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  • 1851. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Borzovs, Juris
    New Forms of Work in the Light of Globalization in Software Development2009Ingår i: Infonomics for Distributed Business and Decision-Making Environments: Creating Information System Ecology / [ed] Pankowska, Malgorzata; Adamiecki, Karol, Business Science Reference , 2009Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization in software development introduced significant changes in the way organizations operate today. Software is nowadays produced by team members from geographically, temporally and culturally remote sites. Organizations seek for benefits that global market offers and face new challenges. Naturally resistant to change, these organizations often do not realize necessity for tailoring existing methods for distributed collaboration. Our empirical investigation shows a great variety in the ways organizations distribute responsibilities across remote sites and conclude that these can be divided into two main categories: joint collaboration that requires investments in team building and independent collaboration that requires investments in knowledge management and transfer. Finally we discuss practices that are applied in industry to overcome these challenges and emphasize necessity to fully understand the pros and cons of different ways to organize distributed software projects before starting a project in this new environment.

  • 1852.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Britto, Ricardo
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Van Solingen, Rini
    Delft University of Technology, NLD.
    Calculating the extra costs and the bottom-line hourly cost of offshoring2017Ingår i: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE 12th International Conference on Global Software Engineering, ICGSE 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, s. 96-105Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Offshoring software development activities to a remote site in another country continues to be one of the key strategies to save development cost. However, the assumed economic benefits of offshoring are often questionable, due to a large number of hidden costs and too simple cost calculations. This study is a continuation of our work on calculating the true hourly cost that includes the extra direct and indirect costs on top of the salary-based hourly rates. We collected data from an empirical case study conducted in a large international corporation. This corporation develops software-intensive systems and has offshored its ongoing product development from Sweden to a recently on-boarded captive company site in India. In this paper, we report a number of extra costs and their impact on the resulting hourly cost as well as the bottom-line cost per work unit. Our analysis includes quantitative data from corporate archives, and expert-based estimates gathered through focus groups and workshops with company representatives from both the onshore and the offshore sites. Our findings show that there is additional cost that can be directly or at least strongly attributed to the transfer of work, working on a distance, and immaturity of the offshore site. Consideration of extra costs increases the hourly cost several times, while the performance gaps between the mature sites and the immature site leads to an even higher difference. As a result, two years after on-boarding of the offshore teams, the mature teams in high-cost locations continue to be 'cheaper' despite the big salary differences, and the most positive hypothetical scenario, in which the company could break even, is unrealistic. The implications of our findings are twofold. First, offshoring of complex ongoing products does not seem to lead to short-term bottom-line economic gains, and may not even reach breakeven within five years. Second, offshoring in the studied case can be justified but merely when initiated for other reasons than cost. © 2017 IEEE.

  • 1853.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Calefato, Fabio
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Cost Savings in Global Software Engineering Where's the Evidence?2015Ingår i: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 32, nr 4, s. 26-32Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 1854.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Cruzes, Daniela S.
    Expectations and Achievements: A Longitudinal Study on an Offshoring Strategy2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Offshore software development has gained momentum and most of software companies today have implemented offshore strategies of some sort. Many of these strategies are enforced by corporate top management and driven by assumptions that lower development wages guarantee cheaper and better software development. In practice, offshore software development is associated with many risks, and achievement of the expected benefits is not as straightforward as the rumor has it. In this paper we explore an implementation of an offshore strategy in a Swedish software company that opened its offshore branch in Russia. Based on extensive documentation analysis we create an overview of the initially expected benefits and obstacles that prevailed among onshore product and development unit managers. Years after implementation of the offshore insourcing strategy we asked these managers about the achievement of their expectations. We observed that the company documented various expected benefits when implementing an offshoring strategy and also concerns that some of these benefits might not be achieved. Seven years after its implementation, the offshoring strategy was overall considered working, however the expected benefits were not fully achieved. More importantly, several gaps were identified, that suggest that the enforced strategy has resulted in a stable but not beneficial collaboration from the onshore perspective.

