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  • 2001.
    Broman, Göran
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Robèrt, Karl Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Collins, Terrence
    Carnegie Mellon Univ, USA.
    Basile, George
    Arizona State Univ, USA.
    Baumgartner, Rupert
    Graz Univ, AUT.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Huisingh, Donald
    Univ Tennessee, USA.
    Science in support of systematic leadership towards sustainability2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 140, p. 1-9Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The un-sustainable course of our societies is the greatest threat humanity has ever confronted. The biophysical systems upon which we are totally dependent have not been challenged by human activities at the global scale before and our impacts upon those planetary systems, as well as upon our social systems, cannot be adequately addressed by ad hoc solutions. Science and leadership will be required to address this threat and transform our current societies into sustainable societies. This Special Volume presents an evolving, yet increasingly cohesive, science-based perspective on leadership towards sustainability. Examples of crucial, overall questions addressed by authors of articles in this Special Volume are: How can science help to clarify sustainability as a foundational platform for success for society's core institutions (e.g. business, governance and education), and how can this platform inform envisioning, planning, monitoring, communication and decision making to accelerate the needed transitions? The conceptual framing of sustainable development in this Special Volume is based upon the logic that it is only if we can define sustainability in a scientifically solid way, as a frame for any vision, that we can analyze current situations in relation to such sustainable visions, and design strategies to close the gap to such visions. In moving from current situations towards possible sustainable futures, specific support in the form of leadership concepts, methods, tools, and requirements are also essential, i.e. given clarity around what needs to be achieved, effective leadership then requires knowing how to achieve it. Both the what and the how questions are addressed in this Special Volume. The research described provides a foundation for moving from ad hoc activities to systemic, systematic and strategic transitions towards sustainability. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  • 2002.
    Broman, Göran
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    A framework for strategic sustainable development2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 140, no Part 1, p. 17-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to give a comprehensive and cohesive description of the most recent version of the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD), and also to describe and discuss the overall method for developing the FSSD, elaborate on the general rational for and general benefits of a framework of this type, and Validate benefits of the FSSD through examples of its application. The purpose is also to point to pertinent future work. In preparation of this paper, we have reviewed previous publications and other documents related to the FSSD and reflected on the 25-year learning process between scientists and practitioners. We conclude that the FSSD has proven to aid organizations in thoroughly understanding and putting themselves in context of the global sustainability challenge, and to move themselves strategically towards sustainability, i.e., to stepwise reduce their negative impacts on ecological and social systems at large while strengthening the own organization through capturing of innovation opportunities, including new business models, exploration of new markets and winning of new market shares, and through reduced risks and operation costs. Specifically, we conclude that the FSSD aids more effective management of system boundaries and trade-offs, makes it possible to model and assess sustainable potentials for various materials and practices before investments are made, and offers the possibility for more effective collaboration across disciplines and sectors, regions, value-chains and stakeholder groups. We also conclude that the FSSD makes it possible to prevent damages, even from yet unknown problems, and not the least, to guide selection, development and combination of supplementary methods, tools, and other forms of support, which makes it possible to increase their utility for strategic sustainable development. Finally, we have shown that the FSSD is useful for structuring transdisciplinary academic education and research. Several examples of ongoing FSSD related research, as well as ideas for future work, are given. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2003.
    Broman, Göran
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Basile, George
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Baumgartner, Rupert
    Collins, Terry
    Huisingh, Donald
    Systematic leadership towards sustainability2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systematic leadership towards sustainability implies utilization of systems thinking for step-wise approaches to transformative changes towards sustainable societies. This ‘call-for-papers’ (CfPs) for a Special Volume of the Journal of Cleaner Production is focused upon what types of research are needed for us to make the necessary local, regional, national and global changes. This CfPs is for anyone who wishes to address these challenges seriously, that is, to utilize essential aspects of leadership to contribute strategically to the transition towards sustainable societies. To successfully address these challenges, people from different sectors and disciplines must work together in a coordinated and efficient way. We wish to explore the question: What support do such transformative endeavors require and how can science contribute?

  • 2004.
    Broman, Göran
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Rudenko, Oleg
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Instability of water jet: Aerodynamically induced acoustic and capillary waves2012In: Acoustical Physics, ISSN 1063-7710, E-ISSN 1562-6865, Vol. 58, no 5, p. 537-541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-speed water jet cutting has important industrial applications. To further improve the cutting performance it is critical to understand the theory behind the onset of instability of the jet. In this paper, instability of a water jet flowing out from a nozzle into ambient air is studied. Capillary forces and compressibility of the liquid caused by gas bubbles are taken into account, since these factors have shown to be important in previous experimental studies. A new dispersion equation, generalizing the analogous Rayleigh equation, is derived. It is shown how instability develops because of aerodynamic forces that appear at the streamlining of an initial irregularity of the equilibrium shape of the cross-section of the jet and how instability increases with increased concentration of gas bubbles. It is also shown how resonance phenomena are responsible for strong instability. On the basis of the theoretical explanations given, conditions for stable operation are indicated.

  • 2005. Broman, Göran
    et al.
    Rudenko, Oleg
    Submerged Landau jet: exact solutions, their meaning and application2010In: Physics Uspekhi, ISSN 1063-7869, E-ISSN 1468-4780, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 91-98Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exact hydrodynamic solutions generalizing the Landau submerged jet solution are reviewed. It is shown how exact inviscid solutions can be obtained and how boundary layer viscosity can be included by introducing parabolic coordinates. The use of exact solutions in applied hydrodynamics and acoustics is discussed. A historical perspective on the discovery of a class of exact solutions and on the analysis of their physical meaning is presented.

  • 2006. Broman, Göran
    et al.
    Östholm, Stefan
    Mathcad in Teaching Rotor and Structural Dynamics1997In: International journal of engineering education, ISSN 0949-149X, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 426-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes how Mathcad is used to deepen understanding of fundamental aspects in the field of rotor and structural dynamics in two of the undergraduate courses in the education programme of Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering with emphasis on Product Development at the University of Karlskrona/Ronneby, Karlskrona, Sweden. Integrating this mathematical software has clearly given an improved interest for mathematics as well as mechanics among the students.

  • 2007.
    Broman, Peter
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Liljerum, Ola
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    En jämförelse av krypteringsalgoritmer2001Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Today the Internet is used more and more as a transportation for information. Much of the information is confidential and should not be read by those not privileged. To protect the information from unauthorized access cryptography can be applied. The cryptography algorithms in use today all have their pros and cons. They are therefore suited for different applications. We've compared three different cryptography algorithms RSA, DES and IDEA. What we've focused on is the level of security the algorithms give. DES and IDEA are symmetrical algorithms and as such they use the same key for encryption and decryption. RSA on the other hand is an asymmetrical algorithm. Asymmetrical algorithms use two keys, one for encryption and the other for decryption. The factor that is most decisive for the algorithms security is the length of the key that is used. What is interesting concerning the keys is that security increases linearly for the symmetrical algorithms, as the key length increases. For asymmetrical algorithms it increases on an expontiell curve. RSA has got a big advantage compared to DES and IDEA. The advantage is key management. RSA can be used to exchange symmetrical keys in a safe way. The big disadvantage of RSA is that it's very slow to use. According to measurements that we have seen it is about 3 to 4 times slower then DES and IDEA during encryption, when using a key length of 1024 bits. At decryption RSA is about 120 times slower using a key length of 1024 bits. DES on the other hand is slower then newer symmetrical algorithms such as IDEA. This makes it uncalled for to use it in it?s original shape as it?s obsolete and insecure. Using DES will only give a false sense of security, unless the information doesn't need to be secure for more then a short time period. IDEA offers high using it's 128 bits key and it's also the fastest of the two symmetrical algorithms, compared to the level of security that it offers. IDEA today has no known weaknesses and it has not been broken. Of the three IDEA is the best choice to use when it concerns cryptography of information, for example information which is stored on a hard disc, or information that is sent in e-commerce.

