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  • 151.
    Baig, Imran
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för programvarusystem.
    Measuring Cohesion and Coupling of Object-Oriented Systems Derivation and Mutual Study of Cohesion and Coupling2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Cohesion and coupling are considered amongst the most important properties to evaluate the quality of a design. In the context of OO software development, cohesion means relatedness of the public functionality of a class whereas coupling stands for the degree of dependence of a class on other classes in OO system. In this thesis, a new metric has been proposed that measures the class cohesion on the basis of relative relatedness of the public methods to the overall public functionality of a class. The proposed metric for class cohesion uses a new concept of subset tree to determine relative relatedness of the public methods to the overall public functionality of a class. A set of metrics has been proposed for measuring class coupling based on three types of UML relationships, namely association, inheritance and dependency. The reasonable metrics to measure cohesion and coupling are supposed to share the same set of input data. Sharing of input data by the metrics encourages the idea for the existence of mutual relationships between them. Based on potential relationships research questions have been formed. An attempt is made to find answers of these questions with the help of an experiment on OO system FileZilla. Mutual relationships between class cohesion and class coupling have been analyzed statistically while considering OO metrics for size and reuse. Relationships among the pairs of metrics have been discussed and results are drawn in accordance with observed correlation coefficients. A study on Software evolution with the help of class cohesion and class coupling metrics has also been performed and observed trends have been analyzed.

  • 152. Bajwa, Sohaib Shahid
    et al.
    Gencel, Cigdem
    What are the Significant Cost Factors for COSMIC Functional Size Based Effort Estimation?2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the nature of the relationship between software product size measured in Common Software Measurement International Consortium (COSMIC) Function Points and the development effort. We investigated both numerical and categorical cost factors which have a significant effect on this relationship based on the empirical studies we conducted using the International Software Benchmarking Standards Group (ISBSG) Dataset Release 10. For the statistical analyses, we performed step wise Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Analysis of Co-Variance (ANCOVA) and Linear Regression Analysis techniques. In this paper, we discuss the results we obtained and the significance of the results for the software organizations who would like to improve their effort estimation processes.

  • 153.
    Bajwa, Sohaib-Shahid
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för för interaktion och systemdesign.
    Investigating the Nature of Relationship between Software Size and Development Effort2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Software effort estimation still remains a challenging and debatable research area. Most of the software effort estimation models take software size as the base input. Among the others, Constructive Cost Model (COCOMO II) is a widely known effort estimation model. It uses Source Lines of Code (SLOC) as the software size to estimate effort. However, many problems arise while using SLOC as a size measure due to its late availability in the software life cycle. Therefore, a lot of research has been going on to identify the nature of relationship between software functional size and effort since functional size can be measured very early when the functional user requirements are available. There are many other project related factors that were found to be affecting the effort estimation based on software size. Application Type, Programming Language, Development Type are some of them. This thesis aims to investigate the nature of relationship between software size and development effort. It explains known effort estimation models and gives an understanding about the Function Point and Functional Size Measurement (FSM) method. Factors, affecting relationship between software size and development effort, are also identified. In the end, an effort estimation model is developed after statistical analyses. We present the results of an empirical study which we conducted to investigate the significance of different project related factors on the relationship between functional size and effort. We used the projects data in the International Software Benchmarking Standards Group (ISBSG) dataset. We selected the projects which were measured by utilizing the Common Software Measurement International Consortium (COSMIC) Function Points. For statistical analyses, we performed step wise Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Analysis of Co-Variance (ANCOVA) techniques to build the multi variable models. We also performed Multiple Regression Analysis to formalize the relation.

  • 154.
    Bakht, Syed Sikandar
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för programvarusystem.
    Ahmad, Qazi Sohail
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för programvarusystem.
    A Multi Agent Web Based Simulation Model for Evaluating Container Terminal Management2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis provides a software prototype of Container Terminal Management system with the help of a Multi Agent systems technology. The goal that has been tried to achieve during this research work was to solve the management issues residing in a CT. The software prototype can be implemented as simulation software that will help the Terminal Managers to take necessary decisions for the better productivity of CT. The CTs are struggling with taking proper management decisions. There are many policies implemented but the use of a certain policy at a proper time is the main issue. It is possible with simulation software to visualize the affects of decisions taken by the implementation of a policy and see the expected output. This can really improve the performance of a CT. The management decision problem is solved by modeling the whole CT in a computer modeling language. The prototype shows all the actors appearing in a CT in the form of Agents and these agents are responsible for carrying out certain tasks. The prototype is the final contribution along with partial implementation. The model is proposed to be a web based system which removes the platform dependability problem and provide availability online.

  • 155.
    Bakht, Syed Sikandar
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för programvarusystem.
    Ahmad, Qazi Sohail
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för programvarusystem.
    A Multi Agent Web Based Simulation Model for Evaluating Container Terminal Management2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis provides a software prototype of Container Terminal Management system with the help of a Multi Agent systems technology. The goal that has been tried to achieve during this research work was to solve the management issues residing in a CT. The software prototype can be implemented as simulation software that will help the Terminal Managers to take necessary decisions for the better productivity of CT. The CTs are struggling with taking proper management decisions. There are many policies implemented but the use of a certain policy at a proper time is the main issue. It is possible with simulation software to visualize the affects of decisions taken by the implementation of a policy and see the expected output. This can really improve the performance of a CT. The management decision problem is solved by modeling the whole CT in a computer modeling language. The prototype shows all the actors appearing in a CT in the form of Agents and these agents are responsible for carrying out certain tasks. The prototype is the final contribution along with partial implementation. The model is proposed to be a web based system which removes the platform dependability problem and provide availability online.

