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  • 1751.
    Boman, Peter
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Huang, Yiping
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Antecedents of creativity and innovativeness in the Swedish manufacturing pharmaceutical industry2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to create new products and services is a competitive advantage and in many cases a requirement for long term success of a company. In the manufacturing pharmaceutical industry, the freedom to think and act creatively is depressed by the demand for external and internal compliance. As such, it is important to understand the underlying factors of creativity and innovativeness in order to promote them. Several studies have been performed on the subject to increase creativity. A theme that is recurrent in several creativity increasing studies it that leadership and the leadership style of the management is important for creativity. The purpose of this thesis was to investigate if the leadership style transformational leadership can be associated with a higher level of creativity and innovativeness in the Swedish pharmaceutical industry. Given that the effect of transformational leadership on creativity is likely to be derived from creativity enhancing variables that have been enhanced in the follower’s a literature framework is built to find, and in turn empirically test, if this effect of transformational leadership (if any) is mediated by other variables. The thesis contains a literature review of current leadership and creativity theories as well as literature review of intrinsic motivation and psychological empowering. From the theoretical framework 10 hypothesis´s about performance, transformational leadership, creativity, innovativeness, intrinsic motivation and psychological empowering were stated. The hypothesis’s was tested trough an empirical study. Data was gathered by a questionnaire that was sent out to 22 manufacturing pharmaceutical companies in Sweden. The results of the study support the idea that transformational leadership increases creativity and innovativeness in the investigated market. However, no correlation was found between transformational leadership and intrinsic motivation or psychological empowering. While not the central question of this thesis the study also supports that a higher level of creativity and innovativeness is correlated with a higher performance.

  • 1752.
    BONAM, VEERA VENKATA SIVARAMAKRISHNA
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Multipath TCP and Measuring end-to-end TCP Throughput: Multipath TCP Descriptions and Ways to Improve TCP Performance2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Internet applications make use of the services provided by a transport protocol, such as TCP (a reliable, in-order stream protocol). We use this term Transport Service to mean the end-to- end service provided to application by the transport layer.

     

    That service can only be provided correctly if information about the intended usage is supplied from the application. The application may determine this information at the design time, compile time, or run time, and it may include guidance on whether a feature is required, a preference by the application, or something in between.

    Multipath TCP (MPTCP) adds the capability of using multiple paths to a regular TCP session. Even though it is designed to be totally backward compatible to applications. The data transport differs compared to regular TCP, and there are several additional degrees of freedom that the particular application may want to exploit.

     

    Multipath TCP is particularly useful in the context of wireless networks using both Wi-Fi and a mobile network is a typical use case. In addition to the gains in throughput from inverse multiplexing, links may be added or dropped as the user moves in or out of coverage without disrupting the end-to-end TCP connection. The problem of link handover is thus solved by abstraction in the transport layer, without any special mechanisms at the network or link level.

     

    Handover functionality can then be implemented at the endpoints without requiring special functionality in the sub-networks according to the Internet's end-to-end principle. Multipath TCP can balance a single TCP connection across multiple interfaces and reach very high throughput.

  • 1753.
    Bond, David
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Nyblom, Madelein
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Evaluation of four different virtual locomotion techniques in an interactive environment2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Virtual Reality (VR) devices are becoming more and more common as game systems. Even though modern VR Head Mounted Displays (HMD) allow the user to walk in real life, it still limits the user to the space of the room they are playing in and the player will need virtual locomotion in games where the environment size exceeds that of the real life play area. Evaluations of multiple VR locomotion techniques have already been done, usually evaluating motion sickness or usability. A common theme in many of these is that the task is search based, in an environment with low focus on interaction. Therefore in this thesis, four VR locomotion techniques are evaluated in an environment with focus on interaction, to see if a difference exists and whether one technique is optimal. The VR locomotion techniques are: Arm-Swinging, Point-Tugging, Teleportation, and Trackpad.

    Objectives: A VR environment is created with focus on interaction in this thesis. In this environment the user has to grab and hold onto objects while using a locomotion technique. This study then evaluates which VR locomotion technique is preferred in the environment. This study also evaluates whether there is a difference in preference and motion sickness, in an environment with high focus in interaction compared to one with low focus.

    Methods: A user study was conducted with 15 participants. Every participant performed a task with every VR locomotion technique, which involved interaction. After each technique, the participant answered a simulator sickness questionnaire, and an overall usability questionnaire.

    Results: The results achieved in this thesis indicated that Arm-Swinging was the most enjoyed locomotion technique in the overall usability questionnaire. But it also showed that Teleportation had the best rating in tiredness and overwhelment. Teleportation also did not cause motion sickness, while the rest of the locomotion techniques did.

    Conclusions: As a conclusion, a difference can be seen for VR locomotion techniques between an environment with low focus on interaction, to an environment with high focus. This difference was seen in both the overall usability questionnaire and the motion sickness questionnaire. It was concluded that Arm-Swinging could be the most fitting VR locomotion technique for an interactive environment, however Teleportation could be more optimal for longer sessions.

  • 1754.
    Bondegaard-Lautrup, Monika
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Pedis, Anna De
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Bröstcancersjuka kvinnors uppfattning av vårdpersonalen i mötet vid cytostatiskabehandling2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bröstcancer är ett av de största hälsoproblem för kvinnor i Sverige. Syftet med studien var att belysa bröstcancersjuka kvinnors uppfattning av ömsesidig förståelse i det vårdande mötet med vårdgivaren vid cytostatikabehandlingen. Studien baserades på tre självbiografiska skönlitterära böcker och materialet bearbetades genom en innehållsanalys. Resultaten visade en majoritet av uppfattningar som bekräftade den ömsesidiga förståelsen i mötet. Denna bekräftelse framtonas av en situation som skapar trygghet. Dockk uppfattades begränsningar i form av försummade känslor hos kvinnorna. Fler studier bör göras i det valda ämnet i syfte att öka kompetensen hos personalen vilket ökar den ömsesidiga förståelsen i det vårdande mötet.

  • 1755.
    Bondesson, Anna
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Petersson, Sara
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Samspelets betydelse för smärtlindring: En litteraturstudie2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Målet med den palliativa vården är att med hjälp av behandlingar och vård bibehålla eller förbättra den livskvalité som personen har. Dock upplever de flesta personer med cancer svår smärta i det palliativa skedet. Dessutom kan personer med cancer uppleva olika former av smärta samtidigt. Smärta kan uttryckas genom både verbal och icke verbal kommunikation. Genom öppen och god kommunikation minskar risken för missförstånd och detta kan leda till ökat välbefinnande för personer med cancer. Syfte: Syftet med studien var att belysa hur samspelet mellan personer med cancer i ett palliativt skede och sjuksköterskan påverkade personens upplevelse av smärta. Metod: En litteraturstudie har genomförts med hjälp av åtta artiklar som har analyserats med kvalitativ ansats. Resultat: Genom kommunikation och relation mellan personer med cancer och sjuksköterskan kunde smärta lindras. Samspelet mellan personer med cancer och sjuksköterskan hade en central roll i omvårdnaden. Slutsats: Smärta har flera olika dimensioner som påverkar varandra. Smärta hindrar möjligheten till samspel mellan personer med cancer och sjuksköterskan.

  • 1756.
    Bondesson, Beatrice
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Health, Science and Mathematics.
    Söderberg, Cecilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Health, Science and Mathematics.
    Livskvalitet-En studie om hur anorektiska kvinnor beskriver livskvalitet under sjukdomstiden2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning Bristen på omvårdnadsforskning gällande anorexia nervosa är stor, det är därför viktigt att denna sjukdom uppmärksammas mer. Studiens syfte har varit att belysa hur kvinnor med anorexia nervosa beskriver livskvalitet under sjukdomstiden. Studien har genomförts som en litteraturstudie där resultatet bygger på tre skönlitterära böcker som kvinnorna själva skrivit. Som teoretisk referensram har Lawtons definition på livskvalitet används då denna definition stämmer överens med författarnas syn på begreppet livskvalitet. Resultatet uppmärksammade följande kategorier som viktiga för kvinnornas livskvalitet; längtan efter närhet, den dyrbara fritiden, störd autonomi och brist på empati, kamp om renhet, omgivningens brist på förståelse, flykt från verkligheten, trygghet genom sjukdomen, samt sjukdomsinsikt. I diskussionen framkom att vårdpersonalens bemötande av anorexia nervosa patienterna spelade en viktig roll under sjukhusvistelsen, gällande upplevd livskvalitet.

