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• 1801.
Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Technoculture, Humanities and Planning.
Att vända staden mot Nissan2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis

• 1802.
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Applied Signal Processing.
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Applied Signal Processing.
Multisensory Expert-Based Support System for the Firefighter’s Training Performance Evaluation2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

The primary purpose of this thesis work is to design and implement a system supporting the fire-fighter’straining evaluation. The solution presented in this report comprises a real-time locating system andInertial Measurement Unit that collect the training data and an application built with the Unity3D gameengine used for processing.

Before the presented application can process any data, a training facility must be recreated, and atrainer or an expert must define training guidelines, such as zones that a trainee must visit, objectshe/she has to see, and the required execution time. After this preparation and completed trainingsession, collected data is processed and the visualization together with evaluation process begins. Theprogram visualizes trainee’s position and his/her field of view and evaluates his performance. For thelatter, it uses the Unity3D collision detection feature. After the evaluation, the trainer can see detailedresults with recorded time stamps, and using them, he/she can fast forward to specific, important points,reducing the time to analyze trainee’s performance throughout the whole training.

Tests which the authors conducted confirm that the built system meets requirements and is useful forevaluation of the trainee’s performance.

• 1803.
Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
Sending and Addressing Messages in Web Services2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis

This thesis provides an overview of Web Services technology. The concept of Web Services and Service Oriented Architecture are explained. The thesis focuses on the mechanisms for transporting and addressing messages in web services, especially SOAP. It presents the development history of SOAP, an overview of the SOAP 1.2 specification, and the differences between SOAP in version 1.1 and 1.2. Further, the thesis presents two web servers for development and deployment of web services using Java and .NET technology, i.e. Bea Weblogic Server 9.2 and Internet Information Services 7.0. The web server implementations are evaluated both in terms of conformance to the SOAP specifications as well as their performance (response time and throughput). The results showed that the servers performed very similar both for SOAP 1.2 and SOAP 1.1 messages. The response times and throughput are similar for both servers in most cases. There are, however, situations when Weblogic perform significantly worse than IIS, and when IIS is noticeable worse than Weblogic. The thesis presents also general security aspects of sending messages.

• 1804.
Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
Patientens livskvalitet vid vård i livets slutskede inom hemsjukvården2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis

Bakgrund; Vård i livets slutskede sker under senare år i stor utsträckning i patientens hem. Avancerad sjukvård kan idag ges i form av både hemsjukvård och sjukhusvård. Fördelar med att få vård i det egna hemmet är att hemmiljön ger trygghetskänsla. Där finns nära och kära, även möjligheten att få vara i lugn och ro är också större i hemmiljön. Nackdelar med hemsjukvården kan vara oro och rädsla för exempelvis smärta, många patienter tror att fullständig hjälp endast finns på sjukhus. Syftet med denna studie var att belysa patientens livskvalitet vid vård i livets slutskede inom hemsjukvården. Metoden var en litteraturstudie där litteraturen systematiskt granskades och sammanställdes inom det valda ämnet med hjälp av Philip Burnards analysmetod. Som omvårdnadsteoretiker valdes Kari Martinsen. Resultatet visade faktorer som var viktiga för patientens livskvalitet och i livets slutskede omfattas livskvaliet av att få vara med, finna ro och känna tillit. Slutsatsen: Patienten i livets slutskede som vårdas i hemmet har behov av att känna delaktighet och autonomi. Tillgång till avancerad sjukvård ger möjlighet att känna trygghet i hemmet. Möjligheten att diskutera existentiella frågor och att känna sig respekterad och värdig är viktig för patientens livskvalitet.

• 1805.
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
Software Architecture Simulation: Performance evaluation during the design phase2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis

Due to the increasing size and complexity of software systems, software architectures have become a crucial part in development projects. A lot of effort has been put into defining formal ways for describing architecture specifications using Architecture Description Languages (ADLs). Since no common ADL today offers tools for evaluating the performance, an attempt to develop such a tool based on an event-based simulation engine has been made. Common ADLs were investigated and the work was based on the fundamentals within the field of software architectures. The tool was evaluated both in terms of correctness in predictions as well as usability to show that it actually is possible to evaluate the performance using high-level architectures as models.

• 1806.
Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
Kvinnors upplevelse av att leva med äggstockscancer: En litteraturstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis

Äggstockscancer utgör en liten del av alla cancerfallen i Sverige. Orsakerna till insjuknandet är inte helt klarlagda. Upptäckten av denna cancerform sker ofta i ett obotligt skede vilket innebär att ett stort antal kvinnor kommer att leva med äggstockscancer i flera år. Metoden som valdes var en litteraturstudie med kvalitativ ansats som besvarade syftet att belysa kvin-nors upplevelser av att leva med diagnosen äggstockscancer. Litteraturstudien baserades på nio vetenskapliga artiklar som analyserades genom en innehållsanalys av artiklarnas resultat-delar. Följande fem kategorier framkom i studiens resultat: Relationers betydelse, rädsla och oro, hopp och framtidstro, upplevelse av förändrad kropp och behov av kontroll. Resultatet visade att kvinnors livsvärld förändras då äggstockscancern medför kroppsliga förändringar och medvetenheten om livets ändlighet leder till upplevelser av psykosocial, andlig och fysisk karaktär. I slutsatsen betonades vikten av att bemöta kvinnorna utifrån en helhetssyn som tar hänsyn till deras specifika situation. Det anses vara av betydelse att fler studier som beskriver kvinnors upplevelser vid äggstockscancer, sett ur olika perspektiv, ska kunna bidra till en bättre förståelse av deras livsvärld.

