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  • 1801. Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Höst, Martin
    Henningsson, Kennet
    Empirical Research Methods in Software and Web Engineering2005Ingår i: Web Engineering: Theory and Practice of Metrics and Measurement for Web Development / [ed] Mosley, E. Mendes and N., Springer Verlag , 2005, s. 409-429Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Web and software engineering are not only about technical solutions. It is to a large extent also concerned with organisational issues, project management and human behaviour. For disciplines like Web and software engineering, empirical methods are crucial, since they allow for incorporating human behaviour into the research approach taken. Empirical methods are common practice in many other disciplines. This chapter provides a motivation for the use of empirical methods in Web and software engineering research. The main motivation is that it is needed from an engineering perspective to allow for informed and well-grounded decision. The chapter continues with a brief introduction to four research methods: controlled experiments, case studies, surveys and post-mortem analyses. These methods are then put into an improvement context. The four methods are presented with the objective to introduce the reader to the methods to a level that it is possible to select the most suitable method at a specific instance. The methods have in common that they all are concerned with quantitative data. However, several of them are also suitable for qualitative data. Finally, it is concluded that the methods are not competing. On the contrary, the different research methods can preferably be used together to obtain more sources of information that hopefully lead to more informed engineering decisions in Web and software engineering.

  • 1802. Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Höst, Martin
    Henningsson, Kennet
    Empirical Research Methods in Software Engineering2003Ingår i: Empirical Methods and Studies in Software Engineering – Experiences from ESERNET / [ed] Wang, A.I.; Conradi, R., Springer Verlag , 2003Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 1803. Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Lundberg, Lars
    Mattsson, Michael
    Special Issue: Trade-off Analysis of Software Quality Attributes2005Ingår i: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 327-328Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 1804. Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Petersson, Håkan
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Combining Data from Reading Experiments in Software Inspections: A Feasibility Study2003Ingår i: Lecture Notes on Empirical Software Engineering / [ed] Juristo, N.; Moreno, A., World Scientific , 2003, s. 85-132Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 1805. Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Petersson, Håkan
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Shull, Forrest
    Ciolkowski, Marcus
    Software Inspection Benchmarking: A Qualitative and Quantitative Comparative Opportunity.2002Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Software inspections are commonly used throughout the software industry, but there are still open questions about the relationship between inspection processes and inspection effectiveness. For example, which techniques work best in various environments? Are requirements specifications inspections and code inspections different in terms of effectiveness? What is the effectiveness in inspections for different group sizes? Benchmarking provides an opportunity to address such issues. This paper discusses how benchmarking may be applied for software inspections. The discussion is illustrated with an empirical study. It is shown how the data can be used to plan and manage software inspections. It is concluded that software inspections are well suited for benchmarking and that software practitioners as well as researchers can learn valuable lessons.

  • 1806. Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Petersson, Håkan
    Höst, Martin
    Runeson, Per
    Defect content estimation for two reviewers2001Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimation of the defect content is important to enable quality control throughout the software development process. Capture-recapture methods and curve fitting methods have been suggested as tools to estimate the defect content after a review. The methods are highly reliant on the quality of the data. If the number of reviewers is fairly small, it becomes difficult or even impossible to get reliable estimates. This paper presents a comprehensive study of estimates based on two reviewers, using real data from reviews. Three experience-based defect content estimation methods are evaluated vs. methods that use data only from the current review. Some models are possible to distinguish from each other in terms of statistical significance. In order to gain an even better understanding, the best models are compared subjectively. It is concluded that the experience-based methods provide some good opportunities to estimate the defect content after a review.

  • 1807.
    Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Prikladniki, Rafael
    Systematic literature reviews in software engineering2013Ingår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 55, nr 6, s. 919-920Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 1808.
    Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Runeson, Per
    Da Mota Silveira Neto, Paulo Anselmo
    Engström, Emelie
    Do Carmo Machado, Ivan
    De Almeida, Eduardo Santana
    On the reliability of mapping studies in software engineering2013Ingår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212 , Vol. 86, nr 10, s. 2594-2610Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Systematic literature reviews and systematic mapping studies are becoming increasingly common in software engineering, and hence it becomes even more important to better understand the reliability of such studies. Objective: This paper presents a study of two systematic mapping studies to evaluate the reliability of mapping studies and point out some challenges related to this type of study in software engineering. Method: The research is based on an in-depth case study of two published mapping studies on software product line testing. Results: We found that despite the fact that the two studies are addressing the same topic, there are quite a number of differences when it comes to papers included and in terms of classification of the papers included in the two mapping studies. Conclusions: From this we conclude that although mapping studies are important, their reliability cannot simply be taken for granted. Based on the findings we also provide four conjectures that further research has to address to make secondary studies (systematic mapping studies and systematic literature reviews) even more valuable to both researchers and practitioners.

  • 1809.
    Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Runeson, Per
    Lund University.
    Höst, Martin
    Lund University.
    Ohlsson, Magnus C.
    Regnell, Björn
    Lund University.
    Wesslén, Anders
    Experimentation in Software Engineering2015Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 1810.
    Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Runeson, Per
    Höst, Martin
    Ohlsson, Magnus C.
    Regnell, Björn
    Wesslén, Anders
    Experimentation in Software Engineering2012Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Like other sciences and engineering disciplines, software engineering requires a cycle of model building, experimentation, and learning. Experiments are valuable tools for all software engineers who are involved in evaluating and choosing between different methods, techniques, languages and tools. The purpose of Experimentation in Software Engineering is to introduce students, teachers, researchers, and practitioners to empirical studies in software engineering, using controlled experiments. The introduction to experimentation is provided through a process perspective, and the focus is on the steps that we have to go through to perform an experiment. The book is divided into three parts. The first part provides a background of theories and methods used in experimentation. Part II then devotes one chapter to each of the five experiment steps: scoping, planning, execution, analysis, and result presentation. Part III completes the presentation with two examples. Assignments and statistical material are provided in appendixes. Overall the book provides indispensable information regarding empirical studies in particular for experiments, but also for case studies, systematic literature reviews, and surveys. It is a revision of the authors’ book, which was published in 2000. In addition, substantial new material, e.g. concerning systematic literature reviews and case study research, is introduced. The book is self-contained and it is suitable as a course book in undergraduate or graduate studies where the need for empirical studies in software engineering is stressed. Exercises and assignments are included to combine the more theoretical material with practical aspects. Researchers will also benefit from the book, learning more about how to conduct empirical studies, and likewise practitioners may use it as a “cookbook” when evaluating new methods or techniques before implementing them in their organization.

  • 1811.
    Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Franke, Ulrik
    Badampudi, Deepika
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Supporting strategic decision-making for selection of software assets2016Ingår i: Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing / [ed] Lamprecht A.-L.,Maglyas A., Springer, 2016, Vol. 240, s. 1-15Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Companies developing software are constantly striving to gain or keep their competitive advantage on the market. To do so, they should balance what to develop themselves and what to get from elsewhere, which may be software components or software services. These strategic decisions need to be aligned with business objectives and the capabilities and constraints of possible options. These sourcing options include: in-house, COTS, open source and outsourcing. The objective of this paper is to present an approach to support decision-makers in selecting appropriate types of origins in a specific case that maximizes the benefits of the selected business strategy. The approach consists of three descriptive models, as well as a decision process and a knowledge repository. The three models are a decision model that comprises three cornerstones (stakeholders, origins and criteria) and is based on a taxonomy for formulating decision models in this context, and two supporting models (property models and context models). © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.

