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  • 1751. Winter, Jeff
    et al.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    Ahlberg, Mårten
    Hinely, Mark
    Hellman, Mats
    Developing Quality through Measuring Usability--The UTUM Test Package2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikeln presenterar ett sätt att bygga in användningskvalité i mjukvara och mjukvaruprocesser, genom att använda ett testpaket för mobiltelefoner. Testpaketet är ett resultat av ett långt samarbete mellan industrin och akademin. Den påvisar användbarhet med hjälp av mätningar av användarhetsaspekter, som kompletteras med testledarens subjektiva bedömning. Artikeln är baserad på tester som har utförts parallelt i två länder. Vi har funnit att testet har fungerat i en komplicerad industriell miljö med komplicerade förhållanden mellan kunder, partners och slutanvändare. Användbarhet, mätningar, kvalité, UTUM

  • 1752. Winter, Jeff
    et al.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    Ahlberg, Mårten
    Hotchkiss, Jo
    Meeting organisational needs and quality assurance through balancing agile and formal usability testing results2011Ingår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer , 2011, Vol. 4980, s. 275-289Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with a case study of testing with a usability testing package (UTUM), which is also a tool for quality assurance, developed in cooperation between industry and research. It shows that within the studied company, there is a need to balance agility and formalism when producing and presenting results of usability testing to groups who we have called Designers and Product Owners. We have found that these groups have different needs, which can be placed on opposite sides of a scale, based on the agile manifesto. This becomes a Designer and a Product Owner Manifesto. The test package is seen as a successful hybrid method combining agility with formalism, satisfying organisational needs, and fulfilling the desire to create a closer relation between industry and research.

  • 1753. Winter, Jeff
    et al.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    Hellman, Mats
    Reporting Usability Metrics Experiences2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is often claimed that software development is negatively affected by infrequent, incomplete and inconsistent measurements; improving with the help of metrics is an obvious solution. Software testing provides opportunities for measurement that give organizations insight in to processes. Usability testing is part of the testing area, although it is not a commonly addressed area within software engineering, perhaps because of a split between qualitative and quantitative paradigms. We compare a usability testing framework called UTUM with principles for Software Process Improvement, and find areas of close agreement as well as areas where our work illuminates new characteristics. UTUM is found to be a useful vehicle for improvement in software engineering, dealing as it does with both product and process. Our work emphasises the importance of the neglected area of usability testing. Our experience also illustrates how the metrics have been tailored to act as a boundary object between different disciplines.

  • 1754.
    Winter, Jeff
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Rissanen, Mikko
    Identifying organizational barriers-A case study of usability work when developing software in the automation industry2014Ingår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, Vol. 88, nr February, s. 54-73Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates connections between usability efforts and organizational factors. This is an important field of research which so far appears to be insufficiently studied and discussed. It illustrates problems when working with software engineering tasks and usability requirements. It deals with a large company that manufactures industrial robots with an advanced user interface, which wanted to introduce usability KPIs, to improve product quality. The situation in the company makes this difficult, due to a combination of organizational and behavioural factors that led to a "wicked problem" that caused conflicts, breakdowns and barriers. Addressing these problems requires a holistic view that places context in the foreground and technological solutions in the background. Developing the right product requires communication and collaboration between multiple stakeholders. The inclusion of end users, who fully understand their own work context, is vital. Achieving this is dependent on organizational change, and management commitment. One step to beginning this change process may be through studying ways to introduce user-centred design processes.

  • 1755.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Involving relevant stakeholders into the decision process about software components2017Ingår i: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture Workshops, ICSAW 2017: Side Track Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, s. 129-132Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This papers surveys current stakeholder identification methods and techniques from the Requirements Engineering (RE) discipline. Upon critical analysis of available models and techniques, we identify the techniques that should be prioritized when identifying stakeholders that should be involved in the decision making processes about software components or assets. Next, we analyzed industrial decision scenarios and match the most prominent issues with stakeholder identification against the perceived benefits that the identified techniques offer. We conclude this paper with a research agenda in stakeholder identification for decision making about software components. © 2017 IEEE.