• 1807.
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Applied Signal Processing.
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Applied Signal Processing.
Optimisation Of Ionospheric Scintillation Model Used In Radio Occultation2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

This thesis is executed in cooperation with RUAG Space AB, which specializes in highly reliable on-board satellite equipment. The thesis focuses on the effect, which disturbs the amplitude and phase of a Global Positioning System (GPS) signal, called scintillation effect. It has a substantial impact on a GPS signal, during Radio Occultation (RO). RO is a method of analysis of a refracted signal which passes through the atmosphere. RO can be used for measuring climate change and for weather forecasting. By retrieving the bending angle of a GPS signal, three basic parameters of the Earth’s atmosphere can be obtained at different heights: temperature, pressure and humidity. As the scintillation effect causes prominent errors in the bending angle calculations, it is crucial to provide possibly the most precise mathematical model, which allows to conceive proper ionospheric corrections. In this thesis, the model using Rytov approach is implemented and optimised with different optimisation functions. It is shown that the scintillation model can be optimized, which may contribute to a more accurate retrieval of the atmospheric profiles.

• 1808.
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
Electric buses' sustainability effects, noise, energy use, and costs2018Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)

Electric buses are growing in numbers in Sweden, which contributes to the development of a fossil fuel free society and a reduction of emissions. Earlier studies of bus systems have identified a need to further investigate societal costs, total cost of ownership, energy use on a yearly basis to account for seasonal variations, and noise during acceleration. Addressing those needs was the purpose of this study.

Investigations were made in five cities in Sweden that have recently implemented different electric buses in their respective public transport system. Based on results from these investigations and earlier studies, updated and new calculations were made for electric buses on route 1 in Karlskrona, as a representative example. It was found that there were significant savings in societal costs and total cost of ownership when compared to diesel and biogas powered buses, mainly due to decreased noise, no emissions in the use phase, and decreased energy use.

• 1809.
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
Sustainable Personal Road Transport: The Role of Electric Vehicles2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

Electric vehicles can play an important role in a future sustainable road transport system and many Swedish politicians would like to see them implemented faster. This is likely desirable to reach the target of a fossil independent vehicle fleet in Sweden by 2030 and a greenhouse gas neutral Swedish society no later than 2050. However, to reach both these targets, and certainly to support the full scope of sustainability, it is important to consider the whole life-cycle of the vehicles and also the interaction between the transport sector and other sectors. So far, there are no plans for transitions towards a sustainable transport system applying a sufficiently wide systems perspective, in Sweden or elsewhere. This implies a great risk for sub-optimizations.

The overall aim of this work is to elaborate methodological support for development of sustainable personal road transport systems that is informed by a strategic sustainable development perspective.

The Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD) is used as a foundation for the work to ensure a sufficiently wide systems perspective and coordinated collaboration across disciplines and sectors, both in the research and application. Maxwell’s Qualitative Research Design and the Design Research Methodology are used as overall guides for the research approach. Specific research methods and techniques include literature studies, action research seminars, interviews, and measurements of energy use, costs, and noise. Moreover, a case study on the conditions for a breakthrough for vehicles in southeast Sweden has been used as a test and development platform.

Specific results include a preliminary vision for electrical vehicles in southeast Sweden, framed by the principled sustainability definition of the FSSD, an assessment of the current reality in relation to that vision, and proposed solutions to bridge the gap, organized into a preliminary roadmap. The studies show that electric vehicles have several sustainability advantages even when their whole life-cycle is considered, provided that they are charged with electricity from new renewable sources. Electrical vehicles also imply a low total cost of ownership and could promote new local ‘green jobs’ under certain conditions. Particularly promising results are seen for electric buses in public transport. As a general result, partly based on the experiences from the specific case, a generic community planning process model is proposed and its usefulness for sustainable transport system development is discussed.

The strategic sustainable development perspective of this thesis broadens the analysis beyond the more common focus on climate change issues and reduces the risk of sub-optimizations in community and transport system development. The generic support for multi-stakeholder collaboration could potentially also promote a more participatory democratic approach to community development, grounded in a scientific foundation. Future research will explore specific decision support systems for sustainable transport development based on the generic planning process model.

• 1810.
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
Towards sustainable personal mobility with electric cars and buses2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

The aim of this thesis was to explore if, and then how, electric cars and buses can contribute to sustainable personal mobility. Electric vehicles have increasingly been seen as a potential sustainable solution for the transport sector due to their high energy efficiency, close to zero emissions in the use phase, and the possibility to be powered by electricity from renewable resources. However, there are concerns about future scarcity of resources (e.g. lithium and cobalt for batteries), vehicle range, costs, high energy use in the production of batteries, as well as insufficient scientific support for how electric vehicles could be a part of a transition towards sustainability regarding personal mobility.

The challenges for a fast transition towards sustainability are large and many. The transport sector is not contributing to such development, mainly due to emissions, use of fossil energy, and use of materials mined and recycled under unacceptable conditions. Furthermore, existing societal goals (e.g. fossil-fuel independent vehicle fleet by 2030 in Sweden, UN Agenda 2030, and the Paris agreement) are insufficient for sustainability and are not complemented by concrete plans or an approach for how to engage stakeholders and achieve coordinated actions for sustainability. The Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development includes a principled definition of sustainability that is necessary and sufficient for sustainability and procedural support for collaborative innovation for a strategic transition to fulfillment of that definition, which is why it has been used as an overarching methodology in this thesis.