  • 1757.
    Bondesson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Software Engineering Education Improvement: An Assessment of a Software Engineering Programme2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An assessment of a software engineering program has been carried out by reviewing state-of-the-art literature pertaining to software engineering education. Six surveys have been adopted and the result implies that the balance of the curriculum should be revised, and that software engineering education ought to expand the technical oriented knowledge areas somewhat. Relevant curriculum data have been derived hereby, which also confirms other studies in the area. This data, along with a benchmark of the software engineering program to the Software Engineering Body of Knowledge (SWEBOK), is very constructive to universities as it assists educators, trainers, and software engineering practitioners in evaluating, designing, and recommending existing and proposed curricula.

  • 1758.
    BONNELL, HARRY
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    LI, PING
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    VAN LINGEN, THEKLA
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Nonviolent Communication: a Communication Tool to support the Adaptive Capacity of Organisations?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptive capacity is essential for organisations to be able to adapt to the sustainability challenge, and change its course. Nonviolent Communication (NVC) is an interpersonal communication tool that enables a user to move from a language of judgements to a language of needs by using 4 steps: observation, feelings, needs, and request. As communication is essential to the adaptive capacity of a social system, this thesis explores the question: How does Nonviolent Communication support the adaptive capacity of organisations? Through a mixed methods approach (semi-structured interviews and surveys with NVC trainers, organisational representatives and employees), the effects of NVC on communication in 3 sample organisations in the Netherlands (a school, NGO and research institute), is explored. Quantitative survey results show that NVC has a positive to very positive effect on common organisational communication dynamics. Qualitative data supports this finding and shows that NVC brings positive effects of increased understanding, listening, and progress in work related issues through an increased awareness of one’s own and other’s needs and feelings. When linking these results to adaptive capacity of organisations, it is concluded that NVC directly supports the adaptive capacity elements of trust, diversity and learning, and indirectly supports common meaning and self-organisation.

  • 1759.
    Bonsib, David
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Planning and Media Design.
    Artikulera rum genom fysisk planering2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Miljonprogramsområden tillförs ofta negativa attribut och ses av många som ett stort samhällsproblem. Därför är det viktigt att konkretisera vilka problem som finns för att bättre förstå hur de kan lösas. Två av dessa negativa attribut är ödslighet och rumslig förvirring eller svårigheten att skilja på vad som är privat, gemensam och offentlig miljö. Detta är uppsatsens fokus och konkretiseras genom en fallstudie av ett typsikt miljonprogramsområde. Fallstudien utförs på Byälvsvägen, Bagarmossen, i Stockholm. Genom rumslig analys och litteraturstudier samt intervjuer skapas en bild av ett område med många goda kvalitéer men också ett område som upplevs som otryggt. Uppsatsen tar upp olika sätt att skapa rum genom ny bebyggelse och smärre fysiska åtgärder, t. ex. vegetation.

  • 1760.
    Boo, Tina
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Hjärtstrand, Jennifer
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Hur kan sjuksköterskans bemötande påverka patienten?: En litteraturstudie om patienters upplevelser av sjuksköterskans bemötande2013Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: I en vårdrelation spelar sjuksköterskans sätt att bemöta och kommunicera med patienten en stor roll för hur patienten upplever sin situation. Patienten är i behov av en sjuksköterska som kan tillgodose och vårda hela patienten, vilket skapar tillit och trygghet i relationen mellan patient och sjuksköterska. Brister i sjuksköterskans bemötande kan göra att patienten känner sig försummad som individ vilket kan skapa en känsla av att vara sårbar, utlämnad och inte sedd. Syfte: Syftet med studien var att beskriva patienters upplevelser av sjuksköterskans bemötande i en vårdrelation. Metod: En litteraturstudie med kvalitativ ansats baserad på åtta vetenskapliga artiklar gjordes. En kvalitativ innehållsanalys användes med inspiration av Burnard. Resultat: I studien framkom det att patienter hade olika upplevelser av vårdrelationen beroende på sjuksköterskans bemötande. Dessa delades in i tre kategorier: delaktighet i omvårdnaden, känsla av bekräftelse och känsla av trygghet. Slutsats: Kommunikation och information visade sig vara betydelsefulla resurser i bemötandet för att patienterna skulle känna delaktighet i sin egen vård. Att bli bekräftade som individer stärkte relationen med sjuksköterskan. Resultatet i studien ger sjuksköterskan behövlig insikt i hur hon bemöter patienten. För att öka patienters välbefinnande behövs mer forskning i hur patienter upplever sjuksköterskan och hennes sätt att bemöta.

  • 1761.
    Boozani, Hamid Akhlaghi
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Planning and Media Design.
    Walkable Design Neighborhood: A sustainable Urban Form. A comparison between Nanjing official future plans and walkable design proposal based on Smart Growth principles along with Space Syntax Theory2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recent urban development in China has serious faults in account of a sustainable course of action. More precisely, walkability, car independency, social encounter and local business are missing principles in new urban developments, specifically high-rise neighborhood developments. The configuration of these kinds of development causes a threat for the future, which is shown in the study area. To practice a design task within the field of Urban Design, a neighborhood close to the river waterfront in Nanjing was chosen. Current situation was investigated on site via observation by the author. Guidelines were formulated according to local conditions by means of integrating principles derived from other commendable case studies. The official future plans of the neighborhood, proposed by Nanjing Planning Bureau were examined under Smart Growth principles and Space Syntax theory and its framework around natural movement. An urban design task was carried out based on guidelines derived from local cases, design theory and the syntax analysis. The evaluation of the design task concluded that principles around configuration are needed to be integrated in neighborhood developments with the aim of achieving walkability. Smaller block size is considered as a crucial configuration attribute for similar projects, aiming at creating walkable, sustainable neighborhoods.

  • 1762.
    Borcilo, Safija
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Kvinnors upplevelser avsin kroppsbild post-mastektomi: en litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Bakgrund:  Bröstcancer är den vanligaste cancerformen för kvinnor i Sverige. I samband med bröstcancer behöver kvinnor avlägsna bröstet. Detta har en stor påverkan på kvinnors kroppsbild och hur kvinnorna ser på sig själva. Det är viktigt för sjuksköterskan att kunna ge den stöd kvinnorna behöver.  

    Syfte: Syftet var att beskriva kvinnors upplevelser av sin kroppsbild post- mastektomi.

    Metod: Litteraturstudie med kvalitativ ansats baserad på elva vetenskapliga artiklar. Vid analysering av artiklarna användes Graneheim och Lundmans (2004) tolkning av en kvalitativ innehållsanalys.

    Resultat: Studien resulterade i tre huvudkategorier som var upplevelsen av skam, påverkad sexualitet och uppleva acceptans. Huvudkategorin upplevelsen av skam mynnade ut i två underkategorier som var att dölja förlusten och att isolera sig.

    Slutsats: I studien framkom det att kvinnor inte bara förlorar bröstet utan även så mycket mer, vilket påverkar relationen till kroppen och sig själv samt människor runtomkring. Det är viktigt att sjuksköterskan förstår hur mastektomin påverkar kvinnors kroppsbild och hur sjuksköterskan kan hjälpa kvinna på vägen till acceptans.

  • 1763.
    Borden, Gabriella
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Spatial Planning.
    Lillieborg, Axel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Spatial Planning.
    Bevara eller utveckla?: En fallstudie i hur kommuner hanterar kulturmiljöer i en tid av förtätning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En studie av Riksantikvarieämbetet synliggör att två av tre svenska kommuner saknar förutsättningar för att ta hänsyn till kulturmiljövärden i den fysiska planeringen. Samtidigt ställs krav på kommunerna att öka bostadsbyggandet i ljuset av den rådande bostadsbristen. Således synliggörs en problematik där förtätning som utgör en samtida planeringsnorm behöver kunna genomföras utan att kulturmiljöer påverkas negativt. Omvandling av äldre hamn- och industriområden har präglat stadsutvecklingen i Europa sedan 1980-talet och i dessa omvandlingar finns ofta en strävan att bevara spår från de gamla verksamheterna. I den ovan beskrivna problematiken tar uppsatsen sitt avstamp.