  • 2008.
    Brommesson, Camilla
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Hagström, Julia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av att arbeta enligt ICNs etiska kod2012Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: ICNs etiska kod för sjuksköterskor verkar för att ge sjuksköterskor stöd i deras omvårdnadsarbete. Idag ställs sjuksköterskor inför stora krav från arbetsgivaren, institutionens regler och patientens behov av omvårdnad. Koden erbjuder sjuksköterskor ett dokument att arbeta enligt i deras dagliga omvårdnadsarbete. Det förefaller som om det i nuläget finns en begränsad mängd forskningsstudier, vilka specifikt behandlar sjuksköterskors upplevelser när ICNs etiska kod används som en riktlinje i omvårdnadsarbetet. Syfte: Litteraturstudiens syfte är att undersöka sjusköterskors upplevelser av att arbeta enligt ICNs etiska kod. Metod: En litteraturstudie med kvalitativ ansats har genomförts. Artiklar söktes i databaserna CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed och PsycINFO – sju artiklar hittades och valdes ut att ingå i litteraturstudien med hjälp av en kvalitetsgranskning enligt Willman, Stoltz och Bahtsevanis granskningsprotokoll. Textmaterialet har analyserats med hjälp en kvalitativ innehållsanalys, inspirerad av Graneheim och Lundman. Resultat: Det framkom att en del sjuksköterskor som arbetade enligt ICNs etiska kod kunde uppleva koden som en trygghet i sitt omvårdnadsarbete. Tryggheten kunde bestå i att koden upplevdes som en vägledning i sjuksköterskornas arbete. Koden ansågs också ge dem stöd och gemenskap i sin professionella yrkesroll. Däremot upplevde inte alla sjuksköterskor att det var av värde att arbeta enligt koden. Några av dem ansåg istället, att den var ett hinder för att kunna bedriva god omvårdnad. De hinder som sjuksköterskorna kunde uppleva av att arbeta enligt koden, kunde vara att den kringliggande kulturen, den anställande sjukvårdsorganisationens policy och de anhörigas åsikter inte alltid stämde överens med koden. Slutsats: Somliga sjuksköterskor upplevde arbetet enligt ICNs etiska kod som betydelsefullt för tryggheten och vägledningen i omvårdnadsarbetet medan andra sjuksköterskor upplevde koden framför allt i kulturella sammanhang som ett hinder. Med implementering i hur sjuksköterskorna skulle kunna arbeta enligt ICNs etiska kod, behöver de inte se koden som ett hinder. Istället skulle de kunna se koden som ett hjälpmedel som skulle kunna bistå dem i etiskt komplicerade situationer.

  • 2009.
    Bron, Mikael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Communication Systems.
    Hantering av fysiska säkerhetsrisker – en kunskapsöversikt2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The competence to manage risks related to health, security, fire and safety is a sought-after skill.This is especially noticeable in both business and public administration job postings for therecruitment process of managers, administrators or coordinators to security departments. At thesame time there is little specialist literature available in Swedish on the subject of risk managementin the context of protecting assets and people from physical security threats. The lack of literatureaffects the study of risk management from a physical and procedural security perspective,particularly at an academic level where this is a relatively new topic. To move forward and expandthe field of knowledge is an important step, not only for the scientific community but also for theindustry. This bachelor thesis attempts to be an initial but significant contribution to a topic thatis likely to grow. By mapping what has already been published on the subject in English as wellas summing up and analyzing the scientific knowledge from similar disciplines the thesis has alsohad an additional goal: to reach out with knowledge to those dealing with risk management inpractice, and thus raising their awareness and developing their professional skills.The purpose of this study is to present the current state of knowledge and at the same time toshow the width and depth of the risk management process. This is done by identifying similaritiesand differences in definitions, process descriptions, problems and best practice of the studied areaswhile at the same time account for any criticism offered against risk management as a concept.The results show that there are more similarities than differences in the risk management processand methods regardless of whether the purpose is to protect people and assets from healthhazards, crime, fire or accidents.The paper has been conducted as a descriptive literature study and a comparative textual analysis.The risk management process has been described with reference to the generic ISO standard(31000:2009, Risk management - Principles and guidelines). Also, ten common risk analysismethods that cover all steps in the risk assessment process have been described. The narrative andrelated analysis follow the same order as the ISO-standard process description.The material has been supplemented and compared with guidelines and scientific papers from threetypes of risks management contexts: (1) health hazards, (2) fire and safety, and (3) security.The paper also provides examples of the inconsistent use of terms and definitions both between andwithin different disciplines involved in risk management. One of the conclusions of the report is thatcreating a unified, universal terminology to be used in the security context probably is impossibleas well as being not necessary. Instead, certain terminological misunderstandings can be avoided byproviding clear definitions and explanations of their meaning in each particular case.

  • 2010.
    Brooks, Sarah
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    O'Halloran, Dan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Magnin, Alexandre
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Rock On!: Bringing strategic sustainable development to music festivals2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recreational events gather large numbers of people in concentrated areas for brief periods of time. Effects of these events extend far beyond their spatial and temporal boundaries; a music festival is one such event. This paper asks, “What are some measures that can move music festivals strategically toward sustainability?” A framework for strategic sustainable development based on backcasting from sustainability principles is applied. Research draws on pertinent literature, interviews with festival organizers and an in-depth case study with International Music Concepts. Results indicate that critical flows and management routines upon which music festivals depend contribute to systematic undermining of social and ecological systems. Festival organizers sit at the centre of these flows, and are crucial to changing them. Education to inspire behavioural change of festival organizers and other stakeholders, notably suppliers, audience and artists, appears critical to shifting music festivals toward sustainability. This can be underpinned by building in-house ‘sustainability capacity’ of festival organisations; creating strategic alliances between festival organizers; and scaling up organisational efforts to include lobbying governments for financial and other support to authenticate a high-level commitment to true sustainable development. Music festivals may then leverage their role in society to move society itself toward sustainability. A template and guidebook are presented to facilitate this shift.

  • 2011.
    Brorsson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Swedengren, Caroline
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Musikens inverkan på demenssjuka: en litteraturstudie2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Demenssjukdomar hör till de vanligaste sjukdomarna i Sverige. Symtom är minnesstörningar och försämrat logiskt tänkande. Demenssjuka patienter behöver hjälp att planera och genomför aktiviteter i vardagen. Det är viktigt för vårdpersonalen att tänka på den demenssjukes förmåga att utföra olika aktiviteter begränsas i takt med att sjukdomen försämras. Musik utgör en stor del av vardagen, med bakgrundsmusik skapas en bra atmosfär i t.ex. restauranger och affärer. Hela livet verkar sång och musik stimulerande och rogivande för sinnet. Hos demenssjuka kan en välkänd rytm ge en trygghetskänsla. Syftet med den här kvalitativa studien är att belysa vilken inverkan musik kan ha på demenssjuka i olika omvårdnadssituationer. Studien är en litteratur studie där författarna använt sig av Polit och Hunglers flödesmodell. I resultatet framgick att musik kan ha både positiva och negativa effekter på demenssjuka patienter. Musik kan, om den används rätt, minska rastlöshet, förbättra kommunikation samt få demenssjuka patienter att förstå olika situationer lättare. Det framkom även att musik t.ex. kan minska matintag och öka agiterat beteende hos vissa patienter.

  • 2012.
    Brorsson, Filippa
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Zunkovic, Isa
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Det är faktiskt min journal!: En litteraturstudie med kvalitativ ansats om patienters synpunkter på sin patientjournal2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Internetanvändningen i samhället ökar och allt fler invånare använder internet för att söka svar på hälsorelaterade frågor. Genom att ge patienter tillgång till deras patientjournaler via internet kan de lättare bli delaktiga i sin vård och samtidigt nå patientlagens krav på delaktighet. Genom den personcentrerade vården som genomsyrar hela sjuksköterskans arbete fyller journalportaler sin funktion genom att främja partnerskap och delaktighet.

    Syfte: Syftet var att beskriva patienters synpunkter av att logga in och läsa sin journal digitalt.

    Metod: En kvalitativ litteraturstudie baserad på 8 vetenskapliga artiklar med kvalitativ respektive mixad metod. Analysen är gjord med inspiration från Lundman och Hällgren Graneheims (2017) metodbeskrivning för innehållsanalys.

