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  • 201.
    Borg, Markus
    et al.
    SICS Swedish ICT AB, SWE.
    Luis de la Vara, Jose
    Univ Carlos III Madrid, ESP.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Practitioners' Perspectives on Change Impact Analysis for Safety-Critical Software: A Preliminary Analysis2016In: COMPUTER SAFETY, RELIABILITY, AND SECURITY, SAFECOMP 2016, 2016, p. 346-358Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety standards prescribe change impact analysis (CIA) during evolution of safety-critical software systems. Although CIA is a fundamental activity, there is a lack of empirical studies about how it is performed in practice. We present a case study on CIA in the context of an evolving automation system, based on 14 interviews in Sweden and India. Our analysis suggests that engineers on average spend 50-100 h on CIA per year, but the effort varies considerably with the phases of projects. Also, the respondents presented different connotations to CIA and perceived the importance of CIA differently. We report the most pressing CIA challenges, and several ideas on how to support future CIA. However, we show that measuring the effect of such improvement solutions is non-trivial, as CIA is intertwined with other development activities. While this paper only reports preliminary results, our work contributes empirical insights into practical CIA.

  • 202.
    Borg, Markus
    et al.
    SICS Swedish ICT AB, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Regnell, Björn
    Lund University, SWE.
    Runeson, Per
    Lund University, SWE.
    Supporting Change Impact Analysis Using a Recommendation System: An Industrial Case Study in a Safety-Critical Context2017In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 43, no 7, p. 675-700Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract—Change Impact Analysis (CIA) during software evolution of safety-critical systems is a labor-intensive task. Severalauthors have proposed tool support for CIA, but very few tools were evaluated in industry. We present a case study on ImpRec, arecommendation System for Software Engineering (RSSE), tailored for CIA at a process automation company. ImpRec builds onassisted tracing, using information retrieval solutions and mining software repositories to recommend development artifacts, potentiallyimpacted when resolving incoming issue reports. In contrast to the majority of tools for automated CIA, ImpRec explicitly targetsdevelopment artifacts that are not source code. We evaluate ImpRec in a two-phase study. First, we measure the correctness ofImpRec’s recommendations by a simulation based on 12 years’ worth of issue reports in the company. Second, we assess the utilityof working with ImpRec by deploying the RSSE in two development teams on different continents. The results suggest that ImpRecpresents about 40 percent of the true impact among the top-10 recommendations. Furthermore, user log analysis indicates thatImpRec can support CIA in industry, and developers acknowledge the value of ImpRec in interviews. In conclusion, our findings showthe potential of reusing traceability associated with developers’ past activities in an RSSE

  • 203.
    Bouhennache, Rafik
    et al.
    Science and technology institute, university center of Mila, DZA.
    Bouden, Toufik
    ohammed Seddik Ben Yahia University of Jijel, DZA.
    Taleb-Ahmed, Abdmalik
    university of V alenciennes, FRA.
    Cheddad, Abbas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering. Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    A new spectral index for the extraction of built-up land features from Landsat 8 satellite imagery2018In: Geocarto International, ISSN 1010-6049, E-ISSN 1752-0762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extracting built-up areas from remote sensing data like Landsat 8 satellite is a challenge. We have investigated it by proposing a new index referred as Built-up Land Features Extraction Index (BLFEI). The BLFEI index takes advantage of its simplicity and good separability between the four major component of urban system, namely built-up, barren, vegetation and water. The histogram overlap method and the Spectral Discrimination Index (SDI) are used to study separability. BLFEI index uses the two bands of infrared shortwaves, the red and green bands of the visible spectrum. OLI imagery of Algiers, Algeria, was used to extract built-up areas through BLFEI and some new previously developed built-up indices used for comparison. The water areas are masked out leading to Otsu’s thresholding algorithm to automatically find the optimal value for extracting built-up land from waterless regions. BLFEI, the new index improved the separability by 25% and the accuracy by 5%.

