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  • 1851. Bratt, Cecilia
    Assessment of Eco-Labelling and Green Procurement from a Strategic Sustainability Perspective2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Efforts to reduce negative impacts from consumption and production include voluntary market-based initiatives. Examples are the concept of eco-labelling and the concept of green procurement. These have emerged as policy instruments with great potentials to steer product innovation and purchasing decisions in a sustainable direction. This potential has been recognized by the United Nations, the European Union, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and national governments through, e.g., various programmes and schemes. The aim of this thesis is to assess current criteria development processes within eco-labelling and green procurement from a strategic sustainability perspective and to describe possible improvement potentials from such a perspective to make these instruments more supportive of sustainable product and service innovation. A previously published framework for strategic sustainable development, including a definition of sustainability and generic guidelines to inform strategies towards sustainability, is adapted and used for this purpose. Criteria development processes in two Swedish eco-labelling programmes and at a governmental expert body for green procurement are studied. This includes interviews with criteria developers, studies of process documents and a case study at the governmental expert body for green procurement in which two criteria development processes were shadowed. The result reveals several strengths but also gaps and thus potentials for improvement. The criteria development processes and the resulting criteria mostly concern the current market supply and a selection of current environmental impacts outside the context of long-term objectives. Neither sustainability nor any other clearly defined long-term objective is agreed upon, and the criteria are not structured to support procurers, suppliers and product developers in a systematic and strategic stepwise approach towards sustainability. Recommended improvements include a more thorough sustainability assessment, communication of clearer objectives, broader competence in the criteria development groups and more emphasis on the dialogue and interaction between key actors. This includes an extended view on both the product concept and actors involved. Based on this, a new criteria development prototype is suggested, which aims at widening the scope from some currently known product impacts to the remaining gap to sustainability. During its further development and implementation, the criteria development prototype will be tested in successive iterations of action research together with experienced practitioners within eco-labelling and green procurement.

  • 1852. Bratt, Cecilia
    Eco-labelling criteria development for strategic life cycle management2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To accelerate the transition towards a sustainable society, changes in consumption and production decisions are crucial. Eco-labelling type I is an instrument with a potential to create incentives for changes towards strategic life cycle management along value chains to achieve products that aid society's compliance with sustainability principles. But the mere existence of this instrument is not enough to utilize this potential. In a previous study, applying a Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development as a foundation for the analysis, we have pointed at deficiencies in theory and process of eco-labelling which hamper cohesiveness, transparency and comprehension. In this paper, we present a prototype criteria development process and discuss it in relation to current processes. From this comparison we conclude that the new criteria development process has the potential to support strategic life cycle management

  • 1853.
    Bratt, Cecilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Integrating a Strategic Sustainability Perspective into Eco-Labelling, Procurement and Supply Chain Management2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Maintaining the current course of the global society is threatening the human civilization. The urgency of the situation, understood from empirical research, has caused many researchers to call for more prescriptive research as a necessary supplement, to better support decision making for sustainability. While policymakers need to direct and stimulate sustainable production and consumption through, e.g., legislation and market phenomena such as eco-labelling, business represents a significant proportion of the necessary resources, capabilities and mechanisms for the innovation needed for a transition towards sustainability. However, while businesses more and more realize the self-interest in working proactively with sustainability, there is a desire for better support for how to do this also from this end. Such support needs to consider a significant shift going on in business; that individual businesses tend to no longer compete as autonomous entities, but rather as supply chains. Thus, no company is more sustainable than its supply chain partners. Therefore, sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) as a business function, and sustainable procurement as a subset thereof, plays an increasingly pivotal role for sustainable development. The overall aim of this thesis is to contribute to sustainable development by studying how three phenomena; eco-labelling, procurement and supply chain management are related to each other and to a strategic sustainability perspective, and to suggest how these phenomena can be integrated with such a perspective to provide better support for decision making and innovation for sustainability. For this purpose, a framework for strategic sustainable development, including a definition of sustainability and generic guidelines to inform stepwise strategic plans towards sustainability, is used as a foundational methodology. The development of new approaches is also based on case studies with eco-labelling and sustainable public procurement bodies, businesses and public institutions. Information is collected by shadowing of criteria development and collaboration processes, interviews and literature studies. While the findings point to a clear rational for all of the phenomena and several strengths in existing schemes and practices, the findings also point to several shortcomings. Sustainability is not defined, and as a result, there is no foundation for strategic and proactive approaches. Furthermore, decisions are not based on considerations of all dimensions of sustainability, the whole life cycle of products, all relevant stakeholders and a long-term perspective. As a result, the full potential of these phenomena for contributing to sustainable development is not utilized. This thesis prescribes enhanced processes for eco-labelling, sustainable procurement and SSCM, and shows how these can support organisations in developing from reacting individually on known sustainability-related problems to acting proactively and collaboratively in supply chains, in a coordinated and economically viable way, on society’s remaining gap to the full scope of ecological and social sustainability.

  • 1854.
    Bratt, Cecilia
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Sophie, Hallstedt
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Procurement as driver of sustainable product-service innovation2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current patterns of production and consumption need to change and they need to do so radically. For this shift sustainability-oriented product-services are highly potential contributors. Product-services have been described as a market proposition that extends the functionality of a product beyond the traditional view by inclusion of additional services into the product-service system. From a producer perspective this opens up for a differentiation from competitors and thereby for strategic market opportunities. For the customer this means the possibility to be released from responsibilities linked to asset ownership, more differentiated options and increased function availability .For society at large it means the possibility to gain sustainability achievements. However, the market adoption of product-services or functional products brings with it significant challenges. The demand side is still hesitant to ownerless consumption and the supply side faces economical and company culture-related challenges. The challenges also include customer-related challenges and the development of product-services will require joint efforts of a number of actors along the value chain, actors that traditionally have been outside the buyer-seller relationship. Product-services need to be developed on a case-by-case basis and involve the users perspective from initial need phase until end-of-life in a collaborative process that is not practice today. This paper explores the strategic position of a procurer in this development. It aims at providing guidelines for procurement processes on how to successively and systematically utilize its potential as drivers for sustainability-oriented product-service solutions. Three procurement cases are studied for which a movement from a traditional product-oriented process to a functional-oriented process was the selection criteria. These cases were used to gain a deepened understanding of drivers and barriers for function-oriented procurement processes. A template for sustainable product development is used as a base for the development. The result from the cases is used to adapt the guidelines to current procurement processes and to meet the procurers where they are today.

  • 1855. Bratt, Cecilia
    et al.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Broman, Göran
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    Oldmark, Jonas
    Assessment of Eco-labelling Criteria Development from a Strategic Sustainability Perspective2011In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 19, no 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To turn current patterns of consumption and production in a sustainable direction, solid and understandable market information on the socio-ecological performance of products is needed. Eco-labelling programmes have an important role in this communication. The aim of this study is to investigate what gaps there may be in the current criteria development processes in relation to a strategic sustainability perspective and develop recommendations on how such presumptive gaps could be bridged. First a previously published generic framework for strategic sustainable development is described and applied for the assessment of two eco-labelling programmes. Data for the assessment is collected from literature and in semi-structured interviews and discussions with eco-labelling experts. The assessment revealed that the programmes lack both an operational definition of sustainability, and a statement of objectives to direct and drive the criteria development processes. Consequently they also lack guidelines for how product category criteria might gradually develop in any direction. The selected criteria mainly reflect the current reality based on a selection of negative impacts in ecosystems, but how this selection, or prioritization, is made is not clearly presented. Finally, there are no guidelines to ensure that the criteria developers represent a broad enough competence to embrace all essential sustainability aspects. In conclusion the results point at deficiencies in theory, process and practice of eco-labelling, which hampers cohesiveness, transparency and comprehension. And it hampers predictability, as producers get no support in foreseeing how coming revisions of criteria will develop. This represents a lost opportunity for strategic sustainable development. It is suggested that these problems could be avoided by informing the criteria development process by a framework for strategic sustainable development, based on backcasting from basic sustainability principles.

