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  • 151. Barney, Sebastian
    Software Quality Alignment: Evaluation and Understanding2011Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The software development environment is growing increasingly complex, with a greater diversity of stakeholders involved in product development. Moves towards global software development with onshoring, offshoring, insourcing and outsourcing have seen a range of stakeholders introduced to the software development process, each with their own incentives and understanding of their product. These differences between the stakeholders can be especially problematic with regard to aspects of software quality. The aspects are often not clearly and explicitly defined for a product, but still essential for its long-term sustainability. Research shows that software projects are more likely to succeed when the stakeholders share a common understanding of software quality. Objectives: This thesis has two main objectives. The first is to develop a method to determine the level of alignment between stakeholders with regard to the priority given to aspects of software quality. Given the ability to understand the levels of alignment between stakeholders, the second objective is to identify factors that support and impair this alignment. Both the method and the identified factors will help software development organisations create work environments that are better able to foster a common set of priorities with respect to software quality. Method: The primary research method employed throughout this thesis is case study research. In total, six case studies are presented, all conducted in large or multinational companies. A range of data collection techniques have been used, including questionnaires, semi-structured interviews and workshops. Results: A method to determine the level of alignment between stakeholders on the priority given to aspects of software quality is presented—the Stakeholder Alignment Assessment Method for Software Quality (SAAM-SQ). It is developed by drawing upon a systematic literature review and the experience of conducting a related case study. The method is then refined and extended through the experience gained from its repeated application in a series of case studies. These case studies are further used to identify factors that support and impair alignment in a range of different software development contexts. The contexts studied include onshore insourcing, onshore outsourcing, offshore insourcing and offshore outsourcing. Conclusion: SAAM-SQ is found to be robust, being successfully applied to case studies covering a range of different software development contexts. The factors identified from the case studies as supporting or impairing alignment confirm and extend research in the global software development domain.

  • 152. Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Hu, Ganglan
    Wohlin, Claes
    Creating Software Product Value in China2009Ingår i: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459 , Vol. 26, nr 4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    China has become a formidable player and continues to grow strongly in what has become a dynamic global market for software development. In this highly competitive environment it has never been more difficult or important to maximize the creation of software product value. But each key stakeholder group – purchasers, users, software managers and developers – has a different notion of value when looking at a software product. As the value of a software product is largely derived through the requirements it fulfils, we looked at the criteria used to select and prioritise requirements for a release of software, and the perspectives that motivate them. The value of a software product is largely derived through the requirements it fulfils. To help understand how value is created we looked at the criteria used to select and prioritise requirements for a release of software, and the perspectives that motivate them. We studied three groups of software development companies operating in China – Chinese companies with a domestic market, Chinese companies with an international market, and western companies operating in China. The results were similar for all three groups, except After-sales Support was a significantly greater concern for Chinese companies with an international market.

  • 153. Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Wohlin, Claes
    The Relative Importance of Aspects of Intellectual Capital for Software Companies2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Intellectual capital (IC) is both the key input and tool used in the development of software today. It covers the value provided to an organisation by the employees, the processes and products that support the organisation, and the knowledge held in the relationships between the organisation and external parties – covering human capital, structural capital, and relationship capital respectively. This paper presents a method that seeks to understand the level of alignment between the different success-critical stakeholders in the importance of different aspects of intellectual capital. The method is applied in a case study and provides a number of interesting insights, with the authors concluding that the groups do not necessarily need to be aligned as each groups has a different informational role within the organisation to fulfil.

  • 154.
    Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Khurum, Mahvish
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    jabangwe, Ronald
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Improving Students With Rubric-Based Self-Assessment and Oral Feedback2012Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Education, ISSN 0018-9359, Vol. 55, nr 3, s. 319-325Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Rubrics and oral feedback are approaches to help students improve performance and meet learning outcomes. However, their effect on the actual improvement achieved is inconclusive. This paper evaluates the effect of rubrics and oral feedback on student learning outcomes. An experiment was conducted in a software engineering course on requirements engineering, using the two approaches in course assignments. Both approaches led to statistically significant improvements, though no material improvement (i.e., a change by more than one grade) was achieved. The rubrics led to a significant decrease in the number of complaints and questions regarding grades.

  • 155.
    Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Mohankumar, Varun
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Angelis, Lefteris
    Software quality across borders: Three case studies on company internal alignment2014Ingår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 56, nr 1, s. 20-38Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Software quality issues are commonly reported when offshoring software development. Value-based software engineering addresses this by ensuring key stakeholders have a common understanding of quality. Objective: This work seeks to understand the levels of alignment between key stakeholder groups within a company on the priority given to aspects of software quality developed as part of an offshoring relationship. Furthermore, the study aims to identify factors impacting the levels of alignment identified. Method: Three case studies were conducted, with representatives of key stakeholder groups ranking aspects of software quality in a hierarchical cumulative exercise. The results are analysed using Spearman rank correlation coefficients and inertia. The results were discussed with the groups to gain a deeper understanding of the issues impacting alignment. Results: Various levels of alignment were found between the various groups. The reasons for misalignment were found to include cultural factors, control of quality in the development process, short-term versus long-term orientations, understanding of cost-benefits of quality improvements, communication and coordination. Conclusions: The factors that negatively affect alignment can vary greatly between different cases. The work emphasises the need for greater support to align company internal success-critical stakeholder groups in their understanding of quality when offshoring software development.

  • 156.
    Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Aurum, Aybueke
    Barney, Hamish
    Software quality trade-offs: A systematic map2012Ingår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 54, nr 7, s. 651-662Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Software quality is complex with over investment, under investment and the interplay between aspects often being overlooked as many researchers aim to advance individual aspects of software quality. Aim: This paper aims to provide a consolidated overview the literature that addresses trade-offs between aspects of software product quality. Method: A systematic literature map is employed to provide an overview of software quality trade-off literature in general. Specific analysis is also done of empirical literature addressing the topic. Results: The results show a wide range of solution proposals being considered. However, there is insufficient empirical evidence to adequately evaluate and compare these proposals. Further a very large vocabulary has been found to describe software quality. Conclusion: Greater empirical research is required to sufficiently evaluate and compare the wide range of solution proposals. This will allow researchers to focus on the proposals showing greater signs of success and better support industrial practitioners.

  • 157. Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Alignment of Software Product Quality Goals in Two Outsourcing Relationships2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Issues with software product quality are commonly reported when organisations engage in outsourcing relationships. To address this issue, value-based software engineering literature emphasises the need for all success-critical stakeholder groups to work towards a mutually agreed goal. Aim: This paper presents a case study that aims to compare and contrast the priority two groups place on software product quality — stakeholders internal to the development organisation, and stakeholders from outsourcing relationships. Method: A model of software product quality was developed and used for this study based on ISO 9126 standard. Questionnaires were collected from 38 representatives of the two key stakeholder groups, in which each person rates the relative importance of aspects of software product quality using the hierarchical cumulative voting (HCV) technique. The results of these two groups were then analysed and compared. Results: The results show the stakeholders priorities to be a merging of the priorities from both the software development organsiation, and the firm providing the outsourced services. Further, stakeholders from outsourced relationships had greater difficulty define an ideal future balance of software product qualities. Conclusions: One of the keys to success when outsourcing is to ensure both the internal and external groups understand the needs of each other — and ensure they can work towards a sufficiently compatible goal. It may be necessary to change the way work is outsourced to align the goals of both firms to be compatible.