    Resultat: Analysen resulterade i 4 kategorier med sammanlagt 8 underkategorier. Första kategorin Användning av patientjournalen innehåller två underkategorier: Anledning till användning och Möjligheter och begränsningar. Andra kategorin Förståelse genom patientjournalen innehåller tre underkategorier: Förståelse för sitt hälsotillstånd, Förståelse och förtroende för vårdgivaren och Förståelse för innehållet. Tredje kategorin Patientjournalen och vårdmötet innehåller tre underkategorier: Kommunikation i vårdmötet, Stärkt patientroll och Partnerskap & delaktighet. Fjärde kategorin IT-säkerhet och integritet innehåller inga underkategorier. 

    Slutsats: Patienters synpunkter av att läsa sin patientjournal ser väldigt olika ut men många uttrycker att de får en ökad förståelse för dels deras hälsotillstånd dels för deras vårdgivare. Patienter nämner även hur de får en ökad kontroll över sin situation samtidigt som de blir mer delaktiga i sin vård och behandling tillsammans med att partnerskapet mellan patient och vårdgivare stärks.

  • 2013. Brorsson, Mats
    et al.
    Dahlgren, Fredrik
    Nilsson, Håkan
    Stenström, Per
    The CacheMire Test Bench: A Flexible and Effective Approach for Simulation of Multiprocessors1993Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2014.
    Brosgård, Philip
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Fahlman, Anna
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Kostnadseffektivisering och kvalitetsförbättring gällande hantering av skärvätska2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The project was to provide the basis for appropriate and useful solutions for any eventually streamlining of Kockums Maskin's cutting fluid management. Cost-related factors regarding the company's cutting fluid are also included in this part. A detailed examination of suitable material within the project's main area were initially and subsequently result in a further analysis of the company's existing systems and management, regarding cutting fluids. Based on this analysis a further investigation on possible proposals was started for improvement regarding the issues involved with the solutions and the cutting fluids. Through direct contact with many companies and individuals in management/purchasing and existing documentation regarding cutting fluid, obtained a several solutions and suggestions for improvement regarding the searched area. This result was then later evaluated and used in the development of the project results. The problem regarding the choice of solutions has to do with the fact that it requires extensive expertise in every type of area to meet the requirements and conditions that Kockums Maskin demands. Thus, the boundaries claimed the election of solutions to instead provide suggestions for suitable solutions regarding the improvement of quality, which indirectly should lower the annual cost of cutting fluid, based on Kockums Maskin's actual needs.

  • 2015.
    Brovina, Saranda
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Wärhner, Lena
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Kvinnors upplevelser av att leva med urininkontinens2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Urininkontinens hos kvinnor i Sverige och i resten av världen är idag ett växande problem och ett dolt hälsoproblem. Syftet med studien var att beskriva kvinnors upplevelser av att leva med urininkontinens. Metod som användes var en kvalitativ litteraturstudie med vetenskapligt granskade artiklar. Sökningen resulterade i nio artiklar. Vetenskapliga artiklar söktes i CINAHL och LibHub databas. Innehållsanalys av Graneheim och Lundman (2004) utfördes. Resultatet består av fyra huvudkategorier. Dessa är känsla av skam, negativa möten i vården, förlorad kroppskontroll och upplevelse av brist på kunskap hos kvinnorna. Slutsatser som drogs var att kvinnor med urininkontinens levde i det tysta då de ansåg att urininkontinens som ämne var tabu och för intimt att tala om. Mer kunskap om urininkontinens behövs för att tillgodose både kvinnorna och personal inom hälso- och sjukvården.

  • 2016. Brown, S
    et al.
    Gotell, E
    Ekman, Sirkka-Liisa
    "Music-therapeutic caregiving": the necessity of active music-making in clinical care2001In: The arts in psychotherapy, ISSN 0197-4556, E-ISSN 1873-5878, p. 125-135Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2017.
    Brox, Mario Sánchez
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Spatial Planning.
    Competitive Global Ports for Regional Economic Development: The Port of Valencia2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Face to high unemployment and GDP stagnation, competitive ports bear potential positive impacts on regional economic development over their hinterland. Ports are conceived as nodes in global supply chains basing their competitiveness in deriving location, infrastructure, connectivity and supply chain integration advantages for logistics operators. In the current global logistics scenario, port oversupply has increased competition, and global shipping companies are increasingly influential in inserting ports into international maritime routes. This qualitative case study is a pragmatic research, making use of both new institutional economics to grasp the economic behaviour of port stakeholders, and the structure of provision approach to guide an institutional analysis on how the attributes of the Port of Valencia provide global shipping companies with competitive advantages. Institutions turn to be relevant in generating advantages such as a privileged connectivity to the centre of the peninsula, an outperforming integrated electronic information interchange system among all members of the port community, or the port authority’s valuable coordination, promotion and leadership of initiatives boosting logistics operators’ competitiveness. Port institutions have also shaped competitive disadvantages, namely the elevated cost of stowage, towage services, some taxes or low productivity of some terminals. The analysis of these findings grounds a discussion on possible adjustments of the port institutional attributes to strengthen the competitive advantages offered to global shipping companies, thus contributing to the regional economic development of the port hinterland. The paper concludes with some challenges for the future and further research tracks.

  • 2018.
    Brozovic, Martin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Communication Systems.
    ON EFFICIENT AUTOMATED METHODS FOR SIMULATION OUTPUT DATA ANALYSIS2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the increase in computing power and software engineering in the past years computer based stochastic discrete-event simulations have become very commonly used tool to evaluate performance of various, complex stochastic systems (such as telecommunication networks). It is used if analytical methods are too complex to solve, or cannot be used at all. Stochastic simulation has also become a tool, which is often used instead of experimentation in order to save money and time by the researchers. In this thesis, we focus on the statistical correctness of the final estimated results in the context of steady-state simulations performed for the mean analysis of performance measures of stable stochastic processes. Due to various approximations the final experimental coverage can differ greatly from the assumed theoretical level, where the final confidence intervals cover the theoretical mean at much lower frequency than it was expected by the preset theoretical confidence level. We present the results of coverage analysis for the methods of dynamic partially-overlapping batch means, spectral analysis and mean squared error optimal dynamic partially-overlapping batch means. The results show that the variants of dynamic partially-overlapping batch means, that we propose as their modification under Akaroa2, perform acceptably well for the queueing processes, but perform very badly for auto-regressive process. We compare the results of modified mean squared error optimal dynamic partially-overlapping batch means method to the spectral analysis and show that the methods perform equally well.

  • 2019.
    Bruce, Christian
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Planning and Media Design.
    Transit Oriented Development in China: Designing a new transit oriented neighbourhood in Hexi New Town, Nanjing, based on Hong Kong case studies2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    China is urbanizing rapidly and questions regarding urban sustainability has arisen. Researchers point out that China is going through a sub-urbanization with increasing automobile-dependence. Researchers underline that, with the concurrent rapid growth taking place on the urban periphery of Chinese cites, now is the critical time to achieve a sustainable urban form through implementation of Transit- Oriented Development (TOD). Researchers argue that while Chinese cities are currently investing heavily in infrastructure for mass transportation, they fail in integrating land use with transit. Furthermore, regarding urban design, the accessibility for non-motorized travellers is not well catered for. Although the concept of Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) can be traced to originate in Europe and the US, it has gained significant attention in China. Hong Kong is pointed out as the benchmark for how the TOD concept can be implemented in Asian cities and specifically in mainland China. Therefore a case study of several neighbourhoods in Hong Kong was made, using the TOD aspects Density, Diversity, Design, Destination accessibility and Distance to transit. To implement these principles, a case in Nanjing was chosen. Hexi New Town is a large scale commercial and residential area planned in the last ten years, and currently under construction. Several metro lines are constructed simultaneously with the development, yet the opportunity of fully integrating the new development with transit was missed. In this thesis, functional zoning, lack of density concentration around transit, and a focus on auto-oriented urban design were identified as the main problems. Plans are underway for extending the metro lines further out to the surrounding countryside. The aim of this thesis is to propose a design for a new neighbourhood around one of the future metro stations, using a transit-oriented concept. The long term goal is reduced car dependence. After taking into account local restraints in Nanjing, the key findings were synthesized into a set of design principles. While many aspects of previous developments in Hexi are kept, the proposal greatly contrasts with existing developments in the way land use is integrated with transit and how the public space is designed. The built environment is proposed to focus on providing ease of access for pedestrians, instead of the current car dominance. The level of mixed-use is greater and the distribution of density is more integrated with transit. Far more public places are also proposed. However, the use of Hong Kong design principles meant that local planning regulations could not be followed. The study shows that in order to fully implement the TOD strategies of Hong Kong, changes need to be made to the current Nanjing planning regulations. Central government policies promoting car sales as a way to grow the GDP is another problematic obstacle for obtaining the desired benefits of a transit-oriented design.