  • 1856.
    Bratt, Cecilia
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Robèrt, Karl Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Oldmark, Jonas
    Assessment of criteria development for public procurement from a strategic sustainability perspective2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 52, p. 309-316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Green public procurement has emerged as a policy instrument with a significant potential to steer procurers' and producers' decisions in a sustainable direction. The purpose of this study is to assess the process for development of green public procurement criteria at a Swedish governmental expert body from a strategic sustainability perspective, i.e. to identify strengths and weaknesses from such a perspective as a basis for making this process more supportive of sustainable product and service innovation. A previously published framework for strategic sustainable development is used for the assessment. The assessment shows that the criteria development process is transparent, well-documented and that it encourages a high level of participation by the members of the working groups. However, the assessment also points to several weaknesses of the process. These include, e.g., a limited impact perspective and lack of a clear definition of sustainability objectives. The development process therefore results in criteria which mainly concern a selection of current environmental impacts outside the context of long-term objectives and consequently there are no strategies to prepare for future processes. The conclusion is that the current process may result in improvements as regards some known environmental problems, but to allow for a strategic approach that could more significantly promote innovative product-service system solutions in support of sustainable development, process changes are needed. Essential process changes are proposed in this paper.

  • 1857. Bratthall, Lars
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Is it Possible to Decorate Graphical Software Design and Architecture Models with Qualitative Information?: An Experiment2002In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 28, no 12, p. 1181-1193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software systems evolve over time and it is often difficult to maintain them. One reason for this is often that it is hard to understand the previous release. Further, even if architecture and design models are available and up to date, they primarily represent the functional behaviour of the system. To evaluate whether it is possible to also represent some non-functional aspects, an experiment has been conducted. The objective of the experiment is to evaluate the cognitive suitability of some visual representations that can be used to represent a control relation, software component size and component external and internal complexity. Ten different representations are evaluated in a controlled environment using 35 subjects. The results from the experiment show that it representations with low cognitive accessibility weight can be found. In an example, these representations are used to illustrate some qualities in an SDL block diagram. It is concluded that the incorporation of these representations in architecture and design descriptions is both easy and probably worthwhile. The incorporation of the representations should enhance the understanding of previous releases and hence help software developers in evolving and maintaining complex software systems.

  • 1858.
    Brauer, Caroline Persson
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Health.
    Gröndahl, Cecilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Health.
    ”Man ska börja med att få föräldrarnas tillit”: En intervjustudie om sjuksköterskors upplevelser av att bemöta föräldrar till barn med smärta på akutmottagning.2014Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Det finns brist på kunskap vad det gäller sjuksköterskors upplevelser då de bemöter föräldrar till barn med smärta. Föräldrar kan i detta sammanhang både vara en resurs och en svårighet. Barnets behov av trygghet i situationen underlättas av föräldrarnas närvaro. Oroliga föräldrar kan utgöra en komplikation i omvårdnaden då de i sin oro kan ha svårt att hantera sin osäkerhet. Syfte: Syftet var att belysa sjuksköterskors upplevelser av att bemöta föräldrar till barn med smärta på akutmottagning. Metod: Kvalitativa semistrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes med fyra sjuksköterskor som arbetar på en akutmottagning på ett sjukhus i södra Sverige. Intervjuerna transkriberades och analyserades med hjälp av kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Resultat: Resultatet påvisade att tilliten är betydelsefull i förhållandet mellan föräldrar, barn och sjuksköterska. Hinder i omvårdnaden kan vara att föräldrar är oroliga när de söker akutvård för sitt barn med smärta, vilket påverkar barnet i stor grad då oron kan överföras till barnet. Ett gott samarbete mellan sjuksköterskan och föräldrarna är av betydelse för att skapa förtroende hos barnet och därmed kunna åstadkomma en god och säker vård. Slutsats: För att åstadkomma en god och säker vård av barnet är det av vikt att sjuksköterskan bemöter föräldrarna till barn med smärta på ett lugnt sätt och ger kontinuerlig saklig information för att på så sätt erhålla föräldrarnas tillit.

  • 1859.
    Braun, Nicholas
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Hutle, Thomas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Vonk, Milan Alexander
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    The Sustainable City Year Program Public Scholarship for Community Development2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    By 2050, an estimated 6.3 billion people or 66% of the world population will live in cities. Therefore, cities are in a high impact position regarding sustainability. The question is, how do we increase awareness of the sustainability challenge among these populations and gain citywide buy-in and multi-stakeholder collaboration to address this challenge? The Sustainable City Year Program (SCYP) at the University of Oregon offers one approach to tackle this issue by matching higher education institutions (HEI’s), with local and regional cities to address their sustainability related needs through publicly engaged scholarship. The objective of this research was to examine how SCYP contributes to strategic sustainable development (SSD). Our research methods included a peer-reviewed literature review, semi-structured interviews, surveys and further document review. Our sources included SCYP co-founders, partner city program managers, strategic sustainable development experts, and municipal planners from around the world. Our research suggests that SCYP creates a subtle paradigm shift towards sustainability among partner city staff and community members while accelerating practical implementation of sustainability related projects. Furthermore, the added layer of SSD concepts can increase the efficacy of this approach and allow the model to embrace a larger systems level perspective over time.

  • 1860.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Halldin, Torbjörn
    KTH, SWE.
    Born globals: presence, performance and prospects2019In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 60-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept born global firms has gained a spectacular increase in interest from both academic and political circles. Rigorous quantitative treatment of born global firms are however rare in the international business/economics literature. Implementing unique data on all Swedish start-ups during 1998–2008 in the manufacturing sector, we conclude that born global firms are a very rare event, that their prevalence seems invariant to time, and that they perform similar to other matched “twin” firms with regard to profitability and productivity but report a considerably higher growth in employment and sales. These results are robust to a wider definition of born global firms and to the timing of performance measurements. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

  • 1861. Brazier, Frances
    et al.
    Cornelissen, Frank
    Gustavsson, Rune
    Jonker, Catholijn M.
    Lindeberg, Olle
    Polak, Bianca
    Treur, Jan
    Compositional Design and Verification of a Multi-Agent System for One-to-Many Negotiation1998Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A compositional verification method for multi-agent systems is presented and applied to a multi-agent system for one-to-many negotiation in the domain of load balancing of electricity use. Advantages of the method are that the complexity of the verification process is managed by compositionality, and that part of the proofs can be reused in relation to reuse of components.

  • 1862. Brazier, Frances
    et al.
    Cornelissen, Frank
    Gustavsson, Rune
    Jonker, Catholijn M.
    Lindeberg, Olle
    Polak, Bianca
    Treur, Jan
    Compositional verification of a multi-agent system for one-to-many negotiation2004In: Applied intelligence (Boston), ISSN 0924-669X, E-ISSN 1573-7497, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 95-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Verification of multi-agent systems hardly occurs in design practice. One of the difficulties is that required properties for a multi-agent system usually refer to multi-agent behaviour which has nontrivial dynamics. To constrain these multi-agent behavioural dynamics, often a form of organisational structure is used, for example, for negotiating agents, by following strict protocols. The claim is that these negotiation protocols entail a structured process that is manageable with respect to analysis, design and execution of such a multi-agent system. In this paper this is shown by a case study: verification of a multi-agent system for one-to-many negotiation in the domain of load balancing of electricity use. A compositional verification method for multi-agent systems is applied that allows to (1) logically relate dynamic properties of the multi-agent system as a whole to dynamic properties of agents, and (2) logically relate dynamic properties of agents to properties of their subcomponents. Given that properties of these subcomponents can be verified by more standard methods, these logical relationships provide proofs of the dynamic properties of the multi-agent system as a whole.

  • 1863. Brazier, Sofia
    et al.
    Magnusson, Josefin
    Faktorer som påverkar sjuksköterskors upplevelses av att vårda patienter med psykisk sjukdom på somatiska vårdavdelningar.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Patienter med psykisk sjukdom är särskilt utsatta inom vården eftersom de inte alltid själva kan lyfta fram sina egna vårdbehov. Det tillhör inte ovanligheten att psykiskt sjuka patienter lider av samsjuklighet, vilket innebär att patienter lider av flera sjukdomar samtidigt. Patienter med psykisk sjukdom har oftast har en högre sjuklighet än allmänheten. Trots detta upplever patienter med psykisk sjukdom att det inte får den hjälp de behöver inom den somatiska vården. Sjuksköterskan kan möta patientens fysiska behov men förväntas vårda de psykiska behoven också, även om de inte fått denna kunskap i sin grundutbildning. 

    Syfte: Syftet var att beskriva sjuksköterskor upplevelse av att vårda patienter med psykisk sjukdom inom somatiska vårdavdelningar. 