  • 1756.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Borg, Markus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, SWE.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Towards new ways of evaluating methods of supporting requirements management and traceability using signal-to-noise ratio2019Ingår i: ENASE 2019 - Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering, SciTePress , 2019, s. 330-339Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing contemporary software solutions requires many processes and people working in synergy to achieve a common goal. Any misalignment between parts of the software production cycle can severely impede the quality of the development process and its resulting products. In this paper, we focus on improving means for measuring the quality of methods used to support finding similarities between software product artifacts, especially requirements. We propose a new set of measures, Signal-to-Noise ratios which extends the commonly used precision and recall measures. We test the applicability of all three types of SNR on two methods for finding similar requirements: the normalized compression distance (NCD) originating from the domain of information theory, and the Vector Space Model originating from computer linguistics. The results obtained present an interesting property of all types of SNR, all the values are centered around 1 which confirms our hypothesis that the analyzed methods can only limit the search space for the analysis. The analyst may still have difficulties in manually assessing the correct links among the incorrect ones. Copyright © 2019 by SCITEPRESS - Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved

  • 1757.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Borg, Markus
    SICS Swedish ICT AB, SWE.
    Sulaman, Sardar Muhammad
    Lunds Universitet, SWE.
    An industrial case study on measuring the quality of the requirements scoping process2016Ingår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science / [ed] Amasaki S.,Mikkonen T.,Felderer M.,Abrahamsson P.,Duc A.N.,Jedlitschka A., Springer, 2016, Vol. 10027, s. 487-494Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision making and requirements scoping occupy central roles in helping to develop products that are demanded by the customers and ensuring company strategies are accurately realized in product scope. Many companies experience continuous and frequent scope changes and fluctuations but struggle to measure the phenomena and correlate the measurement to the quality of the requirements process. We present the results from an exploratory interview study among 22 participants working with requirements management processes at a large company that develops embedded systems for a global market. Our respondents shared their opinions about the current set of requirements management process metrics as well as what additional metrics they envisioned as useful. We present a set of metrics that describe the quality of the requirements scoping process. The findings provide practical insights that can be used as input when introducing new measurement programs for requirements management and decision making.

  • 1758.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Garrepalli, Thrinay
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Knowledge management in software testing: A systematic snowball literature review2018Ingår i: e-Informatica Software Engineering Journal, ISSN 1897-7979, E-ISSN 2084-4840, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 51-78Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Software testing benefits from the usage of Knowledge Management (KM) methods and principles. Thus, there is a need to adopt KM to the software testing core processes and attain the benefits that it provides in terms of cost, quality, etc. Aim: To investigate the usage and implementation of KM for software testing. The major objectives include 1. To identify various software testing aspects that receive more attention while applying KM. 2. To analyse multiple software testing techniques, i.e. test design, test execution and test result analysis and highlight KM involvement in these. 3. To gather challenges faced by industry due to the lack of KM initiatives in software testing. Method: A Systematic Literature Review (SLR) was conducted utilizing the guidelines for snowballing reviews by Wohlin. The identified studies were analysed in relation to their rigor and relevance to assess the quality of the results. Results: The initial resulting set provided 4832 studies. From these, 35 peer-reviewed papers were chosen among which 31 are primary, and 4 are secondary studies. The literature review results indicated nine testing aspects being in focus when applying KM within various adaptation contexts and some benefits from KM application. Several challenges were identified, e.g., improper selection and application of better-suited techniques, a low reuse rate of software testing knowledge, barriers in software testing knowledge transfer, no possibility to quickly achieve the most optimum distribution of human resources during testing, etc. Conclusions: The study brings supporting evidence that the application of KM in software testing is necessary, e.g., to increase test effectiveness, select and apply testing techniques. The study outlines the testing aspects and testing techniques that benefit their users.

  • 1759. Wnuk, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Zahda, Showayb
    Obsolete Software Requirements2013Ingår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 55, nr 6, s. 921-940Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Coping with rapid requirements change is crucial for staying competitive in the software business. Frequently changing customer needs and fierce competition are typical drivers of rapid requirements evolution resulting in requirements obsolescence even before project completion. Objective: Although the obsolete requirements phenomenon and the implications of not addressing them are known, there is a lack of empirical research dedicated to understanding the nature of obsolete software requirements and their role in requirements management. Method: In this paper, we report results from an empirical investigation with 219 respondents aimed at investigating the phenomenon of obsolete software requirements. Results: Our results contain, but are not limited to, defining the phenomenon of obsolete software requirements, investigating how they are handled in industry today and their potential impact. Conclusion: We conclude that obsolete software requirements constitute a significant challenge for companies developing software intensive products, in particular in large projects, and that companies rarely have processes for handling obsolete software requirements. Further, our results call for future research in creating automated methods for obsolete software requirements identification and management, methods that could enable efficient obsolete software requirements management in large projects.