The research verified through several studies conditions for how electric vehicles can play a vital role in a strategic transition of personal mobility towards sustainability. Through stakeholder collaboration (e.g. interviews and workshops), a vision for sustainable transport with a focus on electric vehicles and an initial development plan towards that vision were designed. Several life cycle focused studies investigated (through calculations and data collection from literature, life cycle databases, interviews and workshops) about environmental and social impacts and costs for electric cars and buses. The stakeholder collaboration, combined with conceptual modelling, also resulted in models for generic support for multi-stakeholder collaboration and planning for strategic sustainable development of transport systems and communities, and for how to include electric buses in the procurement model of public transport.

The strategic sustainable development perspective of this thesis broadens the analysis beyond the more common focus on climate change issues and should be able to reduce the risk of sub-optimizations in community and transport system development when applied in that context. The generic support for multi-stakeholder collaboration could potentially also promote a more participatory democratic approach to community development, grounded in a scientific foundation.

• 1811.
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
Chalmers, SWE.
Stakeholder collaboration models for public transport procurement of electric bus systems2019In: The International Journal of Sustainability Policy and Practice, ISSN 2325-1166, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 19-29Article in journal (Refereed)

Earlier studies have mainly focused on technology, economy and advantages of electric buses, and they have largely shown that electric buses could be one of the solutions for sustainable public transport. Despite this, the present procurement process for public transport in Sweden is not suitable for including support systems for electric buses. This study was aimed to find a stakeholder collaboration model that would allow electric bus systems to be more effectively included in the procurement process for public transport. The results were achieved by several multi-stakeholder collaboration seminars and meetings that included representatives from regional public transport authorities, bus operators, bus manufacturers, energy companies, municipalities, and experts involved in bus transport. The study primarily developed two stakeholder collaboration models, suggesting that charging infrastructure should be designed separately from the common procurement process. In these models, energy companies, electric grid owners, charging infrastructure operators, regional public transport authorities, and municipalities need to collaborate. The first model is designed for a system that includes chargers at certain locations along a route and/or stakeholders with a low level of experience of electric bus systems, while the second is designed for a system that includes bus charging at the depot and/or stakeholders with a high level of experience of electric bus systems.

• 1812.
Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development. Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
How can fossil fuel based public bus transport systems become a sustainable solution for Swedish medium-sized cities?2013Conference paper (Refereed)

Vehicles, infrastructure, fuel systems and other energy-driven systems that serve public transport are complex with many resource inputs and outputs, and involve many processes. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Costing (LCC) helps analyzing those by quantifying environmental and economic effects, but will not in themselves provide a full systems perspective. Swedish authorities have set ambitious national goals, and many regions targets a 100% increase in public transport by 2020. The medium sized city of Karlskrona (36,000 inhabitants), that is included in this study together with Sundsvall and Jönköping, embraces those goals too. This study analyzes relevant differences between bus solutions, to investigate a change to more sustainable bus propulsion systems. The study zooms down to compare energy carriers (diesel, biodiesel, biogas, and electricity) in different powertrain combinations (combustion engines, electric hybrids, and pure electric). The Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD) where principles are defining a sustainable future is used to broaden from a cost and environmentally shortsighted perspective to a long-term sustainability perspective with systems thinking. The Strategic Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA) is first used to give a quick full scope of sustainability challenges in each bus life cycle stage from extraction to end of life. Then LCA and LCC approaches are used to” dig deeper” into prioritized identified challenges. Initial study results suggest that electric drivetrains would be preferable in city buses within the coming decade - both from an economic and a sustainability perspective. It not only lowers emissions and energy usage, but also provides a platform for future promising energy carriers.

• 1813.
Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development. Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
Hållbarhets- och kostnadsanalys av energibärare för bussar i medelstora svenska städer: SLCA, LCA, LCC jämförelseanalys av biogas, biodiesel, diesel, elhybrid, laddhybrid och eldrift för kollektivtrafikbussar i Karlskrona, Jönköping och Sundsvall2013Report (Other academic)

• 1814.
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
Preference of Electric Buses in Public Transport: Conclusions from Real Life Testing in Eight Swedish Municipalities2016In: Proceedings of ICSUTE 2016, 2016, Vol. 10, p. 255-264Conference paper (Refereed)

From a theoretical perspective, Electric buses can be more sustainable and can be cheaper than fossil fuelled buses in city traffic. The authors have not found other studies based on actual urban public transport in Swedish winter climate. Further on, noise measurements from buses for the European market where found old. The aims of this follow-up study was therefore to test and possibly verify in a real-life environment how energy efficient and silent electric buses are, and then conclude on if electric buses are preferable to use in public transport. The Ebusco 2.0 electric bus, fitted with a 311 kWh battery pack, was used and the tests carried out during November 2014 to April 2015 in eight municipalities in the south of Sweden. Six tests took place in urban traffic and two took place in more of a rural traffic setting. The energy use for propulsion was measured via logging of the internal system in the bus and via an external charging meter. The average energy use turned out to be 8 % less (0,96 kWh/km) than assumed in the earlier theoretical study. This rate allows for a 320 km range in public urban traffic. The interior of the bus was kept warm by a diesel heater (biodiesel will probably be used in a future operational traffic situation), which used 0,67 kWh/km in January. This verified that electric buses can be up to 25% cheaper when used in public transport in cities for about eight years. The noise was found to be lower, primarily during acceleration, than for buses with combustion engines in urban bus traffic. According to our surveys, most passengers and drivers appreciated the silent and comfortable ride and preferred electric buses rather than combustion engine buses. Bus operators and passenger transport executives were also positive to start using electric buses for public transport. The operators did however point out that procurement processes need to account for eventual risks regarding this new technology, along with personnel education. The study revealed that it is possible to establish a charging infrastructure for almost all studied bus lines. However, design of a charging infrastructure for each municipality requires further investigations, including electric grid capacity analysis, smart location of charging points, and tailored schedules to allow fast charging. In conclusion, electric buses proved to be a preferable alternative for all stakeholders involved in public bus transport in the studied municipalities. However, in order to electric buses to be a prominent support for sustainable development, they need to be charged either by stand-alone units or via an expansion of the electric grid, and the electricity should be made from new renewable sources.