    Metod: En litteraturstudie där åtta vetenskapliga artiklar med kvalitativ ansats användes. Urvalet bestod av verksamma sjuksköterskor på olika somatiska vårdavdelningar. Data inhämtades från PubMed och Cinahl. Vid analysering av de vetenskapliga artiklarna användes Graneheim och Lundmans (2004) beskrivning av kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Innehållsanalysen utfördes i följande ordning; kondensering, kodning och kategorisering av de utvalda meningsenheterna. 

    Resultat: Analysen av artiklarna resulterade i fyra kategorier och sju underkategorier. 

    Slutsats: Resultatet visade på en tydlig brist hos sjuksköterskorna i kunskap och utbildning gentemot patienter med psykisk sjukdom. Faktorer som rädsla och osäkerhet påverkade vårdarbetet och interaktioner mellan patienterna med psykisk sjukdom och sjuksköterskan. Sjuksköterskans bristande kunskap samt inställning gentemot patienterna kan påverka tillämpningen av den personcentrerade vården. Enlitteraturstudie kan ge en ökad förståelse om hur sjuksköterskan upplever vårdandet vid patienter med psykisk sjukdom som i sin tur förhoppningsvis kan leda till en mer jämlik vård och förbättrad grundutbildning. 

  • 1864.
    Brazée, Christer
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Centrumlös kabelkarusell2012Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Examensarbetet ”Centrumlös kabelkarusell” har utförts tillsammans med Semcon Caran AB i samband med utbildningen Utvecklingsingenjör i maskinteknik vid Blekinge Tekniska Högskola. Semcon levererar bland annat konstruktionslösningar till kabelkaruseller. Karusellerna har en rund struktur och är uppdelade i ett flertal sektioner, kabeln lagras på ett lastområde som sitter längst ut från centrum. Innanför lastområdet löper ett ekersystem in mot centrum som håller ihop konstruktionen, önskemålet är att ersätta ekersystemet med ett annat alternativ. Målet är att utveckla ett konstruktionsförslag på en centrumlös karusell, det presenteras sex stycken koncept varav ett väljs ut för vidareutveckling. Tillvägagångssättet har följt delar av Fredy Olssons metoder för principkonstruktion och primärkonstruktion.

  • 1865.
    Bredberg, Paulina
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Spatial Planning.
    Makten över handeln. En studie om maktförhållanden och deras betydelse i utvecklingen av handelsplatser i en kommun.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Handel kan beskrivas som grunden i städer och deras utveckling. Handelsplatser lockar människor och skapar stadsliv. Handel är således en viktig del både i översiktliga mål och i den fysiska planeringen. I stadsbyggnadsideal om att skapa en tät och blandad stad är handel en central aspekt och en önskan om att kunna styra handelsplatsernas utveckling kan i idealen utläsas. I diskussioner kring handelns utveckling som förts av forskare och i myn- dighetsrapporter ifrågasätts dock var makten att styra utvecklingen egentligen ligger. I denna studie undersöks hur maktförhållanden kopplade till handel kan påverka utveck- lingen av handelsplatser i en kommun. Utvecklingen diskuteras främst utifrån dimensionerna lokalisering, utformning samt skala, och en diskussion förs kring vilka aktörer som har makt och är drivande i utvecklingen. I studien används maktperspektiv om t.ex. definitionsmakt och utvecklingskontroll för att belysa och diskutera handelsplatsers utveckling. Inom ramen för studien har en fallstudie genomförts i Malmö stad, där etableringen av de två köpcentrumen Entré och Emporia används som fallstudieobjekt. Analysen av fallen belyser etableringsprocessen utifrån ett aktörsperspektiv och i den avslutande diskussionen förs resonemang kring vilka maktfaktorer och vilka aktörer som är drivande i vilka frågor i handelsplatsers utveckling. Analysen visar att den bild som framställs av handel i den kommunala planeringen har stor betydelse för utvecklingen, bland annat genom definitioner av fokusområden och genom begreppsanvändning. Det offentligas styrmöjligheter är också beroende av hur stark eller vag den framställda bilden är. Studien visar sammanfattningsvis att det främst verkar vara privata aktörer och deras normer som har makt att driva utvecklingen av handelsplatser.

  • 1866.
    Bredemo, Fredrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Hörbarhet i praktiken: En Actor Network analys av arbetet kring hörbarhet2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The television industry is a huge industry that is governed by a few big broadcasting networks. The biggest distributer and producer of television in Sweden is Sveriges Television (SVT) and everyone working with sound will, more likely than not, work for them in a project.

    In this study I’ve analyzed the results of two months of empirical work, I’ve identified the actors that make up the network “God hörbarhet” (good audibility) and the reason this is interesting is for determining a more solid definition for the term “good audibility”.

    I’ve then put this more solid definition up against SVT’s loose definition, this only to expand on their current system and delivery specifications.

  • 1867.
    Breidfors, Karin
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Business Administration and Social Science.
    Johansson, Sylvia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Business Administration and Social Science.
    Lüning, Annelie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Business Administration and Social Science.
    Intellektuellt kapital och icke-finansiella intäkter: Om kundens bidrag till kunskapsföretagets tillgångar2001Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med kandidatuppsatsen är att ta reda på vad kunskapsföretagens intellektuella kapital och de icke-finansiella intäkterna från kunderna består av samt försöka utveckla en egen modell, som kan fungera som ett stöd för att synliggöra och värdera kundernas bidrag till företagen. De frågor vi söker svar på är: Av vilka beståndsdelar är företagets verkliga värde sammansatt? Vilka intäkter kan kunderna bidra med, förutom pengar, för att öka företagets värde? Hur kan man synliggöra och värdera de icke-finansiella intäkterna i syfte att på bästa sätt ta tillvara det kunderna har att bidra med?

  • 1868.
    Breidfors, Karin
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Business Administration and Social Science.
    Johansson, Sylvia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Business Administration and Social Science.
    Lüning, Annelie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Business Administration and Social Science.
    Internredovisning i nio småföretag: behov, utformning och begränsande faktorer2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Our purpose is to find out how some small companies in different lines of business have fulfilled their needs of information for management accounting. We will also investigate what limiting factors that exert a negative influence on the accounting design. All of the companies do have some kind of management accounting, even though it is not always very formalized. Only the two companies with the most elaborate management accounting are discontented with the way they fulfil their own information needs. The limiting factors we have been able to identify are costs, time, tools, interest, tradition, knowledge, benefit, growth ambition and advice. However, it seems that insufficient knowledge is the underlying cause to all the other factors as well.

  • 1869.
    Brennan, Ciara
    et al.
    University of Iceland, ISL.
    Rice, James Gordon
    University of Iceland, ISL.
    Traustadóttir, Rannveig
    University of Iceland, ISL.
    Anderberg, Peter
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Health.
    How can states ensure access to personal assistance when service delivery is decentralized?: A multi-level analysis of Iceland, Norway and Sweden2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, ISSN 1501-7419, E-ISSN 1745-3011, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 334-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Article 19 of the United Nations (UN) Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities requires states to ensure that persons with disabilities have access to a range of support services, including personal assistance. The Convention is an agreement between state parties and the UN. However, in practice, disability services are often implemented at the local level. Drawing on the findings of qualitative research in Iceland, Norway and Sweden, this paper examines a paradox whereby states commit to ensure access to support services, but decentralize responsibility to autonomous and independent local governments. A multi-level governance framework is applied to analyse the findings of qualitative inquiry with policy-makers, local government officials and leaders of independent living organizations in all three Nordic countries. A multi-level analysis highlights the tensions and contradictions between decentralization and human rights commitments. © 2016 Nordic Network on Disability Research

  • 1870. Brennan, Ciara
    et al.
    Traustadóttir, Rannveig
    Rice, James
    Anderberg, Peter
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Health.
    Negotiating independence, choice and autonomy: experiences of parents who coordinate personal assistance on behalf of their adult son or daughter2016In: Disability & Society, ISSN 0968-7599, E-ISSN 1360-0508, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 604-621Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Article 19 of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities requires states to provide personal assistance services. This article is based on qualitative research in Iceland, Norway and Sweden, carried out between 2012 and 2013. The overall study focused broadly on the implementation of Article 19. This article, however, reports findings based on a particular group of participants within the larger study: non-disabled parents who coordinate personal assistance schemes for their adult son or daughter. The article examines the various ways in which the parents, the majority of whom were mothers, negotiate principles of independence, choice and autonomy for their adult son or daughter who requires intensive support, including assistance with communicating. The aim is to explore, in the context of the Convention and the principles of the independent living movement, how to acknowledge and conceptualise personal assistance schemes that require another person to manage on behalf of the user. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