  • 2020.
    Bruce, Christian
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Planning and Media Design.
    Urban Sprawl och Dagens Stadsbyggnadstrender: en fallstudie av Kungsbacka2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med arbetet är att undersöka fenomenet Urban Sprawl för att se om det går och få svar på varför Kungsbacka kommun ser ut som den gör idag. Kungsbacka har ett speciellt utseende med en väldigt liten centralort i förhållande till kommunens storlek. De flesta av invånarna i kommunen bor i utbredda villaområden utanför staden. Arbetet inleds med en teoridel som börjar med att beskriva Urban Sprawl i ett internationellt perspektiv för att till sist gå in på vad det har betytt för Sveriges och enskilda kommuners del. När man talar om Urban Sprawl förs ofta tankarna till USA med dess breda motorvägar, stora köpcentrum och utbredda städer. Los Angeles är det vanligaste exemplet i litteraturen. Även fast de mest uppenbara exemplen av fenomenet hittas i USA är samma utveckling tydlig även i Europa. Trots att orsakerna till Urban Sprawl är olika i USA och Europa menar många forskare att det utgör det största hotet mot den traditionella europeiska staden. I Sverige är Värmdö ett av de tydligaste exemplen av Urban Sprawl. Det är Sveriges snabbast växande kommun, folkmängden förutspås att dubblas inom tjugo år. Likheterna med Kungsbackas utveckling är slående. Arbetets analys av Kungsbacka kommun leder till slutsatsen att Urban Sprawl har skett i Kungsbacka. Det är dock inte den vanliga typen av Urban Sprawl där en stads befolkning sprids ut från stadskärnan. Istället kan det kallas för ett fritidshussprawl. Ett fritidshussprawl innebär kortfattat att kommunen från början var en plats dit många lockades att bygga sina fritidshus. Det var då själva sprawl-utvecklingen skedde. Kommunen har därefter inte sprawlat utan fritidshusområdena har förtätats med vanliga hus. Bebyggelsens utbredning har inte ökat. Men i slutändan har ändå utvecklingen lett till samma konsekvenser som typiska sprawlade städer runtom i världen lider av: långa transportavstånd, högt bilberoende och brist på offentliga miljöer. En annan fråga som ställs i detta arbete är vad kommunen gör idag? Hur ser de på sin glesa bebyggelsestruktur? Vad har de för bebyggelsestrategier idag och kan dessa härledas till några av dagens gällande stadsbyggnadstrender? För att ta reda på detta beskrivs först ett antal av de stadsbyggnadstrender som dominerar i västvärlden idag: den hållbara staden, den täta staden, den flerkärniga staden, blandstaden, New Urbanism och Smart Growth. Gemensamt för dessa trender är att de alla förespråkar förtätning. De ställer sig alla negativa till utvecklingen som lett till många av dagens sprawlade städer. Genom olika metoder och principer förespråkar många av trenderna en återgång till den traditionella europeiska staden. Alla stadsbyggnadsdebattörer håller dock inte med utan framhåller olika brister i dessa idéer. I arbetets analys av Kungsbackas bebyggelsestrategier och byggnadsprojekt är det tydligt att kommunen sätter stor tilltro till lösningarna som dessa trender säger sig erbjuda. Det har skett en skiftning i hur kommunen planerar. Kommunens glesa struktur beror till viss del på en väldigt tillåtande planering under lång tid. Det är först på senare tid som kommunen har börjat utnyttja sitt planmonopol till fullo. Hittills har de flesta som flyttat till kommunen hamnat i villaområdena utanför staden. Nu vill man vända den utvecklingen. Majoriteten av alla nybyggnation ska ske i staden. Staden ska växa till en tät och blandad stad, allt enligt idealen som dagens stadsbyggnadstrender förespråkar. Huruvida målet med ”en stad för alla” och ”rikt stadsliv” har uppnåtts kan diskuteras. Kommunens ambition med att förhindra ytterligare sprawl är dock tydlig.

  • 2021.
    Bruce, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Behovsanalys av LPWAN-enheter: En kvalitativ undersökning för implementering av lågenergienheter på det svenska lantbruket1990Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Anledningen till studien är för att avgöra om det svenska lantbruket är en lämplig sektor för att implementera LPWAN-enheter (datasändande lågenergienheter) på. Det anses intressant att veta om det finns ett behov för denna teknik på det nya området.

    Syftet med arbetet är hitta nya områden inom lantbruk som kan effektiviseras och göras mer hållbart med hjälp av IoT. Syftet är att göra en jämförelse på lantbruk för och efter implementering. Arbetet ska gå till grunden för verkliga behov där IoT kan fungera som en hjälpande hand samt utvärdera vilka områden inom svenskt lantbruk som har störst innovationspotential, på vilka sätt IoT-enheter kan göra svenskt lantbruk mer hållbart samt hur svenska lantbrukare vill att arbetslivet i en uppkopplad miljö ska vara uppbyggd.

    Att genom besök, intervjuer, en enkät samt idégenerering skapa en klar bild på vilka områden som är mest av behov av detta. Arbetet grundar sig på aktionsforskning och design thinking. Arbetet kommer även eftersöka likande forskning och utveckling inom området för att skapa en bild vad som håller på att hända inom sektorn. Förutom detta behöver sensorer testas i verklig miljö för att avgöra skillnader och möjliga nya innovativa arbetsprocesser. Ett test har gjorts där ett nuvarande arbetssätt av att mäta temperaturer testats mot tekniken. Både lantbrukare, forskare samt personer som arbetar inom branschen har blivit kontaktade för att ge sin syn på området.

    Resultatet visar att det det finns stor innovationspotential inom området och att stora förändringar kan göras genom implementering av IoT. Bevisen för att dessa enheter kommer att påverka ur ett hållbarhetsperspektiv har dock inte varit lika framhävande. Resultatet visar även att arbetssättet för framtida lantbrukare kan komma att förändras genom att manuella kontroller nu kan ske på distans samt att klimatmätningar nära gården med hjälp av de fokuserade IoT-enheterna både är mer noggranna och mer uppskattade av lantbrukaren.

    Tekniken är behövd inom området och mer forskning och utveckling borde göras inom området. Enheterna som ska användas borde utvecklas efter lantbrukarnas behov och kan därmed skilja sig markant på grund av att behoven är olika.

  • 2022.
    Bruce, Niklas
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Daly, Elaine
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Horton, Paul
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    The critical role of social capital in strategic sustainable development2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The primary intent of this thesis was to determine if and how the practice of Art of Hosting, a dialogue–based, participatory process architecture, could foster social capital in communities and other large, complex social systems working to address a variety of complex challenges, in order to draw conclusions that could contribute, in a meaningful way, to the advancement of strategic sustainable development (SSD). We hoped to gain useful insights by examining and interpreting the results from two case study systems existing within very different social contexts and with very different organizational structures: Columbus, Ohio and the European Commission. Based on the results of our research, strategic recommendations, guidelines and tools were developed for SSD practitioners wishing to assess the level of social capital in the systems in which they operate and take strategic steps to increase it. These same recommendations, guidelines and tools should also be helpful for Art of Hosting practitioners working to address complex societal challenges in general. Overall, the authors of this thesis believe that these results hold particular significance for any collaborative or multi-stakeholder effort to build support for adoption, and ensure the successful implementation, of sustainability goals and programs. This could include Eco-Municipalities, Transition Towns, Agenda 21 Communities, Smart Cities, and large complex organizations such as multi-national corporations or universities, to mention but a few.

  • 2023.
    Bruehmann, Timo
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Technoculture, Humanities and Planning.
    Florkowski, Sabrina
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Technoculture, Humanities and Planning.
    Ickes, Kevin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Technoculture, Humanities and Planning.
    Implementation of the ESDP: the example of North West Europe2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Thesis examines the implementation of the ESDP in the planning systems of North West Europe (Denmark, North Germany, Netherlands). For that it shows the influence of the ESDP on programmes and policies in the respective planning system, and also provides ideas to improve the interaction.