• 1815.
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development. Electrodriving Scandinavia, SWE. Miljöfordon Syd, SWE. Miljöfordon Syd, SWE.
GreenCharge: demotest i fält med elbuss2015Report (Other academic)

GreenCharge Sydost är en sammanslutning av regionförbund, kommuner, landsting och företag medett övergripande syfte att främja införandet av elfordon i främst sydöstra Sverige. Blekinge TekniskaHögskola är huvudman för projektet med ansvar för att driva forskningen, och Miljöfordon Syd attdriva den operativa projektledningen avseende demonstrationer och samverkan med intressenter.Under 2013 gjorde forskningen inom GreenCharge en beräkningsstudie som påvisade att elbussar urett livscykelperspektiv har mycket mindre utsläpp än dagens dieselbussar och totalkostnaden skullekunna bli 25 % lägre över en 8-års period i Karlskrona på linje 1 och 7, 21 % i Jönköping på linje 1och 3, samt 17 % i Sundsvall på linje 2 och 4. Detta gäller under antagande att bussen drivs med nygrön el, att realränteökningen blir 1 % per år samt att energi-pristrender sedan 10 år tillbaka fortsättergälla framöver.. Beräkningsstudien antog också efter simuleringar utifrån befintliga linjer och aktuellavärden från busstillverkare en energianvändning på 1,04 kWh/km för eldrift.

• 1816.
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development. Linköpings Tekniska Högskola, SWE.
A strategic approach to sustainable transport system development - Part 2: the case of a vision for electric vehicle systems in Southeast Sweden2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 140, no Part 1, p. 62-71Article in journal (Refereed)

Electric vehicles seem to offer a great potential for sustainable transport development. The Swedish pioneer project GreenCharge Southeast is designed as a cooperative action research approach that aims to explore a roadmap for a fossil-free transport system by 2030 with a focus on electric vehicles. In the first paper of this tandem publication, the authors propose a new generic process model embedding the Framework of Strategic Sustainable Development. The purpose of applying it in an action-research mode as described in this paper was twofold: (i) to develop a vision for sustainable regional transport and a coarse roadmap towards that vision, and, while doing so, (ii) get additional empirical experiences to inform the development of the new generic process model. Experts from many sectors and organizations involved in the GreenCharge project provided vital information and reviewed all planning perspectives presented in Paper 1 in two sequential multi-stakeholder seminars. The results include a sustainable vision for electric vehicle systems in southeast Sweden within a sustainable regional transport system within a sustainable global society, as well as an initial development plan towards such a vision for the transport sector. The vision is framed by the universal sustainability principles, and the development plan is informed by the strategic guidelines, of the above-mentioned framework. Among other things, the vision and plan imply a shift to renewable energy and a more optimized use of areas and thus a new type of spatial planning. For example, the vision and plan implies a lower built-in demand for transport, more integrated traffic modes, and more multi-functional use of areas for energy and transport infrastructures, for example. Some inherent benefits of electric vehicles are highlighted in the vision and plan, including near-zero local emissions and flexibility as regards primary energy sources. The vision and plan also imply improved governance for more effective cross-sector collaboration to ensure coor- dinated development within the transport sector and between the transportation sector and other relevant sectors. Meanwhile, the new generic process model was refined and is ready to be applied and further tested in the GreenCharge project and in other projects within the transport sector as well as other sectors. The study confirmed that the new generic process model suggested in support of sus- tainable transport system and community development is helpful for giving diverse stakeholders, with various specialties and perspectives, a way of working that is goal-oriented and builds on effective, iterative learning loops and co-creation.

• 1817.
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
A Strategic Sustainability and Life Cycle Analysis of Electric Vehicles in EU today and by 20502016In: Proceedings of ICSUTE 2016, 2016, Vol. 10, p. 229-237Conference paper (Refereed)

Ambitions within the EU for moving towards sustainable transport include major emission reductions for fossil fuel road vehicles, especially for buses, trucks, and cars. The electric driveline seems to be an attractive solution for such development. This study first applied the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development to compare sustainability effects of today’s fossil fuel vehicles with electric vehicles that have batteries or hydrogen fuel cells. The study then addressed a scenario were electric vehicles might be in majority in Europe by 2050. The methodology called Strategic Lifecycle Assessment was first used, were each life cycle phase was assessed for violations against sustainability principles. This indicates where further analysis could be done in order to quantify the magnitude of each violation, and later to create alternative strategies and actions that lead towards sustainability. A Life Cycle Assessment of combustion engine cars, plug-in hybrid cars, battery electric cars and hydrogen fuel cell cars was then conducted to compare and quantify environmental impacts. The authors found major violations of sustainability principles like use of fossil fuels, which contribute to the increase of emission related impacts such as climate change, acidification, eutrophication, ozone depletion, and particulate matters. Other violations were found, such as use of scarce materials for batteries and fuel cells, and also for most life cycle phases for all vehicles when using fossil fuel vehicles for mining, production and transport. Still, the studied current battery and hydrogen fuel cell cars have less severe violations than fossil fuel cars. The life cycle assessment revealed that fossil fuel cars have overall considerably higher environmental impacts compared to electric cars as long as the latter are powered by renewable electricity. By 2050, there will likely be even more sustainable alternatives than the studied electric vehicles when the EU electricity mix mainly should stem from renewable sources, batteries should be recycled, fuel cells should be a mature technology for use in vehicles (containing no scarce materials), and electric drivelines should have replaced combustion engines in other sectors. An uncertainty for fuel cells in 2050 is whether the production of hydrogen will have had time to switch to renewable resources. If so, that would contribute even more to a sustainable development. Except for being adopted in the GreenCharge roadmap, the authors suggest that the results can contribute to planning in the upcoming decades for a sustainable increase of EVs in Europe, and potentially serve as an inspiration for other smaller or larger regions. Further studies could map the environmental effects in LCA further, and include other road vehicles to get a more precise perception of how much they could affect sustainable development.

