for resource allocation in computational markets. The basic procedure is that agents submit bids and that a resource (re)allocation is performed when a set of prices (one for each commodity) is found such that supply meets demand for each commodity. For successful implementation of large markets based on general equilibrium theory, efficient algorithms for finding the equilibrium are required. We discuss some drawbacks of current algorithms for large scale equilibrium markets and present a novel distributed algorithm, CoTree, which deals with the most important problems. CoTree is communication sparse, fast in adapting to preference changes of a few agents, have minimal requirements on local data, and is easy to implement.

  • 183.
    Andersson, Björn
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Persson, Marie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Software Reliability Prediction – An Evaluation of a Novel Technique2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Along with continuously increasing computerization, our expectations on software and hardware reliability increase considerably. Therefore, software reliability has become one of the most important software quality attributes. Software reliability modeling based on test data is done to estimate whether the current reliability level meets the requirements for the product. Software reliability modeling also provides possibilities to predict reliability. Costs of software developing and tests together with profit issues in relation to software reliability are one of the main objectives to software reliability prediction. Software reliability prediction currently uses different models for this purpose. Parameters have to be set in order to tune the model to fit the test data. A slightly different prediction model, Time Invariance Estimation, TIE is developed to challenge the models used today. An experiment is set up to investigate whether TIE could be found useful in a software reliability prediction context. The experiment is based on a comparison between the ordinary reliability prediction models and TIE.

  • 184. Andersson, David
    A survey on contactless payment methods for smartphones2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 185.
    Andersson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Human Work Science and Media Technology.
    Palo, Catarina
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Human Work Science and Media Technology.
    Systemutveckling med fokus på kreativa processer och lärande2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Med denna uppsats vill vi (författarna) samla ihop 5 år av tankar, teorier och erfarenheter kring systemutveckling och lärande. Uppsatsen presenterar 8 projekt som är genomförda i Blekinge mellan 1995-1999. Med utgångspunkt i projekten behandlas en utvecklingsprocess för IT-system som är baserad på kreativitet och lärande miljöer. Särskilt lyfter uupsatsen fram behovet av att förändra processen för att möta slutanvändare av program och tjänster.

  • 186. Andersson, Emma
    et al.
    Peterson, Anders
    Törnquist Krasemann, Johanna
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Quantifying railway timetable robustness in critical points2013In: Journal of Rail Transport Planning and Management, ISSN 2210-9706, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 95-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several European railway traffic networks experience high capacity consumption during large parts of the day resulting in delay-sensitive traffic system with insufficient robustness. One fundamental challenge is therefore to assess the robustness and find strategies to decrease the sensitivity to disruptions. Accurate robustness measures are needed to determine if a timetable is sufficiently robust and suggest where improvements should be made.Existing robustness measures are useful when comparing different timetables with respect to robustness. They are, however, not as useful for suggesting precisely where and how robustness should be increased. In this paper, we propose a new robustness measure that incorporates the concept of critical points. This concept can be used in the practical timetabling process to find weaknesses in a timetable and to provide suggestions for improvements. In order to quantitatively assess how crucial a critical point may be, we have defined the measure robustness in critical points (RCP). In this paper, we present results from an experimental study where a benchmark of several measures as well as RCP has been done. The results demonstrate the relevance of the concept of critical points and RCP, and how it contributes to the set of already defined robustness measures

  • 187.
    Andersson, Eskil
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Human Work Science and Media Technology.
    Akrawi, Sirvan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Human Work Science and Media Technology.
    CU2: Design av ett PDA-baserat diskussionverktyg med ljud/bildkommunikation2001Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta arbete framlägger vi ett designförslag på hur ett diskussionsverktyg som stödjer ljud- och bildkommunikation kan se ut. Ett förslag som förbättrar och förenklar den distanskommunikation som idag sker med hjälp av mobiltelefoner, videokonferenssystem samt webbkameror anslutna till persondatorer. Den design vi föreslår möjliggör för mobila användare att visuellt föra flerpartssamtal med hjälp av PDA:er. Vårt designförslag har fått arbetsnamnet CU2 (see you too) och är tänkt att fungera i tredje och/eller fjärde generationens mobila nät. Vi har valt att genomföra vårt magisterarbete på företaget A Brand New World i Kista, Stockholm. Företaget utvecklar och säljer system inom mobilt Internet.