  • 158. Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Balancing Software Product Investments2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The long-term sustainability of a software product depends on more than developing features. Priorities are placed on aspects that support the development of software, like software product quality (eg. ISO 9126), project constraints -- time and cost, and even the development of intellectual capital (IC). A greater focus on any one aspect takes priority from another, but as each aspects delivers a different type of value managers have trouble comparing and balancing these aspects. This paper presents a method to help determine the balance between key priorities in the software development process. The method is applied to a new case study, that also combines with results from previous studies. The results show it is possible to compare features, quality, time, cost and IC in a comprehensive way, with the case study showing that participants perceive a change from a shorter-term product perspective to a longer-term organisation beneficial to the business.

  • 159. Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    Angelis, Lefteris
    Offshore insourcing: A case study on software quality alignment2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Software quality issues are commonly reported when off shoring software development. Value-based software engineering addresses this by ensuring key stakeholders have a common understanding of quality. Aim: This work seeks to understand the levels of alignment between key stakeholders on aspects of software quality for two products developed as part of an offshore in sourcing arrangement. The study further aims to explain the levels of alignment identified. Method: Representatives of key stakeholder groups for both products ranked aspects of software quality. The results were discussed with the groups to gain a deeper understanding. Results: Low levels of alignment were found between the groups studied. This is associated with insufficiently defined quality requirements, a culture that does not question management and conflicting temporal reflections on the product's quality. Conclusion: The work emphasizes the need for greater support to align success-critical stakeholder groups in their understanding of quality when off shoring software development

  • 160. Bayley, Todd
    et al.
    Rohani, Bijan
    Johansson, Anders
    Caldera, Manora
    Zepernick, Hans-Jürgen
    Call Quality Monitoring for VoIP2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A method of monitoring the speech quality of a Voice-over-IP call is described in this paper. This method is attractive because it employs the ITU-T standard P.862 for Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality which is well-known for its accuracy. In addition, with the proposed method, call quality is monitored without interfering with the call while it is in progress. The results corresponding to an implementation of this method shows call quality can be measured with excellent accuracy under typical network delays.

  • 161.
    Beder, Paweł
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    LANGUAGE LEARNING VIA AN ANDROID AUGMENTED REALITY SYSTEM2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Augmented Reality (AR) can be described as one of possible steps between real world and fully virtual reality. Into this mixed reality we can make an overlay with virtual objects onto the real world typically by capturing camera images in real-time to produce a new layer to the environment with which we can interact. Mobile Augmented Reality (MAR) is a term used when equipment through which we achieve AR is small in size and typically easy to carry e.g. a smartphone or a tablet. The concept of using AR in facilitating learning and improving its quality seems to attract more attention in the academic world in recent years. One of the areas that receive much attention is AR language learning. In this thesis an experiment on a group of 20 people was conducted to answer the question: “Is MAR language learning system a viable solution for language learning?” For the purpose of the experiment an AR Language Learning Tool was designed for Android smartphones. This AR Language Learning Tool facilitated vocabulary learning by displaying 3D objects along with their spelling and providing audio of pronunciation. Participants were divided into an equal control group and test group. The control group learned new vocabulary through classic flashcards while the test group used the previously designed AR Language Learning Tool. The Vocabulary Knowledge Scale questionnaires were provided for both groups right after learning and one week later. By performing statistical analysis with Student’s t-test on gathered data it was discovered that there is a positive improvement in long term recall rate in the AR Language Learning Tool group when compared with the flashcards learning group. No difference was found in short term recall rate between both groups. Participants also provided feedback about their quality of experience and enthusiasm for new learning methods. Their answers were very positive and provided proof that mobile AR is a viable method of learning vocabulary.

  • 162. Behnam, Moris
    et al.
    Nemati, Farhang
    Nolte, Thomas
    Grahn, Håkan
    Towards an efficient approach for resource sharing in real-time multiprocessor systems2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Supporting resource sharing in multiprocessor architectures is one of the major problems that limit the potential performance benefits of using such architectures for real-time systems. Many approaches and algorithms have been proposed to support resource sharing, however, most of them impose either high blocking times on tasks or require a large memory allocation. In this paper we investigate the possibility of combining the lock-based approaches and wait-free approaches (using multiple buffers) in order to decrease both the blocking times that may affect the schedulability of tasks and the required memory. To achieve this, we propose a solution based on evaluating the maximum allowed blocking time on each task according to the schedulability analysis, and then find the minimum memory allocation for each resource that limits the blocking times on tasks to be less than the maximum allowed blocking times.

  • 163. Bell, Tim
    et al.
    Aspvall, Bengt
    Sorting algorithms as special cases of a priority queue sort2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper offers an exercise for revisiting the main sorting algorithms after they have been taught to students. This is done in a way that emphasizes the relationships between them, and shows how considering abstraction and extreme cases can lead to the generation of new algorithms. A number of authors (including textbook authors) have noted particular relationships between algorithms, such as an uneven split in merge sort being equivalent to insertion sort. In this paper we use a flexible priority queue, the d-heap, to derive three common sorting algorithms. We combine this with using a BST as a priority queue, plus prior observations in the literature, to show strong relationships between the main sorting algorithms that appear in textbooks. In the process students are able to revisit a number of algorithms and data structures and explore elegant relationships between them. This approach can also lead to exercises and exam questions that go beyond desk-checking to evaluate students' understanding of these algorithms.

  • 164. Berander, Patrik
    et al.
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    Evaluating two Ways of Calculating Priorities in Requirements Hierarchies: an Experiment on Hierarchical Cumulative Voting2009Ingår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212 , Vol. 82, nr 5, s. 836-850Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    When developing large-scale software systems, there is often a large amount of requirements present, and they often reside on several hierarchical levels. In most cases, not all stated requirements can be implemented into the product due to different constraints, and the requirements must hence be prioritized. As requirements on different abstraction levels shall not be compared, prioritization techniques that are able to handle multi-level prioritization are needed. Different such techniques exist, but they seem to result in unfair comparisons when a hierarchy is unbalanced. In this paper, an empirical experiment is presented where an approach that compensate for this challenge is evaluated. The results indicate that some form of compensation is preferred, and that the subjects’ preference is not influenced by the amount of information given.

  • 165. Berntsson Svensson, Richard
    et al.
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Paech, Barbara
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Sharma, Devesh
    Software architecture as a means of communication in a globally distributed software development context2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The management and coordination of globally distributed development poses many new challenges, including compensating for informal implicit communication, which is aggravated by heterogeneous social and engineering traditions between development sites. Although much research has gone into identifying challenges and working with practical solutions, such as tools for communication, little research has focused on comparing communication mechanisms in terms of their ability to provide large volumes of rich information in a timely manner. Data was collected through in-depth interviews with eleven practitioners and twenty-eight responses through a web-based questionnaire from three product lines at an international software development organization. This paper assesses the relative importance of ten commonly used communication mechanisms and practices across local and global development sites. The results clearly indicate that some communication mechanisms are more important than others in providing large volumes of rich information in a timely manner. The prevalence of architecture in providing rich information in large volumes for both local and global communication can be clearly observed.