  • 1760.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Kabbedijk, J.c
    Brinkkemper, S.c
    Regnell, B.b
    Callele, D.d
    Exploring factors affecting decision outcome and lead time in large-scale requirements engineering2015Ingår i: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 27, nr 9, s. 647-673Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimizing decision lead time and outcome is important for successful product management. This work identifies decision lead time and outcome factors in large-scale requirements engineering. Our investigation brings supporting evidence that complex changes have longer lead time and that important customers more likely get what they request. The results provide input into the discussion of whether a large company should focus on only a few of its large customers and disregard its significantly larger group of small customers. Lead time, defined as the duration between the moment a request was filed and the moment the decision was made, is an important aspect of decision making in market-driven requirements engineering. Minimizing lead time allows software companies to focus their resources on the most profitable functionality and enables them to remain competitive within the quickly changing software market. Achieving and sustaining low decision lead time and the resulting high decision efficiency require a better understanding of factors that may affect both decision lead time and outcome. In order to identify possible factors, we conducted an exploratory two-stage case study that combines the statistical analysis of seven possible relationships among decision characteristics at a large company with a survey of industry participants. Our results show that the number of products affected by a decision increases the time needed to make a decision. Practitioners should take this aspect into consideration when planning for efficient decision making and possibly reducing the complexity of decisions. Our results also show that when a change request originates from an important customer, the request is more often accepted. The results provide input into the discussion of whether a large company should focus on only a few of its large customers and disregard its significantly larger group of small customers. The results provide valuable insights for researchers, who can use them to plan research of decision-making processes and methods, and for practitioners, who can use them to optimize their decision-making processes. In future work, we plan to investigate other decision characteristics, such as the number of stakeholders involved in the discussion about the potential change or the number of dependencies between software components. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 1761.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Kollu, R. K.
    A systematic mapping study on requirements scoping2016Ingår i: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, ACM Press, 2016, Vol. 01-03-June-2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Requirements scoping is one of the key activities in requirements management but also a major risk for project management. Continuously changing scope may create a congestion state in handling the requirements inflow which causes negative consequences, e.g. delays or scope creep. Objectives: In this paper, we look at requirements scoping literature outside Software Product Line (SPL) by exploring the current literature on the phenomenon, summarizing publication trends, performing thematic analysis and analyzing the strength of the evidence in the light of rigor and relevance assessment. Method: We run a Systematic Mapping Study (SMS) using snowballing procedure, supported by a database search for the start set identification, and identified 21 primary studies and 2 secondary studies. Results: The research interest in this area steadily increases and includes mainly case studies, validation or evaluation studies. The results were categorized into four themes: definitions, negative effects associated with scoping, challenges and identified methods/tools. The identified scope management techniques are also matched against the identified requirements scoping challenges.

  • 1762.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Maddila, K. Chakravarthy
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Agile and lean metrics associated with requirements engineering2017Ingår i: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Association for Computing Machinery , 2017, Vol. F131936, s. 33-40Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the continuously increasing importance of Agile and Lean in software development, the number of studies that investigate Requirements Engineering (RE) related aspects remains low. In this paper, we report the results from a literature review about Agile and Lean requirements engineering. By performing a systematic mapping literature review, we identified 22 metrics in 18 publications. We analyzed the identified papers based on research methodology, rigor and relevance and other external attributes. We also map the identified metrics on the abstracted model for Agile and Lean development. We conclude that requirements-associated metrics are underrepresented in the literature and most of the metrics focuses on the time aspect rather than the quality aspect. © 2017 Copyright is held by the owner/author(s).

  • 1763.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för datalogi och datorsystemteknik.
    The Project management perspective on Software Value: A Literature Review2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: To remain competitive, innovative and to grow, companies must change from cost-based decision-making to value-based decision-making where the decisions taken maximize software value and support company’s overall value creation. Objective: The objective of this paper is to complement and expand an existing classification of value aspects within the context of product management and development with additional aspects relating to value within the context of project management and development. Method: In this study, we present the results from a snowballing literature review that focuses on software value in software project management. In the research for relevance literature we focus on software value aspects different than cost. Results: We have identified nine primary studies in two snowball iterations. From these studies, we derived three categories of value aspects: financial, risk analysis and process improvement based on value identification.