  • 156.
    Bakhtyar, Shoaib
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    On the Synergies Between an Electronic Waybill and Intelligent Transport Systems Services2013Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this thesis is to investigate potential synergies between an electronic waybill (e-Waybill) and other Intelligent Transport System (ITS) services. An e-Waybill service, as presented in this thesis, should be able to perform the functions of a paper waybill (which is an important transport document and contains essential information about a consignment) and it should contain at least the information specified in a paper waybill. To investigate synergies between the e-Waybill solutions and ITS services, we present 5 conceptual e-Waybill solutions that differ in where the e-Waybill information is stored, read, and written. These solutions are further investigated for functional and technical requirements (non-functional requirements), which can potentially impose constraints on a potential system that should implement the e-Waybill service. A set of 20 ITS services are considered for synergy analysis in this thesis. These services are mainly for road transport, however most of them are relevant to be considered for utilization in other modes of transport as well. For information synergy analysis, the e-Waybill solutions are assessed based on their synergies with ITS services. For different ITS services, the required input information entities are identified; and if at least one information entity can be provided by an e-Waybill at the right location we regard it to be a synergy. The result from our synergy analysis may support the choice of practical e-Waybill systems, which has the possibility to provide high synergy with ITS services. This may lead to a higher utilization of ITS services and more sustainable transport, e.g., in terms of reduced congestion and emissions. Additionally, a service design method has been proposed for supporting the process of designing new ITS services, which primarily utilizes on functional synergies with already existing ITS services. In order to illustrate the usage of the suggested method, we have applied it for designing a new ITS service, i.e., the Liability Intelligent Transport System (LITS) service. The purpose of the LITS service is to support the process of identifying when, where, and by whom a consignment has been damaged and who was responsible when the consignment was damaged.

  • 157.
    Bakhtyar, Shoaib
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Afridi, Qaisar Zaman
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Performance Evaluation of Two Different Usability Evaluation Methods in the Context of Collaborative Writing Systems2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s world of rapid technological development one cannot deny the importance of collaborative writing systems. Besides many advantages of a collaborative writing system the major one is to allow its end users to work in collaboration with each other without having to physically meet. In the past various researches has been carried out for the usability evaluation of collaborative writing systems using the think aloud protocol method however there is no study conducted on the comparison of different usability evaluation methods in the context of collaborative writing systems. In this thesis work the authors have tried to find the limitations and capabilities of think aloud protocol and co-discovery learning methods in the context of a collaborative writing system called ZOHO, as well as the usability evaluation of ZOHO using think aloud protocol and co-discovery learning methods. The authors found various usability errors in ZOHO. Apart from this the authors also observed the two usability evaluation methods when they were used for usability evaluation of ZOHO. The authors found that both the methods have its’ own benefits and drawbacks. While the co-discovery learning method was fast enough, it was expensive in terms of human resource. On the other hand think aloud protocol method was slow to perform but there was less human resource used. Both the usability methods found almost the same usability errors.

  • 158.
    Bakhtyar, Shoaib
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Holmgren, Johan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Persson, Jan
    Analysis of information synergy between e-Waybill solutions and intelligent transport system services2013Inngår i: World Review of Intermodal Transportation Research (WRITR), ISSN 1749-4729, E-ISSN 1749-4737, Vol. 4, nr 2-3, s. 123-139Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a study on information synergy between an electronic waybill (e-Waybill) and intelligent transportation system (ITS) services. A waybill is an important transport document, and it contains essential information about a consignment. We consider five e-Waybill solutions, which differ in where the e-Waybill information is stored, read, and written. We analyse 20 ITS services, and for each of them, the required input entities that can be provided by an e-Waybill are identified, and the synergy with each of the e-Waybill solutions is determined based on the location of the e-Waybill information. The analysis shows that e-Waybill solutions with storage at the freight-level enable the highest information synergy with ITS services. Our result may support the implementation of practical e-Waybill systems that provide high synergy with ITS services, which may lead to higher utilisation of ITS services and more sustainable transport, e.g., in terms of reduced congestion and emissions

  • 159.
    Balakrishnan, Radhakrishnan
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för tillämpad signalbehandling.
    Kesavan, Shijith Kunneth
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för tillämpad signalbehandling.
    CAD TOOLS FOR HYBRID INTEGRATION2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, we present a graphical computer-aided design (CAD) environment for the design, analysis and layout of printed electronic batteries in the first phase and the parasitic extraction of the connecting wires in the second phase. The primary motivation of our work is that this prototyping software tool so far does not exist. Our tool has been integrated within the existing CAD tool which allows quick prototyping and simplifies the interface between the system designer and the device manufacturer. This tools supports the schematic and layout entry, rule checking and netlist generation. The first phase of the device synthesis modelling is based on Enfucell printed batteries, by which using the CAD tool, the shape of the battery is optimized and designed to fit the product and is able to simulate the performance during the optimization, whereas the second phase is the parasitic extraction using an extracting tool named fasthenry, which is integrated to our CAD tool to extract unwanted resistance and inductance within the shared wires between the battery and other devices. We believe that the availability of this tool is useful to the CAD community for novel ideas in the circuit design for flexible hybrid electronics.

  • 160.
    Banelis, Justas
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Proscevicius, Arunas
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Streaming Video Based on an Intelligent Frame Skipping Technique2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Video streaming is an important field of global communications and data processing. It is divided into server and client sides connected via network. Video streaming is concerned with delivering video data from server to client over the network as fast and with as little loss as possible. In this study the possibilities to minimize the amount of data transferred over the network in video streaming are investigated and a video streaming technique comprised of server and client sides is proposed. To expand the flexibility and adaptability of the proposed video streaming technique an operational parameter system was constructed and the parameter value ranges were defined. The proposed video streaming technique was then applied to three sample videos. Before streaming the server side of the proposed technique reduced the frame count of input videos based on operational parameter values while the client side reconstructed the skipped frames. Then the quality of the resulting videos was measured and evaluated. To evaluate the reconstructed frames and videos the PSNR measurement method was used. The study concludes that by using the proposed video streaming technique it is possible to reduce the amount of transfer data by dropping frames on the server side and reconstructing them on the client side.