  • 2024.
    Brunström, Albert
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Health.
    Mathiasson, Viktor
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Om jag inte skrattar, gråter jag!: En litteraturstudie om upplevelsen av humor i omvårdnaden ur ett patientperspektiv2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Humor är ett mångfacetterat begrepp som har en god psykologisk och fysiologisk påverkan på patienterna. Trots sina positiva effekter har humor länge varit ett svårt ämne inom hälso- och sjukvård. Humor i vården handlar bland annat om att lätta upp den allt som oftast allvarliga stämning som kan finnas. Humor har en stor roll i etableringen av en god vårdrelation som i sin tur påverkar patienters upplevelse av vården.Syfte: Syftet var att belysa patienters upplevelser av humor mellan sjuksköterska och patient i omvårdnaden.Metod: En kvalitativ litteraturstudie med induktiv ansats som grundades på tio vetenskapliga artiklar. Resultat: I resultatet presenteras två huvudkategorier. Den första Humor kan förbättra omvårdnaden med tillhörande underkategorier Upplevelse av att humor stärker vårdrelationen, Upplevelse av att humor förbättrar kommunikationen, Upplevelse av att kunna hantera känslor och situationer med hjälp av humor, Upplevelse av att bli stärkt och må bättre av humor, Upplevelse av humor som en lämplig del i omvårdnaden. Den andra huvudkategorin Humor kan försämra omvårdnaden med tillhörande underkategorier Upplevelse av humor som en olämplig del i omvårdnaden samt Upplevelse av negativa konsekvenser av humor.Slutsats: Patienter upplever att humor är en essentiell del i omvårdnaden. Humor upplevdes ha flera terapeutiska fördelar. Den sågs även stärka den mellanmänskliga vårdrelationen och bidrog till kommunikativa fördelar mellan sjuksköterskan och patienten. Genom att etablera humor i vården kan sjuksköterskan skapa en bättre och mer personcentrerad omvårdnad.

  • 2025.
    Bruziene, Rita
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    The stress experience of nursing staff in intensive care therapy2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Problem area. Understanding what stress experience the Lithuanian nurses in intensive care. analyzing the influence of stress to the her health. How nurses can it control and manage in their work. Research questions are: • How nurses understand, what is the stress? • What is the microclimat in intensive care department? • How you collaborate with colleagues? • What are the main reasons of the stress? • How the stress influence in your health? Overall research aim To describe nurses working in intensive care, their stress experiences and how to manage this. 1 part aim To identify stress experience of nurses in intensive care. This paper work has the following tasks: 1. To review that is the stress 2. To explain the stress causing factors in literature review 3. To illuminate how nurses can control and manage the stress theoretically 2 part study aim To illuminate experience of stress among Lithuanian nurses working in intensive care. This paper work has the following tasks: 1. To explore what is the stress. 2. To illuminate the nurses thoughts and feelings about their stress experience. 3. To illuminate that influence have stress to nurses in intensive care 4. To illuminate how is importance to manage and to control the stress in nursing work. This study. The thesis is designed as two part study. Systematically review of the literature relating to stress and nurse’s experience was used in 1 part of study. A literature review based on eleven scientific articles from 1993-2004, from the databases of PubMed and Elin @Blekinge, with the purpose to describe nurses experiences about stress in intensive care. A qualitative method with semi-structured interviews was used in 2 part study. Data collected from X intensive care of Kaunas Medical University hospital. Ten nurses took par in a semi-structured interview one-two times (about 30min. to 1 hour). Ethical approval for this study was granted by Ethics Committee of Kaunas Medical University hospital, Intensive care department which consist form several departments: Cardio anaesthetical, Central intensive care, Neuro surgical. Content analysis was used to classify the answers of the semi-structured questions. There was no specific theory used to classify information, data was the sole source of the analysis. The content analysis study goal is to offer knowledge of the experience relating to certain phenomenon and will also give a deeper understanding of the studied phenomenon. Through this analysis, the author tried to perceive the themes in the written material. The result of the study showed that most of nurses experienced negative feelings because of stress. The results showed that, this knowledge would help us understand the importance of how to manage and control nurses stress, in order to research general aim - the best caring and nursing of patients and the excellent medical aim.

  • 2026. Bruzon, MS
    et al.
    Gandarias, ML
    Ibragimov, Nail H.
    Self-adjoint sub-classes of generalized thin film equations2009In: Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, ISSN 0022-247X, E-ISSN 1096-0813, Vol. 357, no 1, p. 307-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we consider a class of fourth-order nonlinear partial differential equation containing several tin-specified coefficient functions of the dependent variable which encapsulates various mathematical models used, e.g. for describing the dynamics of thin liquid films. We determine the subclasses of these equations which are self-adjoint. By using a general theorem on conservation laws proved by one of the authors (NHI) we find conservation laws for some of these partial differential equations without Classical Lagrangians.

  • 2027.
    Bryggman, Linda
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Petersson, Cecilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Närståendes upplevelser i samband med palliativ vård i hemmet2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I den palliativa vården i hemmet kring patienten fanns närstående som påverkades känslomässigt. Sjuksköterskan ska förebygga sjukdom och ohälsa utifrån närstående och patientens bethov samt minska lidande och ge möjlighet till en värdig död. Närstående som blev bemötta på ett bra sätt av sjuksköterskan upplevde inte patientens död som oväntad. Olika former av vård i hemmet har ökat och detta pekar på att allt fler människor kommer att dö i det egna hemmet. Syftet med studien var att studera närståendes upplevelser i samband med palliativ vård i patientens hem. Metoden var en litteraturstudie där sju kvalitativa vetenskapliga studier användes, vilka valdes ut med hjälp av Polit och Hunglers metodmodell. Graneheim och Lundmans analysmodell användes för att få fram resultatet. Resultatet visade att upplevelserna trängd, oro, utsatthet, kärlek och trygghet var centrala begrepp för närstående. Slutsatsen var att närståendes upplevelser var likartade och att sjuksköterskan ska ha kännedom om att alla upplevelser är individuella.

  • 2028.
    Brynnum, Niels
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    Total Quality Management: Aspects of implementation and human resource2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Problem Discussion Total quality management has become a frequently used term in discussions concerning quality. The international and national competitive environment is in a proces of constant change by the globalisation of markets and increased interdependence of economic agents. This process of change has brought increased demands on the organizations compettiveness and the customers have gained a central role in the organizations focus. Total quality management is considered to be an important management philosophy, which supports the organizations in their efforts to obtain satisfied customers. However traditional work practice and management attitudes does not conform with total quality management, which could cause a resistance towards an implementation of total quality management. Purpose The overall aim of this thesis is to study the role and the aspects of the human resource department tasks in regards to an implementation of total quality management. Conclusion The theoretical analysis reveals the implications there are in building a quality cuture. The analyze implies that builing a quality culture would require a matching human resource strategy, which would involve the human resource management, the organizations way of working as well as the human resource policies and practices. In context to this, was it furthermore argued that the literature of total quality management often have a hidden implicit agenda, which call upon a topdown method for the implementation of total quality management. This could underestimate the difficulties, there are in gaining a commitment to continuous improvements in the current pluralistic industrial relation culture. The empirical analysis in the Grundfos Group reveals the different roles of the human resource management and shows that the implementation of total quality management has posed quite a lot of human resource challenges to human resource employees such as, motivating knowledge workers, obtaining employees satisfaction, overcoming communication barriers, solving problems associated with vastness of the organization.

  • 2029.
    Brännström, Erica
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Fors, Sofia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    South African nurses' experiences of the concept of Activity, in nursing of elderly2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Activities and relations are something that all people have in common. Throughout activity we fulfill some basic needs, which are necessary to regain physical, mental, social and spiritual wellbeing. The core of caring is to be found in the human nature to care for others, with a purpose to make the life and living to go on and to, out of ethical aspects, facilitate the creative processe of others in their striving to gain a good, beatiful and meaningful living. The aim of this study was to explore South African nurses' experiences of the concept of activity in elderly nursing care. Four nurses were interviewed in a group interview. The interview had semi-structured questions, allowing the respondents to talk, and have a discussion, about activity within an elderly context. The analysis was carried out using a phenomenological-hermeneutical method, inspired by Lindseth & Norberg and Grainheim & Lundman. Three themes came up from the analyze: Activities in Communion, Activities for Communion and Communion for Activities. According to the respondents the aim of all activity, including physical, mental and social, is to increase or maintain the elderlys quality of life. To gain this, the elderly need to feel increased sense of wellbeing, sense of being someone, dignity and appreciation, which is only possible in a communion. It is of great importance that the nurses try to reduce obstacles and meet the elderlys different needs for activity.