  • 1764.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Mudduluru, Pavan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Value-based requirements engineering: Challenges and opportunities2019Ingår i: ENGINEERING SOFTWARE SYSTEMS: RESEARCH AND PRAXIS / [ed] Kosiuczenko, P; Zielinski, Z, Springer Verlag , 2019, 830, s. 20-33Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigate the state of the literature and practice about Value-Based Requirements Engineering. We focus on identifying what models for VBRE were presented and what challenges were discussed. We triangulate our results with industrial practitioners by conducting an industrial survey with 59 respondents. We identified 26 primary and 3 secondary studies and synthesized the findings using content analysis. VBRE was identified to be having a positive impact among survey practitioners. However, challenges like aligning product, project and organization opinions, selecting a most valuable requirement for a particular release, and including time-dependent requirements were identified to be impacting the organizations. The results from the study also suggest that, value dimensions like stakeholder value and customer value were not so frequently discussed in RE processes in both literature and among our industry respondents. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019.

  • 1765.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Murari, B.
    The impact of internet of things on software business models2016Ingår i: Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing / [ed] Lamprecht A.-L.,Maglyas A., Springer, 2016, Vol. 240, s. 94-108Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Internet of Things (IoT) technology is significantly impacting software business. Several contributions were made in the literature regarding IoT. However, the importance of various business model elements for IoT and the impact of IoT on requirements engineering activities remains greatly unexplored. This paper focuses on the impact of IoT on software business models and requirements engineering. The objectives for this research include: (1) summarizing the current business models for IoT, (2) analyzing the impact of IoT on software business models (3) analyzing the impact of IoT on requirements engineering. We conducted a systematic snowballing literature review, followed by an industrial survey. We identified 21 peer reviewed papers which were analyzed in relation to their rigor and relevance and received 56 survey responses. The results of the literature review indicate 9 business model elements that IoT literature focus on. Morevoer, 4 business model aspects were described with respect to the business model structure, context and governance. The industrial survey results highlighted that value proposition, followed by customer segmentation and revenue streams were the most important business model elements for IoT. Moreover, the survey results suggest that requirement management, requirement prioritization and requirement modeling and analysis are highly impacted by IoT.

  • 1766.
    Wnukiewicz, Karol Kazimierz
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för programvarusystem.
    The role of quality requirements in software architecture design2006Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    An important issue during architectural design is that besides functional requirements, software architecture is influenced greatly by quality requirements [9][2][7], which often are neglected. The earlier quality requirements are considered, the less effort is needed later in the software lifecycle to ensure a sufficient software quality levels. Errors due to lack of their fulfilment are the most expensive and difficult to correct. Therefore, attention to quality requirements is crucial during an architectural design. The problem is not only to gather the system’s quality requirements, but to establish a methodology that helps to deal with them during the software development. Literature has paid some attention to software architecture in the context of quality requirements, but there is still lack of effective solutions in this area. To alleviate the problem, this paper lays out important concepts and notions of quality requirements in a way they can be used to drive design decisions and evaluate the architecture to estimate whether these requirements are fulfilled. Important concepts of software architecture area are presented to indicate how important quality requirements are during the design and what are the consequences of their lack in a software system. Moreover, a quality requirement-oriented design method is proposed as an outcome of the literature survey. This method is a model taking quality requirements into account at first, before the core functionality is placed. Besides the conceptual solution to the identified problems, this paper also suggests a practical method of handling quality requirements during a design. A recommendation framework for choosing the most suitable architectural pattern from a set of quality attributes is also proposed. Since the literature provides insufficient qualitative information about quality requirement issues in terms of software architectures, an empirical research is conducted as means for gathering the required data. Therefore, a systematic approach to support and analyze architectural designs in terms of quality requirements is prepared. Finally, quality requirement-oriented and pattern-based design method is further proposed as a result of investigating patterns as a tool for addressing quality requirements at different abstraction levels of a design. The research is concerned with the analysis of software architectures against one or more desired software qualities that ought to be achieved at the architectural level.