  • 204.
    Bowin, Hampus
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Johansson, Daniel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Scalability of the Bitcoin and Nano protocols: a comparative analysis2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the past year cryptocurrencies have gained a lot of attention because of the increase in price. This attention has increased the number of people trading and investing in different cryptocurrencies which has lead to an increased number of transactions flowing through the different networks. This has revealed scalability issues in some of them, especially in the most popular cryptocurrency, Bitcoin. Many people are working on solutions to this problem. One proposed solution replaces the blockchain with a DAG structure. In this report the scalability of Bitcoin’s protocol will be compared to the scalability of the protocol used in the newer cryptocurrency, Nano. The comparison is conducted in terms of throughput and latency. To perform this comparison, an experiment was conducted where tests were run with an increasing number of nodes and each test sent different number of transactions per second from every node. Our results show that Nano’s protocol scales better regarding both throughput and latency, and we argue that the reason for this is that the Bitcoin protocol uses a blockchain as a global data-structure unlike Nano that uses a block-lattice structure where each node has their own local blockchain.

  • 205.
    BRAMAH-LAWANI, ALEX
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    REQUIREMENTS ELICITATION AND SPECIFICATION FOR HAPTIC INTERFACES FOR VISUALLY IMPAIRED USERS2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 206.
    Brask, Jessica
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Hedberg, Frida
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Recensera mig du kåta man2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this bachelor essay we´ve made an participant observation on a website where sexual services are for sale. This website contains a forum where sexbuyers and sexsellers discuss their thoughts about sex and purchase of sexual services. Sexbuyers often express themselves as victims because of their own extreme sexual cravings. They argue that as long as there is sexual services for sale, there is going to be a demand to buy them. We notice that there is an acceptance for sexbuyers to have an temporary sexual relation in exchange for money. We notice in our studies that these so called “intemperated horny men” tend to protect one another.We consider, in contrast to the sexbuyers, that as long as there is an existing “craving” for sexual services, the phenomenon of sexual trafficking will continue. Much because many victims of sexual trafficking are being sold as if it was by their own free will. Because of this, we will in this bachelor essay problematize sexual trafficking as a consequence of sexbuyers actions.We as mediaproducers would like to, through pictures, shed light on the consequences of sexual trafficking and at the same time emphasize this through provocative internet activism.

  • 207.
    Bredemo, Fredrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Hörbarhet i praktiken: En Actor Network analys av arbetet kring hörbarhet2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The television industry is a huge industry that is governed by a few big broadcasting networks. The biggest distributer and producer of television in Sweden is Sveriges Television (SVT) and everyone working with sound will, more likely than not, work for them in a project.

    In this study I’ve analyzed the results of two months of empirical work, I’ve identified the actors that make up the network “God hörbarhet” (good audibility) and the reason this is interesting is for determining a more solid definition for the term “good audibility”.

    I’ve then put this more solid definition up against SVT’s loose definition, this only to expand on their current system and delivery specifications.