  • 1855.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Dingsoyr, Torgeir
    Fostering Cross-site Coordination through Awareness: An investigation of state-of-the-practice through a focus group study2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Awareness and shared knowledge are important ingredients of successful coordination in software engineering projects, and especially when team members are distributed. Although various coordination mechanisms and knowledge sharing recommendations for cross-site collaboration have been proposed, spreading awareness among distributed team members in a global software project has proven to be challenging in practice. In this paper we discuss our findings from conducting three focus groups on knowledge management in global software collaborations in two international organizations. We discuss various awareness needs in globally distributed collaborations that were not addressed by the organizations, and conclude that best practices and tools proposed in related research are not widely used. On the basis of our empirical findings we suggest future research directions and share recommendations for practical improvements.

  • 1856.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Galviņa, Zane
    Socio-technical congruence sabotaged by a hidden onshore outsourcing relationship: Lessons learned from an empirical study2012Ingår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer , 2012, Vol. 7343, s. 190-202Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the popularity of outsourcing arrangements, distributed software development is still regarded as a complex endeavor. Complexity primarily comes from the challenges in communication and coordination among participating organizations. In this paper we discuss lessons learned from participatory research carried out in a highly distributed onshore outsourcing project. Previous research established that socio-technical congruence principles alleviate distributed work. In practice we have found that alignment between the systems structure and organizational structure can be studied from different abstraction levels and also during different phases of project lifecycle. We have found that official organizational structure differed from the applied one, which meant that the planned alignment in task allocation strategies was broken. Our findings indicate that the lack of socio-technical congruence caused several implications, including unclear responsibilities, delays in problem turnaround, conflicting changes, and non-delivered parts.

  • 1857. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Gencel, Cigdem
    Why a CMMI Level 5 Company Fails to Meet the Deadlines?2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliable effort and cost estimation remains to be a challenging issue even for mature software organizations. Although, these organizations collect historical data to base their future estimates, changes in circumstances (such as application type, development platform, etc.) prevent their successful utilization. As a result, companies often suffer from underestimated and unrealistic schedules. Managing software projects that involve a large number of globally distributed stakeholders makes estimation and planning even more challenging. Related studies show that even knowledgeable project managers often underestimate hidden costs and sources of delay associated with distributed development. Therefore, management activities such as estimation of development effort, planning and control require special attention. In this paper we discuss experiences gained from a highly distributed software project, which aimed at development of a product based on a new platform and architectural solution. The project was conducted in a CMMI Level 5 company and still failed to meet initial plan constraints. We thus provide an overview of management decisions in the light of their consequences, and discuss potential areas of improvement.

  • 1858.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Kuhrmann, Marco
    Keil, Patrick
    Virtual Teams: Guest Editor’s Introduction2014Ingår i: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 31, nr 6, s. 41-46Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 1859.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Moe, Nills Brede
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Šablis, Aivars
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Software teams and their knowledge networks in large-scale software development2017Ingår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 86, nr JUN, s. 71-86Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Large software development projects involve multiple interconnected teams, often spread around the world, developing complex products for a growing number of customers and users. Succeeding with large-scale software development requires access to an enormous amount of knowledge and skills. Since neither individuals nor teams can possibly possess all the needed expertise, the resource availability in a team's knowledge network, also known as social capital, and effective knowledge coordination become paramount. Objective: In this paper, we explore the role of social capital in terms of knowledge networks and networking behavior in large-scale software development projects. Method: We conducted a multi-case study in two organizations, Ericsson and ABB, with software development teams as embedded units of analysis. We organized focus groups with ten software teams and surveyed 61 members from these teams to characterize and visualize the teams' knowledge networks. To complement the team perspective, we conducted individual interviews with representatives of supporting and coordination roles. Based on survey data, data obtained from focus groups, and individual interviews, we compared the different network characteristics and mechanisms that support knowledge networks. We used social network analysis to construct the team networks, thematic coding to identify network characteristics and context factors, and tabular summaries to identify the trends. Results: Our findings indicate that social capital and networking are essential for both novice and mature teams when solving complex, unfamiliar, or interdependent tasks. Network size and networking behavior depend on company experience, employee turnover, team culture, need for networking, and organizational support. A number of mechanisms can support the development of knowledge networks and social capital, for example, introduction of formal technical experts, facilitation of communities of practice and adequate communication infrastructure. Conclusions: Our study emphasizes the importance of social capital and knowledge networks. Therefore, we suggest that, along with investments into training programs, software companies should also cultivate a networking culture to strengthen their social capital, a known driver of better performance.