  • 166.
    Bethalam, Anil Varma
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Amburu, Prasanna Kumar
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Causes of TCP Reset in Mobile Web Browsing2011Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Web browsing has been one of the most popular activities on the internet. The increasing importance of the Web in everyday life calls for device-independent access to existing web sites. Although, there is full Web access available on mobile phones the user experience is often poor when compared to the Web user experience on Personal Computer (PC). Therfore, it is important for the Internet service provider to find the indications of user dissatisfaction from the network. While using the mobile Web, user can normally abort the transfer by pressing the stop or reset buttons in the browsers, leaving the page being downloaded by following a bookmark or can close the connection. Such events can be observed through the TCP reset (RST) flag from traffic on network level. In this thesis we have investigated the possible causes of TCP RST flags mobile Web session is interrupted. We further analyze up to what extent we can rely on TCP RST flags for being an indication of user dissatisfaction in mobile web browsing. Therefore, an experiment testbed is developed to capture the TCP packet traces during controlled active tests. Results are gathered using mobile devices with four popular mobile operating systems (OS). The trace files captured are analyzed using perl script to dicern the flow and focusing on the TCP RST flag during the flow. Further, TSTAT tool is used to validate our trace files.

  • 167.
    Betz, Stefanie
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Alignment of business, architecture, process, and organisation in a software development context2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigate the current state of work regarding alignment of Business, Architecture, Process, and Organisation (BAPO) perspectives in a software product development context. We planned to do that by conducting a systematic literature study to capture the state of the art in alignment of BAPO in software development. But, as it turned out we found that almost no substantial information is available about the alignment of BAPO in software development. Thus, based on the available literature and a small qualitative study, we defined a conceptual model of the alignment of BAPO including five levels of alignment that can be used as a basis for future empirical studies.

  • 168.
    Betz, Stefanie
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Moss, Andrew
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Afzal, Wasif
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    An Evolutionary Perspective on Socio-Technical Congruence:The Rubber Band Effect2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Conway’s law assumes a strong association between the system’s architecture and the organization’s communication structure that designs it. In the light of contemporary software development, when many companies rely on geographically distributed teams, which often turn out to be temporarily composed and thus having an often changing communication structure, the importance of Conway’s law and its inspired work grows. In this paper, we examine empirical research related to Conway’s law and its application for cross-site coordination. Based on the results obtained we conjecture that changes in the communication structure alone sooner or later trigger changes in the design structure of the software products to return the sociotechnical system into the state of congruence. This is further used to formulate a concept of a rubber band effect and propose a replication study that goes beyond the original idea of Conway’s law by investigating the evolution of socio-technical congruence over time.

  • 169.
    Beyene, Ayne
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Welemariam, Tewelle
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Concept Drift in Surgery Prediction2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: In healthcare, the decision of patient referral evolves through time because of changes in scientific developments, and clinical practices. Existing decision support systems of patient referral are based on the expert systems approach. This usually requires manual updates when changes in clinical practices occur. Automatically updating the decision support system by identifying and handling so-called concept drift improves the efficiency of healthcare systems. In the stateof-the- art, there are only specific ways of handling concept drift; developing a more generic technique which works regardless of restrictions on how slow, fast, sudden, gradual, local, global, cyclical, noisy or otherwise changes in internal distribution, is still a challenge. Objectives: An algorithm that handles concept drift in surgery prediction is investigated. Concept drift detection techniques are evaluated to find out a suitable detection technique in the context of surgery prediction. Moreover, a plausible combination of detection and handling algorithms including the proposed algorithm, Trigger Based Ensemble (TBE)+, are evaluated on hospital data. Method: Experiments are conducted to investigates the impact of concept drift on prediction performance and to reduce concept drift impact. The experiments compare three existing methods (AWE, Active Classifier, Learn++) and the proposed algorithm, Trigger Based Ensemble(TBE). Real-world dataset from orthopedics department of Belkinge hospital and other domain dataset are used in the experiment. Results: The negative impact of concept drift in surgery prediction is investigated. The relationship between temporal changes in data distribution and surgery prediction concept drift is identified. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm is evaluated and compared with existing handling approaches. Conclusion: The proposed algorithm, Trigger Based Ensemble (TBE), is capable of detecting the occurrences of concept drifts and to adapt quickly to various changes. The Trigger Based Ensemble algorithm performed comparatively better or sometimes similar to the existing concept drift handling algorithms in the absence of noise. Moreover, the performance of Trigger Based Ensemble is consistent for small and large dataset. The research is of twofold contributions, in that it is improving surgery prediction performance as well as contributing one competitive concept drift handling algorithm to the area of computer science.

  • 170.
    Beygo, Ömer Kerem
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Eraslan, Cihan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Enhancing Security and Usability Features of NFC2009Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Near Field Communication (NFC) is a short range wireless communication protocol which is primarily intended to be used on mobile phones. Building upon existing infrastructure of RFID, NFC brings simplicity for connection of mobile devices, service initiation, mobile payment and ticketing. However, NFC still remains as a field that number of researches done are limited. The aim of this paper was to provide solutions for the problems of NFC that cause security risks and hurt user experience. To reach this goal we have reviewed the current literature and implemented an NFC application that we have used throughout our user experience tests. This application provides a practical way to store and transfer contact information using NFC. The results of the study indicated that usability and security suffer from lack of user awareness and physical design of the mobile phones.

  • 171.
    Bhamidipati, Vasanthi Dwaraka
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Kilari, Swetha
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Effect of Delay/Delay Variation on QoE in Video Streaming2010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Video streaming has become the most important way to share video and audio over a network. It is being used for video conferencing, e-learning etc. The user‟s quality of experience of watching a video is of utmost importance for the content providers. The video quality is much affected because of packet loss and delay in the network which in turn lowers user‟s perception on quality of the received videos. In our thesis we try to find out the effect of delay/delay variation on the quality of experience of the users. We try to evaluate the quality of experience using mean opinion score. The quality of experience as perceived by the user is analyzed for all the videos that we have taken and are streamed with constant and varying delay. From this we were able to find the threshold level of delay that is acceptable by the users. The user‟s tolerance towards the quality of the video in a network with a varying delay is analyzed. The effect of packet delay has also been investigated and the results have been analyzed using Excel.

  • 172. Bhattacharyya, Prantik
    et al.
    Rowe, Jeff
    Wu, Felix
    Haigh, Karen
    Lavesson, Niklas
    Johnson, Henric
    Your Best might not be Good enough: Ranking in Collaborative Social Search Engines2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A relevant feature of online social networks like Facebook is the scope for users to share external information from the web with their friends by sharing an URL. The phenomenon of sharing has bridged the web graph with the social network graph and the shared knowledge in ego networks has become a source for relevant information for an individual user, leading to the emergence of social search as a powerful tool for information retrieval. Consideration of the social context has become an essential factor in the process of ranking results in response to queries in social search engines. In this work, we present InfoSearch, a social search engine built over the Facebook platform, which lets users search for information based on what their friends have shared. We identify and implement three distinct ranking factors based on the number of mutual friends, social group membership, and time stamp of shared documents to rank results for user searches. We perform user studies based on the Facebook feeds of two authors to understand the impact of each ranking factor on the result for two queries.