  • 1767.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola [bth.se], School of Computing.
    Agile Processes in Software Engineering and Extreme Programming2012Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This book contains the refereed proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Agile Software Development, XP 2012, held in Malmö, Sweden, in May 2011. In the last decade, we have seen agile and lean software development strongly influence the way software is developed. Agile and lean software development has moved from being a way of working for a number of pioneers to becoming, more or less, the expected way of developing software in industry. The topics covered by the selected full papers include general aspects of agility, agile teams, studies related to the release and maintenance of software, and research on specific practices in agile and lean software development. They are complemented by four short papers capturing additional aspects of agile and lean projects.

  • 1768. Wohlin, Claes
    An Analysis of the Most Cited Articles in Software Engineering Journals: 19992005Ingår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 47, nr 15, s. 957-964Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Citations and related work are crucial in any research to position the work and to build on the work of others. A high citation count is an indication of the influence of specific articles. The importance of citations means that it is interesting to analyze which articles are cited the most. Such an analysis has been conducted using the ISI Web of Science to identify the most cited software engineering journal articles published in 1999. The objective of the analysis is to identify and list the articles that have influenced others the most as measured by citation count. An understanding of which research is viewed as most valuable to build upon may provide valuable insights into what research to focus on now and in the future. Based on the analysis, a list of the 20 most cited articles is presented here. The intention of the analysis is twofold. First, to actually show the most cited articles, and second, to invite the authors of the most cited articles in 1999 to contribute to a special issue of Information and Software Technology. Five invited authors have accepted the invitation and their articles are appearing in this special issue. Moreover, the research topics and methods of the most cited articles in 1999 are compared with those from the most cited articles in 1994 to provide a picture of similarities and differences between the years.

  • 1769. Wohlin, Claes
    An Analysis of the Most Cited Articles in Software Engineering Journals: 20002007Ingår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 49, nr 1, s. 2-11Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 1770. Wohlin, Claes
    An Analysis of the Most Cited Articles in Software Engineering Journals: 20012008Ingår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 50, nr 1-2, s. 3-9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 1771. Wohlin, Claes
    An analysis of the most cited articles in software engineering journals-20022009Ingår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 51, nr 1, s. 2-6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Citations and related work are crucial in any research to position the work and to build on the work of others. A high citation count is an indication of the influence of specific articles. The importance of citations means that it is interesting to analyze which articles are cited the most. Such an analysis has been conducted using the ISI Web of Science to identify the most cited software engineering journal articles published in 2002. The objective of the analysis is to identify and list the articles that have influenced others the most as measured by citation count. An understanding of which research is viewed by the research community as most valuable to build upon may provide valuable insights into what research to focus on now and in the future. Based on the analysis, a list of the 20 most cited articles is presented here. The intention of the analysis is twofold. First, to identify the most cited articles, and second, to invite the authors of the most cited articles in 2002 to contribute to a special section of Information and Software Technology. Six authors have accepted the invitation and their articles appear in this special section. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 1772.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    An Evidence Profile for Software Engineering Research and Practice2013Ingår i: Perspectives on the Future of Software Engineering: Essays in Honor of Dieter Rombach / [ed] Münch, Jürgen; Schmid, Klaus, Heidelberg, Germany: Springer , 2013, s. 145-158Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence-based software engineering has emerged as an important part of software engineering. The need for empirical evaluation and hence evidence has grown in the last couple of decades when developing new models, methods, techniques and tools in research. Furthermore, industrial decision-making ought to become more evidence-based. The objective here is to develop and present an evidence-based profile, which could be used to divide pieces of evidence into different types and hence creating an overall picture of evidence in a specific case. The evidence profile is developed in such a way that it allows evidence to be judged in context. The evidence profile consists of five types of evidence, and the profile is illustrated for perspective-based reading. It is shown how pieces of evidence can be classified into the different types. It is concluded that this type of approach may be useful to capture the evidence with respect to a specific topic and in a specific context. The further work includes applying the evidence profile for evidence collected from different type of studies and contexts.