  • 1860.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Moe, Nils Brede
    SINTEF, Trondheim, NOR.
    Levinta, Georgiana
    Spotify, SWE.
    Floryan, Marcin
    Spotify, SWE.
    Spotify Guilds: How to Succeed With Knowledge Sharing in Large-Scale Agile Organizations2019Ingår i: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 36, nr 2, s. 51-57, artikel-id 8648260Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The new generation of software companies has revolutionized the way companies are designed. While bottom-up governance and team autonomy improve motivation, performance, and innovation, managing agile development at scale is a challenge. We describe how Spotify cultivates guilds to help the company share knowledge, align, and make collective decisions.

  • 1861. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Moe, Nils Brede
    Torkar, Richard
    Pitfalls in Remote Team Coordination: Lessons Learned From a Case Study2008Ingår i: LNCS 5089 / [ed] Salo, A. Jedlitschka and O., Springer Verlag , 2008, s. 345-359Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 1862.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Moe, Nils Brede
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Wigander, Jonas
    Ericsson, SWE.
    Esser, Hendrik
    Ericsson, SWE.
    Corporate-level communities at ericsson: Parallel organizational structure for fostering alignment for autonomy2019Ingår i: Lect. Notes Bus. Inf. Process.: AGILE PROCESSES IN SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AND EXTREME PROGRAMMING, XP 2019 / [ed] Kruchten, P; Fraser, S; Coallier, F, Springer Verlag , 2019, Vol. 355, s. 173-188Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational management traditionally has taken care of all the important strategy, structure, and work-design decisions, as well as most of the ongoing decisions about work procedures. In large-scale corporations with many geographically distributed sites and high divisional detachment, such strategies are yet doomed to result in implementing irrelevant work methods and procedures that conflict with the local interests. As Tayloristic habits are disappearing, organizations willingly or unwillingly change their decision-making approaches to enable more participation and influence from the performers. These trends are associated with the rise of participation-based parallel structures, such as quality circles, task forces or communities of practice. In this paper, we present our findings from studying corporate-level communities by the means of a multi-case study at Ericsson. We found that the main hindrances are related to the limited decision-making authority of parallel structure, member selection and achieving representation across the organizational units. Our results suggest that parallel structures highly depend on the authority of the members within their local communities, and their ability to not only channel the dialog between the units they represent and the community, but also enable the active engagement of the unit in the community studies. As such, we believe that special attention shall be put on the ambassador role of the community members. © The Author(s) 2019.

  • 1863. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Moe, Nils BredeÅgerfalk, Pär J.
    Agility Across Time and Space: Making Agile Distributed Development a Success2010Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Rather than deciding whether or not to get involved in global sourcing, many companies are facing decisions about whether or not to apply agile methods in their distributed projects. These companies are often motivated by the opportunities to solve the coordination and communication difficulties associated with global software development. Yet while agile principles prescribe close interaction and co-location, the very nature of distributed software development does not support these prerequisites. Šmite, Moe, and Ågerfalk structured the book into five parts. In “Motivation” the editors introduce the fundamentals of agile distributed software development and explain the rationale behind the application of agile practices in globally distributed software projects. “ Transition” describes implementation strategies, adoption of particular agile practices for distributed projects, and general concepts of agility. “Management” details practical implications for project planning, time management, and customer and subcontractor interaction. “Teams” discusses agile distributed team configuration, effective communication and knowledge transfer, and allocation of roles and responsibilities. Finally, in the “Epilogue” the editors summarize all contributions and present future trends for research and practice in agile distributed development. This book is primarily targeted at researchers, lecturers, and students in empirical software engineering, and at practitioners involved in globally distributed software projects. The contributions are based on sound empirical research and identify gaps and commonalities in both the existing state of the art and state of the practice. In addition, they also offer practical advice through many hints, checklists, and experience reports. Questions answered in this book include: What should companies expect from merging agile and distributed strategies? What are the stumbling blocks that prevent companies from realizing the benefits of the agile approach in distributed environments, and how can we recognize infeasible strategies and unfavorable circumstances? What helps managers cope with the challenges of implementing agile approaches in distributed software development projects? How can distributed teams survive the decisions taken by management and become efficient through the application of agile approaches?