  • 173. Bhatti, Ansar Malook
    et al.
    Abdullah, Hafiz Muhammad
    Gencel, Cigdem
    A Model for Selecting an Optimum Set of Measures in Software Organizations2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the software organizations face difficulties in choosing the measures to collect since there is no universal set of measures for all types of organizations and projects. Experience shows that measurement can be more successful if the measures are collected based on the goals of the organization or the project which it will serve. However, one of the major constraints for the organizations is the associated cost for the resources needed when collecting the measures. Therefore, based on their goals, the software organizations require collecting not only as few measures from a large number of possible measures as possible but an optimum set of measures as well. In this paper, we propose a model, called ‘Optimum Measures Set Decision (OMSD) Model’, which is an extension of the well-known Goal Question Metric (GQM) paradigm using a heuristics approach. We performed a survey by distributing a structured questionnaire to a number of people from the industry in order evaluate and get feedback on these factors. We evaluated the rules of the model by means of some sample cases we created. In this paper, we discuss OMSD as well as the empirical studies we conducted in order to develop it.

  • 174.
    Bhatti, Khurram
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Ghazi, Ahmad Nauman
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Effectiveness of Exploratory Testing, An empirical scrutiny of the challenges and factors affecting the defect detection efficiency2010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Slutsatser: Vi anser att det experimentella tester har stor potential och mycket mer att erbjuda testning industrin. Men mer empirisk undersökning och sann fakta och siffror är skyldiga att motivera testning industrin att anpassa den. Vi har rapporterat en rad fördelar, nackdelar, utmaningar och faktorer i denna studie. Vi undersökte vidare fordringar anges av ET utövare genom ett experiment och undersökning. De statistiska test genomfördes på insamlade data för att dra meningsfulla resultat. Vi fann statistisk signifikans skillnaden i antalet sann fel som upptäcks. Använda utforskande testning strategi testare fann långt fler fel än testfall baserat testning. Även om det inte fanns någon statistisk signifikans skillnad mellan de två synsätten för falska defekter.

  • 175.
    Bhuma, Venkata Srikanth
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Balsu, Santosh Kumar
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Evaluation Of Radiation Tolerant Satellite Communication Modem2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The design specification of CubeSat standards by California Polytechnique University has become a major milestone in development and deployment of nano satellites. The number of CubeSats that are being deployed into the orbit has increased in recent years. The design and development have been transformed from traditional hardware devices to software defined radios. However there is a lack of clear understanding and concrete findings on developing proper communication transceivers. The lack of knowledge of proper guidelines to be followed to design and develop communication subsystems prompts and acts as a base for us in understanding the communication subsystem design standards followed by CubeSat projects in various universities. Particular attention is given to those CubeSats that are currently in the orbit and are under development. The main aim of the thesis is to identify the challenges faced by the CubeSat developers and provide guidelines for future developers in order to overcome those challenges to reduce the development time and costs which are major constraints in CubeSat developments. A traditional literature review process was followed in order to identify the potential issues and in parallel a modem was designed and implemented in order to know some more challenges while developing a CubeSat modem. From the literature review method, eight potential issues were identified and an additional two more challenges were experienced while implementing a modem. Potential advantages and disadvantages of using nanoRTU have also been identified as part of the work.

  • 176.
    Bibri, Mohamed
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    ICT Design Unsustainability & the Path toward Environmentally Sustainable Technologies2009Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study endeavors to investigate the negative environmental impacts of the prevailing ICT design approaches and to explore some potential remedies for ICT design unsustainability from environmental and corporate sustainability perspectives. More specifically, it aims to spotlight key environmental issues related to ICT design, including resource depletion; GHG emissions resulting from energy-intensive consumption; toxic waste disposal; and hazardous chemicals use; and also to shed light on how alternative design solutions can be devised based on environmental sustainability principles to achieve the goals of sustainable technologies. The study highlights the relationship between ICT design and sustainability and how they can symbiotically affect one another. To achieve the aim of this study, an examination was performed through an extensive literature review covering empirical, theoretical, and critical scholarship. The study draws on a variety of sources to survey the negative environmental impacts of the current mainstream ICT design approach and review the potential remedies for unsustainability of ICT design. For theory, central themes were selected for review given the synergy and integration between them as to the topic under investigation. They include: design issues; design science; design research framework for ICT; sustainability; corporate sustainability; and design and sustainability. Findings highlight the unsustainability of the current mainstream ICT design approach. Key environmental issues for consideration include: resource depletion through extracting huge amounts of material and scarce elements; energy-intensive consumption and GHG emissions, especially from ICT use phase; toxic waste disposal; and hazardous substances use. Potential remedies for ICT design unsustainability include dematerialization as an effective strategy to minimize resources depletion, de-carbonization to cut energy consumption through using efficient energy required over life cycle and renewable energy; recyclability through design with life cycle thinking (LCT) and extending ICT equipment’s operational life through reuse; mitigating hazardous chemicals through green design - low or non-noxious/less hazardous products. As to solving data center dilemma, design solutions vary from hardware and software to technological improvements and adjustments. Furthermore, corporate sustainability can be a strategic model for ICT sector to respond to environmental issues, including those associated with unsustainable ICT design. In the same vein, through adopting corporate sustainability, ICT-enabled organizations can rationalize energy usage to reduce GHG emissions, and thereby alleviating global warming. This study provides a novel approach to sustainable ICT design, highlighting unsustainability of its current mainstream practices. Review of the literature makes an advance on extant reviews of the literature by highlighting the symbiotic relationship between ICT design and environmental sustainability from both research and practice perspectives. This study adds to the body of knowledge and previous endeavours in research of ICT and sustainability. Overall, it endeavours to present contributions and avenues for further theoretical and empirical research and development.