• 1818. Bosch, Jan
A Model for a Flexible and Predictable Object-Oriented Real-Time System1996Report (Other academic)

The requirements on real-time systems are changing. Traditionally, reliability and predictability of, especially hard, real-time systems were the main requirements. This lead to systems that were stand-alone, embedded and static. Future real-time systems, but also current systems, still require reliability and predictability, but also distribution of the real-time system, integration with non real-time systems and the ability to dynamically change the components of the system at runtime. Traditional approaches to real-time system development have difficulties in addressing these additional requirements. Therefore, new ways of constructing real-time systems have to be explored. In this article, we develop a real-time object-oriented model that facilitates the requirements of flexibility without sacrificing the predictability, integration and dynamicity aspects.

• 1819. Bosch, Jan
Abstract Object State in Real-Time Control1995Report (Other academic)

Traditionally, finite state machines based approaches are used in real-time object-oriented systems development for modelling the dynamic behaviour of an object. Finite state machines based approaches, however, suffer from several problems when used for modelling large and complex objects. As an alternative, an extended object model, LayOM, and an associated modelling approach is proposed aiming to solve the aforementioned problems and other problems related to object state.

• 1820. Bosch, Jan
Abstracting object state1997In: OBJECT ORIENTED SYSTEMS, ISSN 0969-9767, p. 1-&Article in journal (Refereed)

The term state' has many different meanings, depending on the context in which it is used. In the implementation phase, it refers to the values of the instance variables of the object; during design, it refers to states used in finite state models or their derivatives. For both interpretations, problems have been identified: (1) the way clients of an object access its state is defined in an ad hoc manner, (2) the conventional object-oriented model provides no means to change the interface of an object dynamically on the basis its state or the type of client accessing it, (3) finite state machine approaches are not uniformly integrated in the object-oriented model nor do they provide sufficient complexity reduction for modelling the dynamic behaviour, and (4) no support is provided for defining active states. In this paper we introduce the concept of abstract object state as a solution to these problems. This concept provides a systematic technique to explicitly define an abstraction of the object state which is placed at the interface of the object. The abstract object state consists of static states, but also of active states which can be seen as time derivatives of static states. We show that the abstract object state provides a more uniform approach to object behaviour specification than do finite state models. The concepts discussed have been implemented in the layered object model ((LOM)-O-AY), an extended object-oriented model which is supported by a translator to C++, an execution environment and an integrated development environment.

• 1821. Bosch, Jan

Several authors have identified that the only feasible way to increase productivity in software construction is to reuse existing software. To achieve this, component-based software development is one of the more promising approaches. However, traditional research in component-oriented programming often assumes that components are reused "as-is". Practitioners have found that "as-is" reuse seldomly occurs and that reusable components generally need to be adapted to match the system requirements. Existing component object models provide only limited sup-port for component adaptation, i.e. white-box techniques such as copy-paste and inheritance and black-box approaches such as aggregation and wrapping. These techniques suffer from problems related to reusability, effi-ciency, implementation overhead or the self problem. To address these problems, this paper proposes superimposi-tion, a novel black-box adaptation technique that allows one to impose predefined, but configurable types of functionality on a reusable component. Three categories of typical adaptation types are discussed, related to the component interface, component composition and component monitoring. Superimposition and the types of com-ponent adaptation are exemplified by several examples.

• 1822.
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Telecommunications and Mathematics.
An Object-Oriented Framework for Measurement Systems1997Report (Refereed)

Measurement systems are of increasing importance for manufacturing, due to high automation level of production processes. Although most measurement systems have much in common and are expensive to construct, these systems are often developed from scratch, hardly reusing the available designs and implementations. To address this, we have designed and implemented an object-oriented framework for the domain of measurement systems that can be used as the core of measurement systems. Evaluations of the framework show that it captures the main concepts in the domain and that the required extensions for individual applications are limited. In this paper, a number of example framework instantiations are presented. The lessons we learned during the framework design and an evaluation of the object-oriented modelling paradigm are presented.

• 1823. Bosch, Jan
Compiler Support for Extensible Languages1996Conference paper (Refereed)
• 1824. Bosch, Jan
Composition through Superimpositon1996Conference paper (Refereed)
• 1825. Bosch, Jan
Delegating Compiler Objects: An Object-Oriented Approach to Crafting Compilers1996Conference paper (Refereed)
• 1826. Bosch, Jan
Delegating Compiler Objects: An Object-Oriented Approach to Crafting Compilers1995Report (Other academic)

Conventional compilers often are large entities that are highly complex, difficult to maintain and hard to reuse. In this article it is argued that this is due to the inherently functional approach to compiler construction. An alternative approach to compiler construction is proposed, based on object-oriented principles, which solves (or at least lessens) the problems of compiler construction. The approach is based on delegating compiler objects (DCOs) that provide a structural decomposition of compilers in addition to the conventional functional decomposition. The DCO approach makes use of the parser delegation and lexer delegation techniques, that provide reuse and modularisation of syntactical, respectively, lexical specifications.