  • 208.
    BRHANIE, BEKALU MULLU
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Multi-Label Classification Methods for Image Annotation2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 209. Brik, Bouziane
    et al.
    Lagraa, Nasreddine
    Abderrahmane, Lakas
    Cheddad, Abbas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    DDGP: Distributed Data Gathering Protocol for vehicular networks2016In: Vehicular Communications, ISSN 2214-2096, Vol. 4, p. 15-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANet) is an emerging research area, it offers a wide range of applications including safety, road traffic efficiency, and infotainment applications. Recently researchers are studying the possibility of making use of deployed VANet applications for data collection. In this case, vehicles are considered as mobile collectors that gather both real time and delay tolerant data and deliver them to interested entities. In this paper, we propose a novel Distributed Data Gathering Protocol (DDGP) for the collection of delay tolerant as well as real time data in both urban and highway environments. The main contribution of DDGP is a new medium access technique that enables vehicles to access the channel in a distributed way based on their location information. In addition, DDGP implements a new aggregation scheme, which deletes redundant, expired, and undesired data. We provide an analytical proof of correctness of DDGP, in addition to the performance evaluation through an extensive set of simulation experiments. Our results indicate that DDGP enhances the efficiency and the reliability of the data collection process by outperforming existing schemes in terms of several criteria such as delay and message overhead, aggregation ratio, and data retransmission rate. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 210. Brik, Bouziane
    et al.
    Lagraa, Nasreddine
    Lakas, Abderrahmane
    Cherroun, Hadda
    Cheddad, Abbas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    ECDGP: extended cluster-based data gathering protocol for vehicular networks2015In: Wireless Communications & Mobile Computing, ISSN 1530-8669, E-ISSN 1530-8677Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 211.
    Brisland, Karl
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Användarupplevelse på webben under skiftande tekniska förutsättningar: en fallstudie av ett implementationsprojekt2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport dokumenterar utvecklingen av en interaktiv tidslinje i webbformat, med högt ställda krav på utseende, funktion, visuella effekter samt konsekvent användarupplevelse på olika plattformar. Implementationen utfördes utifrån teoretiska riktlinjer som erhållits genom litteraturstudier och därefter värderades utfallet dels genom att bedöma dess efterlevnad av dessa riktlinjer och dels genom en användarstudie med ett flertal olika enheter. Resultaten från användarstudien användes sedan för att värdera den praktiska relevansen hos den teoretiska grunden. Slutprodukten utgörs av en välfungerande webbapplikation som, med vissa eftergifter, beter sig konsekvent på alla testade enheter och väl uppfyller de teoretiska rekommendationerna ur främst design- och prestandaperspektiv. Användartesten visade på vissa svagheter som åtgärdades i möjligaste mån samt avslöjade en mycket stark vilja bland användarna att själva kontrollera navigering och informationsinhämtning. Testen visade även att de identifierade riktlinjerna varit såväl värdefulla som användbara, inklusive hur användarstudien i sig skulle utföras. Projektet ledde fram till en väl underbyggd bästa praxis samt värdefulla insikter ifråga om användarbeteende och i synnerhet användandet av uppmärksamhetsfångande element i designen, samt utgjorde en tydlig demonstration av vilket stort mervärde som användartest kan medföra. Slutligen noteras att det på grund av tekniska begränsningar inte alltid går att uppnå fullständig konsekvens ifråga om användarupplevelse under skiftande förutsättningar.

  • 212.
    Britto, Ricardo
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Knowledge Classification for Supporting Effort Estimation in Global Software Engineering Projects2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Global Software Engineering (GSE) has become a widely applied operational model for the development of software systems; it can increase profits and decrease time-to-market. However, there are many challenges associated with development of software in a globally distributed fashion. There is evidence that these challenges affect many process related to software development, such as effort estimation. To the best of our knowledge, there are no empirical studies to gather evidence on effort estimation in the GSE context. In addition, there is no common terminology for classifying GSE scenarios focusing on effort estimation.

    Objective: The main objective of this thesis is to support effort estimation in the GSE context by providing a taxonomy to classify the existing knowledge in this field.

    Method: Systematic literature review (to identify and analyze the state of the art), survey (to identify and analyze the state of the practice), systematic mapping (to identify practices to design software engineering taxonomies), and literature survey (to complement the states of the art and practice) were the methods employed in this thesis.

    Results: The results on the states of the art and practice show that the effort estimation techniques employed in the GSE context are the same techniques used in the collocated context. It was also identified that global aspects, e.g. time, geographical and social-cultural distances, are accounted for as cost drivers, although it is not clear how they are measured. As a result of the conducted mapping study, we reported a method that can be used to design new SE taxonomies. The aforementioned results were combined to extend and specialize an existing GSE taxonomy, for suitability for effort estimation. The usage of the specialized GSE effort estimation taxonomy was illustrated by classifying 8 finished GSE projects. The results show that the specialized taxonomy proposed in this thesis is comprehensive enough to classify GSE projects focusing on effort estimation.

    Conclusions: The taxonomy presented in this thesis will help researchers and practitioners to report new research on effort estimation in the GSE context; researchers and practitioners will be able to gather evidence, com- pare new studies and find new gaps in an easier way. The findings from this thesis show that more research must be conducted on effort estimation in the GSE context. For example, the way the cost drivers are measured should be further investigated. It is also necessary to conduct further research to clarify the role and impact of sourcing strategies on the effort estimates’ accuracies. Finally, we believe that it is possible to design an instrument based on the specialized GSE effort estimation taxonomy that helps practitioners to perform the effort estimation process in a way tailored for the specific needs of the GSE context.