  • 177.
    Bibri, Mohamed
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Sustaining ICT for Sustainability: Towards Mainstreaming De–carbonization–oriented Design & Enabling the Energy–Efficient, Low Carbon Economy2009Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The study set out to understand and demonstrate the role the ICT sector could play as a critical enabler in the transition and progress towards an energy– efficient, low carbon economy. More specifically, the study of sustaining ICT for sustainability has twofold intent: (2) to investigate the direct footprint of ICT sector and explore how it can be tackled through adopting sustainable design–based solutions; and (2) to highlight the enabling potential of ICT sector to mitigate climate change and massively improve energy efficiency across the economy, identifying and quantifying the global ICT impacts and opportunities in the context of energy and carbon emissions savings. To achieve the aim of this study, a pertinent and extensive literature review covering theoretical, empirical, and critical scholarship was performed to investigate the phenomenon. The study draws on a variety of sources to survey the unsustainability of ICT sector pertaining to energy–intensive consumption and explore potential solutions through espousing environmental design practice, and also to examine the role of ICT in delivering energy–efficient solutions through its products and services. Validity was ensured through using quality academic and industry literature as well as relevant studies carried out by a range of eminent researchers, experts, and stakeholders (i.e. NGOs, research centers). Findings highlight the unsustainability of ICT sector regarding energy– intensive consumption and concomitant GHG emissions associated with its products and services. Of the whole lifecycle, the use phase of ICT is the most critical. Data centers and telecom networks devour energy. Planned obsolescence entrenched in software design shorten upgrade cycle, which makes software utilities a planet killer as to energy consumption. Alternative sustainable design–based solutions entail using renewable energy and most efficient energy required over ICT’s life cycle – de–carbonization strategy. Also, digitization is an effective strategy for ICT sector to slash energy use per unit. To reduce the footprint of data centers and telecom networks, design solutions vary from hardware and software to technological improvements. Designing out built–in obsolescence in software technology is a key factor in the energy equation. As for the enabling role of ICT, the findings are highly illuminating. The ICT sector must step up its efforts in reducing its direct footprint in order to claim a leadership role in an energy–efficient, low carbon economy. Although the ICT sector’s own emissions will increase because of global growing demand for its products and services, the real gains will come from its enabling potential to yield substantial energy efficiency improvements and emissions reductions across the economy. The sheer scale of the climate change challenge presents smart development mitigation opportunities for ICT sector to deliver environmentally sustainable solutions. The largest identified opportunities are: dematerialization; intelligent transport and logistics; intelligent buildings; smart power supply; and efficient industrial processes and systems. This study provides a novel approach into sustainable design in ICT, underlining unsustainable design practices in ICT sector. Review of the literature makes an advance on extant reviews by highlighting the synergic relationship between ICT design, sustainability, and the economy.

  • 178. Biernacki, Arkadiusz
    et al.
    Tutschku, Kurt
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Comparative Performance Study of LTE Downlink Schedulers2014Ingår i: Wireless personal communications, ISSN 0929-6212, E-ISSN 1572-834X, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 585-599Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Open access article

  • 179. Biernacki, Arkadiusz
    et al.
    Tutschku, Kurt
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Performance of HTTP Video Streaming Under Different Network Conditions2014Ingår i: Multimedia tools and applications, ISSN 1380-7501, E-ISSN 1573-7721, Vol. 72, nr 2, s. 1143-1166Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet video sharing services have been gaining importance and increasing their share in the multimedia market. In order to compete effectively and provide broadcast television with a comparable level of quality, the Internet video should fulfil stringent quality of service (QoS) constraints. However, as the Internet video is based on packet transmission, it is influenced by delays, transmission errors, data losses and bandwidth limitations which can have a devastating influence on the perceived quality of the multimedia content. There are many works which describe the impact of network impairments on the Internet video. Nevertheless, little is known about how network conditions influence the video streamed by the currently popular services such as YouTube, where video is transmitted over reliable TCP/HTTP protocols. Therefore using a network simulator, we conducted an experimental evaluation of theHTTP based video transmission analysing how the network impairments mentioned above influence the streamed video. The experiments were validated against a network emulator supplied with real network traces. As a result of this work, we can state that the buffering strategies implemented by a video player are in many cases able to mitigate unfavourable network conditions what allow to play the streamed video smoothly. The results may serve Internet Service Providers so that they could tune their network characteristics in order to match the demand from HTTP video.

  • 180.
    Bilal, Adeel Ashfaq and Umer
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Study of Abnormal TCP/HTTP Connection2011Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Web browsing activities have increased to huge volumes in the last decade, causing more interest in the analysis of Web trac to extract user action. TCP, the transport layer protocol and HTTP, the application layer protocol plays a major role in Web browsing activities. In this thesis an attempt has been made to investigate the anomalies of TCP terminations in an application layer environment. An experimental setup has been devised in in an isolated manner to observe the e ect of di erent Web browsers, Web servers and contents type on the termination of TCP ports. The results in this thesis show that the anomaly of the termination of TCP port with a reset(RST) flag is usually caused by a Web browser. Further we conclude that the amount of RSTs rise while accessing video based contents due to the increased number of ports while accessing the contents of Web page. In this report ,we further describe and quantify the di erent causes and their contribution in generating RSTs during Web browsing.

  • 181.
    Bilal, Muhammad
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Sankar, Ganesh
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Trust & Security issues in Mobile banking and its effect on Customers2011Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Using mobile phones for mobile banking, customers can push or pull the details like Funds transfer, Bill payment, Share trade, Check order and also inquiries like Account balance, Account statement and Check status Transaction history etc. It means that the customer is interacting with the files, databases etc., of the bank . Database at the server end is sensitive in terms of security. Customers distrust mobile devices to transfer money or for making any transactions. The reason is that security is a major concern for the customer’s fulfillment. Customer’s main concern in using mobile devices for mobile banking is the authentication method used to ensure that the right person is accessing the services like transaction etc.The authors made a basic model for mobile banking transaction. All security risks were included in the transaction model. Then the authors focused on authentication method. By literature review and interview it was concluded that security can be improved by bio metric methods. The authors focused on different bio-metric mechanism and concluded that fingerprint mechanism is more suitable as it requires less storage capacity in database and identifies the uniqueness of customers. The authors suggest a possible solution by proposing finger-print mechanism model and designed a bio-metric scanning device as a solution through which customer can interact with banking system using their finger-print. The result of workshop shows that bio-metric finger print mechanism is more suitable and secure then other authentication methods for mobile banking.

  • 182.
    bin Ali, Nauman
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Towards Guidelines for Conducting Software Process Simulation in Industry2013Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Since the 1950s explicit software process models have been used for planning, executing and controlling software development activities. To overcome the limitation of static models at capturing the inherent dynamism in software development, Software Process Simulation Modelling (SPSM) was introduced in the late 1970s. SPSM has been used to address various challenges, e.g. estimation, planning and process assessment. The simulation models developed over the years have varied in their scope, purpose, approach and the application domain. However, there is a need to aggregate the evidence regarding the usefulness of SPSM for achieving its intended purposes. Objective: This thesis aims to facilitate adoption of SPSM in industrial practice by exploring two directions. Firstly it aims to establish the usefulness of SPSM for its intended purposes, e.g. for planning, training and as an alternative to study the real world software (industrial and open source) development. Secondly to define and evaluate a process for conducting SPSM studies in industry. Method: Two systematic literature reviews (SLR), a literature review, a case study and an action research study were conducted. A literature review of existing SLRs was done to identify the strategies for selecting studies. The resulting process for study selection was utilized in an SLR to capture and aggregate evidence regarding the usefulness of SPSM. Another SLR was used to identify existing process descriptions of how to conduct an SPSM study. The consolidated process and associated guidelines identified in this review were used in an action research study to develop a simulation model of the testing process in a large telecommunication vendor. The action research was preceded by a case study to understand the testing process at the company. Results: A study selection process based on the strategies identified from literature was proposed. It was found to systemize selection and to support inclusiveness with reasonable additional effort in an SLR of the SPSM literature. The SPSM studies identified in literature scored poorly on the rigor and relevance criteria and lacked evaluation of SPSM for the intended purposes. Lastly, based on literature, a six-step process to conduct an SPSM study was used to develop a System Dynamics model of the testing process for training purposes in the company. Conclusion: The findings identify two potential directions for facilitating SPSM adoption. First, by learning from other disciplines having done simulation for a longer time. It was evident how similar the consolidated process for conducting an SPSM study was to the process used in simulation in general. Second the existing work on SPSM can at best be classified as strong ``proof-of-concept’’ that SPSM can be useful in the real world software development. Thus, there is a need to evaluate and report the usefulness of SPSM for the intended purposes with scientific rigor.