• 1827. Bosch, Jan
Delegating Compiler Objects: Modularity and Resuability in Language Engineering1997In: Nordic Journal of Computing, ISSN 1236-6064 , Vol. 4, no 1, p. 66-92Article in journal (Refereed)

The application domain of compiler techniques is changing. Whereas previously compiler techniques were primarily used for the construction of compilers for general-purpose languages, now these techniques are increasingly often used for the construction of application domain languages and extensible language models. However, the traditional compiler techniques suffer from problems of complexity, maintainability, reusability and extensibility, and new approaches are needed. In this paper, we describe the notion of delegating compiler objects (DCOs), a novel approach to compiler construction that provides structural decomposition and reusability of compiler specifications. Our extensible language, the layered object model, is used to illustrate the advantages of the DCO approach for compiler construction.

• 1828. Bosch, Jan
Design Pattern & Frameworks: On the Issue of Language Support1997Conference paper (Refereed)
• 1829. Bosch, Jan
Design Patterns as Language Constructs1998In: Journal of object-oriented programming, ISSN 0896-8438, Vol. 11, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)

Design patterns are useful for the design of object oriented systems. The power of design patterns stems from their ability to provide generic solutions to reappearing problems that can be specialized for particular situations. The implementation of design patterns however, has received little attention. We identify four problems associated with their implementation using conventional object oriented languages. First, the traceability of a design pattern in the implementation is often insufficient; the design pattern is "lost". Second, because several patterns require an object to forward messages to other objects to increase flexibility, the self problem often occurs. Third, because the pattern implementation is mixed with the domain class, the reusability of pattern implementations is often limited. Finally, implementing design patterns may present significant implementation overhead for the software engineer. Often, a potentially large number of simple methods must be implemented with trivial behavior. A solution to these problems is presented in the context of the layered object model (LayOM). LayOM provides language support for the explicit representation of design patterns in the programming language. LayOM is an extended object oriented language which contains several components that are not part of the normal object model, such as states, categories and layers. Layers are used to represent design patterns at the level of the programming language. Example layer types for eight design patterns are presented. Because LayOM is an extensible language, the software engineer may extend the language model with abstractions for other design patterns

• 1830.
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Telecommunications and Mathematics.
Design Patterns as Language Constucts1996Report (Refereed)

Design patterns have proven to be useful for the design of object-oriented systems. The power of a design pattern lies in its ability to provide generic solutions that can be specialised for particular situations. The implementation of design patterns has received only little attention and we have identified two relevant problems associated with the implementation. First, the traceability of a design pattern in the implementation is often insufficient; often the design pattern is lost'. Second, implementing design patterns may present significant implementation overhead for the software engineer. Often, a, potentially large, number of simple methods has to be implemented with trivial behaviour, e.g. forwarding a message to another object. In this paper, the layered object model (LayOM) is presented. LayOM provides language support for the explicit representation of design patterns in the programming language. LayOM is an extended object-oriented language in that it contains several components that are not pa rt of the conventional object model, such as states, categories and layers. Layers are used to represent design patterns at the level of the programming language and example layer types for four design patterns are presented. LayOM is supported by a development environment that translates LayOM code into C++. The generated C++ code can be used as any C++ code for the development of applications. An important aspect of LayOM is that the language itself is extensible. This allows new design patterns to be added to the language model.

• 1831. Bosch, Jan
Evolution and composition of reusable assets in product-line architectures: A case study1999Conference paper (Refereed)

In this paper, a case study investigating the experiences from evolution and modification of reusable assets in product-line architectures is presented involving two Swedish companies, Axis Communications AB and Securitas Larm AB. Key persons in these organisations have been interviewed and information has been collected from documents and other sources. The study identified problems related to multiple versions of reusable assets, dependencies between assets and the use of assets in new contexts, The problem causes have been identified and analysed, including the early intertwining of functionality, the organizational model, the time to market pressure, the lack of economic models and the lack of encapsulation boundaries and required interfaces.

• 1832. Bosch, Jan

The work done concerning object oriented frameworks is in its beginning and most of it tend to concentrate on object oriented frameworks that has been built and how these were built and documented. But there is one question that remains unsatisfactorily answered, i.e. what is a object oriented framework? This is still one of the most common questions and there still exists no answer that is generally agreed on. In this paper some important characteristics of object oriented frameworks are presented, existing definitions discussed and an improved definition is suggested.

• 1833. Bosch, Jan
Language Support for Component Communication in LayOM1996Conference paper (Refereed)
• 1834.
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Telecommunications and Mathematics.
Language Support for Design Patterns1995Report (Refereed)

Design patterns have proven to be useful for the design of object-oriented systems. The power of a design pattern lies in its ability to provide generic solutions that can be specialised for particular situations. The implementation of design patterns has received only little attention and we have identified two relevant problems associated with the implementation. First, the traceability of a design pattern in the implementation is often insufficient; often the design pattern is `lost'. Second, implementing design patterns may present significant implementation overhead for the software engineer. Often, a, potentially large, number of simple methods has to be implemented with trivial behaviour, e.g. forwarding a message to another object. In this paper, the layered object model (LayOM) is presented. LayOM provides language support for the explicit representation of design patterns in the programming language. LayOM is an extended object-oriented language in that it contains several components that are not part of the conventional object model, such as states, categories and layers. Layers are used to represent design patterns at the level of the programming language and example layer types for four design patterns are presented. LayOM is supported by a development environment that translates LayOM code into C++. The generated C++ code can be used as any C++ code for the development of applications. An important aspect of LayOM is that the language itself is extensible. This allows new design patterns to be added to the language model.