  • 1812.
    Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Classifications of Software Transfers2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many companies have development sites around the globe. This inevitably means that development work may be transferred between the sites. This paper defines a classification of software transfer types; it divides transfers into three main types: full, partial and gradual transfers to describe the context of a transfer. The differences between transfer types, and hence the need for a classification, are illustrated with staffing curves for two different transfer types. The staffing curves are obtained through a combination of interviews with both high-level management and a group of experts, and an industrial case study. From the empirical work, it is concluded that the distribution of personnel differs for different types of transfer, which means that it is crucial to be clear about different classes of software transfers. If not, it is easy to underestimate the effort needed to transfer software work as well as additional costs related to the transfer as such.

  • 1813.
    Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Moe, Nilsbrede
    A general theory of software engineering: Balancing human, social and organizational capitals2015Ingår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 109, s. 229-242Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There exists no generally accepted theory in software engineering, and at the same time a scientific discipline needs theories. Some laws, hypotheses and conjectures exist, but yet no generally accepted theory. Several researchers and initiatives emphasize the need for theory in the discipline. The objective of this paper is to formulate a theory of software engineering. The theory is generated from empirical observations of industry practice, including several case studies and many years of experience in working closely between academia and industry. The theory captures the balancing of three different intellectual capitals: human, social and organizational capitals, respectively. The theory is formulated using a method for building theories in software engineering. It results in a theory where the relationships between the three different intellectual capitals are explored and explained. The theory is illustrated based on an industrial case study, where it is shown how decisions made in industry practice are explainable with the formulated theory, and the consequences of the decisions are made explicit. Based on the positive results, it is concluded that the theory may have a good explanatory power, although more evaluations are needed. ©2015TheAuthors.PublishedbyElsevierInc.ThisisanopenaccessarticleundertheCCBY-NC-NDlicense.

  • 1814.
    Wouters, J.
    et al.
    Utrecht University, NLD.
    Ritmeester, J. R.
    Utrecht University, NLD.
    Carlsen, A. W.
    Utrecht University, NLD.
    Jansen, S.
    Utrecht University, NLD.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    A SECO meta-model: A common vocabulary of the SECO research domain2019Ingår i: Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, Springer , 2019, Vol. 370, s. 31-45Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Software development companies are venturing towards collaborative approach and software ecosystems (SECO) participation. Over the years, many papers have been written and different modelling languages were proposed to capture the interactions between the SECO participants. What is missing, however, is a comprehensive meta-model describing possible entities and relationships that constitute a SECO. The goal of this paper is to create a common language for academic researchers for software ecosystems by creating such a meta-model. We constructed the meta-model by extracting and grouping entities and relationships from research papers. The meta-model consists of 5 themes: actors and roles, products and platforms, boundaries, ecosystem health and strategy. We advocate that our meta-model allows for easy sharing and comparing of case studies and the generalization of results across studies. We present the results from initial expert evaluation of the meta-model. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019.

  • 1815.
    Wu, Hong
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för programvarusystem.
    An Experiment on the Suitability of RAM for Test Case Design2009Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    To perform software testing at the early stages of software development process can save the cost and effort on finding and fixing defects. As the first stage of software development process, requirements engineering has been moved away from project-initiated requirements engineering towards requirements-initiated development in the last decade. This leads new challenges that it demands support for handling the requirements continually come in from multiple stakeholders on multiple abstraction levels instead of some specific customers. Requirements Abstraction Model was developed as a hierarchical abstraction method for requirements management, which is enable product management to leverage their resources and select requirements for implementation without overloading the organization. RAM was validated in industry on the usability for requirements management, but there is no evaluation for RAM on software testing. This thesis presents an empirical study with a goal of evaluating the suitability of RAM for test case design in respective of efficiency and effectiveness by the comparison with IEEE Std. 830 which is a standard of the traditional requirements specification. For achieving the goal of this study, a controlled experiment is conducted based on the refinement on an initial experiment planning, and is operated with twenty developers in industry in China. Analysis of the collected data from the experiment indicates that RAM has a similar effectiveness as using the requirements in IEEE Std. 830 format, while RAM is more efficient for test case design. Therefore, RAM is suitable for test case design, and has better performance than IEEE Std. 830 comprehensively in view of both efficiency and effectiveness.

  • 1816.
    Wärnå, Klas
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Programmering i skolmatematiken: problemlösning eller problemskapande2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats handlar om hur programmering som verktyg i matematisk problemlösning har implementerats sedan det infördes som obligatoriskt i flera av gymnasiets mattekurser hösten 2018. Syftet är att reda ut vilka programmeringsspråk och programbibliotek som används ute i klassrummen och hur det upplevs av elever och lärare med avseende på svårighetsgrad, nytta för matematiken och om det bidragit till ett ökat intresse för programmering i allmänhet hos eleverna. Även eventuella könsrelaterade skillnader i dessa frågor har undersökts, då en av de politiska intentionerna med införandet varit att en förhoppning att främja flickors it-intresse.

    Arbetet tar sitt teoretiska avstamp i en genomgång av den politiska bakgrunden till införandet, tidigare studier i ämnet och en kort historik om programmeringens roll i läroplanerna.

    Med hjälp av digitala enkäter har fallstudier företagits i två klasser från olika gymnasieskolor i Skåne, där elever och lärare fått ta ställning till antal påstående genom att gradera på en skala hur väl påståendena stämmer samt komplettera med eventuell textkommentar. Enkäterna var anonyma men utformade på ett sådant sätt att lärare och elever kunnat kopplas samman klassvis.

    Av resultatet har framkommit att många elever visserligen uppfattar programmeringen som svår och inte anser att den underlättar förståelsen för matematik. Men det framkom också att skillnaden var stor i dessa frågor och svaren tycks hänga samman med lärarens tidigare erfarenhet av programmering och i vilken omfattning programmeringen lärts ut. Intresset för programmering i allmänhet tycks inte ökat nämnvärt p.g.a. att det ingår i matematiken, men det låter sig heller inte entydigt sägas om någotdera könet var mer positivt eller negativt inställd till programmeringen. En något större andel tjejer än killar valde det allra mest negativa alternativet i enkätfrågorna, men klumpar man samman de mest negativa respektive de mest positiva alternativen på varsin halva om mitten, var tjejerna å andra sidan något överrepresenterade bland de positiva alternativen.

    Python verkar vara ett lämpligt programmeringsspråk att använda. Det är viktigt att tillse att lärare har tillräcklig kunskap i programmering och att omfattningen i utlärandet av programmering inte blir alltför ytlig, för att eleverna skall tillägna sig nyttan av det. Obligatorisk programmering i matematik kan potentiellt bidra till att fler för upp ögonen för ämnet och på sikt minska den sneda könsfördelningen bland yrkesprogrammerare.