  • 2030.
    Brännström, Niclas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Planning and Media Design.
    Jämställdhet i svensk översiktsplanering2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetet för ett mer jämställt samhälle, och hur detta kan uppnås genom den fysiska planeringen, är högst intressant och ett ständigt aktuellt ämne att debattera. Det har tidigare påvisats att behandlingen av jämställdhet i den kommunala översiktsplanen är milt uttryckt, otillfredsställande. Frågan är om det fortfarande finns tendenser att arbetet för ett ökat jämställt samhälle inte behandlas på ett tillfredsställande sätt i den översiktliga planeringen, eller om detta är något kommunerna i landet har ändrat på? Syftet med detta kandidatarbete är inte att explicit svara på dessa ovanstående frågor, utan ligger i att finna ett antal ”analysverktyg” för att undersöka hur ett urval av översiktsplaner behandlar jämställdhet. Kunskap om genus och människors vardagsliv är viktiga aspekter i arbetet mot ett ökat jämställt samhälle. Det är därför begreppen jämställdhet, vardagslivsperspektiv och genus som kommer genomsyra analysen av de utvalda översiktsplanerna. Analysdelen behandlar översiktsplanerna var och en genom kortare beskrivningar över hur respektive kommun resonerar i olika frågor, och en analys utifrån en jämställdhetsaspekt belyser avsiktliga eller oavsiktliga konsekvenser av detta. Avslutningsvis kommer arbetets frågeställning besvaras och en diskussion föras kring huruvida behandlingen av jämställdhet i de kommunala översiktsplanerna kan anses vara bra eller inte utifrån det forskningsunderlag som studerats.

  • 2031.
    Bräutigam, Martin
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Signal Processing.
    Gustafsson, Mikael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Signal Processing.
    Aktiv reglering av rörelse i ryggmärg2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers in neurophysiology in Lund have undertaken measurements of the spinal cord in rats where the movement of the spinal cord due to blood flow and breathing has proved to be a major obstacle in their research. Except from manufacturing electrodes specialized for the task, an idea has been to reduce the effect of the motion by moving a table on which the object is placed, in a compensating manner. To further explore this idea, cooperation with an engineer at the department of Neurophysiology, Lund University, has been the subject of this thesis. A table movable in three directions was constructed. DC-motors controlling an eccentric were chosen as actuators for the motion control. A circuit for direct analogue control of DC-motors implementing proportional, integrating and differentiating stages aimed for standard PID control was built. The circuit allows current control to avoid overload of the motor as well as balancing of DC-noise from the amplifier stages. Recordings of the spinal cord motion as well as heart and breathing signals was done with a laser-vibrometer. Signal analysis was performed to investigate the suitability of reference-based feed forward control with the filtered-x LMS algorithm. The analysis showed poor result for this method.

  • 2032.
    Bródka, Piotr
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Key User Extraction Based on Telecommunication Data2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The number of systems that collect vast amount of data about users rapidly grow during last few years. Many of these systems contain data not only about people characteristics but also about their relationships with other system users. From this kind of data it is possible to extract a social network that reflects the connections between system’s users. Moreover, the analysis of such social network enables to investigate different characteristics of its users and their linkages. One of the types of examining such network is key users extraction. Key users are these who have the biggest impact on other network users as well as have big influence on network evolution. The obtained knowledge about these users enables to investigate and predict changes within the network. So this knowledge is very important for the people or companies who make a profit from the network like telecommunication company. The second important issue is the ability to extract these users as quick as possible, i.e. developed the algorithm that will be time-effective in large social networks where number of nodes and edges is equal few millions.

  • 2033.
    Buabeng, Emmanuel Yaw
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    Sam, Anthony Kweku
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    The effects of price promotions on building a customer base within the Ghanaian mobile Telecommunication industry; the case of Vodafone Ghana2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The recent advances in telecommunication have led to increase in the number of subscriptions to mobile telecommunication networks in Ghana. In today’s competitive telecom market place several marketing communication tools are used by telecom operators in Ghana to retain existing customers and also add on to their customer base. Price related promotion is one such marketing communication tools and the impact of sales promotions in increasing subscriber base forms the basis of this study. We review some sales promotions, its impact on subscription, customer perception about the effects of price promotions in telecommunications, as well as benefits customers realize. The National Communication Authority, the communications regulator, reported 17.437mn mobile subscribers in Ghana at the end of December 2010 which represented overall growth of 15.4% in 2010. This increased growth was as a result of increased subscriber uptake from lower call tariffs introduced by telecom service providers in mid-2010 and promotional offers that were introduced to attract new customers. Promotions thus played a role in this growth rate. Price promotions are used to a large extent to increase sales in today’s competitive markets; there are serious repercussions however, if they are applied wrongly. Hence, this thesis seeks to examine the effects of price promotions on building a customer base within the Ghanaian mobile Telecommunication industry. Questionnaires were administered together with online survey to ascertain what the consuming public feels about sales promotion and how that affects their subscription to a telecom service provider. In all printed survey questionnaires were administered and online survey launched and together there was 84.5% response rate. The results show interesting trends in the market place and consumer perception of the numerous sales promotions given out by the telecom companies. Apart from what this research seeks to contribute theoretically, we see the results as quite relevant to both consumers and service providers. This work gives the mobile telecommunication service providers information on how consumers view their price related sales promotions and thus the need to intensify their consumer education in respect of promotions offered and the benefits of taking advantage thereof and subscribing to a service. For the consumer, accepting that the promotions are meant to give them value for money, retain them and also get new ones on board would increase their adoption rate and also enable them to make an informed decision, among other factors, when considering a mobile telecommunication service provider.

  • 2034.
    Bucher, Adrian
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Technoculture, Humanities and Planning.
    Bo och pendla i Lindesberg. Hur kan Lindesberg bli en attraktivare boendeort. Vardagslivsfrågor i fokus2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I nuläget minskar befolkningen i en stor del av landets mindre kommuner, vilket har inneburit en ökad konkurrens mellan kommunerna när det gäller att attrahera nya invånare (Arena för Tillväxt 2006). I jakten på nya invånare har det under de senaste åren begreppet attraktivitet blivit populärt i marknadsföringen av den egna kommunen. Ofta blir det att man med attraktivhet menar vattennära boende, kulturhistorisk intressant miljö och närhet till starka arbetsregioner. Men många gånger glömmer man bort de förutsättningar som påverkar hur människor lever sina vardagsliv. Givetvis har begreppet attraktivitet olika innebörd för olika människor men jag anser att man måste vidga begreppet attraktivitet till att även innefatta frågor om hur det är att konkret leva på orten. Attraktivitet innebär inte endast att det finns bostäder med sjöutsikt eller trädplanteringar i centrum, utan även att det finns möjligheter till ett bra vardagsliv. Syftet med examensarbetet är att studera hur Lindesberg kan bli en attraktivare boendeort ur ett pendlingsperspektiv med vardagslivsperspektiv i fokus och att omsätta studiens resultat i konkreta planförslag. Jag har gjort en inventering av Lindesberg och analyserat orten med hjälp av en metod som är utvecklad inom tidsgeografin. Resultaten från inventeringen och analysen har jag omsatt i ett planförslag där föreslagna förändringar syftar till att förbättra vardagslivet för pendlande barnfamiljer. I min inventering har jag fokuserat på de nyckelfaktorer som är av betydelse för vardagslivsperspektivet. Sådana faktorer är placeringen av förskolor, skolor, handel, och kollektivtrafikens hållplatser. Till min hjälp har jag haft en tidsgeografisk metod som heter ”tänkta dagsprogram”. Ett ”tänkt dagsprogram” kan kort beskrivas som ett fiktivt schema som redogör för en familj vardagliga aktiviteter under en dag. Detta ”tänkta dagsprogram” har jag sedan testat på fyra befintliga bostadsområden för att undersöka hur väl anpassade områdena är ur ett vardagslivsperspektiv. Resultaten mynnar sedan ut i ett planförslag, där de föreslagna förändringarna syftar till att förbättra vardagslivet för Lindesbergs invånare.