• 1835. Bosch, Jan
Language Support for Design Patterns1996Conference paper (Refereed)
• 1836. Bosch, Jan
NOSA'99: Proceedings of the Second Nordic Workshop on Software Architecture1999Report (Other academic)

Software architecture research is receiving increased amounts of attention in academia as well as in industry. Therefore, in 1997 the initiative was taken by the University of Karlskrona/Ronneby to start a network of academic and industrial partners, SARIS, interested in various aspects of software architecture. The intention of the SARIS (Software Architec-ture Research in Sweden) network is to bring together partners with common interests, exchange experiences through the mailing list and regular meetings and to develop cooperation wherever possible. The term software architecture is somewhat overloaded, but most experts agree that it primarily refers to the top-level decomposition of a system into its main components and the interaction between these components. A second aspect is that software architecture design is primarily concerned with the non-functional requirements (also properties or quality attributes) of software systems, rather than their functionality. Attributes can be categorized into operational attributes, such as efficiency, reliability, robustness and cor-rectness, and development attributes, such as maintainability, flexibility and reusability. The architecture structures the functionality required from a system such that the non-functional requirements are fulfilled.

• 1837. Bosch, Jan
Object Acquaintance Selection and Binding1998In: Theory and Practice of Object Systems, ISSN 1074-3227, E-ISSN 1096-9942, Vol. 4, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)

Large object-oriented systems have at least four characteristics that complicate object communication: the system is distributed, it contains large numbers of objects, objects need to be reallocated at run-time, and objects can be replaced by other objects in order to adapt to the dynamic changes in the system. Traditional object communication is based on sending a message to a receiver object known to the sender of the message. At linking or instantiation time, an object establishes its acquaintances through name/class-based binding and uses these objects throughout its lifetime. If this is too rigid, the software engineer has to implement the binding of objects manually using pointers. We found the traditional acquaintance communication semantics to be too limited, and we identified several problems related to the reusability of objects and selection mechanisms, understandability and expressiveness. It is important to separate a class or object's requirements on its acquaintances from the way an object selects and binds its acquaintances in actual systems. We studied the necessary expressiveness for acquaintance handling and identified four relevant aspects: type and duration of binding, conditions for binding, number of selected objects, and selection region for binding. To implement these aspects, we defined acquaintance layers as part of the layered object model. Acquaintance layers uniformly extend the traditional OO acquaintance handling semantics and allow for the first-class representation of acquaintance selection and binding, thereby increasing traceability and reusability

• 1838.
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Telecommunications and Mathematics.
Object Acquaintance Selection and Binding1996Report (Refereed)

Large object-oriented systems have, at least, four characteristics that complicate object communication, i.e the system is distributed and contains large numbers, e.g. thousands, of objects, objects need to be reallocated at run-time and objects can be replaced by other objects in order to adapt to the dynamic changes in the system. Traditional object communication is based on sending a message to a receiver object known to the sender of the message. At linking or instantiation time, an object establishes its acquaintances through name/class-based binding and uses these objects through its life time. If this is too rigid, the software engineer has to implement the binding of objects manually using pointers. In our experiments we found the traditional acquaintance communication semantics too limited and we identified several problems, related to the reusability of objects and selection mechanisms, understandability and expressiveness. We recognised that it is important to separate a class or object's requirements on its acquaintances from the way an object selects and binds its acquaintances in actual systems. Based on this observation, we studied the required expressiveness for acquaintance handling and identified four relevant aspects: type and duration of binding, conditions for binding, number of selected objects and selection region for binding. To implement these aspects, we defined acquaintance layers as part of the layered object model. Acquaintance layers uniformly extend the traditional object-oriented acquaintance handling semantics and allow for the first-class representation of acquaintance selection and binding, thereby increasing traceability and reusability.

• 1839.
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Telecommunications and Mathematics.
Object-Oriented Frameworks: Problems & Experiences1997Report (Refereed)

Reuse of software has been one of the main goals of software engineering for decades. Reusing software is not simple and most efforts resulted in small reusable, black-box components. With the emergence of the object-oriented paradigm, the enabling technology for reuse of larger components became available and resulted in the definition of object-oriented frameworks. Frameworks attracted attention from many researchers and software engineers and frameworks have been defined for a large variety of domains. The claimed advantages of frameworks are, among others, increased reusability and reduced time to market for applications. Although several examples have shown these advantages to exist, there are problems and hindrances associated with frameworks that may not appear before their usage in real projects. The authors have been involved in the design, maintenance and usage of several object-oriented frameworks and based on the experiences from these projects, a number of problems related to frameworks are descr ibed. The problems are organised according to four categories, i.e. framework development, usage, composition and maintenance. For each category, the most relevant problems and experiences are presented. This paper may help software engineers to avoid the described problems, whereas researchers may try to address these topics in their research.

• 1840. Bosch, Jan

Programming languages and software engineering methods are highly related in that both are images of an underlying paradigm. In this paper we investigate the role of the paradigm, the language model and the software development method and define requirements on each of the three concepts. Subsequently, we describe the {\em layered object model}, an extended object model which allows for first-class representation of relations between objects and constraints on the behaviour of an object, and discuss how it achieves {\em paradigm extensibility}, i.e. extensibility of the paradigm and the supporting language model.