  • 183. Bjarnason, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Runeson, Per
    Borg, Markus
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Engström, Emelie
    Regnell, Björn
    Sabaliauskaite, Giedre
    Loconsole, Annabella
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Challenges and Practices in Aligning Requirements with Verification and Validation: A Case Study of Six Companies2014Ingår i: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 19, nr 6, s. 1809-1855Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Weak alignment of requirements engineering (RE) with verification and validation (VV) may lead to problems in delivering the required products in time with the right quality. For example, weak communication of requirements changes to testers may result in lack of verification of new requirements and incorrect verification of old invalid requirements, leading to software quality problems, wasted effort and delays. However, despite the serious implications of weak alignment research and practice both tend to focus on one or the other of RE or VV rather than on the alignment of the two. We have performed a multi-unit case study to gain insight into issues around aligning RE and VV by interviewing 30 practitioners from 6 software developing companies, involving 10 researchers in a flexible research process for case studies. The results describe current industry challenges and practices in aligning RE with VV, ranging from quality of the individual RE and VV activities, through tracing and tools, to change control and sharing a common understanding at strategy, goal and design level. The study identified that human aspects are central, i.e. cooperation and communication, and that requirements engineering practices are a critical basis for alignment. Further, the size of an organisation and its motivation for applying alignment practices, e.g. external enforcement of traceability, are variation factors that play a key role in achieving alignment. Our results provide a strategic roadmap for practitioners improvement work to address alignment challenges. Furthermore, the study provides a foundation for continued research to improve the alignment of RE with VV.

  • 184.
    Björklund, Marcus
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Hjelmar, Jonas
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Adopting Software Product Lines: Guidelines based on the Maturity of Organizations2010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Software Product Lines (SPL) is a relatively new way of working in software development. A SPL is an enforced architecture and a collection of components common for more than one product within a domain. Development using SPL utilizes tools and techniques for creating software systems from a common set of core assets in order to satisfy a certain market. In this study we investigate how to proceed when transitioning to a SPL development approach by evaluating proposed and used adoption approaches, methods and frameworks. We performed a systematic literature review using three main sources; Compendex/Inspec, CiteSeerX and Google Scholar. The results are analyzed using a qualitative analysis technique called Recursive Abstraction where the results are iteratively summarized to extract the essence of the data. A manageable collection of frameworks, methods and approaches are summarized as a starting point for a reader who wants to dig deeper into the subject. A set of guidelines is suggested for companies who are considering a transition to SPL development. We also investigate the link between SPL and organization maturity, with a focus on the benefits of combining a SPL initiative with a CMMI initiative. We conclude that the transition process should not be taken lightly; in most cases it should be made in incremental steps. There is a fairly standard approach to adopt SPL and there are a few frameworks that are commonly accepted. However, we also conclude that most research areas of SPL development lacks in validation. Concerning the link between SPL and CMMI we identify some PA's that are more important when considering SPL development and a few others that may be harder to execute. We conclude that SPL benefits from process maturity and discipline as SPL development is process controlled and a lack in process discipline may cause corrosion of the SPL. A CMMI maturity level of Defined processes should be considered a prerequisite for a complete SPL practice. We could not find any indication that the organization maturity would benefit from SPL practices alone. Neither could we identify any drawbacks of having both an CMMI initiative and SPL transition initiative within the same organization.

  • 185. Boeva, Veselka
    et al.
    Ivanova, Petia
    Lavesson, Niklas
    A Hybrid Computational Method for the Identification of Cell Cycle-regulated Genes2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Gene expression microarrays are the most commonly available source of high-throughput biological data. They have been widely employed in recent years for the definition of cell cycle regulated (or periodically expressed) subsets of the genome in a number of different organisms. These have driven the development of various computational methods for identifying periodical expressed genes. However, the agreement is remarkably poor when different computational methods are applied to the same data. In view of this, we are motivated to propose herein a hybrid computational method targeting the identification of periodically expressed genes, which is based on a hybrid aggregation of estimations, generated by different computational methods. The proposed hybrid method is benchmarked against three other computational methods for the identification of periodically expressed genes: statistical tests for regulation and periodicity and a combined test for regulation and periodicity. The hybrid method is shown, together with the combined test, to statistically significantly outperform the statistical test for periodicity. However, the hybrid method is also demonstrated to be significantly better than the combined test for regulation and periodicity.

  • 186.
    Bogale, Helen Yeshiwas
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Ahmed, Zohaib
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    A Framework for Security Requirements: Security Requirements Categorization and Misuse Cases2011Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Säkerhet Kravhantering är nödvändigt för att uppnå säkra programvarusystem. Många tekniker och metoder har föreslagits för att framkalla säkerhetskraven i de inledande faserna i utvecklingen. Med den växande betydelsen av säkerhet och enorma ökning av brott mot säkerheten under de senaste åren har forskare och praktiker strävat efter att uppnå en mogen process för att klara säkerhetskraven. Mycket av verksamheten i detta avseende ses i den akademiska världen, men industrin fortfarande tycks saknas i att ge den nödvändiga betydelse för säkerheten kravhantering. Därför är säkerheten kravhantering fortfarande inte alltid som en central del av kravhantering. Denna studie är inriktad att överbrygga denna klyfta mellan akademi och näringsliv när det gäller säkerhet kravhantering och att ge en konkret strategi för att effektivt få fram och specificera säkerhetskrav. Missbruk fallet tekniken föreslås för detta ändamål. Men det saknar i att ge riktlinjer för att möjliggöra skalbar användning. Denna begränsning har åtgärdats för att uppnå en mogen process av säkerhetskrav elicitation.

  • 187. Boldt, Martin
    Privacy-Invasive Software2010Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    As computers are increasingly more integrated into our daily lives we become more dependent on software. This situation is exploited by villainous actors on the Internet that distribute malicious software in search for fast financial gains on the expense of deceived computer users. As a result, computer users need more accurate and aiding mechanisms to assist them when separating legitimate software from its unwanted counterparts. However, such separations are complicated due to a greyzone of software that exists between legitimate and purely malicious software. The software in this greyzone often vaguely labeled spyware. This work introduce both user-aiding mechanisms and an attempt to clarify the greyzone by introducing the concept of privacy-invasive software (PIS) as a category of software that ignores the users’ right to be left alone. Such software is distributed with a specific intent (often of commercial nature), which negatively affect the users to various degree. PIS is therefore classified with respect to the degree of informed consent and the amount of negative consequences for the users. To mitigate the effects from PIS, two novel mechanisms for safeguarding user consent during software installation are introduced; a collaborative software reputation system; and an automated End User License Agreement (EULA) classification. In the software reputation system, users collaborate by sharing experiences of previously used software programs, allowing new users to rely on the collective experience when installing software. The EULA classification generalizes patterns from a set of both legitimate and questionable software EULAs, so that computer users can automatically classify previously unknown EULAs as belonging to legitimate software or not. Both techniques increase user awareness about software program behavior, which allow users to make more informed decisions concerning software installations, which arguably reduces the threat from PIS. We present experimental results showing the ability of a set of machine learning algorithms ability to perform automated EULA classification. In addition, we also present a prototype implementation of a software reputation system, together with simulation results of the large-scale use of the system.