  • 161. Barbosa, Manuel
    et al.
    Moss, Andrew
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Page, Dan
    Rodrigues, Nuno
    Silva, Paulo
    Type checking cryptography implementations2012Inngår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer , 2012, Vol. 7141, s. 316-334Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cryptographic software development is a challenging field: high performance must be achieved, while ensuring correctness and compliance with low-level security policies. CAO is a domain specific language designed to assist development of cryptographic software. An important feature of this language is the design of a novel type system introducing native types such as predefined sized vectors, matrices and bit strings, residue classes modulo an integer, finite fields and finite field extensions, allowing for extensive static validation of source code. We present the formalisation, validation and implementation of this type system.

  • 162.
    Bardici, Nick
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för signalbehandling.
    Skarin, Björn
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för signalbehandling.
    Röstigenkänning genom Hidden Markov Model: En implementering av teorin på DSP2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This master degree project is how to implement a speech recognition system on a DSK – ADSP-BF533 EZ-KIT LITE REV 1.5 based on the theory of the Hidden Markov Model (HMM). The implementation is based on the theory in the master degree project Speech Recognition using Hidden Markov Model by Mikael Nilsson and Marcus Ejnarsson, MEE-01-27. The work accomplished in the project is by reference to the theory, implementing a MFCC, Mel Frequency Cepstrum Coefficient function, a training function, which creates Hidden Markov Models of specific utterances and a testing function, testing utterances on the models created by the training-function. These functions where first created in MatLab. Then the test-function where implemented on the DSK. An evaluation of the implementation is performed.

  • 163.
    Barke, Daniel
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för programvarusystem.
    Are we ready for Agile Development?2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In the rapidly changing market of today, companies need to be responsive and react quickly to changes in both their competitors’ behaviour but also to changes in their own technical environment. In this thesis I have examined the agile characteristics of a number of companies in Stockholm, with focus on three agile concepts; Scrum, eXtreme Programming and Test Driven Development. The work started off by a prestudy, in which I have identified the criteria that a company needs to fulfil in order to be considered agile. This resulted in four main categories of characteristics; Quality, Flexibility, Communication and Competence. After doing the prestudy, these characteristics were investigated through a combination of a quantitative study and a case study. While the results mostly lean towards agile behaviour rather than non agile, it was shown that a lot of work still remains, for instance regarding improvements in the communications area, and also in the way these companies apply the agile methodologies examined.

  • 164. Barney, Sebastian
    Perspectives on Software and their Priorities: Balancing Conflicting Stakeholder Views2009Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The sustainable development of a software product depends on a number of groups working together to achieve a common goal. However, each of the groups interacts with the product in different ways, and can have conflicting aims and objectives. For example, developers trying to correct issues in the software architecture, which will impact future releases of the product, can be stopped by a project manager who is charged with delivering a release on time and within budget. While the functional requirements of a software product are usually documented, there are a number of other investments in software development that are not always as explicitly agreed upon but are still essential to a product's long-term success. The major investment types include software product quality -- a main control variable in software development, and intellectual capital (IC) -- being the key input and tool used in software development. As management requires measurement, it is necessary understand the priorities placed on investment options by the various groups involved in the development of a software product. The objective of this thesis is to develop a method capable of both determining the priorities of different groups, and the level of alignment between these groups in terms of their priorities. Evolving the method from a study into the values used to select requirements for a release of software, Ericsson supported the development of a methodology to determine and compare the priorities of different groups for software product quality, and IC. The method elicited the required information from a series of case studies to build up a picture of the priorities placed on major investment options and constraints -- features, quality, IC, time and cost. The results highlight strengths, and areas for improvement -- through the identification of differing priorities and ambiguities in management of different aspects studied. In conducting this research, systematic biases in the selection of requirements appear to be occurring, adding an objective to understand how bias impacts decision making in a requirements engineering context. This thesis provides a method that determines the priorities on the level of investment on different options in the development of software products. It is concluded that people involved in the development of software need to be aligned on issues of software product quality as these priorities set expectations. The same was not found true for issues of IC, where groups can complete tasks without negatively impacting others, as long as the organisation works effectively as a single entity. On the issue of biases in the prioritisation of these aspects, prospect theory is found to apply to requirements selection in an academic experiment -- suggesting people will prefer functionality over software product quality, and to meet the known requirements of customers over predicting general market requirements.

  • 165. Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Hu, Ganglan
    Wohlin, Claes
    Creating Software Product Value in China2009Inngår i: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459 , Vol. 26, nr 4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    China has become a formidable player and continues to grow strongly in what has become a dynamic global market for software development. In this highly competitive environment it has never been more difficult or important to maximize the creation of software product value. But each key stakeholder group – purchasers, users, software managers and developers – has a different notion of value when looking at a software product. As the value of a software product is largely derived through the requirements it fulfils, we looked at the criteria used to select and prioritise requirements for a release of software, and the perspectives that motivate them. The value of a software product is largely derived through the requirements it fulfils. To help understand how value is created we looked at the criteria used to select and prioritise requirements for a release of software, and the perspectives that motivate them. We studied three groups of software development companies operating in China – Chinese companies with a domestic market, Chinese companies with an international market, and western companies operating in China. The results were similar for all three groups, except After-sales Support was a significantly greater concern for Chinese companies with an international market.

  • 166. Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Wohlin, Claes
    A Product Management Challenge: Creating Software Product Value through Requirements Selection2008Inngår i: Journal of systems architecture, ISSN 1383-7621, E-ISSN 1873-6165, Vol. 54, nr 6, s. 576-593Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is important for a software company to maximize value creation for a given investment. The purpose of requirements engineering activities is to add business value that is accounted for in terms of return on investment of a software product. This paper provides insight into the release planning processes used in the software industry to create software product value, by presenting three case studies. It examines how IT professionals perceive value creation through requirements engineering and how the release planning process is conducted to create software product value. It also presents to what degree the major stakeholders' perspectives are represented in the decision-making process. Our findings show that the client and market base of the software product represents the most influential group in the decision to implement specific requirements. This is reflected both in terms of deciding the processes followed and the decision-making criteria applied when selecting requirements for the product. Furthermore, the management of software product value is dependant on the context in which the product exists. Factors, such as the maturity of the product, the marketplace in which it exists, and the development tools and methods available, influence the criteria that decide whether a requirement is included in a specific project or release.