  • 188.
    Andersson, Filip
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Norberg, Simon
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Scalable applications in a distributed environment2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the amount of simultaneous users of distributed systems increase, scalability is becoming an important factor to consider during software development. Without sufficient scalability, systems might have a hard time to manage high loads, and might not be able to support a high amount of users. We have determined how scalability can best be implemented, and what extra costs this leads to. Our research is based on both a literature review, where we have looked at what others in the field of computer engineering thinks about scalability, and by implementing a highly scalable system of our own. In the end we came up with a couple of general pointers which can help developers to determine if they should focus on scalable development, and what they should consider if they choose to do so.

  • 189.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Hagström, Stefan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Dynamic identities for flexible access control2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis will analyse the pros and cons of a module-based approach versus the currently existing certificate schemes and the proposed requirements for a module-based certificate scheme to serve as a plausible identity verification system. We will present a possible model and evaluate it in respect to the existing solutions and our set of identified requirements.

  • 190.
    Andersson, Helena
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Human Work Science and Media Technology.
    Nilsson, Anna
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Human Work Science and Media Technology.
    Nilsson, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Human Work Science and Media Technology.
    Trouble Ticket "Kommunikationen gav oss vind i seglen"2002Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten huvudsyfte är att beskriva hur vi genom användning av språk och kommunikation har kunnat tillgodose våra användares krav på ett ärendehanteringssystem, samt på vilket sätt vi har använt artefakter för att kommunicera. Vi kommer att beskriva olika delar av projektet där språk och kommunikation har haft centrala "roller" och visat sig ha olika betydelse beroende på de personer som medverkar och i vilken miljö situationen har utspelat sig. Rapporten behandlar även hur resultatet av ovanstående har lett oss in i en utvecklingsprocess där vi försökt tillgodose användarens krav på bästa sätt. Vi kommer också att beskriva de kända och tidigare okända metoder som vi använt oss av för att uppnå vår målsättning, att överlämna en första prototyp av ett ärendehanteringssystem.

  • 191.
    Andersson, Jonas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Silhouette-based Level of Detail: A comparison of real-time performance and image space metrics2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. The geometric complexity of objects in games and other real-time applications is a crucial aspect concerning the performance of the application. Such applications usually redraw the screen between 30-60 times per second, sometimes even more often, which can be a hard task in an environment with a high number of geometrically complex objects. The concept called Level of Detail, often abbreviated LoD, aims to alleviate the load on the hardware by introducing methods and techniques to minimize the amount of geometry while still maintaining the same, or very similar result.

    Objectives. This study will compare four of the often used techniques, namely Static LoD, Unpopping LoD, Curved PN Triangles, and Phong Tessellation. Phong Tessellation is silhouette-based, and since the silhouette is considered one of the most important properties, the main aim is to determine how it performs compared to the other three techniques.

    Methods. The four techniques are implemented in a real-time application using the modern rendering API Direct3D 11. Data will be gathered from this application to use in several experiments in the context of both performance and image space metrics.

    Conclusions. This study has shown that all of the techniques used works in real-time, but with varying results. From the experiments it can be concluded that the best technique to use is Unpopping LoD. It has good performance and provides a good visual result with the least average amount of popping of the compared techniques. The dynamic techniques are not suitable as a substitute to Unpopping LoD, but further research could be conducted to examine how they can be used together, and how the objects themselves can be designed with the dynamic techniques in mind.

  • 192.
    Andersson, Karl
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Human Work Science and Media Technology.
    Dackemyr, Elisabeth
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Human Work Science and Media Technology.
    Teknikens Under: En problemrapport över arbetet på diariet, Regionens Hus i Mariestad2002Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att en dator hänger sig, inte gör som man vill eller bara är obegriplig är inget nytt fenomen. Dock är detta en del av vardagen på diariet i Regionens Hus i Mariestad, där de tre registratorernas arbetsprocesser innehåller ett antal problem som bland annat är datorrelaterade. Rapporten beskriver arbetet på diariet, de problem som finns, vem som äger problemen, och innehåller också en diskussion runt de befintliga problemen. Rapporten tar upp allt från postöppning till sökfel i programmet Diabas och mycket annat som ingår i arbetet som registrator. De problem som finns i arbetet på diariet har hopat sig över registratorerna som känner att det inte finns någon självklar part som de kan vända sig till för att få hjälp. Känslan av maktlöshet är alltid närvarande i arbetet när registratorernas datoriserade hjälpmedel inte gör som de vill. Rapporten är ett steg i att kartlägga problemen och vem som äger dem, och avsedd att bli en hjälp för registratorerna.