  • 1871.
    Brennan, Josephine
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Garrett, Susan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Purcell, Mike
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Opportunities for Global Sustainability (Global ABCD)2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In spite of our substantive knowledge about global un-sustainability, insufficient progress is being made to halt systematic socio-ecological decline. Much information is readily available on downstream impacts, with limited focus on upstream activities driving such effects. This thesis uses backcasting from socioecological principles for sustainability to identify major upstream human activities violating these principles, the underlying drivers reinforcing such activities, alternative practices already in use with potential for significant expansion, and emerging opportunities for action across different sectors of society. Results show emerging patterns of high magnitude violations across all four socio-ecological principles indicating nexus points in energy, transportation and agriculture. These activities are reinforced by our societal structure which is designed to meet human needs through a growth paradigm which in turn does not adequately consider the ongoing health of ecosystems or the sustainable functioning of society itself. Shifting to potential solutions, examples focus on themes such as renewable energy, green chemicals, organic agriculture, and self-organising network structures. Recognising that these actions may not be enough, the thesis explores elements of a global vision which could guide progress. Emerging nexus points for societal change include education, information flows (particularly the media), design (as a leverage point), self-organization, and governance.

  • 1872.
    BRHANIE, BEKALU MULLU
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Multi-Label Classification Methods for Image Annotation2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1873. Brik, Bouziane
    et al.
    Lagraa, Nasreddine
    Abderrahmane, Lakas
    Cheddad, Abbas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    DDGP: Distributed Data Gathering Protocol for vehicular networks2016In: Vehicular Communications, ISSN 2214-2096, Vol. 4, p. 15-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANet) is an emerging research area, it offers a wide range of applications including safety, road traffic efficiency, and infotainment applications. Recently researchers are studying the possibility of making use of deployed VANet applications for data collection. In this case, vehicles are considered as mobile collectors that gather both real time and delay tolerant data and deliver them to interested entities. In this paper, we propose a novel Distributed Data Gathering Protocol (DDGP) for the collection of delay tolerant as well as real time data in both urban and highway environments. The main contribution of DDGP is a new medium access technique that enables vehicles to access the channel in a distributed way based on their location information. In addition, DDGP implements a new aggregation scheme, which deletes redundant, expired, and undesired data. We provide an analytical proof of correctness of DDGP, in addition to the performance evaluation through an extensive set of simulation experiments. Our results indicate that DDGP enhances the efficiency and the reliability of the data collection process by outperforming existing schemes in terms of several criteria such as delay and message overhead, aggregation ratio, and data retransmission rate. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 1874. Brik, Bouziane
    et al.
    Lagraa, Nasreddine
    Lakas, Abderrahmane
    Cherroun, Hadda
    Cheddad, Abbas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    ECDGP: extended cluster-based data gathering protocol for vehicular networks2015In: Wireless Communications & Mobile Computing, ISSN 1530-8669, E-ISSN 1530-8677Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1875.
    Briland, Johannes
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    Briland, Marcus
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    VD-byte och effektivitet: i en turbulent och en stabil bransch2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Allt fler företag byter VD allt oftare. Många av dessa byten kan dessutom ses som ofrivilliga och orsaken till ett byte kan därför antas vara att få till en förändring för att öka företagets effektivitet. Enligt situationsteorin är det avgörande för ett företag ha en överensstämmelse med sin omgivning för att kunna uppnå effektivitet. När omgivningen som ett företag verkar inom snabbt förändras och förutsägbarheten är låg så ökar också behovet av förnyelse och förändring för att företaget för att bibehålla eller öka sin effektivitet. Frågan som denna studie vill försöka besvara är om ett VD-byte kan betyda en förbättring för företagets effektivitet. Där det populationsekologiska synsättet menar att ledningen inte kan påverka företagets utveckling i någon större omfattning. Medan andra perspektiv menar att ledningen och därmed VD:n har en möjlighet att påverka och förändra genom strategiska val. Resultatet från studien visar på att ett VD-byte delvis kan betyda en förbättring av effektiviteten men att det är begränsat till de företag som verkar i en turbulent omgivning. Studien visar också att minskad effektivitet och en turbulent omgivning driver fram fler VD-byten.

  • 1876.
    Brinck, Jacqueline
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Stridh, Josefine
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    LEDARSKAPETS PÅVERKAN PÅ LÄRANDEPROCESSER AV TYST KUNSKAP: FYRA ANSTÄLLDAS UPPLEVELSER2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative study’s purpose was to increase the knowledge of and if so how the interaction between employees and managers could develop employees' tacit knowledge. The study was based on the question of how the employees experienced that leaders influenced and supported the learning processes of tacit knowledge. In order to achieve the objectives of the study profund semi-structured interviews were carried out with four employees with different job roles from four different companies. The interviews were conducted face to face with the support of a mind map with room for follow-up questions to obtain as reliable answers as possible. The analysis showed that the participants experienced that the leaders influenced and supported the learning processes of tacit knowledge within the five themes; work team building, dialogue and reflection, concrete activites, work role and concept formation and autonomy and also room to take initiative. Together they formed a whole which created a picture of the experience of support and influence on the learning process of tacit knowledge at their workplaces. 

  • 1877.
    Brinck, Jacqueline
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Stridh, Josefine
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Utmaningar i att leda ur ett arbetskaraktäristikt perspektiv2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här kvalitativa studiens syfte var att ur ett ledarskapsperspektiv undersöka vad chefer upplevde som signifikanta utmaningar i att leda en arbetsgrupp utifrån de fem arbetskaraktäristika dimensionerna; uppgiftsidentitet, uppgiftsbetydelse, variation i färdigheter, autonomi och feedback. För att uppnå studiens syfte valdes att göra djupgående, semistrukturerade intervjuer med fyra chefer ifrån fyra olika verksamheter med varierande erfarenhet av ledarskap. Intervjuerna genomfördes vid personliga intervjuer med stöd av en intervjumall men också med utrymme för lämpliga följdfrågor för så uttömmande svar som möjligt. Resultatet av studien visade på att utmaningar återfanns i att arbetsgruppens autonomi tillsammans med variation i färdigheter begränsades av arbetsbeskrivning. Utmaningar upplevdes också kring att få de anställda att förstå hela bilden samt i anställdas sätt att nyttja eller utnyttja autonomi och hantera feedback i de fall de erbjöds. Studien pekade även på en signifikant utmaning i att varje anställd också var en individ, liksom chefers olika perspektiv på vad som ses som önskvärt beteende. Resultaten öppnade också upp för frågeställningar kring individuella skillnader, hos såväl chefer som anställda, i relation till de olika dimensionerna som påvisade ett behov för vidare forskning.

  • 1878. Brink, Emelie
    et al.
    Andersson, Amanda
    Samtal kring sexuell hälsa med personer som har kolostomi: -Ur sjuksköterskans perspektiv2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: 700 000 människor i Europa lever med någon form av stomi. I samband med en stomioperation kan kroppsuppfattningen förändras och därmed också attityden till sin egen kropp. Detta kan leda till problem med den sexuella hälsan i form av minskad lust, rädsla att samlaget ska orsaka smärta och att personen med en kolostomi kan känna sig mindre attraktiv. Det ingår i sjuksköterskans roll att samtala kring den sexuella hälsan men sjuksköterskorna kan uppleva detta problematiskt då ämnet kan anses vara känsligt och privat.Syfte: Syftet med studien var att belysa sjuksköterskans erfarenheter av att samtala kring sexuell hälsa med personer som har kolostomi.Metod: Studien var en kvalitativ intervjustudie med sjuksköterskor på ett sjukhus i södra Sverige. Analysen genomfördes utifrån Graneheim och Lundmans tolkning av innehållsanalys.Resultat: Innehållsanalysen resulterade i två stycken kategorier och sju stycken underkategorier. Kategorin samtalets innehåll fick tre stycken underkategorier när frågan ställs och om samtalet blir av, patientens upplevelser enligt sjuksköterskan och tips och råd. Kategorin faktorer som påverkar samtalet fick fyra stycken underkategorier så som ålder, genus, efterfrågar andra resurser och fokus på annat.Slutsats: Det rådde delade meningar gällande om samtal kring den sexuella hälsan tillhörde sjuksköterskeprofessionen eller inte. Samtalet var viktigt att ta upp men att det fanns brister som att sjuksköterskorna efterfrågade andra resurser. Det visade sig att det fanns olika faktorer som påverkade samtalet och ifall samtalet ägde rum eller inte. Faktorer så som patientens ålder, genus, miljön runt samtalet och även att sjuksköterskorna och patienterna fokuserade på annat. Slutligen förekom det funderingar på om denna studie är applicerbar på andra sjukdomstillstånd som exempelvis hjärtinfarkt.