  • 1817.
    Wüest, Dustin
    et al.
    FHNW University of Applied Sciences and Arts, CHE.
    Fotrousi, Farnaz
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Combining Monitoring and AutonomousFeedback Requests to Elicit Actionable Knowledge of System Use2019Ingår i: Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality / [ed] E. Knauss and M. Goedicke, 2019, Vol. 11412, s. 209-225Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    [Context and motivation] To validate developers’ ideas of what users might want and to understand user needs, it has been proposed to collect and combine system monitoring with user feedback. [Question/problem] So far, the monitoring data and feedback have been collected passively, hoping for the users to get active when problems emerge. This approach leaves unexplored opportunities for system improvement when users are also passive or do not know that they are invited to offer feedback. [Principal ideas/results] In this paper, we show how we have used goal monitors to identify interesting situations of system use and let a system autonomously elicit user feedback in these situations. We have used a monitor to detect interesting situations in the use of a system and issued automated requests for user feedback to interpret the monitoring observations from the users’ perspectives. [Contribution] The paper describes the implementation of our approach in a Smart City system and reports our results and experiences. It shows that combining system monitoring with proactive, autonomous feedback collection was useful and surfaced knowledge of system use that was relevant for system maintenance and evolution. The results were helpful for the city to adapt and improve the Smart City application and to maintain their internet-of-things deployment of sensors.

  • 1818. Xiao, Junchao
    et al.
    Afzal, Wasif
    Search-based resource scheduling for bug fixing tasks2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The software testing phase usually results in a large number of bugs to be fixed. The fixing of these bugs require executing certain activities (potentially concurrent) that demand resources having different competencies and work-loads. Appropriate resource allocation to these bug-fixing activities can help a project manager to schedule capable resources to these activities, taking into account their availability and skill requirements for fixing different bugs. This paper presents a multi-objective search-based resource scheduling method for bug-fixing tasks. The inputs to our proposed method include i) a bug model, ii) a human resource model, iii) a capability matching method between bug-fixing activities and human resources and iv) objectives of bug-fixing. A genetic algorithm (GA) is used as a search algorithm and the output is a bug-fixing schedule, satisfying different constraints and value objectives. We have evaluated our proposed scheduling method on an industrial data set and have discussed three different scenarios. The results indicate that GA is able to effectively schedule resources by balancing different objectives. We have also compared the effectiveness of using GA with a simple hill-climbing algorithm. The comparison shows that GA is able to achieve statistically better fitness values than hill-climbing.

  • 1819.
    Xiaojun, Chen
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Bhattrai, Premlal
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    A Method for Membership Card Generation Based on Clustering and Optimization Models in A Hypermarket2011Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Data mining as a technique is used to find interesting and valuable knowledge from huge amount of stored data within databases or data warehouses. It encompasses classification, clustering, association rule learning, etc., whose goals are to improve commercial decisions and behaviors in organizations. Amongst these, hierarchical clustering method is commonly used in data selection preprocessing step for customer segmentation in business enterprises. However, this method could not treat with the overlapped or diverse clusters very well. Thus, we attempt to combine clustering and optimization into an integrated and sequential approach that can substantially be employed for segmenting customers and subsequent membership cards generation. Clustering methods is used to segment customers into groups while optimization aids in generating the required membership cards. Objectives: Our master thesis project aims to develop a methodological approach for customer segmentation based on their characteristics in order to define membership cards based on mathematical optimization model in a hypermarket. Methods: In this thesis, literature review of articles was conducted using five reputed databases: IEEE, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Springer and Engineering Village. This was done to have a background study and to gain knowledge about the current research in the field of clustering and optimization based method for membership card generating in a hypermarket. Further, we also employed video interviews as research methodologies and a proof-of-concept implementation for our solution. Interviews allowed us to collect raw data from the hypermarket while testing the data produces preliminary results. This was important because the data could be regarded as a guideline to evaluate the performance of customer segmentation and generating membership cards. Results: We built clustering and optimization models as a two-step sequential method. In the first step, the clustering model was used to segment customers into different clusters. In the second step, our optimization model was utilized to produce different types of membership cards. Besides, we tested a dataset consisting of 100 customer records consequently obtaining five clusters and five types of membership cards respectively. Conclusions: This research provides a basis for customer segmentation and generating membership cards in a hypermarket by way of data mining techniques and optimization. Thus, through our research, an integrated and sequential approach to clustering and optimization can suitably be used for customer segmentation and membership card generation respectively.

  • 1820. Xie, M
    et al.
    Hong, G Y
    Wohlin, Claes
    Modeling and Analysis of Software System Reliability.2003Ingår i: Case Studies on Reliability and Maintenance / [ed] Blischke, W; Murphy, P, Germany: Wiley VHC Verlag , 2003Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 1821.
    Xu, Xiaoji
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Zhi, Huanyu
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Study Of Game Elements Impacting On SE Course Completion Rate In MOOCs2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. SE is a growing field in both academia and industry, online SE education becomes more and more prevalent recent years. Massive Open Online Courses, as an emerging type of open educational resource, provide SE courses a much wider development space. But on the other hand, MOOCs limit SE courses because its low completion rate. Game elements are used to address this issue, but the impact of game elements on completion rate of specific MOOCs and SE courses in MOOCs are not clear. It is necessary to find whether and how game elements could help students finish SE courses. Explore the method and idea of improving SE courses in MOOCs through game elements.

    Objectives. In this study authors investigate what game elements are applied in SE courses in MOOCs platforms, evaluate the impact of MOOCs game elements on SE courses completion situation. Based on the analysis and summary of the data and result, propose suggestion to improve SE courses.

    Methods. Authors conduct a systematic literature to find the game elements used in SE courses in MOOCs. Conducting the survey to get the data of the MOOCs game elements on completion situation in general and data of survey is analyzed by mathematical statistics. The interview is used to find how the game elements of MOOC and SE education simulation impact on learning SE courses on MOOCs by inductive content analysis.

    Results. In systematic literature review, 23 studies are selected from 358 papers of six databases. Forty-one responses of questionnaires are received and twenty interviewees take part in this study. Authors find that game elements have been applied in MOOCs in various ways and research results about effort of game elements are positive. In this study, the results of analyzing the received data in survey show that there is no significant impact of game elements on course completion rate. The interview shows that specific game element is necessary for students finishing their courses and some game elements are not well designed in students’ perspective. Two specific suggestions to improve SE courses are proposed according to survey and interview result.

    Conclusions. This research collects data through SLR, survey and interview, and evaluates the impact of game elements on SE course completion situation through analysis, comparison and summary. The result is helpful to people who design and develop the game elements in MOOCs platform. Focusing on the character of SE education and SE courses, some suggestion of designing and modifying the game elements are provided. This enables the game elements designer to target designing and arranging game elements better.

  • 1822.
    Yadav, Pavan Kumar
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för för interaktion och systemdesign.
    Kalyan, Kosuri Naga Krishna
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för för interaktion och systemdesign.
    Support for Information Management in Virtual Organizations2006Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization and innovation are revolutionizing the higher education forcing to create new market trends. Different nations have their own pattern and framework of education in delivering the educational services. Educational institutions are also seeking different organizational and behavioural changes for their better future as they hunt for new financial resources, face new competition and seek greater prestige domestically and internationally. The coming future will decide which universities would survive the market trends, competition and expectations of the students (Clients). The survival-of-the-fittest paradigm framework plays a prominent role in ideas of how the higher education would be delivered to the students in future with the Instruction Technology and distance education. According to us the education trend has changed its phase of delivery of services form the management point of view to student’s point of view. Leading to delivery of educational service’s which would have more impact on student’s education, knowledge and experience within the institution. In our thesis we try to provide some information about how to support and manage the information in Virtual Organizations. We also explore the frameworks of the university and discussed a case study about the different ways of providing better support for information management resulting in delivery of best students driven services and unique facilities. We would be looking at the different aspects of the university work flows and procedures and gain an insight on the student’s expectation from the organization. This investigation would be helpful for the students to know what are the services they should expect from the universities and also helpful for management to know better the needs of the students and their needs and to develop a framework for proper execution of these services.