  • 213.
    Britto, Ricardo
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Strategizing and Evaluating the Onboarding of Software Developers in Large-Scale Globally Distributed Legacy Projects2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Recruitment and onboarding of software developers are essential steps in software development undertakings. The need for adding new people is often associated with large-scale long-living projects and globally distributed projects. The formers are challenging because they may contain large amounts of legacy (and often complex) code (legacy projects). The latters are challenging, because the inability to find sufficient resources in-house may lead to onboarding people at a distance, and often in many distinct sites. While onboarding is of great importance for companies, there is little research about the challenges and implications associated with onboarding software developers and teams in large-scale globally distributed projects with large amounts of legacy code. Furthermore, no study has proposed any systematic approaches to support the design of onboarding strategies and evaluation of onboarding results in the aforementioned context.

    Objective: The aim of this thesis is two-fold: i) identify the challenges and implications associated with onboarding software developers and teams in large-scale globally distributed legacy projects; and ii) propose solutions to support the design of onboarding strategies and evaluation of onboarding results in large-scale globally distributed legacy projects.

    Method: In this thesis, we employed literature review, case study, and business process modeling. The main case investigated in this thesis is the development of a legacy telecommunication software product in Ericsson.

    Results: The results show that the performance (productivity, autonomy, and lead time) of new developers/teams onboarded in remote locations in large-scale distributed legacy projects is much lower than the performance of mature teams. This suggests that new teams have a considerable performance gap to overcome. Furthermore, we learned that onboarding problems can be amplified by the following challenges: the complexity of the product and technology stack, distance to the main source of product knowledge, lack of team stability, training expectation misalignment, and lack of formalism and control over onboarding strategies employed in different sites of globally distributed projects. To help companies addressing the challenges we identified in this thesis, we propose a process to support the design of onboarding strategies and the evaluation of onboarding results.

    Conclusions: The results show that scale, distribution and complex legacy code may make onboarding more difficult and demand longer periods of time for new developers and teams to achieve high performance. This means that onboarding in large-scale globally distributed legacy projects must be planned well ahead and companies must be prepared to provide extended periods of mentoring by expensive and scarce resources, such as software architects. Failure to foresee and plan such resources may result in effort estimates on one hand, and unavailability of mentors on another, if not planned in advance. The process put forward herein can help companies to deal with the aforementioned problems through more systematic, effective and repeatable onboarding strategies.

  • 214.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Cruzes, Daniella
    SINTEF Digital, NOR.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Šāblis, Aivars
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Onboarding Software Developers and Teams in Three Globally Distributed Legacy Projects: A Multi-Case Study2018In: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 30, no 4, article id e1921Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Onboarding is the process of supporting new employees regarding their social and performance adjustment to their new job. Software companies have faced challenges with recruitment and onboarding of new team members and there is no study that investigates it in a holistic way. In this paper, we conducted a multi-case study to investigate the onboarding of software developers/teams, associated challenges, and areas for further improvement in three globally distributed legacy projects. We employed Bauer's model for onboarding to identify the current state of the onboarding strategies employed in each case. We learned that the employed strategies are semi-formalized. Besides, in projects with multiple sites, some functions are executed locally and the onboarding outcomes may be hard to control. We also learned that onboarding in legacy projects is especially challenging and that decisions to distribute such projects across multiple locations shall be approached carefully. In our cases, the challenges to learn legacy code were further amplified by the project scale and the distance to the original sources of knowledge. Finally, we identified practices that can be used by companies to increase the chances of being successful when onboarding software developers and teams in globally distributed legacy projects.

  • 215.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Freitas, Vitor
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Usman, Muhammad
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Effort Estimation in Global Software Development: A systematic Literature Review2014In: Proceedings of the 2014 9th IEEE International Conference on Global Software Engineering, 2014, p. 135-144Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, software systems are a key factor in the success of many organizations as in most cases they play a central role helping them attain a competitive advantage. However, despite their importance, software systems may be quite costly to develop, so substantially decreasing companies’ profits. In order to tackle this challenge, many organizations look for ways to decrease costs and increase profits by applying new software development approaches, like Global Software Development (GSD). Some aspects of the software project like communication, cooperation and coordination are more chal- lenging in globally distributed than in co-located projects, since language, cultural and time zone differences are factors which can increase the required effort to globally perform a software project. Communication, coordination and cooperation aspects affect directly the effort estimation of a project, which is one of the critical tasks related to the management of a software development project. There are many studies related to effort estimation methods/techniques for co-located projects. However, there are evidences that the co-located approaches do not fit to GSD. So, this paper presents the results of a systematic literature review of effort estimation in the context of GSD, which aimed at help both researchers and practitioners to have a holistic view about the current state of the art regarding effort estimation in the context of GSD. The results suggest that there is room to improve the current state of the art on effort estimation in GSD. 