  • 1864.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Moe, Nils
    SINTEF, NOR.
    Krekling, Thomas
    Buskerud Fylkeskommune, NOR.
    Stray, Viktoria
    Universitetet i Oslo, NOR.
    Offshore Outsourcing Costs: Known or Still Hidden?2019Ingår i: Proceedings - 2019 ACM/IEEE 14th International Conference on Global Software Engineering, ICGSE 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, s. 40-47, artikel-id 8807622Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Offshore outsourcing of software development has been both famous for the promises of great cost reductions, and infamous for the hidden costs associated with the challenges of organizing software work over distance. Experience shows that many of these costs do not receive the deserved attention and are often excluded when making offshoring decisions. As a result, there is often a significant deviation between the expected and the realized costs of offshoring. In this paper, we investigate the awareness of the extra costs when making an offshoring decision, and the significance of the actual cost deviations. We conducted a single case study of a company that carried out an offshore outsourcing pilot project. We collected qualitative data from interviews, observations and a retrospective, and quantitative data on the costs and effort associated with the project. We conclude that the company was aware of the hidden cost factors, but largely underestimated their significance. The costs that surfaced in the studied project accounted for a total deviation of 181% and several individual cost categories with more than 400% overrun. The two main cost drivers in our study were the distance and poor process fit, which escalated the investments needed to make the collaboration work. Our results suggest that pilots are useful to understand the key problem areas in an offshoring collaboration, but too limited to shed light on all potential problems (e.g. turnover) due to the short timeframe. We also conclude that results of pilot projects shall not be the only data source when calculating the true costs of offshoring, since the start-up phase of an offshoring relationship carries large investments. Finally, we provide recommendations for companies in a similar situation on how to run and learn from offshore outsourcing pilot projects. © 2019 IEEE.

  • 1865. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Numminen, Emil
    Transaction Cost Economics in Offshoring: From Naïve To Realistic View on Associated Costs2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 1866.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Solingen, Rini Van
    Delft University of Technology, NLD.
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    The Offshoring Elephant in the Room: Turnover Strategies for Addressing Turnover When Offshoring to India2019Ingår i: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Staffing software projects with engineers from best-cost locations has become a commonality. However, distributed development remains practically challenging with many recurring problems, such as decreased productivity, low quality, and high unforeseen extra costs. One main underlying reason for these challenges is high employee turnover, although often overlooked. In developing locations such as India turnover is significantly large due to personal benefits from ‘job-hopping’. Why is turnover such a problem? Should companies stop sourcing to countries with high turnover or are there known remedies? This research puts turnover of software engineers in India in the spotlight and derives strategies to address it. We share experiences from two industrial cases, discuss important variables for portraying the actual turnover state and its negative impacts. Furthermore, we put forward ten recommendations for actively reducing turnover itself and lowering its negative consequences. IEEE

  • 1867.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    van Solingen, Rini
    What's the True Hourly Cost of Offshoring?2016Ingår i: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 33, nr 5, s. 60-70Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An offshore team's hourly costs took three years to become comparable with the in-house team's costs. Getting close to breaking even took five years. Learning costs due to offshore employee turnover were the primary cost factor to get under control.

  • 1868. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    A Whisper of Evidence in Global Software Engineering2011Ingår i: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 28, nr 4, s. 15-18Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 1869.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Lessons learned from transferring software products to India2012Ingår i: Journal of Software Maintenance and Evolution: Research and Practice, ISSN 1532-060X, E-ISSN 1532-0618, Vol. 24, nr 6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization has influenced the way software is developed today, and many software organizations have started to actively utilize resources from around the world. However, these endeavors are recognized as very challenging, and they have attracted a lot of attention in software research in the past decade. Unlike many other research initiatives, which explore the complexities of distributed software development activities, the focus of this paper is on software transfers. Software transfers refer to activities that are moved from one location to another. The authors draw attention to the lessons learned from an empirical investigation of two transfer projects conducted at Ericsson. Both transfers were performed between a site in Sweden and a site in India. The observations outline a set of generic practices that have been found useful for transferring software development within a company. It also highlights a number of challenges to be addressed and a set of corresponding recommendations. Finally, the paper emphasizes the need to identify software products that are suitable for transfers and the need to monitor the long-term effects of transfer.