  • 1879.
    Brink, Jenny
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Human Work Science and Media Technology.
    Grudd, Jennie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Human Work Science and Media Technology.
    Kamerametoden: en nyckel till mobila användare2002Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur kan mobila användare studeras? Frågan blir allt mer aktuell i samband med att vi människor i större utsträckning blir mobila och därmed också använder mobila artefakter som en del av vardagslivet. Denna fråga är framförallt aktuell för de företag som utvecklar denna typ av artefakter. Vi har under detta kandidatarbete samarbetat med ett företag som dagligen ställs inför denna typ av frågor, och vi kommer i denna rapport behandla utvecklingen av en metod för att studera just mobila användare. Att studera användarna är naturligt, då det är de som är nyckeln till vilka tjänster och artefakter som just de har användning för. Vår metod influeras av tankar från den etnografiska traditionen och har utvecklats genom en studie av ungdomar i gymnasieålder och deras vardag. Ungdomarna har gett oss inblick i sina liv genom att fotografera och berätta kring dessa fotografier under seminarier som kontinuerligt genomförts under studien. Vi har valt att ha ett brett perspektiv under studien för att få en helhetsbild av de studerade ungdomarnas liv. Utifrån den ansenliga mängd information vi inhämtat genom att studera ungdomarna, har vi tagit fram en design av en funktion till mobilt användande av intresse för dessa ungdomar. Vår metod, som vi valt att kalla Kamerametoden, kan alltså med fördel användas vid framtagning av en design utifrån den inblick som fås i den studerades liv.

  • 1880.
    Brink, Robin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Konstruktionsförslag av tömningsstationer för storsäckar2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Tarkett is one of the largest company whit manufacturing of floor whit operation in more than 100 countries and has about 12000 employees all over the world. Thanks to the establishment in Ronneby, the company has a strong footprint in Sweden and Northern Europé. The product line of the company is very wide and extending everything from wood, laminate, linoleum, textile, sports and vinyl flooring, as well as wall covering for wet rooms.

    Problem description

    Today, Tarkett has three emptyingstations with associated telphers for big bags filled with raw material. These bags are emptied to used as raw material in manufacture of accents in the covering. The accents are used to create pattern in the covering which are diffrent depending on the design that is running. A big bag has calculated to weigh about 800 kg and empties rarely before it is time to shift materials because of changing products. This happens because of the raw materials in the station are not allowed to be mixed up. In the absence of emtying stations and time saving, it ́s not unusual to change half-filled bags and sort the left over materials as energy recovery/landfill, wich cost the company money. Based on earlier saving analyzes, Tarkett is calculated to save about 600 K SEK per annum if they istall two more emptying stations.

    Goal

    The goal of this thesis is to provide a proposal of a construction whit two new emptying stations and associated hoists, containing both strength analysis with construction drawing and cost analysis for manufacturing and installation.

    Conclusion

    For the new construction to work according to the requirements of today ́s standards, two more IPE-270 beams are required on either side of the three beam of telphers.

    The welding joint ́s ability to change shape are highly dependent on the hardness and brittleness of the overpass zone. This has to be regarded as a possible source of error because it ́s shifting depending on the human factor when applying welding joints. Based on the text above, the conclusion as been made is that the construction will be welded in a way that all joints provide a average a-measure of 3 mm, even if the theoretical value of the a-measure are 2 mm.

    The total cost of the reconstruction has been calculated against approximately 380 KSEK, which means that the investment will provide an earning first after 8 months.

  • 1881.
    Brisland, Karl
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Användarupplevelse på webben under skiftande tekniska förutsättningar: en fallstudie av ett implementationsprojekt2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport dokumenterar utvecklingen av en interaktiv tidslinje i webbformat, med högt ställda krav på utseende, funktion, visuella effekter samt konsekvent användarupplevelse på olika plattformar. Implementationen utfördes utifrån teoretiska riktlinjer som erhållits genom litteraturstudier och därefter värderades utfallet dels genom att bedöma dess efterlevnad av dessa riktlinjer och dels genom en användarstudie med ett flertal olika enheter. Resultaten från användarstudien användes sedan för att värdera den praktiska relevansen hos den teoretiska grunden. Slutprodukten utgörs av en välfungerande webbapplikation som, med vissa eftergifter, beter sig konsekvent på alla testade enheter och väl uppfyller de teoretiska rekommendationerna ur främst design- och prestandaperspektiv. Användartesten visade på vissa svagheter som åtgärdades i möjligaste mån samt avslöjade en mycket stark vilja bland användarna att själva kontrollera navigering och informationsinhämtning. Testen visade även att de identifierade riktlinjerna varit såväl värdefulla som användbara, inklusive hur användarstudien i sig skulle utföras. Projektet ledde fram till en väl underbyggd bästa praxis samt värdefulla insikter ifråga om användarbeteende och i synnerhet användandet av uppmärksamhetsfångande element i designen, samt utgjorde en tydlig demonstration av vilket stort mervärde som användartest kan medföra. Slutligen noteras att det på grund av tekniska begränsningar inte alltid går att uppnå fullständig konsekvens ifråga om användarupplevelse under skiftande förutsättningar.

  • 1882.
    Brissman, Elsa
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Spatial Planning.
    Hur skapas den regionala planeringen?: en studie av intressen, perspektiv och maktresurser inom regional samverkan2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsen studerar processerna bakom den regionala planeringsprocessen. I ljuset av förändringsmönster såsom globalisering och urbanisering har det uppstått ett behov eller en vilja att samverka på en överkommunal nivå. I svallvågorna av den här debatten har regionen och en regional samverkan inom planering fått ett stort uppsving. Vad som dock är oklart är för vem den regionala planeringen egentligen genomförs. Eftersom det rör sig om ett förhållandevis nytt sätt att arbeta går det även att ställa frågan vem som har makten att styra processerna? Uppsatsen syftar till att undersöka de här frågorna men även vad som är en regional fråga och hur den konstrueras.

    Uppsatsen är utformad som en fallstudie. Det studerade fallet är Region Örebro län med tillhörande kommuner. Metoder för datainsamling har varit dokumentstudier där kommunala och regionala planer ingått, samt semi-strukturerade intervjuer med kommunala och regionala planeringstjänstemän. En kvalitativ innehållsanalys har genomförts på det empiriska materialet. Det teoretiska perspektivet har haft sin grund i governance, soft spaces och strategiskapande.

    Den studie som genomförts i uppsatsen pekar på att det finns två skilda sätt att se på regionen, både avseende syfte och roller men även avseende intresset i planeringen. Kommunerna och regionen har olika intressen i den regionala planeringsprocessen där kommuntjänstemännen ser processen utifrån den egna kommunen och hur de kan dra nytta av den. Regiontjänstemännen ser däremot regionen som en enda enhet där nyttan ska gå till enheten och inte vissa utpekade delar. Att de två aktörsgrupperna har olika intressen får konsekvenser även i andra delar av processen. De har bland annat mycket skilda uppfattningar om hur rollfördelningen ska se ut, vad syftet med regionen är samt vem regionen är till för. Kommunerna anser att regionen är till för dem, att det är en arena där de och andra aktörer kan komma samman i regionala frågor. Regiontjänstemännen anser däremot att regionen är till för regionens bästa.