     

    Uppsatsen genomförs som en fallstudie om hur expansiva kommuner hanterar kravet att tillgodose kulturmiljöer inom ramen för hamn- och industriomvandlingar. Genom en kvalitativ textanalys studeras empirin som utgörs av kommunala plandokument såsom översiktsplaner, detaljplaner, planprogram samt kommunala kulturmiljöprogram. Studieobjekten är Malmö, Nacka och Göteborgs kommun, där den sistnämnda används i syfte att belysa en eventuell skillnad över tid i hantering av kulturmiljöer. För att besvara frågeställningarna tolkas sedan empirin utifrån teorierna “kreativa klassen” och “platsmarknadsföring” samt ställs mot forskning inom ämnesfältet.

     

    Ur empirin har det kunnat skönjas att kommunerna uppvisar liknande tillvägagångssätt i hur kulturmiljöer ska tillgodoses, där en integrering av kulturmiljöerna i den nya bebyggelsen förefaller vara det vedertagna angreppssättet i hanteringen av att tillgodose kulturmiljöer. Denna strategi går även i linje med vad som föreskrivs av forskning. Genom att sätta detta i ljuset av de valda teorierna, kan tolkningar göras att ekonomiska motiv är en stark drivkraft i bevarandet av kulturmiljöerna. I uppsatsens diskussionsdel förs en diskussion kring vad som framkommit på på varje frågeställning, genom att väva in exempel från de studerade kommunerna.

  • 1764.
    Bordier, Janna
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Planning and Media Design.
    Potenzielle Auswirkungen eines neuen Fernbahnhofs auf seine Umgebung -- Diskussion zu den Entwicklungsmöglichkeiten um einen neuen Fernbahnhof in Hamburg-Diebsteich2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete är skrivet på tyska och behandlar Deutsche Bahn AG:s (det tyska järnvägsaktiebolaget) planer på att förlägga järnvägsstationen Hamburg-Altona, till ett industriområde 2 km norr om det läge den har idag. Enligt dessa planer ska dagens säckstation ersättas av en genomfartsstation, där tunnelbanestationen Diebsteich idag ligger. Den centrala frågeställningen för examens­arbetet är: Vilken påverkan har en ny järnvägsstation på sin omgivning? Rent konkret står platsen för Altonas nya järnvägsstation i fokus och möjligheterna för en ny strukturell utveckling av dess närområde. Arbetet bygger på teorier av Prof. Luca Bertolini, som menar att potentialen för ett utvecklings­projekt kring en järnvägsstation be­ror på förhållandet mellan stationen som trafikknutpunkt och stationen som plats. Om det uppstår en obalans mellan dessa funktioner så skapas ett förändringstryck. Den nya placeringen av järnvägsstationen Altona skulle ge den en mycket stark funktion som trafikknutpunkt men inte tillgodose de vistelsekvaliteter och andra viktiga funktioner som kan attrahera människor. Därmed förefaller det finnas en potential för att utveckla närområdet kring stationen. Det kan även ses som en nödvändighet för att den nya järnvägsstationen långsiktigt skall kunna fungera och tillgodose samhällets behov. Examensarbetet har som mål att förklara planeringssituationen och dess komplexitet för en intresserad allmänhet. Det är ett brett upplagt arbete som ska kunna utgöra grunden för vidare planeringsdiskussioner. Baserat på den centrala frågeställningen har tre koncept med olika målsättningar formulerats. Koncepten konkretiseras i fyra planillustrationer. Förhållandet mellan dessa koncept och möjlig stadsutveckling kring stationen diskuteras, med fokus på de viktigaste intresseavvägningarna.

  • 1765.
    Borg, Anton
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Decision Support for Estimation of the Utility of Software and E-mail2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Computer users often need to distinguish between good and bad instances of software and e-mail messages without the aid of experts. This decision process is further complicated as the perception of spam and spyware varies between individuals. As a consequence, users can benefit from using a decision support system to make informed decisions concerning whether an instance is good or bad. Objective: This thesis investigates approaches for estimating the utility of e-mail and software. These approaches can be used in a personalized decision support system. The research investigates the performance and accuracy of the approaches. Method: The scope of the research is limited to the legal grey- zone of software and e-mail messages. Experimental data have been collected from academia and industry. The research methods used in this thesis are simulation and experimentation. The processing of user input, along with malicious user input, in a reputation system for software were investigated using simulations. The preprocessing optimization of end user license agreement classification was investigated using experimentation. The impact of social interaction data in regards to personalized e-mail classification was also investigated using experimentation. Results: Three approaches were investigated that could be adapted for a decision support system. The results of the investigated reputation system suggested that the system is capable, on average, of producing a rating ±1 from an objects correct rating. The results of the preprocessing optimization of end user license agreement classification suggested negligible impact. The results of using social interaction information in e-mail classification suggested that accurate spam detectors can be generated from the low-dimensional social data model alone, however, spam detectors generated from combinations of the traditional and social models were more accurate. Conclusions: The results of the presented approaches suggestthat it is possible to provide decision support for detecting software that might be of low utility to users. The labeling of instances of software and e-mail messages that are in a legal grey-zone can assist users in avoiding an instance of low utility, e.g. spam and spyware. A limitation in the approaches is that isolated implementations will yield unsatisfactory results in a real world setting. A combination of the approaches, e.g. to determine the utility of software, could yield improved results.

  • 1766.
    Borg, Anton
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    On Descriptive and Predictive Models for Serial Crime Analysis2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Law enforcement agencies regularly collect crime scene information. There exists, however, no detailed, systematic procedure for this. The data collected is affected by the experience or current condition of law enforcement officers. Consequently, the data collected might differ vastly between crime scenes. This is especially problematic when investigating volume crimes. Law enforcement officers regularly do manual comparison on crimes based on the collected data. This is a time-consuming process; especially as the collected crime scene information might not always be comparable. The structuring of data and introduction of automatic comparison systems could benefit the investigation process. This thesis investigates descriptive and predictive models for automatic comparison of crime scene data with the purpose of aiding law enforcement investigations. The thesis first investigates predictive and descriptive methods, with a focus on data structuring, comparison, and evaluation of methods. The knowledge is then applied to the domain of crime scene analysis, with a focus on detecting serial residential burglaries. This thesis introduces a procedure for systematic collection of crime scene information. The thesis also investigates impact and relationship between crime scene characteristics and how to evaluate the descriptive model results. The results suggest that the use of descriptive and predictive models can provide feedback for crime scene analysis that allows a more effective use of law enforcement resources. Using descriptive models based on crime characteristics, including Modus Operandi, allows law enforcement agents to filter cases intelligently. Further, by estimating the link probability between cases, law enforcement agents can focus on cases with higher link likelihood. This would allow a more effective use of law enforcement resources, potentially allowing an increase in clear-up rates.

  • 1767.
    Borg, Anton
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Boldt, Martin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Clustering Residential Burglaries Using Modus Operandi and Spatiotemporal Information2016In: International Journal of Information Technology and Decision Making, ISSN 0219-6220, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 23-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To identify series of residential burglaries, detecting linked crimes performed by the same constellations of criminals is necessary. Comparison of crime reports today is difficult as crime reports traditionally have been written as unstructured text and often lack a common information-basis. Based on a novel process for collecting structured crime scene information, the present study investigates the use of clustering algorithms to group similar crime reports based on combined crime characteristics from the structured form. Clustering quality is measured using Connectivity and Silhouette index (SI), stability using Jaccard index, and accuracy is measured using Rand index (RI) and a Series Rand index (SRI). The performance of clustering using combined characteristics was compared with spatial characteristic. The results suggest that the combined characteristics perform better or similar to the spatial characteristic. In terms of practical significance, the presented clustering approach is capable of clustering cases using a broader decision basis.