  • 1870. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Risk Identification in Software Product Transfers2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Software companies today often face the necessity to decide where to develop their products. Inability to employ people or continue ongoing development with the same capacity in a given site of a company often leads to relocation of software work from one site to another. Software product transfers, however, are associated with numerous challenges that require investments, and may also have a secondary harder to capture effect on development productivity, quality and scope. In this paper, we share the results from previous empirical studies of software product transfers and offer a checklist for risk identification. The checklist shall be useful for software companies that consider, plan or execute software transfers. Although many risk factors included in the checklist may seem obvious, our empirical observations indicate that prior to obtaining the necessary experience these factors have been initially overlooked. Thus we believe that the checklist will be especially useful for managers with no or little experiences in relocating software work between the two sites of the same company.

  • 1871. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Software Product Transfers: Lessons Learned from a Case Study2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although global software work nowadays is not a phenomenon, research and practice is still addressing the complexities associated with the new forms of work enabled through globalization. ‘Go global’ strategies usually prescribe two alternative approaches: distribution of software development activities across several locations, or re-location of work to another site. This research paper focuses on the latter approach that is called software product transfers and discusses findings from an empirical case study conducted in Ericsson. The observations indicate that transferring software work from one site to another site of the same company is a challenging endeavor. Furthermore, practices used in co-located projects do not necessarily lead to a desired outcome. The paper provides an overview of the challenges and highlights practical advice for handling software product transfers.

  • 1872. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Strategies Facilitating Software Product Transfers2011Ingår i: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 8, nr 5, s. 60-66Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization of software work has become common in today's market. As part of cost-reduction strategies, many product-focused software companies started shipping their product development to insourcing and outsourcing offshore locations. Unfortunately, moving software products from one site to another isn't always a good business strategy for either the organization or the product. In this article, the authors discuss findings from studying software insourcing transfers at Ericsson, a large software product development company headquartered in Sweden. Their findings suggest that certain product, personnel, and process characteristics can facilitate the execution of an offshore insourcing transfer. On the basis of research conducted together with the company, they share a list of critical factors alleviating transfer difficulties and seven strategies facilitating transition of software work across sites.

  • 1873. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Aurum, Aybuke
    Jabangwe, Ronald
    Numminen, Emil
    Towards an Understanding of Sourcing Decisions2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 1874.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Jabangwe, Ronald
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Numminen, Emil
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för management.
    Offshore Insourcing in Software Development: Structuring the Decision-Making Process2013Ingår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, Vol. 86, nr 4, s. 1054-1067Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A variety of new forms of business are enabled through globalization and practiced by software organizations today. While companies go global to reduce their development costs, access a larger pool of resources and explore new markets, it is often assumed that the level of delivered services shall remain the same after implementing the sourcing decisions. In contrast, critical studies identified that global software development is associated with unique challenges, and a lot of global projects fail to mitigate the implications of a particular global setting. In this paper we explore offshore insourcing decisions on the basis of empirical research literature and an empirical field study conducted at Ericsson. By analyzing decisions in two different cases we found that each offshore insourcing decision consisted of deciding what, where, when, how and why to insource. Related empirical research and field observations suggest that not all combinations are successful and alignment between different decision points has thus a prominent role. To address these concerns we built an empirically-based insourcing decision structure, which outlines a logical path through the decision options and helps selecting an offshore insourcing strategy that targets creation of the necessary alignment. The key element of the proposed approach is a structured and well-defined decision-making process, which is intended to support managers in their decision-making. The usefulness of the proposed approach is evaluated in an additional empirical case of a new offshore insourcing decision.

  • 1875. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Feldt, Robert
    Gorschek, Tony
    Reporting Empirical Research in Global Software Engineering: A Classification Scheme2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased popularity of global software engineering (GSE) has resulted in quite a number of research and industrial studies. As the area matures, an increased focus on empirically supported results leads to a greater potential impact on future research and industrial practice. However, since GSE scenarios are diverse, what works in one context might not directly apply in another. Thus it is necessary to understand, how GSE-related empirical findings should be reported to be useful for practitioners and researchers. Furthermore, it‘s important to summarize progress and get the big picture of published research to identify gaps and commonalities. In this paper we analyze differentiating factors of GSE scenarios and offer a classification scheme for describing the context of a GSE study. In addition, we report initial results of a systematic review on GSE-related empirical literature using papers from ICGSE 2006 and 2007, at the same time illustrating and evaluating the proposed scheme.