    De två olika perspektiven på regionen skapar konflikter. De problem som upplevs handlar i mångt och mycket om att det inte finns en tydlig förutbestämd process som arbetet ska följa. Den regionala planeringen befinner sig i ett soft space och är således fri att utformas så som aktörerna önskar. Även om det här leder till en stor flexibilitet bidrar det även till en osäkerhet och ett läge där aktörernas skilda bilder av hur processen ska gå till leder till svårigheter att komma överens. En intressant upptäckt är att det finns en splittring även mellan de två intervjuade regionala tjänstemännen angående vad regionen är och ska syfta till. En av dem utgår från kommunernas behov medan den andra av dem har ett ovanifrånperspektiv i vilket kommunerna ska ta hänsyn till den regionala planeringen och inte tvärt om.

    Från den genomförda studien framkommer även att makt är ett centralt begrepp inom den regionala planeringsprocessen. Aktörsgrupperna försöker båda hävda sig gentemot varandra i ett försök att kontrollera processen. Hur regionala frågor konstrueras är således en process definierad av vem som har makten att styra. De båda aktörsgrupperna har olika maktresurser som de använder för att hävda sig mot varandra. Kommunerna har sitt planmonopol och regionen har ekonomiska medel. Dessutom har regionen makten att bestämma över delar av processen, något som visat sig ha en betydelse i det perspektiv som tillåts råda.

  • 1883.
    Brissman, Elsa
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Spatial Planning.
    På cykel i Karlskrona: En studie av cykelvägnätet i Karlskrona tätort2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1884.
    Britto, Ricardo
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Knowledge Classification for Supporting Effort Estimation in Global Software Engineering Projects2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Global Software Engineering (GSE) has become a widely applied operational model for the development of software systems; it can increase profits and decrease time-to-market. However, there are many challenges associated with development of software in a globally distributed fashion. There is evidence that these challenges affect many process related to software development, such as effort estimation. To the best of our knowledge, there are no empirical studies to gather evidence on effort estimation in the GSE context. In addition, there is no common terminology for classifying GSE scenarios focusing on effort estimation.

    Objective: The main objective of this thesis is to support effort estimation in the GSE context by providing a taxonomy to classify the existing knowledge in this field.

    Method: Systematic literature review (to identify and analyze the state of the art), survey (to identify and analyze the state of the practice), systematic mapping (to identify practices to design software engineering taxonomies), and literature survey (to complement the states of the art and practice) were the methods employed in this thesis.

    Results: The results on the states of the art and practice show that the effort estimation techniques employed in the GSE context are the same techniques used in the collocated context. It was also identified that global aspects, e.g. time, geographical and social-cultural distances, are accounted for as cost drivers, although it is not clear how they are measured. As a result of the conducted mapping study, we reported a method that can be used to design new SE taxonomies. The aforementioned results were combined to extend and specialize an existing GSE taxonomy, for suitability for effort estimation. The usage of the specialized GSE effort estimation taxonomy was illustrated by classifying 8 finished GSE projects. The results show that the specialized taxonomy proposed in this thesis is comprehensive enough to classify GSE projects focusing on effort estimation.

    Conclusions: The taxonomy presented in this thesis will help researchers and practitioners to report new research on effort estimation in the GSE context; researchers and practitioners will be able to gather evidence, com- pare new studies and find new gaps in an easier way. The findings from this thesis show that more research must be conducted on effort estimation in the GSE context. For example, the way the cost drivers are measured should be further investigated. It is also necessary to conduct further research to clarify the role and impact of sourcing strategies on the effort estimates’ accuracies. Finally, we believe that it is possible to design an instrument based on the specialized GSE effort estimation taxonomy that helps practitioners to perform the effort estimation process in a way tailored for the specific needs of the GSE context.

  • 1885.
    Britto, Ricardo
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Strategizing and Evaluating the Onboarding of Software Developers in Large-Scale Globally Distributed Legacy Projects2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Recruitment and onboarding of software developers are essential steps in software development undertakings. The need for adding new people is often associated with large-scale long-living projects and globally distributed projects. The formers are challenging because they may contain large amounts of legacy (and often complex) code (legacy projects). The latters are challenging, because the inability to find sufficient resources in-house may lead to onboarding people at a distance, and often in many distinct sites. While onboarding is of great importance for companies, there is little research about the challenges and implications associated with onboarding software developers and teams in large-scale globally distributed projects with large amounts of legacy code. Furthermore, no study has proposed any systematic approaches to support the design of onboarding strategies and evaluation of onboarding results in the aforementioned context.

    Objective: The aim of this thesis is two-fold: i) identify the challenges and implications associated with onboarding software developers and teams in large-scale globally distributed legacy projects; and ii) propose solutions to support the design of onboarding strategies and evaluation of onboarding results in large-scale globally distributed legacy projects.

    Method: In this thesis, we employed literature review, case study, and business process modeling. The main case investigated in this thesis is the development of a legacy telecommunication software product in Ericsson.

    Results: The results show that the performance (productivity, autonomy, and lead time) of new developers/teams onboarded in remote locations in large-scale distributed legacy projects is much lower than the performance of mature teams. This suggests that new teams have a considerable performance gap to overcome. Furthermore, we learned that onboarding problems can be amplified by the following challenges: the complexity of the product and technology stack, distance to the main source of product knowledge, lack of team stability, training expectation misalignment, and lack of formalism and control over onboarding strategies employed in different sites of globally distributed projects. To help companies addressing the challenges we identified in this thesis, we propose a process to support the design of onboarding strategies and the evaluation of onboarding results.

    Conclusions: The results show that scale, distribution and complex legacy code may make onboarding more difficult and demand longer periods of time for new developers and teams to achieve high performance. This means that onboarding in large-scale globally distributed legacy projects must be planned well ahead and companies must be prepared to provide extended periods of mentoring by expensive and scarce resources, such as software architects. Failure to foresee and plan such resources may result in effort estimates on one hand, and unavailability of mentors on another, if not planned in advance. The process put forward herein can help companies to deal with the aforementioned problems through more systematic, effective and repeatable onboarding strategies.

  • 1886.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Cruzes, Daniella
    SINTEF Digital, NOR.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Šāblis, Aivars
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Onboarding Software Developers and Teams in Three Globally Distributed Legacy Projects: A Multi-Case Study2018In: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 30, no 4, article id e1921Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Onboarding is the process of supporting new employees regarding their social and performance adjustment to their new job. Software companies have faced challenges with recruitment and onboarding of new team members and there is no study that investigates it in a holistic way. In this paper, we conducted a multi-case study to investigate the onboarding of software developers/teams, associated challenges, and areas for further improvement in three globally distributed legacy projects. We employed Bauer's model for onboarding to identify the current state of the onboarding strategies employed in each case. We learned that the employed strategies are semi-formalized. Besides, in projects with multiple sites, some functions are executed locally and the onboarding outcomes may be hard to control. We also learned that onboarding in legacy projects is especially challenging and that decisions to distribute such projects across multiple locations shall be approached carefully. In our cases, the challenges to learn legacy code were further amplified by the project scale and the distance to the original sources of knowledge. Finally, we identified practices that can be used by companies to increase the chances of being successful when onboarding software developers and teams in globally distributed legacy projects.

  • 1887.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Freitas, Vitor
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Usman, Muhammad
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Effort Estimation in Global Software Development: A systematic Literature Review2014In: Proceedings of the 2014 9th IEEE International Conference on Global Software Engineering, 2014, p. 135-144Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, software systems are a key factor in the success of many organizations as in most cases they play a central role helping them attain a competitive advantage. However, despite their importance, software systems may be quite costly to develop, so substantially decreasing companies’ profits. In order to tackle this challenge, many organizations look for ways to decrease costs and increase profits by applying new software development approaches, like Global Software Development (GSD). Some aspects of the software project like communication, cooperation and coordination are more chal- lenging in globally distributed than in co-located projects, since language, cultural and time zone differences are factors which can increase the required effort to globally perform a software project. Communication, coordination and cooperation aspects affect directly the effort estimation of a project, which is one of the critical tasks related to the management of a software development project. There are many studies related to effort estimation methods/techniques for co-located projects. However, there are evidences that the co-located approaches do not fit to GSD. So, this paper presents the results of a systematic literature review of effort estimation in the context of GSD, which aimed at help both researchers and practitioners to have a holistic view about the current state of the art regarding effort estimation in the context of GSD. The results suggest that there is room to improve the current state of the art on effort estimation in GSD. 