  • 167. Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Wohlin, Claes
    A product management challenge: Creating software product value through requirements selection2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is important for a software company to maximize value creation for a given investment. The purpose of requirements engineering activities is to add business value that is accounted for in terms of return on investment of a software product. This paper provides insight into the release planning processes used in the software industry to create software product value, by presenting three case studies. It examines how IT professionals perceive value creation through requirements engineering and how the release planning process is conducted to create software product value. It also presents to what degree the major stakeholders' perspectives are represented in the decision-making process. Our findings show that the client and market base of the software product represents the most influential group in the decision to implement specific requirements. This is reflected both in terms of deciding the processes followed and the decision-making criteria applied when selecting requirements for the product. Furthermore, the management of software product value is dependant on the context in which the product exists. Factors, such as the maturity of the product, the marketplace in which it exists, and the development tools and methods available, influence the criteria that decide whether a requirement is included in a specific project or release. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 168. Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Wohlin, Claes
    Quest for a Silver Bullet: Creating Software Product Value through Requirements Selection2006Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 169. Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Wohlin, Claes
    The Relative Importance of Aspects of Intellectual Capital for Software Companies2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Intellectual capital (IC) is both the key input and tool used in the development of software today. It covers the value provided to an organisation by the employees, the processes and products that support the organisation, and the knowledge held in the relationships between the organisation and external parties – covering human capital, structural capital, and relationship capital respectively. This paper presents a method that seeks to understand the level of alignment between the different success-critical stakeholders in the importance of different aspects of intellectual capital. The method is applied in a case study and provides a number of interesting insights, with the authors concluding that the groups do not necessarily need to be aligned as each groups has a different informational role within the organisation to fulfil.

  • 170.
    Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Khurum, Mahvish
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    jabangwe, Ronald
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Improving Students With Rubric-Based Self-Assessment and Oral Feedback2012Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Education, ISSN 0018-9359, Vol. 55, nr 3, s. 319-325Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Rubrics and oral feedback are approaches to help students improve performance and meet learning outcomes. However, their effect on the actual improvement achieved is inconclusive. This paper evaluates the effect of rubrics and oral feedback on student learning outcomes. An experiment was conducted in a software engineering course on requirements engineering, using the two approaches in course assignments. Both approaches led to statistically significant improvements, though no material improvement (i.e., a change by more than one grade) was achieved. The rubrics led to a significant decrease in the number of complaints and questions regarding grades.

  • 171.
    Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Mohankumar, Varun
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Angelis, Lefteris
    Software quality across borders: Three case studies on company internal alignment2014Inngår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 56, nr 1, s. 20-38Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Software quality issues are commonly reported when offshoring software development. Value-based software engineering addresses this by ensuring key stakeholders have a common understanding of quality. Objective: This work seeks to understand the levels of alignment between key stakeholder groups within a company on the priority given to aspects of software quality developed as part of an offshoring relationship. Furthermore, the study aims to identify factors impacting the levels of alignment identified. Method: Three case studies were conducted, with representatives of key stakeholder groups ranking aspects of software quality in a hierarchical cumulative exercise. The results are analysed using Spearman rank correlation coefficients and inertia. The results were discussed with the groups to gain a deeper understanding of the issues impacting alignment. Results: Various levels of alignment were found between the various groups. The reasons for misalignment were found to include cultural factors, control of quality in the development process, short-term versus long-term orientations, understanding of cost-benefits of quality improvements, communication and coordination. Conclusions: The factors that negatively affect alignment can vary greatly between different cases. The work emphasises the need for greater support to align company internal success-critical stakeholder groups in their understanding of quality when offshoring software development.

  • 172.
    Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Aurum, Aybueke
    Barney, Hamish
    Software quality trade-offs: A systematic map2012Inngår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 54, nr 7, s. 651-662Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Software quality is complex with over investment, under investment and the interplay between aspects often being overlooked as many researchers aim to advance individual aspects of software quality. Aim: This paper aims to provide a consolidated overview the literature that addresses trade-offs between aspects of software product quality. Method: A systematic literature map is employed to provide an overview of software quality trade-off literature in general. Specific analysis is also done of empirical literature addressing the topic. Results: The results show a wide range of solution proposals being considered. However, there is insufficient empirical evidence to adequately evaluate and compare these proposals. Further a very large vocabulary has been found to describe software quality. Conclusion: Greater empirical research is required to sufficiently evaluate and compare the wide range of solution proposals. This will allow researchers to focus on the proposals showing greater signs of success and better support industrial practitioners.

  • 173. Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Alignment of Software Product Quality Goals in Two Outsourcing Relationships2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Issues with software product quality are commonly reported when organisations engage in outsourcing relationships. To address this issue, value-based software engineering literature emphasises the need for all success-critical stakeholder groups to work towards a mutually agreed goal. Aim: This paper presents a case study that aims to compare and contrast the priority two groups place on software product quality — stakeholders internal to the development organisation, and stakeholders from outsourcing relationships. Method: A model of software product quality was developed and used for this study based on ISO 9126 standard. Questionnaires were collected from 38 representatives of the two key stakeholder groups, in which each person rates the relative importance of aspects of software product quality using the hierarchical cumulative voting (HCV) technique. The results of these two groups were then analysed and compared. Results: The results show the stakeholders priorities to be a merging of the priorities from both the software development organsiation, and the firm providing the outsourced services. Further, stakeholders from outsourced relationships had greater difficulty define an ideal future balance of software product qualities. Conclusions: One of the keys to success when outsourcing is to ensure both the internal and external groups understand the needs of each other — and ensure they can work towards a sufficiently compatible goal. It may be necessary to change the way work is outsourced to align the goals of both firms to be compatible.