  • 1768. Borg, Anton
    et al.
    Boldt, Martin
    Carlsson, Bengt
    Simulating malicious users in a software reputation system2011In: Communications in Computer and Information Science, Springer , 2011, Vol. 186, p. 147-156Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, computer users have trouble in separating malicious and legitimate software. Traditional countermeasures such as anti-virus tools mainly protect against truly malicious programs, but the situation is complicated due to a "grey-zone" of questionable programs that are difficult to classify. We therefore suggest a software reputation system (SRS) to help computer users in separating legitimate software from its counterparts. In this paper we simulate the usage of a SRS to investigate the effects that malicious users have on the system. Our results show that malicious users will have little impact on the overall system, if kept within 10% of the population. However, a coordinated attack against a selected subset of the applications may distort the reputation of these applications. The results also show that there are ways to detect attack attempts in an early stage. Our conclusion is that a SRS could be used as a decision support system to protect against questionable software.

  • 1769.
    Borg, Anton
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Boldt, Martin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Eliasson, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Detecting Crime Series Based on Route Estimation and Behavioral Similarity2017In: 2017 EUROPEAN INTELLIGENCE AND SECURITY INFORMATICS CONFERENCE (EISIC) / [ed] Brynielsson, J, IEEE , 2017, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A majority of crimes are committed by a minority of offenders. Previous research has provided some support for the theory that serial offenders leave behavioral traces on the crime scene which could be used to link crimes to serial offenders. The aim of this work is to investigate to what extent it is possible to use geographic route estimations and behavioral data to detect serial offenders. Experiments were conducted using behavioral data from authentic burglary reports to investigate if it was possible to find crime routes with high similarity. Further, the use of burglary reports from serial offenders to investigate to what extent it was possible to detect serial offender crime routes. The result show that crime series with the same offender on average had a higher behavioral similarity than random crime series. Sets of crimes with high similarity, but without a known offender would be interesting for law enforcement to investigate further. The algorithm is also evaluated on 9 crime series containing a maximum of 20 crimes per series. The results suggest that it is possible to detect crime series with high similarity using analysis of both geographic routes and behavioral data recorded at crime scenes.

  • 1770.
    Borg, Anton
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Boldt, Martin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Eliasson, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Detecting Crime Series Based on Route Estimationand Behavioral Similarity2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A majority of crimes are committed by a minority of offenders. Previous research has provided some support for the theory that serial offenders leave behavioral traces on the crime scene which could be used to link crimes to serial offenders. The aim of this work is to investigate to what extent it is possible to use geographic route estimations and behavioral data to detect serial offenders. Experiments were conducted using behavioral data from authentic burglary reports to investigate if it was possible to find crime routes with high similarity. Further, the use of burglary reports from serial offenders to investigate to what extent it was possible to detect serial offender crime routes. The result show that crime series with the same offender on average had a higher behavioral similarity than random crime series. Sets of crimes with high similarity, but without a known offender would be interesting for law enforcement to investigate further. The algorithm is also evaluated on 9 crime series containing a maximum of 20 crimes per series. The results suggest that it is possible to detect crime series with high similarity using analysis of both geographic routes and behavioral data recorded at crime scenes.

  • 1771. Borg, Anton
    et al.
    Boldt, Martin
    Lavesson, Niklas
    Informed Software Installation through License Agreement Categorization2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spyware detection can be achieved by using machinelearning techniques that identify patterns in the End User License Agreements (EULAs) presented by application installers. However, solutions have required manual input from the user with varying degrees of accuracy. We have implemented an automatic prototype for extraction and classification and used it to generate a large data set of EULAs. This data set is used to compare four different machine learning algorithms when classifying EULAs. Furthermore, the effect of feature selection is investigated and for the top two algorithms, we investigate optimizing the performance using parameter tuning. Our conclusion is that feature selection and performance tuning are of limited use in this context, providing limited performance gains. However, both the Bagging and the Random Forest algorithms show promising results, with Bagging reaching an AUC measure of 0.997 and a False Negative Rate of 0.062. This shows the applicability of License Agreement Categorization for realizing informed software installation.

  • 1772.
    Borg, Anton
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Boldt, Martin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Lavesson, Niklas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Melander, Ulf
    Boeva, Veselka
    Detecting serial residential burglaries using clustering2014In: Expert Systems with Applications, ISSN 0957-4174 , Vol. 41, no 11, p. 5252-5266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention, law enforcement agencies solved approximately three to five percent of the reported residential burglaries in 2012. Internationally, studies suggest that a large proportion of crimes are committed by a minority of offenders. Law enforcement agencies, consequently, are required to detect series of crimes, or linked crimes. Comparison of crime reports today is difficult as no systematic or structured way of reporting crimes exists, and no ability to search multiple crime reports exist. This study presents a systematic data collection method for residential burglaries. A decision support system for comparing and analysing residential burglaries is also presented. The decision support system consists of an advanced search tool and a plugin-based analytical framework. In order to find similar crimes, law enforcement officers have to review a large amount of crimes. The potential use of the cut-clustering algorithm to group crimes to reduce the amount of crimes to review for residential burglary analysis based on characteristics is investigated. The characteristics used are modus operandi, residential characteristics, stolen goods, spatial similarity, or temporal similarity. Clustering quality is measured using the modularity index and accuracy is measured using the rand index. The clustering solution with the best quality performance score were residential characteristics, spatial proximity, and modus operandi, suggesting that the choice of which characteristic to use when grouping crimes can positively affect the end result. The results suggest that a high quality clustering solution performs significantly better than a random guesser. In terms of practical significance, the presented clustering approach is capable of reduce the amounts of cases to review while keeping most connected cases. While the approach might miss some connections, it is also capable of suggesting new connections. The results also suggest that while crime series clustering is feasible, further investigation is needed.

  • 1773.
    Borg, Anton
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Lavesson, Niklas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    E-mail Classification using Social Network Information2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A majority of E-mail is suspected to be spam. Traditional spam detection fails to differentiate between user needs and evolving social relationships. Online Social Networks (OSNs) contain more and more social information, contributed by users. OSN information may be used to improve spam detection. This paper presents a method that can use several social networks for detecting spam and a set of metrics for representing OSN data. The paper investigates the impact of using social network data extracted from an E-mail corpus to improve spam detection. The social data model is compared to traditional spam data models by generating and evaluating classifiers from both model types. The results show that accurate spam detectors can be generated from the low-dimensional social data model alone, however, spam detectors generated from combinations of the traditional and social models were more accurate than the detectors generated from either model in isolation.

  • 1774.
    Borg, Anton
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Lavesson, Niklas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Boeva, Veselka
    Comparison of clustering approaches for gene expression data2013In: Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, IOS Press , 2013, Vol. 257, p. 55-64Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clustering algorithms have been used to divide genes into groups according to the degree of their expression similarity. Such a grouping may suggest that the respective genes are correlated and/or co-regulated, and subsequently indicates that the genes could possibly share a common biological role. In this paper, four clustering algorithms are investigated: k-means, cut-clustering, spectral and expectation-maximization. The algorithms are benchmarked against each other. The performance of the four clustering algorithms is studied on time series expression data using Dynamic TimeWarping distance in order to measure similarity between gene expression profiles. Four different cluster validation measures are used to evaluate the clustering algorithms: Connectivity and Silhouette Index for estimating the quality of clusters, Jaccard Index for evaluating the stability of a cluster method and Rand Index for assessing the accuracy. The obtained results are analyzed by Friedman's test and the Nemenyi post-hoc test. K-means is demonstrated to be significantly better than the spectral clustering algorithm under the Silhouette and Rand validation indices.

  • 1775. Borg, Christel
    Life satisfaction among informal caregivers in comparison with non-caregivers2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 20, p. 427-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Being a caregiver with responsibility for someone with reduced health compared with not being a caregiver maymean different views of life satisfaction. Knowledge of what leads to reduced life satisfaction in caregivers may be helpful in interventions. Informal caregivers gainfully employed or not, aged 50–89 years, were studied with regard to life satisfaction depending on the extent of caregiving to identify types of social support of value for caregivers. A cross-sectional study was conducted including a sample of 151 informal caregivers with a high caregiving extent, 392 caregivers with a lower caregiving extent and 1258 non-caregivers. The sample was randomly selected to correspond with older Swedes as a whole aged 50–89 years. A questionnaire containing a modified form of Older Americans’ Resources Schedule (OARS) and Life Satisfaction Index Z (LSIZ) was used; 19.6% helped someone with activities of daily living and of these 27% stated that they did so frequently. Frequent caregivingimplied significantly higher age, being more often married and retired, than less frequent caregivers and non-caregivers. Frequent caregivers also performed personal activities of daily living (PADL) to a higher extent than less frequent caregivers and had significantly lower LSIZ (mean 14.8) than less frequent caregivers (mean 17.6) and noncaregivers (mean 17.7). No significant differences were found between less frequent caregivers and non-caregivers in LSIZ. One-fourth had support from others, the commonesttype being able to converse with a next of kin, and help and advice from professionals. Lower life satisfaction was associated with not being employed, low social resources, not refreshed after a night’s sleep, overall poor health and frequent caregiving in the entire sample. High caregiving extent was associated with lower life satisfaction. The most important factors explaining lower life satisfaction among frequent caregivers were having low social resources and having poor health. Economic compensation or payment was the support most desired.