  • 2035. Buchinger, Shelley
    et al.
    Lopes, Rui J.
    Jumisko-Pyykkö, Satu
    Zepernick, Hans-Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Communication Systems.
    Advances in tools, techniques and practices for multimedia QoE2015In: Multimedia tools and applications, ISSN 1380-7501, E-ISSN 1573-7721Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been realized that the success of multimedia services or applications relies on the analysis of the entire user experience (UX). The relevance of this paradigm ranges from Internet protocol television to video-on-demand systems for distributing and sharing professional television (TV) and user-generated content that is consumed and produced ubiquitously. To obtain a pleasurable user experience, a large amount of aspects have to be taken into account. Major challenges in this context include the identification of relevant UX factors and the quantification of their influence on Quality of Experience (QoE). This special issue is dedicated to advances in, tools, techniques and practices for multimedia QoE that tackle several of the aforementioned challenges.

  • 2036. Buchinger, Shelley
    et al.
    Lopez, Rui Jorge
    Jumisko-Pyykkö, Satu
    Zepernick, Hans-Jürgen
    Quality of experience for multimedia content sharing2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, it has been realized that the success of multimedia services or applications not only depends on Quality of Service (QoS) parameters but also relies on the analysis of the entire user experience (UX). The relevance of this paradigm ranges from IPTV or video-on-demand systems for distributing and sharing professional TV to user-generated content over the web. To obtain a pleasurable user experience far more aspects than QoS have to be taken into account. Major challenges in this context include the identification of relevant UX factors and the quantification of their influence on Quality of Experience (QoE). In particular, context awareness and assessment of users' expectations play an essential role. This is further justified by the emergence of new multimedia enhancement techniques, notably 3DTV and Free Viewpoint. Future Internet architectures under current research are also promising on the possibility to accommodate protocols and policies that take QoE issues into consideration. Consequently, acquired knowledge on the context and on identified parameters affecting users' experience could be used to improve media delivery.

  • 2037. Buchinger, Shelley
    et al.
    Lopez, Rui Jorge
    Jumisko-Pyykkö, Satu
    Zepernick, Hans-Jürgen
    Quality of Experience for Multimedia Content Sharing: Ubiquitous QoE assessment and support2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, it has been realized that the success of multimedia services or applications relies on the analysis of the entire user experience (UX). The relevance of this paradigm ranges from IPTV to video-on-demand systems o ering professional TV and user-generated content that is consumed and produced ubiquitously. To obtain a pleasurable and ubiquitous user experience a large amount of aspects have to be taken into account. Major challenges in this context include the identi cation of relevant UX factors and the quanti cation of their inuence on Quality of Experience (QoE). In the particular scenario of ubiquitous production and consumption of content, context awareness and assessment of users' expectations play an essential role. This is further justi ed by the emergence of new multimedia enhancement techniques, notably 3DTV and Free Viewpoint. In the support of ubiquitous QoE the acquired knowledge on the context and on identi ed parameters a ecting users' experience could be used to improve mutimedia applications and their associated content delivery mechanisms.

  • 2038.
    BUDDA, SARATH CHANDRA REDDY
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Telecommunication Systems.
    RATCHA, SREEKANTH
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Telecommunication Systems.
    Estimation of Direction of Arrival and Beamforming in Adaptive Array Antennas2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years there has been a rapid growth in the number of wireless users, particularly in the area of mobile communications. This rapid growth in mobile communications demands for more system capacity through efficient utilization of frequency spectrum and also keeping the Interference as low as possible. In today’s Radio resource management, Adaptive array antennas have an important role in increasing the system capacity and controlling the interference in mobile communications. Adaptive array antenna is an antenna system, which uses spatially separated antennas called array antennas and processes the received signals with a digital signal processor. Simply speaking these array antennas can reduce the co channel interference and effectively utilize the bandwidth by steering a high gain in the direction of interest and low gains in the undesired directions, technically this is called adaptive beamforming. This adaptive beamforming enables the base station to form narrow beam towards desired user and nulls towards the interfering user, hence improving the signal quality.

  • 2039.
    Budda, Shiva Tarun
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Performance Analysis of Proxy based Encrypted communication in IoT environments: Security and Privacy ~ Distributed Systems Security2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2040.
    Bugga, Hemanth
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Challa, Aravind kumar
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Development of Tools for Automating Standardization of Cable way using Knowledge Based Engineering2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The path along which a high voltage cable needs to travel within the production facility is designed by a combination of straight and curved segments. As segments are available only in standard sizes, the path must be standardized. The transformation of an initial path into standardized path is a manual and time-consuming process. Tools are developed to automate this process using Knowledge-Based Engineering (KBE). The MOKA-methodology has been followed to capture and store the knowledge behind the standardization of the path. Designs of truss segments which are currently in use are studied and modified to make the models more efficient. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is performed to evaluate the strength of segments of both old and new models which shows that new models are more efficient. To rapidly obtain segments of different dimensions, parametric models of segments are designed.

  • 2041. Buglione, Luigi
    et al.
    Ferrucci, Filomena
    Gencel, Cigdem
    Gravino, Carmine
    Sarro, Federica
    Which COSMIC Base Functional Components are Significant in Estimating Web Application Development?: A Case Study2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimation is still a challenging process for planning and managing software projects. Often, estimates are being done on experiential or analogous basis or using effort estimation models. Mostly, these approaches take software size (e.g., Lines of Code, Function Points, Object points) and other cost factors as the main inputs to estimation. This study focuses on functional size based effort estimation for Web application development and investigates the significance of the functional sizes of each of the COSMIC Base Functional Component (BFC) types in explaining the variation in the development effort. A case study was conducted collecting data on 25 Web projects from a software organization. The results show that the size of only one of the BFC Types can explain the variation in the effort nearly as good as the total functional size.

  • 2042. Buisman, J.
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Using Game Theory to Study Bidding for Software Projects2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2043.
    Buisman, Jacco
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Game Theory and Bidding for Software Projects An Evaluation of the Bidding Behaviour of Software Engineers2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The conception phase is one of the most important phases of software projects. In this phase it is determined which software development company will perform a software project. To obtain a software project, companies can have several bidding strategies. This thesis investigates if and how game theory can be a helpful tool to evaluate bidding for software projects. This thesis can be divided into two different parts: a theoretical and a practical. The theoretical part investigates the applicable parts of game theory in this thesis, explains what software projects are, explains the difference between costing and bidding and provides results of a literature survey about bidding behaviour. The practical part introduces a study to investigate strategies and bidding behaviour of software engineers, explains the experimental design that found the study, provides the results of the performed study and a discussion of the results. This thesis concludes that game theory contains some concepts that make it possible to evaluate bidding for software projects.

  • 2044.
    Bukhari, Syed Asif Abbas
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Hussain, Sajid
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Intelligent Support System for Health Monitoring of elderly people2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of information and communications technology (ICT) to provide medical information, interaction between patients and health-service providers, institution-to-institution transmission of data, in known as eHealth. ICT have become an inseparable part of our life, it can integrate health care more seamlessly to our everyday life. ICT enables the delivery of accurate medical information anytime anywhere in an efficient manner. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the single leading cause of death, especially in elderly people. The condition of heart is monitor by electrocardiogram (ECG). The Electrocardiogram (ECG) is widely used clinical tool to diagnose complex heart diseases. In clinical settings, resting ECG is used to monitor patients. Holter-based portable monitoring solutions capable of 24 to 48-hour ECG recording, they lack the capability of providing any real-time feedback in case of alarming situation. The recorded ECG data analyzed offline by doctor. To address this issue, authors propose a functionality of intelligence decision support system, in heart monitoring system. The proposed system has capability of generate an alarm in case of serious abnormality in heart, during monitoring of heart activity.

  • 2045.
    Bukhari, Syed Asif Abbas
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    Rahimuddin, Muhammad
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    E-Banking System in Pakistan2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Our this research work is based on the E-banking technology in which customers can access more accurate, quicker and rapid banking services from the computerized banking system. This system has also been adopted by the international banks as well as by the local banks in Pakistan to give efficient services to their elite customers. The purpose of our research work is carried out to unlock the significance that Pakistani banks are connected with this type of e-banking technology that is being implemented by the banks for providing the electronic services to the customers and in what extent this technology is relevant to customers. This research work will also help to determine whether the e-banking services are more efficient, accurate and rapid banking services.