  • 188. Boldt, Martin
    et al.
    Borg, Anton
    Carlsson, Bengt
    On the Simulation of a Software Reputation System2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, there are difficulties finding all malicious programs due to juridical restrictions and deficits concerning the anti-malicious programs. Also, a "grey-zone" of questionable programs exists, hard for different protection programs to handle and almost impossible for a single user to judge. A software reputation system consisting of expert, average and novice users are proposed as a complement to let anti-malware programs or dedicated human experts decide about questionable programs. A simulation of the factors involved is accomplished by varying the user groups involved, modifying each user's individual trust factor, specifying an upper trust factor limit and accounting for previous rating influence. As a proposed result, a balanced, well-informed rating of judged programs appears, i.e. a balance between quickly reaching a well-informed decision and not giving a single voter too much power.

  • 189.
    Bollineni, Pavan Kumar
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Neupane, Kumar
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Implications for adopting cloud computing in e-Health2011Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Cloud computing is an emerging and growing field in an IT industry. Cost minimization, fast processing, easy accessibility and scalability are found to be the main attracting features of cloud computing. Cloud computing is known to be as robust authentication and enhanced security provider technology and it is increasing its scope in many sensitive areas like health sectors where data privacy and security hold the key position. Some of the issues when applying cloud solution is; trust of the new system, data confidentiality, security, storage and most importantly data sharing between different data centers locating in different geographical locations. Objectives: The aim of this thesis is to explore the limitations and find the opportunities and barriers between cloud computing and e-Health and finally suggest guidelines for adoption of cloud computing in an e-Health based sectors based on associates concerns. In the context of this research work, the authors have studied issues involved in the deployment of cloud computing, associates concerns and factors regarding adoption of cloud computing in e-Health and finally suggestion of future of cloud computing in e-Health. Methods: In order to identify and to get a deeper understanding of those issues, the author performed literature review, conducted interview with health care personnel and cloud computing associates and finally backed up with a web-based survey from the associates of cloud computing and e-Health. Results: Finally after the completion of entire analysis authors purposed suitable deployment model and guidelines for adoption of cloud computing in e-Health. Conclusions: Authors concluded that most people’s concerns can be due to lack of knowledge about cloud computing and the trust of vendor. However, authors also observed that people are facing problems with data security, data integrity and too much dependency to the technology and vendors.

  • 190.
    Borg, Anton
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Decision Support for Estimation of the Utility of Software and E-mail2012Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Computer users often need to distinguish between good and bad instances of software and e-mail messages without the aid of experts. This decision process is further complicated as the perception of spam and spyware varies between individuals. As a consequence, users can benefit from using a decision support system to make informed decisions concerning whether an instance is good or bad. Objective: This thesis investigates approaches for estimating the utility of e-mail and software. These approaches can be used in a personalized decision support system. The research investigates the performance and accuracy of the approaches. Method: The scope of the research is limited to the legal grey- zone of software and e-mail messages. Experimental data have been collected from academia and industry. The research methods used in this thesis are simulation and experimentation. The processing of user input, along with malicious user input, in a reputation system for software were investigated using simulations. The preprocessing optimization of end user license agreement classification was investigated using experimentation. The impact of social interaction data in regards to personalized e-mail classification was also investigated using experimentation. Results: Three approaches were investigated that could be adapted for a decision support system. The results of the investigated reputation system suggested that the system is capable, on average, of producing a rating ±1 from an objects correct rating. The results of the preprocessing optimization of end user license agreement classification suggested negligible impact. The results of using social interaction information in e-mail classification suggested that accurate spam detectors can be generated from the low-dimensional social data model alone, however, spam detectors generated from combinations of the traditional and social models were more accurate. Conclusions: The results of the presented approaches suggestthat it is possible to provide decision support for detecting software that might be of low utility to users. The labeling of instances of software and e-mail messages that are in a legal grey-zone can assist users in avoiding an instance of low utility, e.g. spam and spyware. A limitation in the approaches is that isolated implementations will yield unsatisfactory results in a real world setting. A combination of the approaches, e.g. to determine the utility of software, could yield improved results.

  • 191. Borg, Anton
    et al.
    Boldt, Martin
    Carlsson, Bengt
    Simulating malicious users in a software reputation system2011Ingår i: Communications in Computer and Information Science, Springer , 2011, Vol. 186, s. 147-156Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, computer users have trouble in separating malicious and legitimate software. Traditional countermeasures such as anti-virus tools mainly protect against truly malicious programs, but the situation is complicated due to a "grey-zone" of questionable programs that are difficult to classify. We therefore suggest a software reputation system (SRS) to help computer users in separating legitimate software from its counterparts. In this paper we simulate the usage of a SRS to investigate the effects that malicious users have on the system. Our results show that malicious users will have little impact on the overall system, if kept within 10% of the population. However, a coordinated attack against a selected subset of the applications may distort the reputation of these applications. The results also show that there are ways to detect attack attempts in an early stage. Our conclusion is that a SRS could be used as a decision support system to protect against questionable software.

  • 192. Borg, Anton
    et al.
    Boldt, Martin
    Lavesson, Niklas
    Informed Software Installation through License Agreement Categorization2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Spyware detection can be achieved by using machinelearning techniques that identify patterns in the End User License Agreements (EULAs) presented by application installers. However, solutions have required manual input from the user with varying degrees of accuracy. We have implemented an automatic prototype for extraction and classification and used it to generate a large data set of EULAs. This data set is used to compare four different machine learning algorithms when classifying EULAs. Furthermore, the effect of feature selection is investigated and for the top two algorithms, we investigate optimizing the performance using parameter tuning. Our conclusion is that feature selection and performance tuning are of limited use in this context, providing limited performance gains. However, both the Bagging and the Random Forest algorithms show promising results, with Bagging reaching an AUC measure of 0.997 and a False Negative Rate of 0.062. This shows the applicability of License Agreement Categorization for realizing informed software installation.

  • 193.
    Borg, Anton
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Lavesson, Niklas
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    E-mail Classification using Social Network Information2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A majority of E-mail is suspected to be spam. Traditional spam detection fails to differentiate between user needs and evolving social relationships. Online Social Networks (OSNs) contain more and more social information, contributed by users. OSN information may be used to improve spam detection. This paper presents a method that can use several social networks for detecting spam and a set of metrics for representing OSN data. The paper investigates the impact of using social network data extracted from an E-mail corpus to improve spam detection. The social data model is compared to traditional spam data models by generating and evaluating classifiers from both model types. The results show that accurate spam detectors can be generated from the low-dimensional social data model alone, however, spam detectors generated from combinations of the traditional and social models were more accurate than the detectors generated from either model in isolation.