  • 1773. Wohlin, Claes
    Are Individual Differences in Software Development Performance Possible to Capture Using a Quantitative Survey?2004Ingår i: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 211-228Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 1774. Wohlin, Claes
    Assuring Fault Classification Agreement: An Empirical Evaluation2004Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Inter-rater agreement is a well-known challenge and is a key issue when discussing fault classification. Fault classification is, by nature, a subjective task since it highly depends on the people performing the classification. Measures are required to hinder the subjective nature of fault classification to propagate through the fault classification process and onto subsequent activities using the classified faults, for example process improvement. One approach to prevent the subjective nature of fault classification is to use multiple raters and measure inter-rater agreement. In this paper, we evaluate the possibility to have an independent group of people classifying faults. The objective is to evaluate whether such a group could be used in a process improvement initiative. An empirical study is conducted with eight persons classifying 30 faults independently. The study concludes that the provided material were unsatisfactory to obtain inter-rater agreement.

  • 1775.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Empirical Software Engineering Research with Industry: Top 10 Challenges2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Software engineering research can be done in many ways, in particular it can be done in different ways when it comes to working with industry. This paper presents a list of top 10 challenges to work with industry based on our experience from working with industry in a very close collaboration with continuous exchange of knowledge and information. The top 10 list is based on a large number of research projects and empirical studies conducted with industrial research partners since 1983. It is concluded that close collaboration is a long-term undertaking and a large investment. The importance of addressing the top 10 challenges is stressed, since they form the basis for a long-term sustainable and successful collaboration between industry and academia.

  • 1776. Wohlin, Claes
    Empirical Software Engineering: Teaching Methods and Conducting Studies2007Ingår i: Empirical Software Engineering Issues. Critical Assessment and Future Directions / [ed] Basili, V.; Rombach, D.; Schneider, K.; Kitchenham, B.; Pfahl, D.; Selby, R., Dagstuhl Castle, Germany: Springer , 2007, s. 135-142Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 1777.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Institutionen för programvaruteknik och datavetenskap.
    Engineering Software Qualities in Telecommunications: Three Cases from Industry2004Ingår i: Telektronikk, ISSN 0085-7130, E-ISSN 1891-8220, nr 4, s. 208-216Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Software has become an integral part of telecommunication systems over the last 30 years. The relative cost for software in the systems has increased continuously over these years. This increase has meant that there has been a need to also focus on evaluation and prediction of different software qualities of the systems. This paper presents three studies evaluating software qualities in different ways. The firsts study focuses on performance and touches upon reliability. The reliability aspect is discussed in more detail in the second case study. Finally, the third study presents methods to estimate the fault content from software inspections. These studies are presented as representative examples of the work that resulted in that the author of this paper received the Telenor Nordic Research Award in 2004. Some ongoing research on engineering software qualities is also briefly presented.

  • 1778. Wohlin, Claes
    Estimation of Software Reliability Growth Model Parameters2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 1779.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Guidelines for snowballing in systematic literature studies and a replication in software engineering2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Systematic literature studies have become common in software engineering, and hence it is important to understand how to conduct them efficiently and reliably. Objective: This paper presents guidelines for conducting literature reviews using a snowballing approach, and they are illustrated and evaluated by replicating a published systematic literature review. Method: The guidelines are based on the experience from conducting several systematic literature reviews and experimenting with different approaches. Results: The guidelines for using snowballing as a way to search for relevant literature was successfully applied to a systematic literature review. Conclusions: It is concluded that using snowballing, as a first search strategy, may very well be a good alternative to the use of database searches.

  • 1780. Wohlin, Claes
    Introduktion till programvaruutveckling2005Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 1781. Wohlin, Claes
    Is Prior Knowledge of a Programming Language Important for Software Quality?2002Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Software engineering is human intensive. Thus, it is important to understand and evaluate the value of different types of experiences, and their relation to the quality of the developed software. Many job advertisements focus on requiring knowledge of specific programming languages. This may seem sensible at first sight, but maybe it is sufficient to have general knowledge in programming and then it is enough to learn a specific language within the new job. A key question is whether prior knowledge actually does improve software quality. This paper presents an empirical study where the programming experience of students is assessed using a survey at the beginning of a course on the Personal Software Process (PSP), and the outcome of the course is evaluated, for example, using the number of defects and development time. Statistical tests are used to analyse the relationship between programming experience and the performance of the students in terms of software quality. The results are mostly unexpected, for example, we are unable to show any significant relation between experience in the programming language used and the number of defects detected.