  • 216.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    An Empirical Investigation on Effort Estimation in Agile Global Software Development2015In: Proceedings of the 2015 IEEE 10th International Conference on Global Software Engineering, 2015, p. 38-45Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effort estimation is a project management activity that is mandatory for the execution of softwareprojects. Despite its importance, there have been just a few studies published on such activities within the Agile Global Software Development (AGSD) context. Their aggregated results were recently published as part of a secondary study that reported the state of the art on effort estimationin AGSD. This study aims to complement the above-mentioned secondary study by means of anempirical investigation on the state of the practice on effort estimation in AGSD. To do so, a survey was carried out using as instrument an on-line questionnaire and a sample comprising softwarepractitioners experienced in effort estimation within the AGSD context. Results show that the effortestimation techniques used within the AGSD and collocated contexts remained unchanged, with planning poker being the one employed the most. Sourcing strategies were found to have no or a small influence upon the choice of estimation techniques. With regard to effort predictors, globalchallenges such as cultural and time zone differences were reported, in addition to factors that are commonly considered in the collocated context, such as team experience. Finally, many challenges that impact the accuracy of the effort estimates were reported by the respondents, such as problems with the software requirements and the fact that the communication effort between sites is not properly accounted.

  • 217.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    A Specialized Global Software Engineering Taxonomy for Effort Estimation2016In: International Conference on Global Software Engineering, IEEE Computer Society, 2016, p. 154-163Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To facilitate the sharing and combination of knowledge by Global Software Engineering (GSE) researchers and practitioners, the need for a common terminology and knowledge classification scheme has been identified, and as a consequence, a taxonomy and an extension were proposed. In addition, one systematic literature review and a survey on respectively the state of the art and practice of effort estimation in GSE were conducted, showing that despite its importance in practice, the GSE effort estimation literature is rare and reported in an ad-hoc way. Therefore, this paper proposes a specialized GSE taxonomy for effort estimation, which was built on the recently proposed general GSE taxonomy (including the extension) and was also based on the findings from two empirical studies and expert knowledge. The specialized taxonomy was validated using data from eight finished GSE projects. Our effort estimation taxonomy for GSE can help both researchers and practitioners by supporting the reporting of new GSE effort estimation studies, i.e. new studies are to be easier to identify, compare, aggregate and synthesize. Further, it can also help practitioners by providing them with an initial set of factors that can be considered when estimating effort for GSE projects.

  • 218.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Usman, Muhammad
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Bloom's taxonomy in software engineering education: A systematic mapping study2015In: Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE), 2015, IEEE Communications Society, 2015, p. 392-399Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Designing and assessing learning outcomes could be a challenging activity for any SoftwareEngineering (SE) educator. To support the process of designing and assessing SE courses, educators have been applied the cognitive domain of Bloom's taxonomy. However, to the best of our knowledge, the evidence on the usage of Bloom's taxonomy in SE higher education has not yet been systematically aggregated or reviewed. Therefore, in this paper we report the state of the art on the usage of Bloom's taxonomy in SE education, identified by conducted a systematic mapping study. As a result of the performed systematic mapping study, 26 studies were deemed as relevant. The main findings from these studies are: i) Bloom's taxonomy has mostly been applied at undergraduate level for both design and assessment of software engineering courses; ii) software construction is the leading SE subarea in which Bloom's taxonomy has been applied. The results clearly point out the usefulness of Bloom's taxonomy in the SE education context. We intend to use the results from this systematic mapping study to develop a set of guidelines to support the usage of Bloom's taxonomycognitive levels to design and assess SE courses.