  • 1823.
    Yan, Guoning
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Zhan, Wenkai
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Testing of mobile applications. A review of industry practices2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. With the rapid development of mobile devices, mobile applications have occupied an increasingly large market. Software testing is an important factor in ensuring software quality [59]. In order to develop high-quality mobile applications, software companies are increasingly paying attention to mobile application testing. We found that there are relatively few studies on mobile application testing methods and tools in the real industry, and this direction of research has been very helpful for some software companies' mobile application testing, so we chose this direction for exploratory research.

    Objectives. The purpose of our research is to investigate the software company's field of mobile application testing. We mainly study the methods and tools of mobile application testing that are now popular in enterprises, the challenges faced by mobile application testing in software companies and how they solve challenges.

    Method. We used two methods to answer our research questions. We chose literature review and survey as research methods. The literature review method gives us an insight into the areas of expertise and mobile testing. Survey is used to answer our research questions. Our data collection method is the questionnaire survey method. When we completed the data collection, we performed statistics and analysis on the data and answered our research questions.

    Result. Through the literature review method, we summarize the methods and tools for mobile application testing in the literature. By sending 46 surveys to different software companies, we analyzed and analyzed the methods and tools for mobile application testing that are popular in the enterprise and the reasons for choosing these methods. We also listed the company's mobile application testing. Challenges and solutions encountered.

    Conclusions. We answered all the research questions. We analyzed the feedback from 46 questionnaires and got information about mobile application testing. We read a lot of literature and summarized the relevant conclusions in the literature. Our findings can help people in related fields, and we can provide them with 46 data and analysis results. We can also provide mobile application methods and tools that are popular among readers in the enterprise.

  • 1824.
    Yang, Kuankuan
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Cai, Ye
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Critical success factors for conducting Software Process Improvement in Very Small Entities2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. It is significant to constantly change and improve the software process to thrive in the software market with rapidly changing requirement and situation. However, very small entities(VSEs) have difficulties to adopt software process improvement that have played an important role in software market, because they usually have some unique characteristics, such as informal and fewer documents, tight budget, and less human resources. Therefore, we believe it is necessary to study factors that are crucial to successful conducting SPI, to help inexperienced VSEs with limited resource implement SPI with reasonable cost.

    Objectives. The overall aim of our research is to analyse critical success factors about successfully conduct software process improvement for Very Small Entities. The objectives are based on the aim as following: 1) Identifying the special characteristics of VSEs which related to conducting SPI, 2) Identifying the state-of-the-art critical success factors when VSEs conducting SPI both in literature and practice: verifying and prioritizing the factors, and 3) Investigating the strategies that VSEs can take in order to successfully implement SPI.

    Methods. In order to investigate the critical factors and barriers need to focus and avoid during the improvement, we implemented a systematic literature review as the first phase. Then a survey questionnaire as the second phase to validate the results gained from the systematic literature review through consulting industrial software engineers.

    Results. The final result includes 80 success factors which have been mentioned at least once in the primary studies, a few characteristics of VSEs and strategies for SPI in VSEs. Among the 80 factors, we chose 29 factors as CSFs that were mentioned more than three times, then selected the first 15 CSFs as survey questions material. Through the survey, we gathered the evaluation of all factors from two areas and some suggestion or opinion of SPI in VSEs, explained the 29 CSFs and two ranking tables about top factors from the SLR and the survey, discussed 14 CSFs from both ranking tables, then provided specific strategies for each of the common 8 factors. Conclusions. For helping VSEs that intend to conduct SPI with limited resources, we answered our research questions through SLR and Survey, found 29 state-of-the-art success factors of SPI in VSEs, ranked 15 of them and provided a description, discussion, and strategies. Selected and prioritised success factors would be supportive for VSEs to ration their budget. Furthermore, we hope we can inspire VSEs who are having trouble to implement SPI by providing strategies.

  • 1825.
    Yao, Yong
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för kommunikationssystem.
    A Software Framework for Prioritized Spectrum Access in Heterogeneous Cognitive Radio Networks2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, the radio spectrum is rarely fully utilized. This problem is valid in more domains, e.g., time, frequency and geographical location. To provide an efficient utilization of the radio spectrum, the Cognitive Radio Networks (CRNs) have been advanced. The key idea is to open up the licensed spectrum to unlicensed users, thus allowing them to use the so-called spectrum opportunities as long as they do not harmfully interfere with licensed users. An important focus is laid on the limitation of previously reported research efforts, which is due to the limited consideration of the problem of competition among unlicensed users for spectrum access in heterogeneous CRNs. A software framework is introduced, which is called PRioritized Opportunistic spectrum Access System (PROAS). In PROAS, the heterogeneity aspects of CRNs are specifically expressed in terms of cross-layer design and various wireless technologies. By considering factors like ease of implementation and efficiency of control, PROAS provides priority scheduling based solutions to alleviate the competition problem of unlicensed users in heterogenous CRNs. The advanced solutions include theoretical models, numerical analysis and experimental simulations for performance evaluation. By using PROAS, three particular CRN models are studied, which are based on ad-hoc, mesh-network and cellular-network technologies. The reported results show that PROAS has the ability to bridge the gap between research results and the practical implementation of CRNs.

  • 1826.
    Yao, Yong
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    A Spectrum Decision Support System for Cognitive Radio Networks2012Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive Radio Networks (CRNs) offer a promising capability of alleviating the problem of spectrum insufficiency. In CRNs, the licensed spectrum channels are either exclusively reserved for licensed users or temporarily used by unlicensed users. The requirement for unlicensed users is to not harmfully impair the licensed users transmissions. Because of this, the unlicensed users must solve the task to decide which available channels should be selected. The selection process is often referred to as spectrum decision, with the aim to optimize the transmission performance of unlicensed users. A support system for CRNs is introduced, which is called Spectrum Decision Support System (SDSS). SDSS provides an intelligent spectrum decision strategy that integrates different decision making algorithms and takes into account various channel characterization parameters. The objective is to develop a scientific framework for decision making in CRNs, which involve theoretical analysis, simulation evaluation and practical implementation. Three important components of SDSS are discussed: 1) setting up an overlay decision maker, 2) prediction based spectrum decision strategy and 3) queuing modeling of CRNs. The reported results indicate the feasibility of the suggested algorithms.