  • 174. Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Software Product Quality: Ensuring a Common Goal2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Software qualities are in many cases tacit and hard to measure. Thus, there is a potential risk that they get lower priority than deadlines, cost and functionality. Yet software qualities impact customers, profits and even developer efficiency. This paper presents a method to evaluate the priority of software qualities in an industrial context. The method is applied in an exploratory case study, where the ISO 9126 model for software quality is combined with Theory-W to create a process for evaluating the alignment between success- critical stakeholder groups in the area of software product quality. The results of the case study using this tool is then presented and discussed. It is shown that the method provides valuable information about software qualities.

  • 175. Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Balancing Software Product Investments2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The long-term sustainability of a software product depends on more than developing features. Priorities are placed on aspects that support the development of software, like software product quality (eg. ISO 9126), project constraints -- time and cost, and even the development of intellectual capital (IC). A greater focus on any one aspect takes priority from another, but as each aspects delivers a different type of value managers have trouble comparing and balancing these aspects. This paper presents a method to help determine the balance between key priorities in the software development process. The method is applied to a new case study, that also combines with results from previous studies. The results show it is possible to compare features, quality, time, cost and IC in a comprehensive way, with the case study showing that participants perceive a change from a shorter-term product perspective to a longer-term organisation beneficial to the business.

  • 176. Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    Angelis, Lefteris
    Offshore insourcing: A case study on software quality alignment2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Software quality issues are commonly reported when off shoring software development. Value-based software engineering addresses this by ensuring key stakeholders have a common understanding of quality. Aim: This work seeks to understand the levels of alignment between key stakeholders on aspects of software quality for two products developed as part of an offshore in sourcing arrangement. The study further aims to explain the levels of alignment identified. Method: Representatives of key stakeholder groups for both products ranked aspects of software quality. The results were discussed with the groups to gain a deeper understanding. Results: Low levels of alignment were found between the groups studied. This is associated with insufficiently defined quality requirements, a culture that does not question management and conflicting temporal reflections on the product's quality. Conclusion: The work emphasizes the need for greater support to align success-critical stakeholder groups in their understanding of quality when off shoring software development

  • 177.
    Barysau, Mikalai
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Developers' performance analysis based on code review data: How to perform comparisons of different groups of developers2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays more and more IT companies switch to the distributed development model. This trend has a number of advantages and disadvantages, which are studied by researchers through different aspects of the modern code development. One of such aspects is code review, which is used by many companies and produces a big amount of data. A number of studies describe different data mining and data analysis approaches, which are based on a link between code review data and performance. According to these studies analysis of the code review data can give a good insight to the development performance and help software companies to detect a number of performance issues and improve the quality of their code.

    The main goal of this Thesis was to collect reported knowledge about the code review data analysis and implement a solution, which will help to perform such analysis in a real industrial setting.

    During the performance of the research the author used multiple research techniques, such as Snowballing literature review, Case study and Semi-structured interviews.

    The results of the research contain a list of code review data metrics, extracted from the literature and a software tool for collecting and visualizing data.

    The performed literature review showed that among the literature sources, related to the code review, relatively small amount of sources are related to the topic of the Thesis, which exposes a field for a future research. Application of the found metrics showed that most of the found metrics are possible to use in the context of the studied environment. Presentation of the results and interviews with company's representatives showed that the graphic plots are useful for observing trends and correlations in development of company's development sites and help the company to improve its performance and decision making process.

  • 178. Bayer, J.
    et al.
    Eisenbarth, M.
    Lehner, T.
    Petersen, Kai
    Service Engineering Methodology2008Inngår i: Semantic Service Provisioning / [ed] Kuropka, D.; Tröger, P.; Weske, S. Staab and M., Berlin: Springer Verlag , 2008, s. 185-202Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 179.
    Bayer, Peter
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Institutionen för programvaruteknik och datavetenskap.
    Widenfors, Henrik
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Institutionen för programvaruteknik och datavetenskap.
    Information Hiding: Steganografic Content in Streaming Media2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    For a long time, information hiding has focused on carriers like images and audio files. A problem with these carriers is that they do not support hiding in new types of network-based services. Nowadays, these services often arise as a consequence of the increasingly demand for higher connection speed to the Internet. By introducing streaming media as a carrier of hidden information, hiding in new network-based services is supported. The main purposes with this thesis are to investigate how information can be hidden in streaming media and how it measures up compared to images and audio files. In order to evaluate the approach, we have developed a prototype and used it as a proof of concept. This prototype hides information in some of the TCP/IP header fields and is used to collect experimental data as well. As reference, measurements have been collected from other available carriers of hidden information. In some cases, the results of these experiments show that the TCP/IP header is a good carrier of information. Its performance is outstanding and well suited for hiding information quickly. The tests showed that the capacity is slightly worse though.

  • 180.
    Becker, Christoph
    et al.
    University of Toronto, CAN.
    Fagerholm, Fabian
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Mohanani, Rahul
    Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology, IND.
    Chatzigeorgiou, Alexander
    University of Macedonia, GRE.
    Temporal discounting in technical debt: How do software practitioners discount the future?2019Inngår i: Proceedings - 2019 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Technical Debt, TechDebt 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, s. 23-32Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Technical Debt management decisions always imply a trade-off among outcomes at different points in time. In such intertemporal choices, distant outcomes are often valued lower than close ones, a phenomenon known as temporal discounting. Technical Debt research largely develops prescriptive approaches for how software engineers should make such decisions. Few have studied how they actually make them. This leaves open central questions about how software practitioners make decisions. This paper investigates how software practitioners discount uncertain future outcomes and whether they exhibit temporal discounting. We adopt experimental methods from intertemporal choice, an active area of research. We administered an online questionnaire to 33 developers from two companies in which we presented choices between developing a feature and making a longer-term investment in architecture. The results show wide-spread temporal discounting with notable differences in individual behavior. The results are consistent with similar studies in consumer behavior and raise a number of questions about the causal factors that influence temporal discounting in software engineering. As the first empirical study on intertemporal choice in SE, the paper establishes an empirical basis for understanding how software developers approach intertemporal choice and provides a blueprint for future studies. © 2019 IEEE.