• 1841. Bosch, Jan
Parser Delegation: An Object-Oriented Approach to Parsing1994Report (Other academic)

Conventional grammar specification and parsing is generally done in a monolithic manner, i.e. the syntax and semantics of a grammar are specified in one large specification. Although this might be sufficient in static environments, a modular approach is required in situations where the syntax or semantics of a grammar specification are subject to frequent changes. The problems with monolithic grammars are related to (1) dealing with the complexity, (2) extensibility and (3) reusability. We propose the concept of {\em parser delegation} as a solution to these problems. Parser delegation allows one to modularise and reuse grammar specifications. To achieve this, the notion of a production rule is specialised into (1) overriding, (2) extending and (3) delegating production rule types. To experiment with parser delegation, we have developed D-yacc, a graphical tool for defining grammars. Parser delegation has been applied for constructing a translator for an experimental language and is currently applied in other domains.

• 1842. Bosch, Jan
Relations as Object Model Components1996In: Journal of Programming Languages, ISSN 0963-9306 , Vol. 4, no 1, p. 39-61Article in journal (Refereed)

Although object-oriented methods make extensive use of relations between objects, these relations, other than inheritance and part-of, cannot directly be represented by the conventional object-oriented model. This means that relations which are identified during analysis and design have to be implemented on top of the object model, i.e. by using method code and message passing, rather than by expressing relations directly within the model. It would be beneficial if the object oriented model would support the specification of all relevant types of relations within the model, including application-domain specific relation types. Therefore, we propose a mechanism, implemented in LAYOM-an extended object model, that supports the specification of all types of relations between objects within the model as components of the object model. In addition, an approach for identifying and specifying application-domain relation types is presented.

• 1843. Bosch, Jan
Relations as Object Model Components1994Report (Other academic)

Although object-oriented methods make extensive use of relations between objects, these relations, other than inheritance and part-of, can not directly be represented by the conventional object-oriented model. This means that relations which are identified during analysis and design have to be implemented on top of the object model, i.e. by using method code and message passing, rather than by expressing relations directly within in the model. It would be beneficial if the object-oriented model would support the specification of all relevant types of relations within the model, including application-domain specific relation types. Therefore, we propose a mechanism, implemented in LayOM -- an extended object model, that supports the specification of all types of relations between objects within the model as components of the object model. In addition, an approach for identifying and specifying application-domain relation types is presented.

• 1844. Bosch, Jan
Software architecture2000Conference paper (Refereed)
• 1845. Bosch, Jan
Software Architecture: An Overview of the State-of-the-Art1998Report (Other academic)

The report is the result of a course for PhD students on software architecture. An overview of the state of the art is presented. Discussed topics include describing, evaluating and designing architectures, product-line architectures, object-oriented frameworks and component-based software engineering.

• 1846.
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Telecommunications and Mathematics.
Software Artifacts as Autonomous Agents1994Report (Refereed)

In this paper, a number of problems of conventional automated software engineering support environments are described. These problems are related to the functional approach these environments take, the lack of initiative these systems exhibit and the causal connection gap between design information and the operational entity. As an alternative, we suggest an autonomous agent approach. Each artifact is modelled as an autonomous agent that is responsible for its own development. Artifacts are organised in specialisation hierarchies which can be traversed by agents. As a consequence, the methodology needs to be inverted, i.e. specified from the artifact's perspective rather than from the software engineer's perspective.

• 1847. Bosch, Jan
Software product lines2000Conference paper (Refereed)
• 1848. Bosch, Jan
Software Product Lines: Three Examples2000Report (Other academic)

This report presents the results of a course on software product lines. The assignment in the course was to develop a software product line. . During the course, the students had to develop the following artifacts in groups: product line architecture, component designs, product derivations, modifiability assessment and a prototype. The results of the course are described in this report

• 1849. Bosch, Jan
Specifying frameworks and design patterns as architectural fragments1998Conference paper (Refereed)

Object-oriented software architectures, such as design patterns and frameworks, have Sound extensive use in software industry. Their implementation in traditional object-oriented programming languages, however, is often difficult, since no support for the explicit specification of software architectures is provided. In. this paper, we develop the notion of architectural fragments, i.e. reusable architectural specifications that describe a design pattern, or a framework architecture. An architectural fragment describes the structure of an architecture in terms of its components (roles), the architect architecture-specific behaviour of the components and the architecture-specific interaction between the components. Fragments can be composed with each other and with reusable components. To illustrate the use of fragments, we describe the role and architecture language constructs in the layered object model ((LOM)-O-AY) and present examples.

• 1850.
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Telecommunications and Mathematics.
Specifying Frameworks and Design Patterns as Architectural Fragments1997Report (Refereed)

Object-oriented software architectures, such as design patterns and frameworks, have found extensive use in software industry. As a design technique, these architectural structures have proven themselves very valuable. Their implementation in traditional object-oriented programming languages, however, is often difficult, since these languages provide no support for the explicit specification of software architectures. In this paper, we develop the notion of architectural fragments, i.e. reusable architectural specifications that describe a design pattern or a framework architecture. An architectural fragment describes the structure of an architecture in terms of its components (roles), the architecture-specific behaviour of the components and the architecture-specific interaction between the components. Fragments can be composed with each other and with reusable components. To illustrate the use of fragments, we describe the role and architecture language constructs in the layered object model (LayOM) and present examples.

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