  • 1776. Borg, Christel
    et al.
    Fagerström, Cecilia
    Balducci, Cristian
    Burholt, Vanessa
    Ferring, Dieter
    Weber, Germain
    Wenger, Clare G.
    Holst, Göran
    Hallberg, Ingalill R
    Life satisfaction in 6 European Countries: The Relationship to health, Self-Esteem, and Social and Financial Resources among People (Aged 65-89) with Reduced Functional Capacity2008In: Geriatric Nursing, ISSN 0197-4572, E-ISSN 1528-3984, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 48-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate how overall health, participation in physical activities, self-esteem and social and financial resources are related to life satisfaction among people (65+) with reduced Activities of Daily Living (ADL) capacity in six European countries. A subsample of the European Study of Adults’ Well-Being (ESAW), consisting of 2195 people with reduced ADL capacity from Sweden, the UK, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Austria, and Italy, was included. The Older Americans’ Resources Schedule (OARS), the Life Satisfaction Index Z, and the Self-esteem scale were used. In all national samples, overall health, self-esteem and feeling worried, rather than ADL capacity, were significantly associated with life satisfaction. The findings indicate the importance of not only taking the reduction in functional capacity into account, but also the individual’s perception of health and self-esteem, when outlining health care and nursing aimed at improving life satisfaction. The study thus suggests that personal, rather than environmental, factors are important for life satisfaction among people with reduced ADL capacity living in Europe.

  • 1777. Borg, Christel
    et al.
    Hallberg, Ingalill R
    Blomqvist, Kerstin
    Life satisfaction among older people (+65) with reduced self-care capacity: the relationship to social, health and financial aspects2006In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067 , Vol. 15, p. 607-618Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life satisfaction among older people (65þ) with reduced self-care capacity: the relationship to social, health and financial aspects Aims and objectives. This study aimed at investigating life satisfaction and its relation to living conditions, overall health, self-care capacity, feeling lonely, physical activities and financial resources among people (65þ) with reduced selfcare capacity. Background. Knowledge about factors related to low life satisfaction among older people with reduced self-care capacity is sparse, although this is important in health care and nursing so that the care is adapted to their needs and perspective. Previous research has mainly focused on isolated aspects such as pain in relation to life satisfaction among older people in general and less among so those with reduced self-care capacity in general. Design and method. A subsample of 522 persons was selected from a randomly selected cross-sectional survey using a modified form of the Older Americans’ Resources Schedule and Life Satisfaction Index Z. Results. The mean age in the total sample was 77Æ9; women (79Æ5) were significantly older than men (77Æ0). Low life satisfaction was found among women, as well as those living in special accommodations. Life Satisfaction Index Z was 15Æ3 (SD 5Æ6) in the total sample. Gender and living conditions did not explain life satisfaction whilst poor overall self-reported health and poor financial resources in relation to needs had the strongest explanatory value. Also of significant importance were loneliness, the degree of reduced self-care capacity and feeling worried. Conclusion. Life satisfaction in older people with reduced self-care capacity is determined by several factors, with social, physical, mental and financial aspects probably interacting with each other; especially feeling lonely, degree of self-care capacity, poor overall health, feeling worried and poor financial resources in relation to needs. These factors need to be considered in the care of these people to preserve or improve their life satisfaction. Relevance to clinical practice. Nursing interventions in terms of preventive home visits, rehabilitation, health education directed towards physical, psychological, social and economic aspects of importance may help to preserve or improve life satisfaction for those with reduced self-care capacity.

  • 1778.
    Borg, Christel
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Health. Linnéuniversitetet.
    Rask, Mikael
    Linnéuniversitetet, SWE.
    Albinsson, Gunilla
    Linnéuniversitetet, SWE.
    Safipour, Jalal
    Linnéuniversitetet, SWE.
    Wenneberg, Stig
    Linnéuniversitetet, SWE.
    Andersson, Lisbet
    Linnéuniversitetet, SWE.
    Carlsson Blomster, Monika
    Linnéuniversitetet, SWE.
    Ozolins, Lise-Lotte
    Linnéuniversitetet, SWE.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Linnéuniversitetet, SWE.
    Validation of the verbal and social interaction questionnaire for nursing students: The focus of nursing students in their relationship with patients2018In: Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, ISSN 1925-4040, E-ISSN 1925-4059, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 81-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Verbal and Social Interaction Nursing Students questionnaire (VSI-NS) has been created to measure the development ofverbal, social and interactional skills of nursing students with patients, from their perspective in nursing care. The aim of thepresent study was to determine the construct validity and internal consistency reliability of the questionnaire. The study had amethodological and developmental design and was carried out in four steps: adjustment of the items, face validity, data collectionand data analysis. The number of items was reduced from 48 to 31. The factor analysis of the final 31 items resulted in four quitedistinct factors: “Inviting to talk about feelings and thoughts”, “Building a caring relationship”, “Encouraging social and practicalaspects in daily life” and “Caring towards health and wellbeing”. The results showed satisfactory psychometric properties interms of content validity, construct validity and the internal consistency reliability of the questionnaire. It could be concluded thatthe original conceptual model could serve as a theoretical foundation to explain and understand nurses’ caring interactions withtheir patients

  • 1779.
    Borg, Jens
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Engström, Anders
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Dynamic Behaviour of a Soil Compaction Tamping Machine1997Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A theoretical model was suggested and equations of motion derived. A computer program was developed to solve the resulting system of equations. Agreement between calculated and experimental results is not quite satisfactory. Reasons for discrepancy are discussed and suggestions for further investigation are given.

  • 1780.
    Borg, Marcus
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Spatial Planning.
    Bostadsbrist trots ökat bostadsbyggande, om ansvar och behov: En fallstudie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det råder bostadsbrist i Sverige, trots att det återigen byggs bostäder i högt tempo. Flera orsaker kan förklara den stora bostadsbristen. Sveriges befolkning har ökat med 25% den senaste årtionden, delvis till följd av ökad invandring. Samtidigt pågår en fortsatt urbanisering som ökar trycket på bostäder i storstadsregionerna. Miljonprogrammet ledde till moderna bostäder under 1960-1970-talet, men i början av 1990-talet var bostadsmarknaden mättad. När befolkningen idag återigen ökar saknas det bostäder. I Sverige är det en generell bostadspolitik som varit och är dominerande, vilken bygger på socialistiska grunder där alla skulle ha rätt till bostäder med hög standard. Den bostadspolitiska modellen har sedan 1980-talet utmanats och influerats av nyliberala tankegångar. Den generella bostadspolitiken och nyliberalism står till viss del i motsats till varandra och det är därför av intresse att undersöka hur kommuner och bostadsbolag förhåller sig till det bostadsförsörjningsansvar som lagstiftningen beslutat om. Det kan ge en ökad förståelse för hur det kommunala bostadsförsörjningsansvaret tillämpas.

     

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka Stockholms stads kommunala bostadsförsörjningsansvar i förhållande till bostadsmarknadens behov och den rådande bostadsbristen. Syftet är vidare att förstå bostadsbristens problematik ur den historiska kontexten och samtidens nyliberala influenser. Det har gjorts genom en kvalitativ fallstudie där Stockholms stads bostadsförsörjningsprogram tillsammans med deras kommunala bostadsföretag har studerats för att se hur de omsätter sitt ansvar i praktiken för att möta behovet på bostäder.