  • 181.
    Bednarz, Andrzej
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för programvarusystem.
    Transformation of Rational Unified Process analysis model to design model according to architectural patterns2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Applying Rational Unified Process (RUP) in a project means to develop a set of models before the system could be implemented. The models depict the essentials of the system from requirements to detailed design. They facilitate getting a system that has appropriate and rich documentation (therefore highly maintainable) and addresses user needs. However, creation of the models may cause overheads since a lot of work has to be put to elaborate the artefacts. In this paper a method that makes RUP more efficient is proposed. The method makes use of the fact that every subsequent model is developed basing on the previous model. In other words, models are successively transformed from requirements up to executable code. In particular, design model bases on an analysis model. The proposed method applies automatic model transformation from an analysis model to a design model. Firstly, an approach for performing automatic transformation is chosen. Secondly, a tool applying this approach is implemented. Finally, the transformation tool is tested and evaluated in an empirical study. The results show that automation of model transformation may be beneficial, and therefore can help in getting better systems in shorten time.

  • 182.
    Beer, Armin
    et al.
    BVA and Beer Test Consulting, AUT.
    Felderer, Michael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Measuring and improving testability of system requirements in an industrial context by applying the goal question metric approach2018Inngår i: Proceedings - International Conference on Software Engineering, IEEE Computer Society , 2018, s. 25-32Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Testing is subject to two basic constraints, namely cost and quality. The cost depends on the efficiency of the testing activities as well as their quality and testability. The author's practical experience in large-scale systems shows that if the requirements are adapted iteratively or the architecture is altered, testability decreases. However, what is often lacking is a root cause analysis of the testability degradations and the introduction of improvement measures during software development. In order to introduce agile practices in the rigid strategy of the V-model, good testability of software artifacts is vital. So testability is also the bridgehead towards agility. In this paper, we report on a case study in which we measure and improve testability on the basis of the Goal Question Metric Approach. © 2018 ACM.

  • 183. Behnam, Moris
    et al.
    Nemati, Farhang
    Nolte, Thomas
    Grahn, Håkan
    Towards an efficient approach for resource sharing in real-time multiprocessor systems2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Supporting resource sharing in multiprocessor architectures is one of the major problems that limit the potential performance benefits of using such architectures for real-time systems. Many approaches and algorithms have been proposed to support resource sharing, however, most of them impose either high blocking times on tasks or require a large memory allocation. In this paper we investigate the possibility of combining the lock-based approaches and wait-free approaches (using multiple buffers) in order to decrease both the blocking times that may affect the schedulability of tasks and the required memory. To achieve this, we propose a solution based on evaluating the maximum allowed blocking time on each task according to the schedulability analysis, and then find the minimum memory allocation for each resource that limits the blocking times on tasks to be less than the maximum allowed blocking times.

  • 184.
    Bengtsson, Dan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Institutionen för programvaruteknik och datavetenskap.
    Test Process Evaluation by Combining ODC and Test Technique Effectiveness2001Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This report discusses the importance of test process evaluation in order to improve a test model and to provide developer- and management feedback. The report results in a test evaluation framework, developed in cooperation with a department at Ericsson Software Technology in Karlsrona. The framework is a result of discussions with the developers regarding performed testing, studying defect types from past projects and by analyzing the result from a small survey answered by some of the developers at Ericsson. The overall project aim was to evaluate performed testing in order to improve the test model. This requires a good insight of the test process, which is provided by the developed test evaluation framework. The test process is visualized by extracting test process data, making it possible to achieve the project aim. The project aim can be divided into the three following areas: Firstly to evaluate if the current test model is followed as expected, for example are all test techniques used according to the test model? Secondly to evaluate how well the test model fulfills predefined expectations, i.e. is a defect detected with the expected test technique and in the expected test phase? Finally to evaluate if there are any problematic defects that should receive extra attention during a project such as if one or several defect types occurs more frequently than others? The framework is based on another framework, Orthogonal Defect Classification [Chillarege92], combined with the research area Test Technique Effectiveness. The aim of this combination was to support the developed framework. Further a specific part of the framework is focusing on developer- and management feedback.

  • 185.
    Bengtsson, Jonas
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Institutionen för programvaruteknik och datavetenskap.
    Thriving at the Edge of Chaos2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In this master thesis two different worldviews are compared: a mechanistic, and an organic worldview. The way we think the world and the nature work reflects on how we think organizations work, or how they ought to work. The mechanistic worldview has dominated our way of thinking since the seventeenth century, and it compares the world with a machine. The organic worldview could use a number of different metaphors, but the one addressed in this thesis is complexity theory. Complexity theory is related to chaos theory and is concerned with complex adaptive systems (cas). Complex adaptive systems exist everywhere and are systems such as the human immune system, economies, and ecosystems. What complexity theory tries to do is to understand these systems—how they arise, how they function and how order emerge in them. When looking at complex adaptive systems you can’t just look at the different parts. You must take a more holistic view and look at the whole and the interaction of the parts. If you just look at the parts you will miss the emergent properties that have emerged as the system has self-organized. One prominent aspect of these systems is that they don’t have any central authority, but somehow order do arise. In relation to organizations, complexity theory has something to say about almost all aspects of organizations: from what kind of leadership is needed, and how teams should be organized to the physical structure of the organization. To understand what complexity theory is and how to relate that to (software developing) organizations is the main focus of this thesis. Scrum is an agile and lightweight process which can be applied on development projects in general, but have been used in such diverse examples as software development projects, marketing programs, and business process reengineering (BPR) initiatives. In this thesis Scrum is used as an example of how to apply complexity theory to organizations. The result of the thesis showed that Scrum is highly influenced and compatible with complexity theory, which implies that complexity theory is of some use in software development. However, there are more work to be done to determine how effective it is, how to introduce it into organizations, and to explore more specific implementations. This master thesis should give the reader a good understanding of what complexity theory is, some specific issues to consider when applying complexity theory on organizations, and some specific examples of how to apply complexity theory on organizations.