  • 1888.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    An Empirical Investigation on Effort Estimation in Agile Global Software Development2015In: Proceedings of the 2015 IEEE 10th International Conference on Global Software Engineering, 2015, p. 38-45Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effort estimation is a project management activity that is mandatory for the execution of softwareprojects. Despite its importance, there have been just a few studies published on such activities within the Agile Global Software Development (AGSD) context. Their aggregated results were recently published as part of a secondary study that reported the state of the art on effort estimationin AGSD. This study aims to complement the above-mentioned secondary study by means of anempirical investigation on the state of the practice on effort estimation in AGSD. To do so, a survey was carried out using as instrument an on-line questionnaire and a sample comprising softwarepractitioners experienced in effort estimation within the AGSD context. Results show that the effortestimation techniques used within the AGSD and collocated contexts remained unchanged, with planning poker being the one employed the most. Sourcing strategies were found to have no or a small influence upon the choice of estimation techniques. With regard to effort predictors, globalchallenges such as cultural and time zone differences were reported, in addition to factors that are commonly considered in the collocated context, such as team experience. Finally, many challenges that impact the accuracy of the effort estimates were reported by the respondents, such as problems with the software requirements and the fact that the communication effort between sites is not properly accounted.

  • 1889.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    A Specialized Global Software Engineering Taxonomy for Effort Estimation2016In: International Conference on Global Software Engineering, IEEE Computer Society, 2016, p. 154-163Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To facilitate the sharing and combination of knowledge by Global Software Engineering (GSE) researchers and practitioners, the need for a common terminology and knowledge classification scheme has been identified, and as a consequence, a taxonomy and an extension were proposed. In addition, one systematic literature review and a survey on respectively the state of the art and practice of effort estimation in GSE were conducted, showing that despite its importance in practice, the GSE effort estimation literature is rare and reported in an ad-hoc way. Therefore, this paper proposes a specialized GSE taxonomy for effort estimation, which was built on the recently proposed general GSE taxonomy (including the extension) and was also based on the findings from two empirical studies and expert knowledge. The specialized taxonomy was validated using data from eight finished GSE projects. Our effort estimation taxonomy for GSE can help both researchers and practitioners by supporting the reporting of new GSE effort estimation studies, i.e. new studies are to be easier to identify, compare, aggregate and synthesize. Further, it can also help practitioners by providing them with an initial set of factors that can be considered when estimating effort for GSE projects.

  • 1890.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Usman, Muhammad
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Bloom's taxonomy in software engineering education: A systematic mapping study2015In: Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE), 2015, IEEE Communications Society, 2015, p. 392-399Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Designing and assessing learning outcomes could be a challenging activity for any SoftwareEngineering (SE) educator. To support the process of designing and assessing SE courses, educators have been applied the cognitive domain of Bloom's taxonomy. However, to the best of our knowledge, the evidence on the usage of Bloom's taxonomy in SE higher education has not yet been systematically aggregated or reviewed. Therefore, in this paper we report the state of the art on the usage of Bloom's taxonomy in SE education, identified by conducted a systematic mapping study. As a result of the performed systematic mapping study, 26 studies were deemed as relevant. The main findings from these studies are: i) Bloom's taxonomy has mostly been applied at undergraduate level for both design and assessment of software engineering courses; ii) software construction is the leading SE subarea in which Bloom's taxonomy has been applied. The results clearly point out the usefulness of Bloom's taxonomy in the SE education context. We intend to use the results from this systematic mapping study to develop a set of guidelines to support the usage of Bloom's taxonomycognitive levels to design and assess SE courses.

  • 1891.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Usman, Muhammad
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    A TAXONOMY OF WEB EFFORT PREDICTORS2017In: Journal of Web Engineering, ISSN 1540-9589, E-ISSN 1544-5976, Vol. 16, no 7-8, p. 541-570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Web engineering as a field has emerged to address challenges associated with developing Web applications. It is known that the development of Web applications differs from the development of non-Web applications, especially regarding some aspects such as Web size metrics. The classification of existing Web engineering knowledge would be beneficial for both practitioners and researchers in many different ways, such as finding research gaps and supporting decision making. In the context of Web effort estimation, a taxonomy was proposed to classify the existing size metrics, and more recently a systematic literature review was conducted to identify aspects related to Web resource/effort estimation. However, there is no study that classifies Web predictors (both size metrics and cost drivers). The main objective of this study is to organize the body of knowledge on Web effort predictors by designing and using a taxonomy, aiming at supporting both research and practice in Web effort estimation. To design our taxonomy, we used a recently proposed taxonomy design method. As input, we used the results of a previously conducted systematic literature review (updated in this study), an existing taxonomy of Web size metrics and expert knowledge. We identified 165 unique Web effort predictors from a final set of 98 primary studies; they were used as one of the basis to design our hierarchical taxonomy. The taxonomy has three levels, organized into 13 categories. We demonstrated the utility of the taxonomy and body of knowledge by using examples. The proposed taxonomy can be beneficial in the following ways: i) It can help to identify research gaps and some literature of interest and ii) it can support the selection of predictors for Web effort estimation. We also intend to extend the taxonomy presented to also include effort estimation techniques and accuracy metrics.

  • 1892.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Usman, Muhammad
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Effort Estimation in Agile Global Software Development Context2014In: Agile Methods. Large-Scale Development, Refactoring, Testing, and Estimation: XP 2014 International Workshops, Rome, Italy, May 26-30, 2014, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, 2014, Vol. 199, p. 182-192Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both Agile Software Development (ASD) and Global Software Development (GSD) are 21st century trends in the software industry. Many studies are reported in the literature wherein software companies have applied an agile method or practice GSD. Given that effort estimation plays a remarkable role in software project management, how do companies perform effort estimation when they use agile method in a GSD context? Based on two effort estimation Systematic Literature Reviews (SLR) - one in within the ASD context and the other in a GSD context, this paper reports a study in which we combined the results of these SLRs to report the state of the art of effort estimation in agile global software development (ASD) context.

  • 1893.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Usman, Muhammad
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Minhas, Nasir Mehmood
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    A quasi-experiment to evaluate the impact of mental fatigue on study selection process2017In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Association for Computing Machinery , 2017, p. 264-269Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Existing empirical evidence indicates that loss of alertness associated with mental fatigue is highly correlated with fluctuations in the performance of people carrying out auditory tasks. In software engineering research, mental fatigue may affect the results of study selection (an auditory task) when conducting secondary studies such as systematic literature reviews or systematic mapping studies. However, to date there is no empirical study that reports an in-depth investigation about the relationship between mental fatigue and researchers' selection decisions during study selection process. Objective: The main objective of this paper is to report the design and preliminary results of an investigation about the impact of mental fatigue on the study selection process of secondary studies. Method: We designed and piloted a quasi-experiment. Results: The preliminary results do not indicate that mental fatigue negatively impacts the correctness of selection decision and confidence. However, it is important to note that the preliminary results are only based on six subjects. Conclusion: This paper brings awareness about the role of mental fatigue in the conduction of secondary studies. Although the preliminary results do not indicate any meaningful relationship, we believe that it is worthwhile to continue the research, by adding more subjects, and also revising the design of the reported quasi-experiment. © 2017 ACM.

  • 1894.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    An Extended Global Software Engineering Taxonomy2016In: Journal of Software Engineering Research and Development, ISSN 2195-1721, Vol. 4, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Global Software Engineering (GSE), the need for a common terminology and knowledge classification has been identified to facilitate the sharing and combination of knowledge by GSE researchers and practitioners. A GSE taxonomy was recently proposed to address such a need, focusing on a core set of dimensions; however its dimensions do not represent an exhaustive list of relevant GSE factors. Therefore, this study extends the existing taxonomy, incorporating new GSE dimensions that were identified by means of two empirical studies conducted recently.

  • 1895.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Damm, Lars-Ola
    Ericsson, SWE.
    Software Architects in Large-Scale Distributed Projects: An Ericsson Case Study2016In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 48-55, article id 7725230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software architects are key assets for successful development projects. However, not much research has investigated the challenges they face in large-scale distributed projects. So, researchers investigated how architects at Ericsson were organized, their roles and responsibilities, and the effort they spent guarding and governing a large-scale legacy product developed by teams at multiple locations. Despite recent trends such as microservices and agile development, Ericsson had to follow a more centralized approach to deal with the challenges of scale, distribution, and monolithic architecture of a legacy software product. So, the architectural decisions were centralized to a team of architects. The team extensively used code reviews to not only check the code's state but also reveal defects that could turn into maintainability problems. The study results also suggest that the effort architects spend designing architecture, guarding its integrity and evolvability, and mentoring development teams is directly related to team maturity. In addition, significant investment is needed whenever new teams and locations are onboarded.