     

    Studien visar på att det finns ett visst glapp mellan lagstiftningens intention och Stockholms stads tillämpning. Det delvis på grund av den svängning som skett i svensk bostadspolitik med nyliberala influenser. Tillika har inte behovet av bostäder tillgodosetts på ett tillfredställande vis, något som pekar på att svensk bostadspolitik behöver förändras. Ur resultatet framgår att Stockholms stad i sitt bostadsförsörjningsprogram och deras kommunala bostadsbolag lägger stort ansvar på privata aktörer för att tillgodose bostadsbehovet. Studien visar på att behovet på bostäder inte tillgodosetts och då i synnerhet inte segmentet i bostadsstocken där studien visar att behovet är som störst. 

  • 1781.
    Borg, Marcus
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Spatial Planning.
    Hälsosam stadsplanering: en fallstudie av Stockholm, Göteborg och Malmö2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Fysisk planering är ett område som har möjlighet att påverka många olika delar i samhället. Det innebär således att arbetet med en god fysisk planering är viktigt för att samhället ska fungera på ett bra sätt. Denna studie undersöker närmre hur fysisk planering används för att främja människors hälsa och välbefinnande i de tre kommunerna Stockholm, Göteborg och Malmö. Hälsa och välbefinnande borde vara en självklarhet att sträva efter i stadsplaneringen de menar i alla fall forskare som arbetar för WHO och som denna studie tar sin grund i. De lyfter en oro om att stadsplaneringen börjar glömma bort hur viktiga dessa aspekter är runt om i Europa. Stämmer detta även i en svensk kontext? Eller har vi i Sverige ett sätt att planera som tillgodoser människors hälsa och välbefinnande? Det är frågor som studien diskutera och försöka hitta svar på. Det har under studiens gång framkommit att Hälsosam stadsplanering så som Barton och Tsourou (2000) beskriver den har mycket att göra med att skapa förutsättningar för stadens invånare att förändra sin livsstil. En av de huvudsakliga delarna har visat sig vara att öka möjligheten för människor att röra sig mer till vardags genom att planera för städer där gång och cykel är naturliga transportmedel. Det räcker inte bara att förbättra gång och cykelvägar. Det handlar således om att stadens struktur bör vara anpassad efter närhet och med god tillgång till den vardagliga servicen så att behovet av att transportera sig med bil försvinner. Det har visat sig att denna strategi är något som alla tre kommunerna i undersökningen har anammat och redan där har det kunnat konstateras att kommunerna är en god bit på vägen att tillämpa en hälsosam stadsplanering. Men begreppet rör så mycket mer till exempel boendekvalité, social sammanhållning och tillgänglighet. 

  • 1782.
    Borg, Mariella
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Persson, Malin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Kommunikationens betydelse i mötet mellan vårdpersonal och patient vid palliativ vård2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Kommunikationen har en grundläggande betydelse för allt omvårdnadsarbete med patienter, men blir ännu viktigare när det rör människor som vårdas palliativt. Vårdpersonalen ska ge korrekt information till patient och samtidigt kunna lyssna på patienten och tyda patientens individuella sätt att kommunicera genom verbal och icke verbal kommunikation. Syftet med denna studie var att belysa kommunikationen i mötet vid palliativ vård. Metoden: Studien utfördes som en litteraturstudie. Författarna valde att analysera nio vetenskapliga artiklar, där alla valda innehöll området kommunikation. Resultat: Att kommunicera med varandra i mötet sker med ord och kroppsspråket, som en stadig ström av signaler. Genom att se patienten och att försöka tolka dennes sätt att kommunicera försöker vårdpersonal att skapa en trygghet för patienten vid livets slut. I mötet mellan sjuksköterskan och patienten finns det faktorer som kan hjälpa dem att skapa en bra kommunikation och en god relation, men det finns också faktorer som kan försvåra mötet dem emellan. I sin profession har sjuksköterskan ett ansvar att skapa ett bra möte, en god kommunikation och en trygg omgivning för patienten när livets slut närmar sig. Genom sjuksköterskans empatiska förmåga, sin erfarenhet och kunskap om individen som vårdas inom palliativ vård utvecklas hon ständigt i sin profession. Diskussion: Resultat har visat att kommunikationen i mötet vid palliativ vård har en stor betydelse för att skapa ett samspel mellan patient och vårdpersonal. Då vi möter människor i livets slutskede är samtalet ett viktigt redskap. En god relation och en bra kommunikation mellan patient och sjuksköterska är en av den palliativa vårdens viktigaste bitar.

  • 1783.
    Borg, Markus
    et al.
    RISE SICS AB, SWE.
    Alegroth, Emil
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Runeson, Per
    Lunds Universitet, SWE.
    Software Engineers' Information Seeking Behavior in Change Impact Analysis: An Interview Study2017In: IEEE International Conference on Program Comprehension, IEEE Computer Society , 2017, p. 12-22Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software engineers working in large projects must navigate complex information landscapes. Change Impact Analysis (CIA) is a task that relies on engineers' successful information seeking in databases storing, e.g., source code, requirements, design descriptions, and test case specifications. Several previous approaches to support information seeking are task-specific, thus understanding engineers' seeking behavior in specific tasks is fundamental. We present an industrial case study on how engineers seek information in CIA, with a particular focus on traceability and development artifacts that are not source code. We show that engineers have different information seeking behavior, and that some do not consider traceability particularly useful when conducting CIA. Furthermore, we observe a tendency for engineers to prefer less rigid types of support rather than formal approaches, i.e., engineers value support that allows flexibility in how to practically conduct CIA. Finally, due to diverse information seeking behavior, we argue that future CIA support should embrace individual preferences to identify change impact by empowering several seeking alternatives, including searching, browsing, and tracing. © 2017 IEEE.

  • 1784.
    Borg, Markus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB, SWE.
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Alégroth, Emil
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB, SWE.
    Shah, Syed Muhammad Ali
    iZettle, SWE.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB, SWE.
    Selecting component sourcing options: A survey of software engineering's broader make-or-buy decisions2019In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 112, p. 18-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Component-based software engineering (CBSE) is a common approach to develop and evolve contemporary software systems. When evolving a system based on components, make-or-buy decisions are frequent, i.e., whether to develop components internally or to acquire them from external sources. In CBSE, several different sourcing options are available: (1) developing software in-house, (2) outsourcing development, (3) buying commercial-off-the-shelf software, and (4) integrating open source software components. Objective: Unfortunately, there is little available research on how organizations select component sourcing options (CSO) in industry practice. In this work, we seek to contribute empirical evidence to CSO selection. Method: We conduct a cross-domain survey on CSO selection in industry, implemented as an online questionnaire. Results: Based on 188 responses, we find that most organizations consider multiple CSOs during software evolution, and that the CSO decisions in industry are dominated by expert judgment. When choosing between candidate components, functional suitability acts as an initial filter, then reliability is the most important quality. Conclusion: We stress that future solution-oriented work on decision support has to account for the dominance of expert judgment in industry. Moreover, we identify considerable variation in CSO decision processes in industry. Finally, we encourage software development organizations to reflect on their decision processes when choosing whether to make or buy components, and we recommend using our survey for a first benchmarking. © 2019

  • 1785.
    Borg, Markus
    et al.
    SICS Swedish ICT AB, SWE.
    Luis de la Vara, Jose
    Univ Carlos III Madrid, ESP.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Practitioners' Perspectives on Change Impact Analysis for Safety-Critical Software: A Preliminary Analysis2016In: COMPUTER SAFETY, RELIABILITY, AND SECURITY, SAFECOMP 2016, 2016, p. 346-358Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety standards prescribe change impact analysis (CIA) during evolution of safety-critical software systems. Although CIA is a fundamental activity, there is a lack of empirical studies about how it is performed in practice. We present a case study on CIA in the context of an evolving automation system, based on 14 interviews in Sweden and India. Our analysis suggests that engineers on average spend 50-100 h on CIA per year, but the effort varies considerably with the phases of projects. Also, the respondents presented different connotations to CIA and perceived the importance of CIA differently. We report the most pressing CIA challenges, and several ideas on how to support future CIA. However, we show that measuring the effect of such improvement solutions is non-trivial, as CIA is intertwined with other development activities. While this paper only reports preliminary results, our work contributes empirical insights into practical CIA.