  • 186. Bengtsson, PerOlof
    Architecture-Level Modifiability Analysis2002Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Cost, quality and lead-time are three main concerns in software engineering projects. The quality of developed software has traditionally been evaluated on completed systems. Evaluating the product quality at completion introduces a great risk of wasting effort on software products with inadequate system qualities. It is the objective of this thesis to define and study methods for assessment, evaluation and prediction of software systems’ modifiability characteristics based on their architecture designs. Since software architecture design is made early in the development, architecture evaluation helps detect inadequate designs and thus reduces the risk of implementing systems of insufficient quality. We present a method for architecture-level analysis of modifiability (ALMA) that analyses the modifiability potential of a software system based on its software architecture design. The method is scenario-based and either compares architecture candidates, assesses the risk associated with modifications of the architecture, or predicts the effort needed to implement anticipated modifications. The modification prediction results in three values; a prediction of the modification effort and the predicted best- and worst-case effort for the same system and change scenario profile. In this way the prediction method provides a frame-of-reference that supports the architect in the decision whether the modifiability is acceptable or not. The method is based on the experiences and results from one controlled experiment and seven case-studies, where five case studies are part of this thesis. The experiment investigates different ways to organize the scenario elicitation and finds that a group of individually prepared persons produce better profiles than individuals or unprepared groups.

  • 187. Bengtsson, PerOlof
    Design and Evaluation of Software Architecture1999Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The challenge in software development is to develop software with the right quality levels. The main problem is not to know if a project is technically feasible concerning functionality, but if a solution exists that meet the software quality requirements. It is therefore desired to get an early indication of the qualities of the resulting software. Software architecture is concerned with what modules are used to compose a system and how these modules are related to each other, i.e. the structure of system. The software architecture of a system sets the boundaries for these qualities. Hence, to design the software architecture to meet the quality requirements is to reduce the risks of not achieving the required quality levels. In this thesis we present the experiences from a software architecture design project with two industry partners. Based on these we propose a method for reengineering architectures and exemplify by an applying the method on a real world example. The method is based on architecture transformations and software quality evaluation of the architecture. Further, we present a method for predicting software maintenance effort from the software architecture, for use in the design and reengineering method. The method uses change scenario profiles to describe future changes to the system and architecture impact analysis provide knowl-edge of the modification volume required for the realization of each sce-nario. The results from a quasi experiment supports that groups consisting of prepared members create better scenario profiles. Also, the results suggest that there is a large room for variation between scenario profiles created by individual persons.

  • 188. Bengtsson, PerOlof
    Design and Evaluation of Software Architecture1999Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The challenge in software development is to develop software with the right quality levels. The main problem is not to know if a project is technically feasible concerning functionality, but if a solution exists that meet the software quality requirements. It is therefore desired to get an early indication of the qualities of the resulting software. Software architecture is concerned with what modules are used to compose a system and how these modules are related to each other, i.e. the structure of system. The software architecture of a system sets the boundaries for these qualities. Hence, to design the software architec-ture to meet the quality requirements is to reduce the risks of not achieving the required quality levels. In this thesis we present the experiences from a software architecture design project with two industry partners. Based on these we propose a method for reengineering architectures and exemplify by an applying the method on a real world example. The method is based on architec-ture transformations and software quality evaluation of the architecture. Further, we present a method for predicting software maintenance effort from the software architecture, for use in the design and reengineering method. The method uses change scenario profiles to describe future changes to the system and architecture impact analysis provide knowl-edge of the modification volume required for the realization of each sce-nario. The results from a quasi experiment supports that groups consisting of prepared members create better scenario profiles. Also, the results suggest that there is a large room for variation between scenario profiles created by individual persons.

  • 189. Bengtsson, PerOlof
    First Swedish Conference on Software Engineering Research and Practise2001Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is considered as a leading nation in modern IT business. The growth of software development business provides an opportunity to strengthen the software engineering research in Sweden even further. This conference is intended as a starting point for a national network on software engineering and provides opportunity to discuss the current situation in software engineering research. Besides that the conference present a forum for Ph. D. students to meet and exchange ideas.

  • 190. Bengtsson, PerOlof
    First Swedish Conference on Software Engineering Research and Practise: Proceedings2001Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 191. Bengtsson, PerOlof
    SERP'012001Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    These proceedings comprise of eight peer-reviewed articles ranging from software engineering fields such as process improvement to component based development and software architecture.

  • 192.
    Bengtsson, PerOlof
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Institutionen för programvaruteknik och datavetenskap.
    Bosch, Jan
    An experiment on creating scenario profiles for software change2000Inngår i: Annals of Software Engineering, ISSN 1022-7091, E-ISSN 1573-7489, Vol. 9, nr 1-4, s. 59-78Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Scenario profiles are used increasingly often for the assessment of quality attributes during the architectural design of software systems. However, the definition of scenario profiles is subjective and no data is available on the effects of individuals on scenario profiles. In this paper we present the design, analysis and results of a controlled experiment on the effect of individuals on scenario profiles, so that others can replicate the experiments on other projects and people. Both scenario profiles created by individuals and by groups are studied. The findings from the experiment showed that groups with prepared members proved to be the best method for creating scenario profiles. Unprepared groups did not perform better than individuals when creating scenario profiles.

  • 193. Bengtsson, PerOlof
    et al.
    Bosch, Jan
    An Experiment on Creating Scenario Profiles for Software Change1999Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Scenario profiles are used increasingly often for the assessment of quality attributes during the architectural design of software systems. However, the definition of scenario profiles is subjective and no data is available on the effects of individuals on scenario profiles. In this paper we present the design, analysis and results of a controlled experiment on the effect of individuals on scenario profiles, so that others can replicate the experiments on other projects and people. Both scenario profiles created by individuals and by groups are studied. The findings from the experiment showed that groups with prepared members proved to be the best method for creating scenario profiles. Unprepared groups did not perform better than individuals when creating scenario profiles.