  • 219.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Usman, Muhammad
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    A TAXONOMY OF WEB EFFORT PREDICTORS2017In: Journal of Web Engineering, ISSN 1540-9589, E-ISSN 1544-5976, Vol. 16, no 7-8, p. 541-570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Web engineering as a field has emerged to address challenges associated with developing Web applications. It is known that the development of Web applications differs from the development of non-Web applications, especially regarding some aspects such as Web size metrics. The classification of existing Web engineering knowledge would be beneficial for both practitioners and researchers in many different ways, such as finding research gaps and supporting decision making. In the context of Web effort estimation, a taxonomy was proposed to classify the existing size metrics, and more recently a systematic literature review was conducted to identify aspects related to Web resource/effort estimation. However, there is no study that classifies Web predictors (both size metrics and cost drivers). The main objective of this study is to organize the body of knowledge on Web effort predictors by designing and using a taxonomy, aiming at supporting both research and practice in Web effort estimation. To design our taxonomy, we used a recently proposed taxonomy design method. As input, we used the results of a previously conducted systematic literature review (updated in this study), an existing taxonomy of Web size metrics and expert knowledge. We identified 165 unique Web effort predictors from a final set of 98 primary studies; they were used as one of the basis to design our hierarchical taxonomy. The taxonomy has three levels, organized into 13 categories. We demonstrated the utility of the taxonomy and body of knowledge by using examples. The proposed taxonomy can be beneficial in the following ways: i) It can help to identify research gaps and some literature of interest and ii) it can support the selection of predictors for Web effort estimation. We also intend to extend the taxonomy presented to also include effort estimation techniques and accuracy metrics.

  • 220.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Usman, Muhammad
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Effort Estimation in Agile Global Software Development Context2014In: Agile Methods. Large-Scale Development, Refactoring, Testing, and Estimation: XP 2014 International Workshops, Rome, Italy, May 26-30, 2014, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, 2014, Vol. 199, p. 182-192Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both Agile Software Development (ASD) and Global Software Development (GSD) are 21st century trends in the software industry. Many studies are reported in the literature wherein software companies have applied an agile method or practice GSD. Given that effort estimation plays a remarkable role in software project management, how do companies perform effort estimation when they use agile method in a GSD context? Based on two effort estimation Systematic Literature Reviews (SLR) - one in within the ASD context and the other in a GSD context, this paper reports a study in which we combined the results of these SLRs to report the state of the art of effort estimation in agile global software development (ASD) context.

  • 221.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Usman, Muhammad
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Minhas, Nasir Mehmood
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    A quasi-experiment to evaluate the impact of mental fatigue on study selection process2017In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Association for Computing Machinery , 2017, p. 264-269Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Existing empirical evidence indicates that loss of alertness associated with mental fatigue is highly correlated with fluctuations in the performance of people carrying out auditory tasks. In software engineering research, mental fatigue may affect the results of study selection (an auditory task) when conducting secondary studies such as systematic literature reviews or systematic mapping studies. However, to date there is no empirical study that reports an in-depth investigation about the relationship between mental fatigue and researchers' selection decisions during study selection process. Objective: The main objective of this paper is to report the design and preliminary results of an investigation about the impact of mental fatigue on the study selection process of secondary studies. Method: We designed and piloted a quasi-experiment. Results: The preliminary results do not indicate that mental fatigue negatively impacts the correctness of selection decision and confidence. However, it is important to note that the preliminary results are only based on six subjects. Conclusion: This paper brings awareness about the role of mental fatigue in the conduction of secondary studies. Although the preliminary results do not indicate any meaningful relationship, we believe that it is worthwhile to continue the research, by adding more subjects, and also revising the design of the reported quasi-experiment. © 2017 ACM.

  • 222.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    An Extended Global Software Engineering Taxonomy2016In: Journal of Software Engineering Research and Development, ISSN 2195-1721, Vol. 4, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Global Software Engineering (GSE), the need for a common terminology and knowledge classification has been identified to facilitate the sharing and combination of knowledge by GSE researchers and practitioners. A GSE taxonomy was recently proposed to address such a need, focusing on a core set of dimensions; however its dimensions do not represent an exhaustive list of relevant GSE factors. Therefore, this study extends the existing taxonomy, incorporating new GSE dimensions that were identified by means of two empirical studies conducted recently.