  • 194.
    Borg, Anton
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Lavesson, Niklas
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Boeva, Veselka
    Comparison of clustering approaches for gene expression data2013Ingår i: Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, IOS Press , 2013, Vol. 257, s. 55-64Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Clustering algorithms have been used to divide genes into groups according to the degree of their expression similarity. Such a grouping may suggest that the respective genes are correlated and/or co-regulated, and subsequently indicates that the genes could possibly share a common biological role. In this paper, four clustering algorithms are investigated: k-means, cut-clustering, spectral and expectation-maximization. The algorithms are benchmarked against each other. The performance of the four clustering algorithms is studied on time series expression data using Dynamic TimeWarping distance in order to measure similarity between gene expression profiles. Four different cluster validation measures are used to evaluate the clustering algorithms: Connectivity and Silhouette Index for estimating the quality of clusters, Jaccard Index for evaluating the stability of a cluster method and Rand Index for assessing the accuracy. The obtained results are analyzed by Friedman's test and the Nemenyi post-hoc test. K-means is demonstrated to be significantly better than the spectral clustering algorithm under the Silhouette and Rand validation indices.

  • 195.
    Borgstrand, Richard
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Servin, Patrik
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Reinforcement Learning AI till Fightingspel2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Utförandet av projektet har varit att implementera två stycken fightingspels Artificiell Intelligens (kommer att förkortas AI). En oadaptiv och mer deterministisk AI och en adaptiv dynamisk AI som använder reinforcement learning. Detta har utförts med att skripta beteendet av AI:n i en gratis 2D fightingsspels motor som heter ”MUGEN”. AI:n använder sig utav skriptade sekvenser som utförs med MUGEN’s egna trigger och state system. Detta system kollar om de skriptade specifierade kraven är uppfyllda för AI:n att ska ”trigga”, utföra den bestämda handlingen. Den mer statiska AI:n har blivit uppbyggd med egen skapade sekvenser och regler som utförs delvis situationsmässigt och delvis slumpmässigt. För att försöka uppnå en reinforcement learning AI så har sekvenserna tilldelats en variabel som procentuellt ökar chansen för utförandet av handlingen när handlingen har givit något positivt och det motsatta minskar när handlingen har orsakat något negativt.

  • 196.
    Brodka, Piotr
    et al.
    Wroclaw Univ Technol, Inst Informat, PL-50370 Wroclaw, Poland..
    Sobas, Mateusz
    Wroclaw Univ Technol, Inst Informat, PL-50370 Wroclaw, Poland..
    Johnson, Henric
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Profile Cloning Detection in Social Networks2014Ingår i: 2014 EUROPEAN NETWORK INTELLIGENCE CONFERENCE (ENIC), IEEE Computer Society, 2014, s. 63-68Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Profile cloning is a severe security issue in social networks since it is used to make a profile identical to existing ones. Profile cloning detection creates a possibility to detect frauds that would use people's trust to gather social information. This paper proposes two novel methods of profile cloning detection and also presents state-of-the-art research. The first method is based on the similarity of attributes from both profiles and the second method is based on the similarity of relationship networks. The methods are further evaluated with experiments and the results clearly describes that the proposed methods are useful and efficient compared to existing methods. The paper also stress that profile cloning in Facebook is not only possible but also fairly easy to perform.

  • 197.
    Bródka, Piotr
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Key User Extraction Based on Telecommunication Data2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of systems that collect vast amount of data about users rapidly grow during last few years. Many of these systems contain data not only about people characteristics but also about their relationships with other system users. From this kind of data it is possible to extract a social network that reflects the connections between system’s users. Moreover, the analysis of such social network enables to investigate different characteristics of its users and their linkages. One of the types of examining such network is key users extraction. Key users are these who have the biggest impact on other network users as well as have big influence on network evolution. The obtained knowledge about these users enables to investigate and predict changes within the network. So this knowledge is very important for the people or companies who make a profit from the network like telecommunication company. The second important issue is the ability to extract these users as quick as possible, i.e. developed the algorithm that will be time-effective in large social networks where number of nodes and edges is equal few millions.

  • 198. Buchinger, Shelley
    et al.
    Lopez, Rui Jorge
    Jumisko-Pyykkö, Satu
    Zepernick, Hans-Jürgen
    Quality of Experience for Multimedia Content Sharing: Ubiquitous QoE assessment and support2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, it has been realized that the success of multimedia services or applications relies on the analysis of the entire user experience (UX). The relevance of this paradigm ranges from IPTV to video-on-demand systems o ering professional TV and user-generated content that is consumed and produced ubiquitously. To obtain a pleasurable and ubiquitous user experience a large amount of aspects have to be taken into account. Major challenges in this context include the identi cation of relevant UX factors and the quanti cation of their inuence on Quality of Experience (QoE). In the particular scenario of ubiquitous production and consumption of content, context awareness and assessment of users' expectations play an essential role. This is further justi ed by the emergence of new multimedia enhancement techniques, notably 3DTV and Free Viewpoint. In the support of ubiquitous QoE the acquired knowledge on the context and on identi ed parameters a ecting users' experience could be used to improve mutimedia applications and their associated content delivery mechanisms.

  • 199. Buglione, Luigi
    et al.
    Ferrucci, Filomena
    Gencel, Cigdem
    Gravino, Carmine
    Sarro, Federica
    Which COSMIC Base Functional Components are Significant in Estimating Web Application Development?: A Case Study2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimation is still a challenging process for planning and managing software projects. Often, estimates are being done on experiential or analogous basis or using effort estimation models. Mostly, these approaches take software size (e.g., Lines of Code, Function Points, Object points) and other cost factors as the main inputs to estimation. This study focuses on functional size based effort estimation for Web application development and investigates the significance of the functional sizes of each of the COSMIC Base Functional Component (BFC) types in explaining the variation in the development effort. A case study was conducted collecting data on 25 Web projects from a software organization. The results show that the size of only one of the BFC Types can explain the variation in the effort nearly as good as the total functional size.

  • 200.
    Bukhari, Syed Asif Abbas
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Hussain, Sajid
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Intelligent Support System for Health Monitoring of elderly people2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of information and communications technology (ICT) to provide medical information, interaction between patients and health-service providers, institution-to-institution transmission of data, in known as eHealth. ICT have become an inseparable part of our life, it can integrate health care more seamlessly to our everyday life. ICT enables the delivery of accurate medical information anytime anywhere in an efficient manner. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the single leading cause of death, especially in elderly people. The condition of heart is monitor by electrocardiogram (ECG). The Electrocardiogram (ECG) is widely used clinical tool to diagnose complex heart diseases. In clinical settings, resting ECG is used to monitor patients. Holter-based portable monitoring solutions capable of 24 to 48-hour ECG recording, they lack the capability of providing any real-time feedback in case of alarming situation. The recorded ECG data analyzed offline by doctor. To address this issue, authors propose a functionality of intelligence decision support system, in heart monitoring system. The proposed system has capability of generate an alarm in case of serious abnormality in heart, during monitoring of heart activity.

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