  • 1827.
    Yasin, Affan
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Hasnain, Muhammad Ijlal
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    On the Quality of Grey Literature and its use in Information Synthesis during Systematic Literature Reviews2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanhang: Internet har blivit en viktig kanal för att sprida och få tillgång vetenskaplig litteratur för både akademiska och industriella forskningsbehov. Numera har alla bred tillgång till vetenskaplig litteratur förråd, som omfattar både "vit" och "grå" litteratur. Den "grå" litteratur, som motsats till "vita" litteratur, är icke-vetenskapligt granskad vetenskaplig information som inte är tillgänglig med kommersiella informationskällor såsom IEEE och ACM. Ett stort antal forskare software engineering genomför systematiska litteraturöversikter (systemkameror) för att undersöka empiriska bevis programvaruteknik. Den viktigaste orsaken till att omfatta grå litteratur under Information syntes är att minimera risken för att partiskhet i publikationen. Använda toppmoderna icke-kommersiella databaser som indexerar information kan forskarna göra rigorösa processen att söka empiriska studier i systemkameror lättare. Denna studie förklarar bevis på grå litteratur när de utför syntes i systematiska litteraturöversikter. Mål: Målen med detta examensarbete är, 1. För att identifiera omfattningen av användningen av Grey litteratur i syntes under systematisk litteratur recensioner. 2. För att undersöka om icke-kommersiella informationskällor främst Google Scholar är tillräckliga för att hämta primära studier för systemkameror. Metoder: Verket består av en systematisk litteraturgenomgång av systemkameror och är en tertiär studie och metaanalys. Den systematiska litteraturstudie genomfördes på 138 systemkameror "publiceras via 2003 till 2012 (juni). Artikeln används källorna är IEEEXplore, ACM Digital Library, Springer-Link och Science Direct. Resultat: För vart och ett av de utvalda artikeln källor såsom ACM, IEEEXplore, Springer-länk och Science Direct, har vi presenterat resultat, som beskriver omfattningen av användningen av grå litteratur. De kvalitativa resultaten diskuterar olika strategier för systematisk utvärdering av grå litteratur under systematisk litteraturöversikt. De kvantitativa resultaten består av diagram och tabeller, som visar omfattningen av Grey litteratur användning. Resultaten från analys av Google Scholar-databasen beskriver det totala antalet primära studier som vi kan hitta med enbart Google Scholar databas. Slutsats: Av analysen av 138 systematiska litteraturöversikter (systemkameror) kan vi dra slutsatsen att bevisen för grå litteratur i systemkameror är cirka 9%. Den procentuella andelen Grey litteraturkällor som används i avsnitt informations syntes av systemkameror är cirka 93,2%. Vi kunde hämta omkring 96% av primära studier med Google Scholar databas. Vi drar slutsatsen att Google Scholar kan vara ett val för hämta publicerade studier dock, det saknar detaljerade sökalternativ för att rikta större pool av artiklar. Vi avslutar också att grå litteratur är allmänt tillgänglig i denna tid av information. Vi har försett riktlinjer i form av strategier för systematisk utvärdering av Grey litteratur.

  • 1828.
    Yates, Andrew
    et al.
    Max Planck Institut für Informatik, DEU.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Replicating relevance-ranked synonym discovery in a new language and domain2019Ingår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), Springer Verlag , 2019, Vol. 11437, s. 429-442Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Domain-specific synonyms occur in many specialized search tasks, such as when searching medical documents, legal documents, and software engineering artifacts. We replicate prior work on ranking domain-specific synonyms in the consumer health domain by applying the approach to a new language and domain: identifying Swedish language synonyms in the building construction domain. We chose this setting because identifying synonyms in this domain is helpful for downstream systems, where different users may query for documents (e.g., engineering requirements) using different terminology. We consider two new features inspired by the change in language and methodological advances since the prior work’s publication. An evaluation using data from the building construction domain supports the finding from the prior work that synonym discovery is best approached as a learning to rank task in which a human editor views ranked synonym candidates in order to construct a domain-specific thesaurus. We additionally find that FastText embeddings alone provide a strong baseline, though they do not perform as well as the strongest learning to rank method. Finally, we analyze the performance of individual features and the differences in the domains. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019.

  • 1829.
    Yelleswarapu, Mahesh Chandra
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    An Assessment of the Usability Quality Attribute in Open Source Software2010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Usability is one of the important quality attributes. Open source software products are well known for their efficiency and effectiveness. Lack of usability in OSS (Open Source Software) products will result in poor usage of the product. In OSS development there is no usability team, and one could therefore expect that the usability would be low for these products. In order to find out if this was really the case we made a usability evaluation using a questionnaire for four OSS products. The questionnaire was based on a review of existing literature. This questionnaire was presented to 17 people who are working with open source products. This evaluation showed that the overall usability was above average for all the four products. It seems, however, that the lack of a usability team has made the OSS products less easy to use for inexperienced users. Based on the responses to questionnaire and a literature review, a set of guidelines and hints for increasing the usability of OSS products was defined.

  • 1830. Ygge, Fredrik
    et al.
    Astor, Eric
    Interacting Intelligent Software Agents in Distribution management1995Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though distributed computing and two-way communication with the customer is becoming a reality for many energy distribution companies, there still is a need to develop methodologies for more efficient energy management. In this paper we discuss current approaches to demand management, and then present ideas from other areas applied to energy management. We introduce concepts such as computational markets and software agents in this context. In addition, methods entirely based on distributed problem solving to address the computationally hard problems of resource allocation with vast number of clients are described. We also discuss how these methods can be used to perform cost/benefit analysis of demand management.

  • 1831. Ygge, Fredrik
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Rune
    Akkermans, Hans
    HOMEBOTS: Intelligent Agents for Decentralized Load Management1996Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 1832.
    Ying, PuLe
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Fan, LingZhi
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Methods For Test Case Prioritization Based On Test Case Execution History2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivation: Test case prioritization can prioritize test cases, optimize the test execution, save time and cost. There are many different methods for test case prioritization, test case prioritization method based on test case execution history is one kind of them. Based on the test case execution history, it’s easier to increase the rate of fault detection, hence we want to do a study about test case prioritization methods based on the test case execution history. Meanwhile, executing the feasible methods to compare the effectiveness of them. For the motivation of the thesis may be regarded as an example for experiencing approach for comparing test case prioritizations based on test case execution history, or as a study case for identifying the suitable methods to use and help improve the effectiveness of the testing process.

    Objectives: The aim of this thesis is to look for a suitable test case prioritization method that can support risk based testing, in which test case execution history is employed as the key criterion of evaluation. For this research, there are three main objectives. First, explore and summarize methods of test case prioritization based on test case history. Next, identify what are differences among the test case prioritization methods. Finally, execute the methods which we selected, and compare the effectiveness of methods.

    Methods: To achieve the first and the second study objectives, a systematic literature review has been conducted using Kitchenham guidelines. To achieve the third study objective, an experiment was conducted following Wohlin guidelines.

    Results: In our thesis: 1) We conducted a systematic literature review and selected 15 relevant literatures. We extracted data of the literatures and then we synthesized the data. We found that the methods have different kinds of inputs, test levels, maturity levels, validation and "automated testing or manual testing". 2) We selected two feasible methods from those 15 literatures, Method 1 is Adaptive test-case prioritization and Method 2 is Similarity-based test quality metric. We executed the methods within 17 test suites. Comparing the result of two methods and non-prioritization, the mean Average Percentage of Defects Found (APFD) of Adaptive test-case prioritization execution result (86.9%) is significantly higher than non-prioritization (51.5%) and Similarity-based test quality metric (47.5%), it means that the Adaptive test-case prioritization has higher effectiveness.

    Conclusion: In our thesis, existing test case prioritization methods based on test case execution history are extracted and listed out through systematic literature review. The summary of them and the description of differences can be available in the thesis. The 15 relevant literatures and the synthesized data may be as a guideline for relevant software researchers or testers. We did the statistical test for the experimental result, we can see two different test case prioritization methods have different effectiveness.