  • 193.
    Andersson, Lars
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Inblick i fenomenet webbskrapning2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande kandidatarbete har till syfte att undersöka fenomenet Webskrapning. Webbskrapnings-program (också kända som Web Wanderers, Crawlers, Spiders eller skrapare) är program som söker igenom webben automatiskt för att extrahera information från webbsidor. Ett exempel på web skrapning är när ett företag samlar in data om prissättningar på en vara eller en tjänst och sen använder informationen för att producera billigare erbjudanden. Detta ger företaget en fördel så att de kan fokusera mera på att marknadsföra sin sida/tjänster. Utöver detta så blir de utsatta företagens servrar också hårt belastade med trafik (skrapning) från ”icke kunder”. Efter att ha genomsökt både akademiska och allmänna källor via informationsinsamling, av denna information så dras slutsatsen att man inte fullt ut kan hindra skrapning av hemsidor. Detta på samma sätt som man inte fullt ut kan hindra någon IT-attack, det finns inga 100 % vattentäta system. Av utfallet ifrån informationssökningen var det bara ett akademiskt arbete, av de hundra, som genomsöktes som hade inriktat sig på att förhindra skrapningsbotar.

  • 194.
    Andersson, Linda
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Evaluation of HMI Development for Embedded System Control2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context:The interface development is increasing in complexity and applications with a lot of functionalities that are reliable, understandable and easy to use have to be developed. To be able to compete, the time-to-market has to be short and cost effective. The development process is important and there are a lot of aspects that can be improved. The needs of the development and the knowledge among the developers are key factors. Here code reuse, standardization and the usability of the development tool plays an important role which could have a lot of positive impact on the development process and the quality of the final product. Objectives: A framework for describing important properties for HMI development tools is presented. A representative collection of two development tools are selected, described and based on the experiences from the case study its applicability is mapped to the evaluation framework. Methods: Interviews were made with HMI developers to get information from the field. Following that, a case study of two different development tools were made to highlight the pros and cons of each tool. Results: The properties presented in the evaluation framework are that the toolkit should be open for multiple platforms, accessible for the developer, it should support custom templates, require non-extensive coding knowledge and be reusable. The evaluated frameworks shows that it is hard to meet all the demands. Conclusions: To find a well suited development toolkit is not an easy task. The choice should be made depending on the needs of the HMI applications and the available development resources.

  • 195.
    Andersson, Lukas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Comparison of Anti-Aliasing in Motion2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Aliasing is a problem that every 3D game has because of the resolutions that monitors are using right now is not high enough. Aliasing is when you look at an object in a 3D world and see that it has jagged edges where it should be smooth. This can be reduced by a technique called anti-aliasing.

    Objectives. The object of this study is to compare three different techniques, Fast approximate anti-aliasing (FXAA), Subpixel Morphological Anti Aliasing (SMAA) and Temporal anti-aliasing (TAA) in motion to see which is a good default for games.

    Methods. An experiment was run where 20 people participated and tested a real-time prototype which had a camera moving through a scene multiple times with different anti-aliasing techniques.

    Results. The results showed that TAA was consistently performing best in the tests of blurry picture quality, aliasing and flickering. Both SMAA and FXAA were only comparable to TAA in the blur area of the test and falling behind all the other parts.

    Conclusions. TAA is a great anti-aliasing technique to use for avoiding aliasing and flickering while in motion. Blur was thought to be a problem but as the test shows most people did not feel that blur was a problem for any of the techniques that were used.