  • 2046.
    Bukhari, Syed Majid Ali Shah
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Telecommunication Systems.
    Khan, Inayat Ullah
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Telecommunication Systems.
    SWOT Analysis of IP Multimedia Sub System Security Authentication Schemes2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    SWOT analysis is performed on IMS security authentication schemes to demonstrate the effectiveness of each schemes in terms of multiple parameters and associated dependencies for users and network operators. Due to SWOT tool we have been able to describe strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats in each authentication scheme separately. The analysis performed mostly based on the state of art studies, SWOT tool itself approximates authentication schemes but in the discussion chapter we illustrated clearly what is necessary to adopt individually between Non SIM and SIM base authentication schemes. It will help MOBICOME project and network operators to choose the most appropriate authentication technology/ technologies for design and implementation.

  • 2047. Bulling, Andreas
    et al.
    Dachselt, Raimund
    Duchowski, Andrew T.
    Jacob, Robert J.
    Stellmach, Sophie
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Gaze Interaction in the Post-WIMP World2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With continuous progression away from desktop to post-WIMP applications, including multi-touch, gestural, or tangible interaction, there is high potential for eye gaze as a more natural human-computer interface in numerous contexts. Examples include attention-aware adaptations or the combination of gaze and hand gestures for interaction with distant displays. This SIG meeting provides a discussion venue for researchers and practitioners interested in gaze interaction in the post-WIMP era. We wish to draw attention to this emerging field and eventually formulate fundamental research questions. We will discuss the potential of gaze interaction for diverse application areas, interaction tasks, and multimodal user interface combinations. Our aims are to promote this research field, foster a larger research community, and establish the basis for a workshop at CHI 2013.

  • 2048.
    Bulusu, Santosh
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Sudia, Kalyan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    A Study on Cloud Computing Security Challenges2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Scientific computing in the 21st century has evolved from fixed to distributed work environment. The current trend of Cloud Computing (CC) allows accessing business applications from anywhere just by connecting to the Internet. Evidence shows that, switching to CC organizations' annual expenditure and maintenance are being reduced to a greater extent. However, there are several challenges that come along with various benefits of CC. Among these include security aspects. Objectives: This thesis aims to identify security challenges for adapting cloud computing and their solutions from real world for the challenge that do not have any proper mitigation strategies identified through literature review. For this the objective is to identify existing cloud computing security challenges and their solutions. Identify the challenges that have no mitigation strategies and gather solutions/guidelines/practices from practitioners, for a challenge with more references but no mitigation strategies identified (in literature). Methods: This study presents a literature review and a snowball sampling to identify CC security challenges and their solutions/mitigation strategies. The literature review is based on search in electronic databases and snowball sample is based on the primary studies searched and selected from electronic databases. Using the challenges and their solutions identified form literature review, challenges with no mitigation strategies are identified. From these identified challenges with no mitigation strategies, a challenge with more references is identified. The surveys are employed in the later stages to identify the mitigation strategies for this challenge. Finally the results from the survey are discussed in a narrative fashion. Results: 43 challenges and 89 solutions are identified from literature review using snowball sampling. In addition to these mitigation strategies few guidelines are also identified. The challenge with more (i.e., more articles mentioning the challenge) and no mitigation identified is incompatibility. The responses identified for the three insecure areas of incompatibility (i.e., interoperability, migration and IDM integration with CC) in cloud computing security are mostly guidelines/practices opined by experienced practitioners. Conclusions: This study identifies cloud computing security challenges and their solutions. Where these (challenges and solutions) are common to cloud computing applications and cannot be generalized to either service or deployment models (viz. SaaS, PaaS, IaaS, etc.). The study also identifies that there are methods guidelines/practices identified from practitioners) to provide secure interoperability, migration and integration of on-premise authentication systems with cloud applications, but these methods are developed by individuals (practitioners/organization) specific to their context. The study also identifies the non-existence of global standards for any of these operations (providing interoperability/migration/IDM integration with cloud). This identified non-existence of global standards and guidelines could be help academics to know the state of practice and formulate better methods/standards to provide secure interoperability. The identified cloud computing security challenges (43) and solutions (89), can be referred by practitioners to understand which areas of security need to be concentrated while adapting/migrating to a cloud computing environment.

  • 2049.
    Buneeva, Anna
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    Garajayev, Agshin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    Food retailing during economic downturn. In what way can marketing strategies be adapted to changing consumer’s behavior? Case study of Russian X5 Retail Group and Swedish the ICA Company2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Retailing is the considerable element of today economy. This sector was rapidly developing during past years. It was easy to make consumers spend their money because they wanted to spend money. Today consumers are no longer eager to spend as much as before. Therefore retail companies should find new ways to motivate customers to expend. The aim of this research is to define to which extent retailers suffered from economic downturn and to find out which marketing tools they implemented in order to adapt to new market conditions. In order to investigate the variety of possible scenarios, two countries were taken into consideration. Sweden as one of the most stable economies in the world and Russia as country with promising perspectives but unpredictable and risky environment. The goal of taking two countries for the survey was identifying common and diverse traits of changed retailing conditions and necessary measures to follow it. Qualitative method was chosen for current dissertation embodied by case study analysis of leading retail companies in both countries. Primary data from conducted interviews and secondary data from annual reports and statistical authorities were used for analysis. The findings showed that Russian retail was stricken by economic downturn much more than Swedish. Apart from it, customer’s behavior in Sweden did not change significantly as long as Russian consumers changed their store format preferences in favor of discounters. Despite difference revealed in this issues the common characteristics of successful post-recession marketing strategy were discovered. Low price is now the key element of successful retailer. Other elements of marketing strategies play only supportive role in struggle for consumer’s wallets.

  • 2050. Bunikis, Jonas
    et al.
    Garpmo, Ulf
    Tsao, J.
    Berglund, Johan
    Fish, Durland
    Barbour, AG
    Sequence typing reveals extensive strain diversity of the Lyme borreliosis agents Borrelia burgdorferi in North America and Borrelia afzelii in Europe.2004In: Microbiology, ISSN 1350-0872, E-ISSN 1465-2080, Vol. 150, no 6, p. 1741-1755Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The genetic polymorphism of Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia afzelii, two species that cause Lyme borreliosis, was estimated by sequence typing of four loci: the rrs-rrlA intergenic spacer (IGS) and the outer-membrane-protein gene p66 on the chromosome, and the outer-membrane-protein genes ospA and ospC on plasmids. The major sources of DNA for PCR amplification and sequencing were samples of the B. burgdorferi tick vector Ixodes scapularis, collected at a field site in an endemic region of the north-eastern United States, and the B. afzelii vector Ixodes ricinus, collected at a similar site in southern Sweden. The sequences were compared with those of reference strains and skin biopsy isolates, as well as database sequences. For B. burgdorferi, 10-13 alleles for each of the 4 loci, and a total of 9 distinct clonal lineages with linkage of all 4 loci, were found. For B. afzelii, 2 loci, ospC and IGS, were examined, and 11 IGS genotypes, 12 ospC alleles, and a total of 9 linkage groups were identified. The genetic variants of B. burgdorferi and B. afzelii among samples from the field sites accounted for the greater part of the genetic diversity previously reported from larger areas of the north-eastern United States and central and northern Europe. Although ospC alleles of both species had higher nucleotide diversity than other loci, the ospC locus showed evidence of intragenic recombination and was unsuitable for phylogenetic inference. In contrast, there was no detectable recombination at the IGS locus of B. burgdorferi. Moreover, beyond the signature nucleotides that specified 10 IGS genotypes, there were additional nucleotide polymorphisms that defined a total of 24 subtypes. Maximum-likelihood and parsimony cladograms of B. burgdorferi aligned IGS sequences revealed the subtype sequences to be terminal branches of clades, and the existence of at least three monophyletic lineages within B. burgdorferi. It is concluded that B. burgdorferi and B. afzelii have greater genetic diversity than had previously been estimated, and that the IGS locus alone is sufficient for strain typing and phylogenetic studies.

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