  • 1833.
    Yiran, Zhou
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Yilei, Liu
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    The Challenges and Mitigation Strategies of Using DevOps during Software Development2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 1834.
    Yu, Liang
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Alégroth, Emil
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    Örebro universitet, SWE.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Utilising CI environment for efficient and effective testing of NFRs2020Ingår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 117, artikel-id 106199Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Continuous integration (CI) is a practice that aims to continuously verify quality aspects of a software intensive system both for functional and non-functional requirements (NFRs). Functional requirements are the inputs of development and can be tested in isolation, utilising either manual or automated tests. In contrast, some NFRs are difficult to test without functionality, for NFRs are often aspects of functionality and express quality aspects. Lacking this testability attribute makes NFR testing complicated and, therefore, underrepresented in industrial practice. However, the emergence of CI has radically affected software development and created new avenues for software quality evaluation and quality information acquisition. Research has, consequently, been devoted to the utilisation of this additional information for more efficient and effective NFR verification. Objective: We aim to identify the state-of-the-art of utilising the CI environment for NFR testing, hereinafter referred to as CI-NFR testing. Method: Through rigorous selection, from an initial set of 747 papers, we identified 47 papers that describe how NFRs are tested in a CI environment. Evidence-based analysis, through coding, is performed on the identified papers in this SLR. Results: Firstly, ten CI approaches are described by the papers selected, each describing different tools and nine different NFRs where reported to be tested. Secondly, although possible, CI-NFR testing is associated with eight challenges that adversely affect its adoption. Thirdly, the identified CI-NFR testing processes are tool-driven, but there is a lack of NFR testing tools that can be used in the CI environment. Finally, we proposed a CI framework for NFRs testing. Conclusion: A synthesised CI framework is proposed for testing various NFRs, and associated CI tools are also mapped. This contribution is valuable as results of the study also show that CI-NFR testing can help improve the quality of NFR testing in practices. © 2019

  • 1835.
    Zafar, Atique
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Ali, Sajad
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Investigation of Failure and Success Factors of Integration Process in Global Software Development: Literature Review and Delphi Survey2010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Software development work undertaken by virtual teams dispersed across time, space, and organizational boundaries is referred as Global Software Development (GSD) with emphasis on “globalization”. In GSD, teams within same organization (off-shore) or different organizations (outsource) from multiple geographic locations are involved. GSD is becoming a norm and more software projects are undertaken in GSD setting due to the benefits associated with it. However, there remain many challenges that can adversely affect the ability to realize those benefits. One of the challenges is to overcome the problems faced during integration of the functional components developed by different teams at different geographic locations. Incompatibilities and hidden issues surface during functional components integration which is very costly to fix at this stage and can lead to delay, lower product quality or even failure of a GSD project. In this regard, this study investigates integration problems that occurred due to different reasons during different phases/stages of GSD, along with successful integration practices with their relative importance. The study produces lists of failure and success factors, and then further prioritized that failure and success factors lists through Delphi experts. Failure and success factors present an extensive knowledge of integration problems and practical solutions. In addition, their relative importance highlights the severity and importance of each failure and success factor. The results of this study not only help to understand integration issues and solution, but provide a platform to develop a solid strategy at early stage of GSD.

  • 1836.
    Zahda, Showayb
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Obsolete Software Requirements2011Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Requirements changes are unavoidable in any software project. Requirements change over time as software projects progress, and involved stakeholders (mainly customers) and developers gain better understanding of the final product. Additionally, time and budget constraints prevent implementing all candidate requirements and force project management to select a subset of requirements that are prioritized more important than the others so as to be implemented. As a result, some requirements become cancelled and deleted during the elicitation and specification phase while other requirements are considered not important during the prioritization phase. A common scenario in this situation is to leave the excluded requirements for being considered in the next release. The constant leaving of the excluded requirements for the next release may simply render them obsolete.

  • 1837.
    Zeeshan, Ahmed
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för för interaktion och systemdesign.
    Integration of Variants Handling in M-System-NT2006Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This Master thesis proposes a solution to manage variabilities of software product line applications. The objective of the research is to support software decision makers in handling additional software complexity introduced by product line architectures. In order to fulfill this objective an approach to analyze, visualize, and measure product line specific characteristics of the C/C++ source code are proposed. The approach is validated in an empirical experiment using an open source software system. For that purpose the approach is first implemented into ®1 M-System-NT, an existing software measurement tool developed at Fraunhofer. The target hypothesis of the Institute for Experimental Software engineering research master thesis to perform static analysis of C/C++ source code, measure traditional and product line measures to identify the correlation between measures and indicate the fault proneness.

  • 1838.
    Zeeshan Iqbal, Syed Muhammad
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Grahn, Håkan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Törnquist Krasemann, Johanna
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    A Comparative Evaluation of Re-scheduling Strategies for Train Dispatching during Disturbances2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Railway traffic disturbances occur and train dispatchers make re-scheduling decisions in order to reduce the delays. In order to support the dispatchers, good rescheduling strategies are required that could reduce the delays. We propose and evaluate re-scheduling strategies based on: (i) earliest start time, (ii) earliest track release time, (iii) smallest buffer time, and (iv) shortest section runtime. A comparative evaluation is done for a busy part of the Swedish railway network. Our results indicate that strategies based on earliest start time and earliest track release time have the best average performance.

  • 1839.
    Zhang, Guangyu
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Product Manager view on Practical Assumption Management Lifecycle about System Use2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. In practice, software projects frequently fail in many fields, which causes the huge loss for the human being. Assumption faults are recognized as a main reason for the software project failures. As the world is changing fast, environment assumptions of software can be easily wrong. The daily assumption-related activities show not enough effectiveness and efficiency to deal with assumption faults. For example, no documenting of key assumptions, inappropriate assumption validation, lack of knowledge. In research, there is no empirical research about assumption management practice. Two assumption management frameworks were outlined. They both support the assumption formulation and assumption management. The formal assumption management framework provides an assumption-component mapping function to analyze assumption failures.

    Objectives. Our goal is figuring out how development team members handle environment assumptions today in practice and how they might handle them better tomorrow. To be specific, I test the applicability of the so far theoretical assumption management frameworks and investigate the assumption type, assumption formulation and assumption management in practical software development

    Methods. An interview-based survey was implemented with 6 product managers from Chinese software companies. They have rich experiences on assumption management and software development. I used directed content analysis to analyze the qualitative data. The result of the research is intended to be a static validation of the assumption management frameworks.

    Results. Interviewees consider that the assumption-component mapping function of the formal assumption management framework is useful in making decisions and analyzing the problems. However, using these frameworks takes too much effort. The functions of frameworks are covered by the development team members and the existing tools. Assumptions tend to be discovered when they frequently change and are important to the requirements. The main assumption types are user habit assumptions and quality attribute assumptions, which are both requirement assumptions. The user habit assumptions consist of name, description and value, while the quality attribute assumption formulation is name and value. The major assumption treatment activities are figuring out the value of assumptions, assumption monitoring, assumption validation and handling assumption failures. Assumption failures result in the loss of users and benefits. Assumption failures are always caused by the poor ability and experience of development team members.

    Conclusion. I create an assumption management model based on my result, and find out the advantages and disadvantages of the formal assumption management framework and semi-formal assumption management framework. The research could help improve the efficiency and effectiveness of assumption management practice. Also. The research can be treated as the starting point to study assumption management practice deeper.

  • 1840.
    Zhang, Jianhao
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Chen, Xuxiao
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Software Evolvability Measurement Framework during an Open Source Software Evolution2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Software evolution comes with the increasing growth of software applications both in size and complexity. Unlike the software maintenance, software evolution addresses more on the adaption of the new fast-changing requirements. Then the term of “software evolvability” comes with its importance for evaluating the evolution status of the software. However, it is not clearly identified especially in the context of open source software (OSS). Besides the most studies are about the description of software evolvability as a quality attribute, and very few research have done on the measurement of software evolvability during the software evolution process.