  • 1786.
    Borg, Markus
    et al.
    SICS Swedish ICT AB, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Regnell, Björn
    Lund University, SWE.
    Runeson, Per
    Lund University, SWE.
    Supporting Change Impact Analysis Using a Recommendation System: An Industrial Case Study in a Safety-Critical Context2017In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 43, no 7, p. 675-700Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract—Change Impact Analysis (CIA) during software evolution of safety-critical systems is a labor-intensive task. Severalauthors have proposed tool support for CIA, but very few tools were evaluated in industry. We present a case study on ImpRec, arecommendation System for Software Engineering (RSSE), tailored for CIA at a process automation company. ImpRec builds onassisted tracing, using information retrieval solutions and mining software repositories to recommend development artifacts, potentiallyimpacted when resolving incoming issue reports. In contrast to the majority of tools for automated CIA, ImpRec explicitly targetsdevelopment artifacts that are not source code. We evaluate ImpRec in a two-phase study. First, we measure the correctness ofImpRec’s recommendations by a simulation based on 12 years’ worth of issue reports in the company. Second, we assess the utilityof working with ImpRec by deploying the RSSE in two development teams on different continents. The results suggest that ImpRecpresents about 40 percent of the true impact among the top-10 recommendations. Furthermore, user log analysis indicates thatImpRec can support CIA in industry, and developers acknowledge the value of ImpRec in interviews. In conclusion, our findings showthe potential of reusing traceability associated with developers’ past activities in an RSSE

  • 1787. Borgh, Markus
    et al.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Schüldt, Christian
    Lindström, Fredric
    Claesson, Ingvar
    An improved adaptive gain equalizer for noise reduction with low speech distortion2011In: EURASIP Journal on Audio, Speech, and Music Processing, ISSN 1687-4714, E-ISSN 1687-4722, Vol. 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In high-quality conferencing systems, it is desired to perform noise reduction with as limited speech distortion as possible. Previous work, based on time varying amplification controlled by signal-to-noise ratio estimation in different frequency subbands, has shown promising results in this regard but can suffer from problems in situations with intense continuous speech. Further, the amount of noise reduction cannot exceed a certain level in order to avoid artifacts. This paper establishes the problems and proposes several improvements. The improved algorithm is evaluated with several different noise characteristics, and the results show that the algorithm provides even less speech distortion, better performance in a multi-speaker environment and improved noise suppression when speech is absent compared with previous work.

  • 1788. Borgh, Markus
    et al.
    Johansson, Sven
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Signal Processing.
    From, Åsa
    Lindström, Fredric
    A Personal Voice Analyzer and Trainer2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a personal voice analyzer and trainer that allow the user to perform four daily exercises to improve the voice capacity. The system grades how well the user is performing the exercises by analyzing the duration, the intensity and the pitch of the user’s voice.

  • 1789. Borgh, Markus
    et al.
    Lindström, Fredric
    Waye, Kerstin Persson
    Claesson, Ingvar
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Signal Processing.
    The Effect of Own Voice on Noise Dosimeter Measurements: A Field Study in a Day-Care Environment, Including Adults and Children2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Noise dosimeters are valuable tools in assessing the individual noise dose in the workplace. At non-industrial work places with a high degree of communication, such measurements would include the wearer’s own voice which would be registered as noise. This may not always be desirable. The purpose of this investigation was to study the effect of the wearers own voice in noise dosimeter measurements, and especially the difference between children and adults as test subjects. The study took place at a day-care center and sixteen children and thirteen adult female preschool teachers participated. The participants wore a digital recorder during the day, which recorded the sound signal and vibrations originating from an accelerometer attached to the neck of the test subjects, for distinguishing of whether the subject was speaking or not. Thus, average A-weighted noise levels with and without the influence of the subjects own voice could be obtained. The Leq for the measurements with and without the own voice was 84.6 dBA and 72.2 dBA for the children, respectively, and 79.3 dBA and 70.0 dBA for adults. Student’s t-test showed a significant (p<0.01) difference of 12.4 dBA for children and 9.3 dBA for adults when comparing measurements including and excluding the own voice and also that the difference was significantly larger for children. Thus, the study conclude that the influence from the own voice implied an augmentation of the Leq value and that there is a significant difference between children and adults in how large this augmentation is.

  • 1790. Borgh, Markus
    et al.
    Schüldt, Christian
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Signal Processing.
    Claesson, Ingvar
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Signal Processing.
    Efficient asynchronous re-sampling implementation on a low-power fixed-point DSP2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an asynchronous resampling implementation on a low-power fixed-point DSP, which uses around 47% less computational resources compared to the solution provided by the DSP manufacturer, without compromising audio quality.

  • 1791.
    Borglin, Gunilla
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Promoting Critical Thinking and Academic Writing Skills in Nurse Education2012In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, Vol. 32, no 5, p. 611-3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although academic skills, conceptualised as writing and critical thinking, are a vital part of university studies, research indicates that many students leave without having mastered these skills effectively. This research also reflects on nursing students. Nursing could also be said to be hampered by a number of complex educational challenges that are likely to impact on the academic socialisation process in general. These challenges include being a relatively ‘young’ academic discipline, the ‘theory–practice’ divide, a knowledge bed lying on a complex intersection of two ‘antithetical sciences’ and, at least in the Scandinavian countries, an increasing number of nurse educators with a PhD in nursing science but with limited time to develop their own teaching skills. In combination, these challenges have the potential to act as stumbling blocks, both from a teaching and learning perspective. I would suggest that a departure in teaching fromtheoretical educational models, such as Lea and Street's ‘academic literacies model,’ including skills, socialisation and academic literacy models simultaneously, could be one of several ways forward to create a learning environment that takes these issues into account.

  • 1792. Borglin, Gunilla
    et al.
    Fagerstrom, Cecilia
    Nursing students understanding of critical thinking and academic writing.2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1793.
    Borglin, Gunilla
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Fagerström, Cecilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Nursing students understanding of critical thinking and appraisal and academic writing: A descriptive qualitative study2012In: Nurse Education in Practice, ISSN 0260-6917, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 356-360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, regulations from the National Agency for Higher Education advocate an education that equips students with independence as well as critical, problem-based thinking, i.e. academic literacy skills. However, some research findings indicate that students may leave higher education without mastering these skills effectively. As part of quality-assuring a nursing programme at a university college in south-east Sweden we explored the nursing student's view of crucial academic literacy skills, such as critical thinking and appraisal and academic writing, by conducting a descriptive, qualitative study. Informants were recruited through an advertisement posted on the university's e-learning tool. Eight focused interviews were conducted during autumn 2010. The transcribed interviews were analysed – inspired by content analysis – and two categories became apparent: constantly questioning and formality before substance. The latter revealed a gap between the student's perception of academic writing and that of the educators, thus implying that nursing students might not be equipped with the tools they need to develop within academia. We suggest that students could benefit in their academic endeavours from theoretical educational models that integrate several academic skills simultaneously and which could be incorporated into the development of syllabuses and curriculums.

  • 1794.
    Borglin, Gunilla
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Gustafsson, Markus
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Krona, Hans
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    A theory-based educational intervention targeting nurses’ attitudes and knowledge concerning cancer-related pain management: A study protocol of a quasi-experimental design2011In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 11, no 233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Pain is one of the most frequent problems among patients diagnosed with cancer. Despite the availability of effective pharmacological treatments, this group of patients often receives less than optimal treatment. Research into nurses’ pain management highlights certain factors, such as lack of knowledge and attitudes and inadequate procedures for systematic pain assessment, as common barriers to effective pain management. However, educational interventions targeting nurses’ pain management have shown promise. As cancer-related pain is also known to have a negative effect on vital aspects of the patient’s life, as well as being commonly associated with problems such as sleep, fatigue, depression and anxiety, further development of knowledge within this area is warranted. Methods/design: A quasi-experimental study design will be used to investigate whether the implementation of guidelines for systematic daily pain assessments following a theory-based educational intervention will result in an improvement in knowledge and attitude among nurses. A further aim is to investigate whether the intervention that targets nurses’ behaviour will improve hospital patients’ perception of pain. Data regarding nurses’ knowledge and attitudes to pain (primary outcome), patient perception regarding pain (secondary outcome), together with socio-demographic variables, will be collected at baseline and at four weeks and 12 weeks following the intervention. Discussion: Nursing care is nowadays acknowledged as an increasingly complicated activity and “nursing complexity is such that it can be seen as the quintessential complex intervention.” To be able to change and improve clinical practice thus requires multiple points of attack appropriate to meet complex challenges. Consequently, we expect the theory-based intervention used in our quasi-experimental study to improve care as well as quality of life for this group of patients and we also envisage that evidence-based guidelines targeting this patient group’s pain will be implemented more widely. Trial Registration Number: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01313234