  • 194. Bengtsson, PerOlof
    et al.
    Bosch, Jan
    Architecture level prediction of software maintenance1999Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for the prediction of software maintainability during software architecture design is presented. The method rakes (1) the requirement specification (2) the design of the architecture (3) expertise from software engineers and, possibly, (4) historical data as input and generates a prediction of the average effort for a maintenance task. Scenarios are used by the method to concretize the maintainability requirements and to analyze the architecture for the prediction of the maintainability. The method is formulated based on extensive experience in software architecture design and detailed design and exemplified using the design of software architecture for a haemo dialysis machine. Experiments for evaluation and validation of the method are ongoing and future work.

  • 195. Bengtsson, PerOlof
    et al.
    Bosch, Jan
    Scenario-based software architecture reengineering1998Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a method for reengineering software architectures. The method explicitly addresses the quality attributes of the software architecture. Assessment of quality attributes is performed primarily using scenarios. Design transformations are done to improve quality attributes that do not satisfy the requirements. Assessment and design transformation can be performed for several iterations until all requirements are met. To illustrate the method we use the reengineering of a prototypical measurement system into a domain-specific software architecture as an example.

  • 196. Bengtsson, PerOlof
    et al.
    Lassing, Nico
    Bosch, Jan
    Vliet, Hans van
    Analyzing Software Architectures for Modifiability2000Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The software architecture plays an important role in achieving a modifiable system, but few methods for modifiability analysis exist. In this paper, we propose an analysis method for software architecture modifiability that has successfully been applied in several cases. The method consists of five main steps, i.e. goal selection, software architecture description, scenario elicitation, scenario evaluation and interpretation.

  • 197. Berander, Patrik
    Evolving Prioritization for Software Product Management2007Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The quality of a product is commonly defined by its ability to satisfy stakeholder needs and expectations. Therefore, it is important to find, select, and plan the content of a software product to maximize the value for internal and external stakeholders. This process is traditionally referred to as requirements engineering in the software industry, while it is often referred to as product management in industries with a larger market focus. As an increasing number of software products are delivered to a market instead of single customers, the need for product management in software companies is increasing. As a side effect, the need for mechanisms supporting decisions regarding the content of software products also increases. While decision-support within requirements engineering and product management is a broad area, requirements prioritization together with release planning and negotiation are considered as some of the most important decision activities. This is particularly true because these activities support decisions regarding the content of products, and are hence drivers for quality. At the same time, requirements prioritization is seen as an integral and important component in both requirements negotiation (with single customers) and release planning (with markets) in incremental software development. This makes requirements prioritization a key component in software engineering decision support, in particular as input to more sophisticated approaches for release planning and negotiation, where decisions about what and when to develop are made. This thesis primarily focuses on evolving the current body of knowledge in relation to release planning in general and requirements prioritization in particular. The research is carried out by performing qualitative and quantitative studies in industrial and academic environments with an empirical focus. Each of the presented studies has its own focus and scope while together contributing to the research area. Together they answer questions about why and how requirements prioritization should be conducted, as well as what aspects should be taken into account when making decisions about the content of products. The primary objective of the thesis is to give guidelines on how to evolve requirements prioritization to better facilitate decisions regarding the content of software products. This is accomplished by giving suggestions on how to perform research to evolve the area, by evaluating current approaches and suggest ways on how these can be improved, and by giving directions on how to align and focus future research to be more successful in development of decision-support approaches. This means that the thesis solves problems with requirements prioritization today, and gives directions and support on how to evolve the area in a successful way.

  • 198. Berander, Patrik
    Prioritization of Stakeholder Needs in Software Engineering: Understanding and Evaluation2004Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In everyday life, humans confront situations where different decisions have to be made. Such decisions can be non-trivial even though they often are relatively simple, such as which bus to take or which flavor of a soft drink to buy. When facing decisions of more complex nature, and when more is at stake, they tend to get much harder. It is often possible to deal with such decisions by prioritizing different alternatives to find the most suitable one. In software engineering, decision-makers are often confronted with situations where complex decisions have to be made, and where the concept of prioritization can be utilized. Traditionally in software engineering, discussions about prioritization have focused on the software product. However, when defining or improving software processes, complex decisions also have to be made. In fact, software products and software processes have many characteristics in common which invite thoughts about using prioritization when developing and evolving software processes as well. The results presented in this thesis indicate that it is possible to share results and knowledge regarding prioritization between the two areas. In this thesis, the area of prioritization of software products is investigated in detail and a number of studies where prioritizations are performed in both process and product settings are presented. It is shown that it is possible to use prioritization techniques commonly used in product development also when prioritizing improvement issues in a software company. It is also shown that priorities between stakeholders of a software process sometimes differ, just as they do when developing software products. The thesis also presents an experiment where different prioritization techniques are evaluated with regard to ease of use, time consumption, and accuracy. Finally, an investigation of the suitability of students as subjects when evaluating prioritization techniques is presented.

  • 199.
    Berander, Patrik
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Institutionen för programvaruteknik och datavetenskap.
    Understanding and Evaluation of Software Process Deviations2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Software process improvement is often mentioned in today?s software marketplace. To be able to do process improvement, the organisation must have a process to improve from. These processes are commonly deviated from, and the PDU/PAY organisation at Ericsson AB has experienced that this happens too often within their organisation. The aim of this master thesis was to investigate why such deviations occur and how they could be prevented at PDU/PAY. A survey including a qualitative and a quantitative part was conducted at PDU/PAY to investigate this issue. The result was that processes were often deviated from due to lack of: management commitment, user involvement, synchronisation between processes, change management, anchoring of processes, and communication of processes. In addition to the conducted studies, an improvement proposal is given to the PDU/PAY organisation. This includes one organisational part and one part that is directly related to the actual work with processes. The proposal is intended to give PDU/PAY an essence of how to improve their work with their organisational processes.

  • 200. Berander, Patrik
    Using students as subjects in requirements prioritization2004Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
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