    Objectives In this study we perform an in-depth investigation on identification of the OSS evolvability, and figure out the appropriate metrics used for measuring the OSS evolvability. Based on that we finally proposed the open source software evolvability measurement framework (OSEM) which could be used for measuring the software evolvability generally in an OSS context.

    Methods: At first, we conducted a literature review by combining backward snowballing search with systematic database search. Two research questions which are RQ1 and RQ2 are proposed for helping us to retrieve the key information for building the needed framework. Then we performed a case study on VLC media player (an OSS project) to validate the processes of the proposed framework.

    Results: Based on literature we could explicitly identify the OSS evolvability, and figure out the differences of software evolvability addressed in OSS context and non OSS context (e.g, the traceability refers to documentation in non OSS context, however in OSS context it refers to the release version of OSS project). Besides we also fulfill the evolvability measuring method by addressing the process of prioritization of evolvability sub-characteristics. In the end we implement the OSEM framework on VLC media player and get the well documented results which are clearly presented and easy to understand. Such results could be taken by the VLC developers as an input for the design and development of the VLC.

    Conclusions: We conclude that the open source software measurement framework (OSEM) is applicable, based on the time we spent on the case of VLC media player it is quite fast and efficient to use such framework. The results from the conduction of this framework are documented well and very clear for OSS users/developers to follow.

  • 1841.
    Zhang, Long
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för programvarusystem.
    Khan, Adnan Rafiq
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för programvarusystem.
    Applying Six Sigma in Software Companies for Process Improvement2008Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT Modern society has a higher demand for quality than it had before. There is a Plethora of quality improvement techniques available which makes it harder for companies to decide which one to apply. They need support in this decision and in knowing how to apply the chosen techniques, if they want to improve their business and stay competitive. Six Sigma approach is a very successful manufacturing quality improvement tool. In the last two decades, it has helped many companies to success. Recently, the Six Sigma approach was introduced in the software development industry. Some software companies have been trying to adapt Six Sigma for their business and development processes. But there are misconceptions about the applicability of Six Sigma in software‟s. Furthermore there is no generic software quality improvement solution based on Six Sigma. So there is a demand to debunk the misconceptions related to the applicability of Six Sigma. And to develop a generic software company quality improvement solution based on Six Sigma approach. In this thesis we take a first step towards such a solution. The thesis starts from Six Sigma concept identification and manufacturing investigation. After conducting interviews, a case study and several case studies reviews, we detail our method. We expect thesis result to be useful for software companies when applying Six Sigma in their company for process improvement. Keywords: Software Quality, Quality Improvement Tool, Six Sigma and Process Improvement

  • 1842. Zhang, Peng
    et al.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    Johansson, Stefan J.
    Enhanced collaboration in diabetic healthcare for children using multi-agent systems2010Ingår i: International Journal of Agent-Oriented Software Engineering, ISSN 1746-1375, E-ISSN 1746-1383, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. 155-173Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have developed a multi-agent platform as a complement to the existing healthcare system in a children's diabetic healthcare setting. It resolves problems related to the difficulty of collaboration between the stakeholders of the problem domain. In addition, it gives us an opportunity to support the decision-making of the stakeholders using multi-agent systems. The collaboration situation is believed to be improved by the agent-based services, such as, diabetes monitoring and alarm, scheduling, and task delegation.

  • 1843.
    Zhang, Yanpeng
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Zhou, Ce
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Introducing Domain Specific Language for Modeling Scrum Projects2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. A clear software process definition is important because it can help developers to share a common understanding and improve the development effectiveness. However, if the misconceptions or misunderstandings are introduced to the team during the process definition, it will bring numerous uncertain problems to the projects and reduce the productivity. Scrum is one of the most popular Agile development processes. It has been frequently used in software development. But the misunderstanding of usage of the Scrum method always leads to situations where teams cannot achieve the hyper-productivity even failure. Therefore, introducing a reasonable graphical language for describing the Scrum process may help learners to gain a correct and common understanding of the Scrum method.

    Objectives. In this study, we introduce a graphical Domain Specific Language for modeling the Scrum process and specific Scrum projects. Further, we evaluated the proposed language to figure out if and how this language can help developers learn Scrum method and understand the specific Scrum projects. For the first, we decide to extract the essential elements and their relative relationships of the Scrum process, and based on that, we define and specify the graphical language. After that, we evaluate the proposed graphical language to validate whether this language can be considered as useful to help developers to learn Scrum method and understand the specific Scrum projects.

    Methods. In order to define the graphical language, we studied and reviewed the literature to extract the essential elements and their relationships for describing the Scrum process. Based on that, we defined and specified the graphical DSL. With the aim of evaluating the proposed graphical language, we performed the experiment and survey method. This experiment was conducted in an educational environment. The subjects were selected from the undergraduate and master students. At the same time, we carried out a survey to capture the developers‘ opinions and suggestions towards the proposed language in order to validate its feasibility.

    Results. By studying the literature, we listed and specified the essential elements for describing the Scrum process. By executing the experiment, we evaluated the efficiency and effectiveness of learning Scrum in using the proposed language and the natural language. The result indicates that the graphical language is better than the natural language in training Scrum method and understanding specific Scrum projects. The result shows that the proposed language improved the understandability of the Scrum process and specific Scrum projects by more than 30%.

    We also performed a survey to investigate the potential use of the proposed graphical DSL in industry. The Survey results show that participants think the proposed graphical language can help them to better understand the Scrum method and specific Scrum projects. Moreover, we noticed that the developers who have less Scrum development experience show more interests in this proposed graphical language.

    Conclusions. To conclude, the obtained results of this study indicate that a graphical DSL can improve the understandability of Scrum method and specific Scrum projects. Especially in managing the specific Scrum project, subjects can easily understand and capture the detailed information of the project described in the proposed language. This study also specified the merits and demerits of using the graphical language and textual language in describing the Scrum process.

    From the survey, the result indicates that the proposed graphical language is able to help developers to understand Scrum method and specific Scrum projects in industry. Participants of this survey show positive opinion toward the proposed graphical language. However, it is still a rather long way to applying such a graphical language in Scrum projects development because companies have to consider the extra learning effort of the graphical DSL. 

  • 1844.
    Zhao, Chengqian
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Impact of National Culture Dimensions on Scrum Implementations2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Scrum is one of the most common used Agile method. It is based on empiricism. Scrum only provides a framework but the detailed implementations in practice are very different. and the environment has a big influence on it. National culture is proven to have an impact on Agile methodology. The implementation of Scrum practices should be influenced by national culture as well. Objectives. This paper reveals the relationship between national culture and Scrum implementation. It explores in which aspects that national culture has an influence on the implementation of Scrum practices and how the different national culture dimensions affect the implementations. Methods. A literature review is used to build a theoretical framework. This framework includes the potential relationships between national culture and Scrum practices, which are our hypotheses. Afterward, interview is used in a company that has Scrum teams in both Sweden and China. Their implementations of Scrum practices are interviewed and analyzed based on our hypotheses. Results. A framework of deducted relationship between Hofstede’s national culture dimensions and Scrum practices is built. National culture is found to have an influence on the implementations of five Scrum practices. Conclusions. National culture is found to have an influence on Scrum implementations. National culture through power distance dimension has the most impact on implementations of no title practice, manage burn down chart practice and no interference practice. National culture differences in the aspect of individualism dimension also affect the practice like no title in teams. Uncertainty avoidance degree in different nations also has the most impact on Scrum implementation such as using burn down chart practice and time-boxed dimensions. Moreover, influence from national culture in China makes the Scrum implementations more consistency than the influence from national culture in Sweden.