  • 1782.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Is there a Future for Empirical Software Engineering?2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the 10th ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement, ACM/IEEE , 2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 1783. Wohlin, Claes
    Most cited journal articles in software engineering2005Ingår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 47, nr 15, s. 955-955Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 1784. Wohlin, Claes
    Taking novelty to a new level2011Ingår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 53, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 1785. Wohlin, Claes
    The infamous ratio measure [1]2010Ingår i: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 27, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 1786.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Writing for Synthesis of Evidence in Empirical Software Engineering2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Systematic literature reviews have become common in software engineering in the last decade, but challenges remain. Goal: Given the challenges, the objective is to describe improvement areas in writing primary studies, and hence provide a good basis for researchers aiming at synthesizing research evidence in a specific area. Method: The results presented are based on a literature review with respect to synthesis of research results in software engineering with a particular focus on empirical software engineering. The literature review is complemented and exemplified with experiences from conducting systematic literature reviews and working with research methodologies in empirical software engineering. Results: The paper presents three areas where improvements are needed to become more successful in synthesizing empirical evidence. These three areas are: terminology, paper content and reviewing. Conclusion: It is concluded that it must be possible to improve the primary studies, but it requires that researchers start having synthesis in mind when writing their research papers.

  • 1787. Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Andrews, Anneliese Amschler
    Analysing Primary and Lower Order Project Success Drivers.2002Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 1788. Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Andrews, Anneliese Amschler
    Assessing project success using subjective evaluation factors2001Ingår i: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 43-70Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Project evaluation is essential to understand and assess the key aspects of a project that make it either a success or failure. The latter is influenced by a large number of factors, and many times it is hard to measure them objectively. This paper addresses this by introducing a new method for identifying and assessing key project characteristics, which are crucial for a project's success. The method consists of a number of well-defined steps, which are described in detail. The method is applied to two case studies from different application domains and continents. It is concluded that patterns are possible to detect from the data sets. Further, the analysis of the two data sets shows that the proposed method using subjective factors is useful, since it provides an increased understanding, insight and assessment of which project factors might affect project success.

  • 1789. Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Andrews, Anneliese Amschler
    Evaluation of Three Methods to Predict Project Success: A Case Study2005Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To increase the likelihood for software project success, it is important to be able to identify the drivers of success. This paper compares three methods to identify similar projects with the objective to predict project success. The hypothesis is that projects with similar characteristics are likely to have the same outcome in terms of success. Two of the methods are based on identifying similar projects using all available information. The first method of these aims at identifying the most similar project. The second method identifies a group of projects as most similar. Finally, the third method pinpoints some key characteristics to identify project similarity. Our measure of success for these identifications is whether project success for these projects identified as similar is the same. The comparison between methods is done in a case study with 46 projects with varying characteristics. The paper evaluates the performance of each method with regards to its ability to predict project success. The method using key drivers of project success is superior to the others in the case study. Thus, it is concluded that it is important for software developing organizations to identify its key project characteristics to improve its control over project success.

  • 1790. Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Andrews, Anneliese Amschler
    Prioritizing and Assessing Software Project Success Factors and Project Characteristics using Subjective Data2003Ingår i: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 285-308Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 1791.
    Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Aurum, Aybueke
    Towards a decision-making structure for selecting a research design in empirical software engineering2015Ingår i: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 20, nr 6, s. 1427-1455Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Several factors make empirical research in software engineering particularly challenging as it requires studying not only technology but its stakeholders' activities while drawing concepts and theories from social science. Researchers, in general, agree that selecting a research design in empirical software engineering research is challenging, because the implications of using individual research methods are not well recorded. The main objective of this article is to make researchers aware and support them in their research design, by providing a foundation of knowledge about empirical software engineering research decisions, in order to ensure that researchers make well-founded and informed decisions about their research designs. This article provides a decision-making structure containing a number of decision points, each one of them representing a specific aspect on empirical software engineering research. The article provides an introduction to each decision point and its constituents, as well as to the relationships between the different parts in the decision-making structure. The intention is the structure should act as a starting point for the research design before going into the details of the research design chosen. The article provides an in-depth discussion of decision points in relation to the research design when conducting empirical research.