  • 1795. Borglin, Gunilla
    et al.
    Hentzel, Johanna
    Bohman, Doris
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Health.
    Public health care nurses' views of mothers' mental health in paediatric healthcare services: a qualitative study2015In: Primary Health Care Research and Development, ISSN 1463-4236, E-ISSN 1477-1128, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 470-480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To investigate public health nurses' perceptions and experiences of mental health and of the prevention of mental ill health among women postpartum, within paediatric healthcare services. Background: Although maternal health following childbirth should be a priority within primary care, it is known that women postpartum do not always receive the support they need to adapt to and cope with motherhood. Research implies that postnatal problems lack recognition and are not always acknowledged in routine practice. Few studies have been presented on this topic or from the perspective of nurses. Methods: For this study, eight semi-structured interviews were conducted with public health nurses, and the transcribed texts were analysed through a process inspired by Burnard's description of the four-step qualitative content analysis. Findings: Three categories - external influences on postpartum mental health, screening for and preventing postpartum mental ill health and paediatric healthcare services as a platform for support - were interpreted to reflect the nurses' perceptions and experiences of mental health among women postpartum and of the prevention of mental ill health among women postpartum. Conclusion: We found that public health nurses can have an important role in supporting mothers' mental health postpartum. Although caution is warranted in interpreting our results, the findings concur with those of other studies, highlighting that an equal care emphasis on both the mother and child can be an important aspect of successful support. Implementing person-centred care might be one strategy to create such an emphasis, while also promoting the mental health of new mothers. Public health nurses have a unique opportunity to support mothers' transition into healthy motherhood, especially because they are likely to meet both mothers and children on a regular basis during the first year after birth.

  • 1796. Borglin, Gunilla
    et al.
    Richards, David A.
    Bias in experimental nursing research: Strategies to improve the quality and explanatory power of nursing science2010In: International Journal of Nursing Studies, ISSN 0020-7489, E-ISSN 1873-491X, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 123-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a guest editorial in this journal, Rahm Hallberg [Rahm Hallberg, I., 2006. Challenges for future nursing research: providing evidence for health-care practice. International Journal of Nursing Studies 43, 923–927] called for research which has greater explanatory power to determine the effectiveness of nursing interventions. In this paper we critique the suggestion made by the evidence-based nursing movement that randomisation per se is the principal route to better quality nursing research. In contrast, we evaluate the new CONSORT criteria for pragmatic RCTs, which assess the quality of strategies to reduce selection, performance, attrition and detection biases, allowing many different types of comparative studies to be covered by application of the checklist. We propose that randomisation alone is a necessary but insufficient strategy and that nursing researchers rise to Rahm Hallberg’s challenge by adopting the extended criteria to assist in the critical appraisal, design and reporting of all experimental research in nursing.

  • 1797.
    Borgman, Unni
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Health.
    Reimers, Christian
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Health.
    Så länge jag minns vill jag berätta: En litteraturstudie om Alzheimers sjukdom baserad på patografier.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Alzheimers sjukdom är den vanligaste demenssjukdomen i Sverige och varje år insjuknar cirka 15 000 personer. Det finns inget botemedel utan hälso- och sjukvårdens insatser bör riktas mot att underlätta tillvaron för personen som insjuknat. För att sjuksköterskan på bästa sätt ska kunna bemöta den unika upplevelsen en person har av den egna sjukdomsupplevelsen bör sjuksköterskan tillämpa personcentrerad vård.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att beskriva personers egna upplevelser av att leva med Alzheimers sjukdom.

    Metod: En litteraturstudie med kvalitativ ansats baserad på patografier. Innehållsanalys utförd utifrån Graneheim och Lundmans pedagogiska modell för textanalys med en manifest ansats.

    Resultat: I studien framkom tre kategorier. Under kategorin Ett förändrat jag beskriver personerna med sjukdomen hur den förändrar deras person och begränsar deras kapacitet. Under kategorin Ett förändrat socialt liv upplever personerna förändringar i de nära relationerna, ett ökat behov av stöd samt en upplevd förändring ibland andra när sjukdomen är uttalad. Den sista kategorin Sjukdomen som ett hot mot den egna existensen visar att personer med sjukdomen upplever avsaknad av kontroll i sjukdomens förödande process och att framtiden är oviss. Samtidigt förser dock sjukdomen personerna med en möjlighet att ta till vara och uppskatta varje dag.

    Slutsats: Studiens resultat visar att personer med Alzheimers sjukdom upplever att livet förändras i grunden. Den egna personen förändras, det sociala livet påverkas och att sjukdomen verkar som ett hot mot den egna existensen. Genom att sjuksköterskan känner till hur personer med Alzheimers sjukdom kan uppleva sin tillvaro med sjukdomen kan sjuksköterskan stärka vårdrelationen och sätta personen i centrum för vården.

  • 1798.
    Borgqvist, André
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Interaction and System Design.
    Reliable access to synchronized world state information in peer to peer networks2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual environments where users can interact with each other as well as with the environment are today used in many application areas ranging from military simulations to massive multiplayer online games. But no matter the application area, as soon as the number of users reaches a certain threshold, hosting a virtual environment on a single machine can become problematic. Speed and quality of the network connection will limit the number of concurrently connected users in terms of acceptable visual quality and hardware requirements of the server will be strict. With a single point of failure, system reliability could easily be compromised by means of network or host failure. Distribution of the virtual environment therefore seems a reasonable approach in order to address this problem. Hardware and network requirements would not be so critical and it would increase reliability by having no single point of failure. Unfortunately distribution introduces new problems dealing with synchronization of the world state within the distribution network. A possible solution to these problems with the focus on reliability will be presented in this thesis. The solution uses a peer to peer platform that is able to adapt to changes in the network infrastructure as a base for all communication. To improve synchronization efficiency the network will be dynamically divided into multicast groups based on synchronization needs. The solution will be tested for performance with the network fully functioning and in a number of more of less broken states to determine the reliability. The results from the tests conclude that the system is able to perform with what must be seen as acceptable performance levels even in very problematic network environments. The scalability of the system did also meet the expectations but the results would have benefited from more experimentation with larger user populations.

  • 1799.
    Borgstrand, Richard
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Servin, Patrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Reinforcement Learning AI till Fightingspel2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Utförandet av projektet har varit att implementera två stycken fightingspels Artificiell Intelligens (kommer att förkortas AI). En oadaptiv och mer deterministisk AI och en adaptiv dynamisk AI som använder reinforcement learning. Detta har utförts med att skripta beteendet av AI:n i en gratis 2D fightingsspels motor som heter ”MUGEN”. AI:n använder sig utav skriptade sekvenser som utförs med MUGEN’s egna trigger och state system. Detta system kollar om de skriptade specifierade kraven är uppfyllda för AI:n att ska ”trigga”, utföra den bestämda handlingen. Den mer statiska AI:n har blivit uppbyggd med egen skapade sekvenser och regler som utförs delvis situationsmässigt och delvis slumpmässigt. För att försöka uppnå en reinforcement learning AI så har sekvenserna tilldelats en variabel som procentuellt ökar chansen för utförandet av handlingen när handlingen har givit något positivt och det motsatta minskar när handlingen har orsakat något negativt.

  • 1800.
    Borgström, Alexander
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Planning and Media Design.
    Axelsson, Markus Lok
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Planning and Media Design.
    Genreblandning i digitala spel2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Genreblandning har de senaste fem åren blivit en allt större del i hur datorspel designas. Den här uppsatsen är en studie i hur genreblandning kan appliceras i en spelproduktion och hur denna produktion och dess genreblandning uppfattas av en grupp utomstående som sedan spelar spelet. Den blandning som studeras är den mellan genrerna role-playing game, dual-joystick shooter och minigolf. Resultaten från den enkät denna grupp sedan svarar på visar att genreblandning mellan de valda genrerna fungerar trots deras olikheter sinsemellan, men att det är mycket viktigt att spelets övriga element inte försummas till förmån för genreblandningen. Det framgår även att den grad till vilken de tre genrerna blandas i spelet respondenterna testar inte är den maximala.

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