  • 1896.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering. Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Lars-Ola, Damm
    Ericsson, SWE.
    Experiences from Measuring Learning and Performance in Large-Scale Distributed Software Development2016In: Proceedings of the 10th ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement, ACM Digital Library, 2016, article id 17Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Developers and development teams in large-scale software development are often required to learn continuously. Organizations also face the need to train and support new developers and teams on-boarded in ongoing projects. Although learning is associated with performance improvements, experience shows that training and learning does not always result in a better performance or significant improvements might take too long.

    Aims: In this paper, we report our experiences from establishing an approach to measure learning results and associated performance impact for developers and teams in Ericsson.

    Method: Experiences reported herein are a part of an exploratory case study of an on-going large-scale distributed project in Ericsson. The data collected for our measurements included archival data and expert knowledge acquired through both unstructured and semi-structured interviews. While performing the measurements, we faced a number of challenges, documented in the form of lessons learned.

    Results: We aggregated our experience in eight lessons learned related to collection, preparation and analysis of data for further measurement of learning potential and performance in large-scale distributed software development.

    Conclusions: Measuring learning and performance is a challenging task. Major problems were related to data inconsistencies caused by, among other factors, distributed nature of the project. We believe that the documented experiences shared herein can help other researchers and practitioners to perform similar measurements and overcome the challenges of large-scale distributed software projects, as well as proactively address these challenges when establishing project measurement programs.

  • 1897.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Lars-Ola, Damm
    Ericsson, SWE.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Learning and Performance Evolution of Immature Remote Teams in Large-ScaleSoftware Projects: An Industrial Case StudyIn: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Large-scale distributed software projects with long life cycles often involve a considerable amount ofcomplex legacy code. The combination of scale and distribution challenges, and the diculty to acquire knowledgeabout large amounts of complex legacy code may make the onboarding of new developers/teams problematic. Thismay lead to extended periods of low performance.Objective: The main objective of this paper is to analyze the learning processes and performance evolutions (teamproductivity and team autonomy) of remote software development teams added late to a large-scale legacy softwareproduct development, and to propose recommendations to support the learning of remote teams.Method: We conducted a case study in Ericsson, collecting data through archival research, semi-structured interviews,and workshops. We analyzed the collected data using descriptive, inferential and graphical statistics and softqualitative analysis.Results: The results show that the productivity and autonomy of immature remote teams are on average 3.67 and2.27 times lower than the ones of mature teams, respectively. Furthermore, their performance had a steady increaseduring almost the entire first year and dropped (productivity) or got stagnated (autonomy) for a great part of the secondyear. In addition to these results, we also identified four challenges that aected the learning process and performanceevolution of immature remote teams: complexity of the product and technology stack, distance to the main source ofproduct knowledge, lack of team stability, and training expectation misalignment.Conclusion: The results indicate that scale, distribution and complex legacy code may make learning more dicultand demand a long period to achieve high performance. To support the learning of remote teams, we put forward fiverecommendations. We believe that our quantitative analysis, as well as the identified factors and recommendationscan help other companies to onboard new remote teams in large-scale legacy product development projects.

  • 1898.
    Briznik, Adela
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Hansson, Linda
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Männens svåra situationer när kvinnorna drabbas av bröstcancer2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bröstcancer är den vanligaste cancerformen bland kvinnor i Sverige och övriga världen. Varje år drabbas cirka 7000 kvinnor i Sverige. Bakom varje bröstcancer drabbad kvinna finns det i allmänhet en man eller make som har en betydande roll i hela sjukdomsförloppet. Syftet med studien var att belysa männens svåra situationer som närstående när kvinnan drabbas av bröstcancer. Metoden som användes var en kvalitativ litteraturstudie som utgick från elva vetenskapliga artiklar. Analysen grundades på Graneheims och Lundmans (2003) analysmodell och specificerades på den manifesta delen. Resultatet presenterades utifrån olika kategorier samt två subkatergorier som belyste männens svåra situationer. Den svåraste emotionella tiden var vid diagnosbeskedet. Förhållandet mellan mannen och kvinnan förändrades antigen till det negativa eller positiva. Den sexuella relationen blev annorlunda då männen upplevde att kvinnans självförtroende och kroppsuppfattning förändrades. Informationsbristen gjorde att männen kände sig maktlösa och hade svårt att hantera olika situationer. Det fanns delade meningar kring informationen männen fick av vårdpersonalen. Männen fick ta på sig nya roller som det primära stödet och mer ansvar i hushållet. I slutsatsen framkom det att männen genomgår många olika svåra situationer när kvinnan drabbas av bröstcancer. Han skulle vara det primära stödet, ta hand om hushållet och samtidigt försörja familjen. Det skulle behövas en omvårdnadsmodell som inriktas på männens svåra situationer som närstående. Eftersom det bidrar som hjälpmedel för vårdpersonalen att kunna förbättras som stöd och bistå med adekvat information.

  • 1899.
    Bro, Marlene
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Spatial Planning.
    PLACE ATTACHMENT: en kunskapsöversikt med fokus på fysisk planering2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    För att arbeta med social hållbarhet i planering och förändring av våra fysiska miljöer behöver vi få större kunskap och förståelse för hur människor intergrerar och påverkas av den fysiska miljön. Människan är inte alltigenom rationell och logisk även om vi vill tro det; forskning i olika dicipliner visar på att vi styrs av känslor och perception. Hur vi upplever situationen med våra sinnen och hur vi sammanfogar detta med våra tidigare erfarenheter och vår självbild avgör hur vi reagerar och agerar.

    Denna uppsats granskar forskningen på place attachment genom en genomgång av nio vetenskapliga artiklar av forskare från en bredd av dicipliner. Syftet är att utreda begreppets innebörd och vad det har för betydelse i arbetet med att planera och förändra fysiska miljöer.

    Begreppet place attachment syftar till betydelsefulla känslomässiga band som människor har till en specifik plats. Större delen av utförd forskning behandlar miljöer kring hemmet, där skalan oftast innefattar grannskapet, men forskning finns även kring andra typer av miljöer så som semesterboenden och rekreationsområden.

    De två dominerande perspektiven för att beskriva fenomenet är dels anknytningsteorin som har sin grund i psykologin gällande hur vi anknyter till andra människor. Dels fenomenologin som ur ett mer filosfiskt perspektiv beskriver hur vi genom att uppleva omgivningen genom våra kroppar skapar ett förhållningssätt till platsen. Forskarna i de valda artiklarna är alla eniga om att det finns ett behov hos människan att anknyta till platser.

    Genom att lära oss att se och förstå innebörden av begreppet kan arbetet med att förändra en miljö i den fysiska planeringen ske på på platsens och användarnas villkor. Vilket också kan leda till smidigare planprocesser.

  • 1900. Broberg, Hanna
    et al.
    Petrakou, Alexandra
    Zhang, Peng
    Révay, Péter
    A systematic approach to Activity Theory in practice2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to integrate social psychology and systems thinking by expanding Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) with Activity Theory (AT). Problems in the health care system are always very complex and Information Technology is usually considered to be a part of the solution. Our interest for research is in the area of elderly care, which consists of both health care and service efforts. These efforts are at some counties divided between two parties, municipality and county council. This implies a need for cooperation, communication and coordination. When this fails it affects the whole system. The problem situation must be seen as a holistic system problem but it is also essential to consider the individuals involved in the two systems and their socio-psychological environment. As a systems methodology, SSM, emphasizes the information processing and provides a methodology for solving the “soft” situations. AT, on the other hand, provides an approach for understanding the human activities in their context. With this perspective, we expanded SSM by integrating AT from two points and also introduced the concept of contradictions from Activity Theory as a way to compare the real world with the conceptual model. In the third stage of SSM, we use the six components of AT as a complement to the root definitions, CATWOE[1], given by Checkland. CATWOE provides comprehensive definitions about the system’s developmental variables, whereas the components in the AT model further focuses on the socio-psychological factors. In the fourth stage, we use the triangle model of AT as the basic element to build up a ‘conceptual model’. The focus of this paper is on the possibilities of combining SSM with AT, which resulted in a satisfying and reasonably effective method to analyze the home care service[2].

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