  • 1876.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Galviņa, Zane
    Prikladnicki, Rafael
    An empirically based terminology and taxonomy for global software engineering2014Ingår i: Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, Vol. 191, nr 1, s. 105-153Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many organizations nowadays strive for utilization of benefits offered by global software engineering (GSE) and sourcing strategies are thus discussed more often. Since there are so many variations of the attributes associated with global software projects a large amount of new terms has been introduced. The diversity in sourcing jargon however has caused difficulties in determining which term to use in which situation, and thus causing further obstacles to searching and finding relevant research during e.g. systematic literature reviews. The inability of judging the applicability of the research in an industrial context is another important implication on the transferability of research into practice. Thus the need for accurate terminology and definitions for different global sourcing situations emerges as a way for the community to build upon each other's work and hence making progress more quickly. In this paper we first investigate the state of the use of the GSE jargon concluding that terminology is very diverse (many synonyms used to describe the same phenomena), often confusing (same terms used to describe different phenomena) and occasionally ambiguous (few terms used to describe several phenomena). In order to address the identified problems, we conducted a Delphi-inspired study with ten well-established researchers in GSE and developed an empirically based glossary for the key concepts in global software engineering. We then propose a taxonomy for GSE by categorizing the selected terms based on generalization-specialization relationships and illustrate how the taxonomy can be used to categorize and map existing knowledge. The contribution targets future researchers, who will publish or synthesize further empirical work and practitioners, who are interested in published empirical cases. Therefore this work is expected to make a contribution to the future development of research in the GSE field, and alleviate understandability and transferability of existing and future knowledge into practice.

  • 1877. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Gorschek, Tony
    Feldt, Robert
    Empirical evidence in global software engineering: a systematic review2010Ingår i: Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 91-118Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recognized as one of the trends of the 21st century, globalization of the world economies brought significant changes to nearly all industries, and in particular it includes software development. Many companies started global software engineering (GSE) to benefit from cheaper, faster and better development of software systems, products and services. However, empirical studies indicate that achieving these benefits is not an easy task. Here, we report our findings from investigating empirical evidence in GSE-related research literature. By conducting a systematic review we observe that the GSE field is still immature. The amount of empirical studies is relatively small. The majority of the studies represent problem-oriented reports focusing on different aspects of GSE management rather than in-depth analysis of solutions for example in terms of useful practices or techniques. Companies are still driven by cost reduction strategies, and at the same time, the most frequently discussed recommendations indicate a necessity of investments in travelling and socialization. Thus, at the same time as development goes global there is an ambition to minimize geographical, temporal and cultural separation. These are normally integral parts of cross-border collaboration. In summary, the systematic review results in several descriptive classifications of the papers on empirical studies in GSE and also reports on some best practices identified from literature.

  • 1878. Šteinberga, Liva
    et al.
    Smite, Darja
    Towards understanding of software engineer motivation in globally distributed projects2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivation in software engineering is reported to be a source for performance improvement, which leads to project overall success. Since it is a soft factor and difficult to quantify it is usually neglected. Research in this field is rather scarce and outdated. On the basis of a recent systematic review of software engineers' motivation we set an agenda for further investigation of the role of motivation in contemporary projects. As software organizations nowadays seek opportunities inherited in both - global software development (GSD) and agile projects, it is important to understand how different project environments influence motivation.

  • 1879.
    Šāblis, Aivars
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Gonzalez-Huerta, Javier
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Zabardast, Ehsan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Building lego towers: An exercise for teaching the challenges of global work2019Ingår i: ACM Transactions on Computing Education, ISSN 1946-6226, E-ISSN 1946-6226, Vol. 19, nr 2, artikel-id a15Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Global software engineering has changed the way software is developed today. To address the new challenges, many universities have launched specially tailored courses to train young professionals to work in globally distributed projects. However, a mere acknowledgment of the geographic, temporal, and cultural differences does not necessarily lead to a deep understanding of the underlying practical implications. Therefore, many universities developed alternative teaching and learning activities, such as multi-university collaborative projects and small-scale simulations or games. In this article, we present a small-scale exercise that uses LEGO bricks to teach skills necessary for global work. We describe the many different interventions that could be implemented in the execution of the exercise. We had seven runs of the exercises and report our findings from executing seven runs of the exercise with the total of 104 students from five different courses in two different universities. Our results suggest that the exercise can be a valuable tool to help students dealing with troublesome knowledge associated with global software engineering and a useful complement to the courses dedicated to this subject. © 2019 Copyright is held by the owner/author(s)

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