  • 1792.
    Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Aurum, Aybueke
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Angelis, Lefteris
    Phillips, Laura
    Dittrich, Yvonne
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Grahn, Håkan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Henningsson, Kennet
    Kågström, Simon
    Low, Graham
    The Success Factors Powering Industry-Academia Collaboration2012Ingår i: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 29, nr 2, s. 67-73Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 1793. Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Aurum, Aybüke
    An evaluation of checklist-based reading for entity-relationship diagrams2003Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Software inspections have attracted much attention over the last 25 years. It is a method for static analysis of artifacts during software development. However, few studies look at inspections of entity-relationship diagrams (ER diagrams), and in particular an evaluation of the number of defects, number of false-positives and the types of defects that are found by most reviewers. ER-diagrams are commonly used in the design of databases, which makes them an important modelling concept for many large software systems. We present a large empirical study (486 subjects) where checklists were used for an inspection. The goodness in the evaluation is judged based on the type of defects the reviewers identify and the relationship between the detection of real defects and false positives. It is concluded that checklist-based inspections of entity-relationship diagrams is worthwhile.

  • 1794. Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Criteria for Selecting Software Requirements to Create Product Value: An Industrial Empirical Study2005Ingår i: Value-based Software Engineering / [ed] Biffl, S.; Aurum, A.; Boehm, B.; Erdogan, H.; Grünbacher, and P., Springer Verlag , 2005Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Product value is based on which requirements are included in a specific release of a software product. This chapter provides an overview of the value concept and presents an empirical study conducted as an industrial survey. The objective of the survey was to quantify the importance of different decision-making criteria when deciding whether to include a requirement in a project or release. The results reported from the survey are based on responses from two companies. It was discovered that there were similarities in responses at a company level, although major differences existed between individual respondents to the survey. The most important criteria were found to be those related to specific customers or markets and criteria, such as development cost-benefit, delivery date and resources. The least important criteria were those related to development and maintenance. The results also indicate that a better balance between the most important and least important criteria ought to be achieved in the future.

  • 1795. Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Aurum, Aybüke
    What is important when deciding to include a software requirement in a project or release?2005Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The requirements on software systems are so many that not all requirements may be included in the next development project or the next release. This means that it is necessary to select a set of requirements to implement in the forthcoming project, and hence to postpone the implementation of other requirements to a later point in time. In this selection process different criteria are used. In many cases, the criteria are not officially stated, but rather implicitly used by the decision-makers. However to be able to support this decision-making process, it is important to know and understand the underlying reasons for the decisions. This paper presents an empirical study of the decision criteria. In particular the paper focuses on how different perspectives have different influence on the decision-making process. It is concluded that business-oriented and management-oriented criteria are more important than technical concerns related to software architecture, impact analysis, dependency between requirements and software evolution.

  • 1796. Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Elbaum, Sebastian
    Shepperd, Martin
    Most cited journal articles in software engineering2007Ingår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 49, nr 1, s. 1-1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 1797. Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Höst, Martin
    Special section: Controlled Experiments in Software Engineering2001Ingår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, s. 921-924Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 1798. Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Höst, Martin
    Henningsson, Kennet
    Empirical Research Methods in Software and Web Engineering2005Ingår i: Web Engineering: Theory and Practice of Metrics and Measurement for Web Development / [ed] Mosley, E. Mendes and N., Springer Verlag , 2005, s. 409-429Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Web and software engineering are not only about technical solutions. It is to a large extent also concerned with organisational issues, project management and human behaviour. For disciplines like Web and software engineering, empirical methods are crucial, since they allow for incorporating human behaviour into the research approach taken. Empirical methods are common practice in many other disciplines. This chapter provides a motivation for the use of empirical methods in Web and software engineering research. The main motivation is that it is needed from an engineering perspective to allow for informed and well-grounded decision. The chapter continues with a brief introduction to four research methods: controlled experiments, case studies, surveys and post-mortem analyses. These methods are then put into an improvement context. The four methods are presented with the objective to introduce the reader to the methods to a level that it is possible to select the most suitable method at a specific instance. The methods have in common that they all are concerned with quantitative data. However, several of them are also suitable for qualitative data. Finally, it is concluded that the methods are not competing. On the contrary, the different research methods can preferably be used together to obtain more sources of information that hopefully lead to more informed engineering decisions in Web and software engineering.

  • 1799. Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Höst, Martin
    Henningsson, Kennet
    Empirical Research Methods in Software Engineering2003Ingår i: Empirical Methods and Studies in Software Engineering – Experiences from ESERNET / [ed] Wang, A.I.; Conradi, R., Springer Verlag , 2003Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 1800. Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Lundberg, Lars
    Mattsson, Michael
    Special Issue: Trade-off Analysis of Software Quality Attributes2005Ingår i: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 327-328Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
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