  • 1845.
    Zhou, Yuan
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Gao, Jian
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Smart Elicitation of User Feedback in Mobile Applications2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Nowadays, mobile applications and services have occupied an essential part in our daily life. We use them to fulfill our needs for communication, news, or entertainment. Within a fierce competitive market, mobile applications need continually improvement through collections of user feedback to satisfy users’ needs. However, in mobile applications, lack of a comprehensive consideration in designing feedback mechanism makes it difficult to efficiently collect user feedback. It shows only approximate one third online user reviews that contain helpful information for improvement. In addition, users may be disturbed by feedback request, result in rejecting to provide feedback.

    Objectives. This study aims to provide a comprehensive consideration for elicitation of user feedback in mobile applications.

    Methods. This study followed a mixed qualitative-quantitative research approach. Firstly, we conducted an experiment and a semi-structured interview to investigate how do users provide feedback when they are using a mobile application. Then a content analysis and a statistical analysis were conducted for analyzing collected data.   

    Results. Users’ preference of feedback approaches and the encouraging/discouraging factors for users to provide feedback were identified. We also assessed user-perceived suitable timings for interruption of feedback request.

    Conclusions. The result shows, generally, users prefer to provide feedback when asked by feedback request. Three encouraging factors and Three discouraging factors are identified. The beginning of mobile application execution is perceived as best moment for interruption of feedback request. In addition, this study also provides a three-time-dimensions approach for researching disturbances caused by interruption of feedback request as well as other peripheral information.

  • 1846.
    Zhu, Huan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för programvarusystem.
    Investigation and Evaluation of Object Oriented Analysis techniques2004Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The technique of Object Oriented Analysis (OOA) has emerged only in the last decade. Although the technique of OOA is still new, its popularity has been increasing and it has already entered the mainstream of object oriented system development. This thesis makes a summary of four OOA methods and investigates the behaviors of all methods under different criteria. Through comparing the four methods, differences between methods are shown and analysts can select the appropriate one to meet his/her requirements.

  • 1847.
    Zlatkovic, Samireh Jalali and Branislav
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Success Factors in Building and Maintaining Trust Among Globally Distributed Team Members2009Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization trends have affected many software organizations in the past years. They are turning towards global software development (GSD) market in search for quality with a lower price and shorter development times. It turns out that certain management methods used for in-house development are not applicable in GSD, often resulting in a failed project. It is believed that trust is one of the key factors for success or failure of such projects. In the first part, this thesis studies the causes of lacking or losing trust in globally distributed teams though a literature review and systematic review of current research. The second part of this thesis studies the practices which have been applied in industry to prevent or minimize the impact of trust related issues. Finally these practices are mapped to the identified issues, resulting in a set of recommendations for managers involved in GSD.

  • 1848.
    Zúñiga-Prieto, Miguel
    et al.
    Universitat Politècnica de València, ESP.
    González-Huerta, Javier
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Insfran, Emilio
    Universitat Politècnica de València, ESP.
    Abrahão, Silvia
    Universitat Politècnica de València, ESP.
    Dynamic reconfiguration of cloud application architectures2018Ingår i: Software, practice & experience, ISSN 0038-0644, E-ISSN 1097-024X, Vol. 48, nr 2, s. 327-344, artikel-id Special Issue: SIArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Service-based cloud applications are software systems that continuously evolve to satisfy new user requirements and technological changes. This kind of applications also require elasticity, scalability, and high availability, which means that deployment of new functionalities or architectural adaptations to fulfill service level agreements (SLAs) should be performed while the application is in execution. Dynamic architectural reconfiguration is essential to minimize system disruptions while new or modified services are being integrated into existing cloud applications. Thus, cloud applications should be developed following principles that support dynamic reconfiguration of services, and also tools to automate these reconfigurations at runtime are needed. This paper presents an extension of a model-driven method for dynamic and incremental architecture reconfiguration of cloud services that allows developers to specify new services as software increments, and the tool to generate the implementation code for the services integration logic and the deployment and architectural reconfiguration scripts specific to the cloud environment in which the service will be deployed (e.g., Microsoft Azure). We also report the results of a quasi-experiment that empirically validate our method. It was conducted to evaluate their perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and perceived intention to use. The results show that the participants perceive the method to be useful, and they also expressed their intention to use the method in the future. Although further experiments must be carried out to corroborate these results, the method has proven to be a promising architectural reconfiguration process for cloud applications in the context of agile and incremental development processes.

  • 1849.
    Álvarez, Carlos García
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Overcoming the Limitations of Agile Software Development and Software Architecture2013Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Agile Software Development has provided a new concept of Software Development based in adaptation to changes, quick decisions, low high-level design and frequent deliveries. However, this approach ignores the value that Software Architecture provides in the long term for increasing the speed in delivery working software, which may have catastrophic consequences in the long term. Objectives. In this study, the combination of these two philosophies of Software Development is investigated. Firstly, the concept of Software Architecture in Agile Projects; then, the major challenges faced concerning Software Architecture in Agile Projects, the practices and approaches that can be used to overcome these challenges and the effects that these practices may cause on the project. Methods. The research methodologies used in this study are Systematic Literature Review for gathering the highest amount possible of contributions available in the Literature at this respect, and also the conduction of Semi-Structured Interviews with Agile Practitioners, in order to obtain empirical knowledge on the problem and support or deny the SLR findings. Results. The results of the Thesis are a unified description of the concept of Software Architecture in Agile Projects, and a collection of challenges found in agile projects, practices that overcome them and a relation of effects observed. Considering the most frequent practices/approaches followed and the empirical support, it is enabled a discussion on how to combine Software Architecture and Agile Projects. Conclusions. The main conclusion is that there is not a definite solution to this question; this is due to the relevance of the context (team, project, customer, etc.) that recommends the evaluation of each situation before deciding the best way to proceed. However, there are common trends on the best-recommended practices to integrate these two concepts. Finally, it is required more empirical work on the issue, the conduction of controlled experiments that allows to quantify the success or failure of the practices implemented would be most helpful in order to create a body of knowledge that enables the application of certain practices under certain conditions.

  • 1850.
    Åkerud, Daniel
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för programvarusystem.
    Rendlo, Henrik
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för programvarusystem.
    Natural Language Processing from a Software Engineering Perspective2004Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is intended to deal with questions related to the processing of naturally occurring texts, also known as natural language processing (NLP). The subject will be approached from a software engineering perspective, and the problem description will be formulated thereafter. The thesis is roughly divided into two major parts. The first part contains a literature study covering fundamental concepts and algorithms. We discuss both serial and parallel architectures, and conclude that different scenarios call for different architectures. The second part is an empirical evaluation of an NLP framework or toolkit chosen amongst a few, conducted in order to elucidate the theoretical part of the thesis. We argue that component based development in a portable language could increase the reusability in the NLP community, where reuse is currently low. The recent emergence of the discovered initiatives and the great potential of many applications in this area reveal a bright future for NLP.

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