  • 196.
    Andersson, Madelene
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Human Work Science and Media Technology.
    Systemutveckling i praktiken: konsten att tillmötesgå den okända användarens krav2002Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    ABSTRACT System development has become more and more concentrated on development for the Web and this has resulted in larger target groups. It will most surely continue to be so considering that the Web will be the infrastructure of business and services in the future. A big target group involves that the owner of a system can earn a lot of money from the paying users, but that assumes that the system can meet user needs. If a system on the Web does not satisfy the user?s demands then they will use the competitor?s system instead because it is only a mouse-click away. That is why the business, already during the development process, has to take the role of the users seriously. Even if all users cannot take part in the process at least some users can and it would be a shame not to take advantages of this kind of expert knowledge. This report describes how a system development project can be practised and how a developer can do to satisfy each user?s requirements even though he or she are not specified, and also why a useful system is classified as an investment in the future.

  • 197.
    Andersson, Magnus
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Sökmotoroptimering med analysverktyg2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 198.
    Andersson, Marcus
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Nilsson, Alexander
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Improving Integrity Assurances of Log Entries From the Perspective of Intermittently Disconnected Devices2014Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is common today in large corporate environments for system administrators to employ centralized systems for log collection and analysis. The log data can come from any device between smart-phones and large scale server clusters. During an investigation of a system failure or suspected intrusion these logs may contain vital information. However, the trustworthiness of this log data must be confirmed. The objective of this thesis is to evaluate the state of the art and provide practical solutions and suggestions in the field of secure logging. In this thesis we focus on solutions that do not require a persistent connection to a central log management system. To this end a prototype logging framework was developed including client, server and verification applications. The client employs different techniques of signing log entries. The focus of this thesis is to evaluate each signing technique from both a security and performance perspective. This thesis evaluates "Traditional RSA-signing", "Traditional Hash-chains"', "Itkis-Reyzin's asymmetric FSS scheme" and "RSA signing and tick-stamping with TPM", the latter being a novel technique developed by us. In our evaluations we recognized the inability of the evaluated techniques to detect so called `truncation-attacks', therefore a truncation detection module was also developed which can be used independent of and side-by-side with any signing technique. In this thesis we conclude that our novel Trusted Platform Module technique has the most to offer in terms of log security, however it does introduce a hardware dependency on the TPM. We have also shown that the truncation detection technique can be used to assure an external verifier of the number of log entries that has at least passed through the log client software.

  • 199.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Lavesson, Niclas
    Lunds Universitet, Centre for Innovation Research and Competence in the Learning Economy (CIRCLE), SWE.
    Niedomysl, Thomas
    Lunds Universitet, SWE.
    Rural to urban long-distance commuting in Sweden: Trends, characteristics and pathways2018In: Journal of Rural Studies, ISSN 0743-0167, E-ISSN 1873-1392, Vol. 59, p. 67-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rise of ICT and the shift toward jobs with more flexibility in working hours and places of work sparked popular debates about potential for a ‘rural renaissance’. A key argument was that there are increasing possibilities to live in the countryside while being employed in large cities. This paper uses data spanning two decades to examine trends in and characteristics of employee–employer ties between rural and urban areas in Sweden. Our main results suggest that rural-to-urban long-distance commuting is rapidly increasing, but not as fast as commuting flows elsewhere. Compared to the rural population at large, rural residents working in large cities constitute a strongly selected group of workers who are well paid, have long educations, are young and also have advanced knowledge-intensive occupations. Only about 30 percent of those who become rural-to-urban long-distance commuters have moved from urban areas; the vast majority constitute those who already lived in rural areas before starting to commute to urban areas. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

  • 200.
    Andersson, Mikael
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Technoculture, Humanities and Planning.
    Bengtsson, Patrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Technoculture, Humanities and Planning.
    Holst, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Technoculture, Humanities and Planning.
    Pamiro2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the work with creating a CMS Content Manager System). A CMS is a web tool so you easy can publish materials on your web page. With a CM Scan you can without any knowledge of programming web pages create and maintain a web page. This will result in that you and your organisation save time and money. You can also split the responsibility for the webpage in different roles, but still keep the control. We have chosen to create our CMS in a script language called php4 and with the database server MySQL, we have also used JavaScript a lot. User-friendly and simplicity are two words that we have been working against, and that is why we spent some extra time creating a system that is easy to work with. The report also describes the difficulties with our dedicated server, and how we installed it.

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