  • 223.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Damm, Lars-Ola
    Ericsson, SWE.
    Software Architects in Large-Scale Distributed Projects: An Ericsson Case Study2016In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 48-55, article id 7725230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software architects are key assets for successful development projects. However, not much research has investigated the challenges they face in large-scale distributed projects. So, researchers investigated how architects at Ericsson were organized, their roles and responsibilities, and the effort they spent guarding and governing a large-scale legacy product developed by teams at multiple locations. Despite recent trends such as microservices and agile development, Ericsson had to follow a more centralized approach to deal with the challenges of scale, distribution, and monolithic architecture of a legacy software product. So, the architectural decisions were centralized to a team of architects. The team extensively used code reviews to not only check the code's state but also reveal defects that could turn into maintainability problems. The study results also suggest that the effort architects spend designing architecture, guarding its integrity and evolvability, and mentoring development teams is directly related to team maturity. In addition, significant investment is needed whenever new teams and locations are onboarded.

  • 224.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering. Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Lars-Ola, Damm
    Ericsson, SWE.
    Experiences from Measuring Learning and Performance in Large-Scale Distributed Software Development2016In: Proceedings of the 10th ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement, ACM Digital Library, 2016, article id 17Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Developers and development teams in large-scale software development are often required to learn continuously. Organizations also face the need to train and support new developers and teams on-boarded in ongoing projects. Although learning is associated with performance improvements, experience shows that training and learning does not always result in a better performance or significant improvements might take too long.

    Aims: In this paper, we report our experiences from establishing an approach to measure learning results and associated performance impact for developers and teams in Ericsson.

    Method: Experiences reported herein are a part of an exploratory case study of an on-going large-scale distributed project in Ericsson. The data collected for our measurements included archival data and expert knowledge acquired through both unstructured and semi-structured interviews. While performing the measurements, we faced a number of challenges, documented in the form of lessons learned.

    Results: We aggregated our experience in eight lessons learned related to collection, preparation and analysis of data for further measurement of learning potential and performance in large-scale distributed software development.

    Conclusions: Measuring learning and performance is a challenging task. Major problems were related to data inconsistencies caused by, among other factors, distributed nature of the project. We believe that the documented experiences shared herein can help other researchers and practitioners to perform similar measurements and overcome the challenges of large-scale distributed software projects, as well as proactively address these challenges when establishing project measurement programs.

  • 225.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Lars-Ola, Damm
    Ericsson, SWE.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Learning and Performance Evolution of Immature Remote Teams in Large-ScaleSoftware Projects: An Industrial Case StudyIn: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Large-scale distributed software projects with long life cycles often involve a considerable amount ofcomplex legacy code. The combination of scale and distribution challenges, and the diculty to acquire knowledgeabout large amounts of complex legacy code may make the onboarding of new developers/teams problematic. Thismay lead to extended periods of low performance.Objective: The main objective of this paper is to analyze the learning processes and performance evolutions (teamproductivity and team autonomy) of remote software development teams added late to a large-scale legacy softwareproduct development, and to propose recommendations to support the learning of remote teams.Method: We conducted a case study in Ericsson, collecting data through archival research, semi-structured interviews,and workshops. We analyzed the collected data using descriptive, inferential and graphical statistics and softqualitative analysis.Results: The results show that the productivity and autonomy of immature remote teams are on average 3.67 and2.27 times lower than the ones of mature teams, respectively. Furthermore, their performance had a steady increaseduring almost the entire first year and dropped (productivity) or got stagnated (autonomy) for a great part of the secondyear. In addition to these results, we also identified four challenges that aected the learning process and performanceevolution of immature remote teams: complexity of the product and technology stack, distance to the main source ofproduct knowledge, lack of team stability, and training expectation misalignment.Conclusion: The results indicate that scale, distribution and complex legacy code may make learning more dicultand demand a long period to achieve high performance. To support the learning of remote teams, we put forward fiverecommendations. We believe that our quantitative analysis, as well as the identified factors and recommendationscan help other companies to onboard new remote teams in large-scale legacy product development projects.

  • 226.
    Brodd, Adam
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Eriksson, Andreas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    User perception on procedurally generated cities affected with a heightmapped terrain parameter2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Procedural content generation shortened PCG is a way of letting the computer algorithmically generate data, with little input from programmers. Procedural content generation is a useful tool for developers to create game worlds, content and much more, which can be tedious and time-consuming to do by hand.Objectives: The procedural generation of both a city and height-mapped terrain parameter using Perlin noise and the terrain parameters effect on the city is explored in this thesis. The objective is to find out if a procedurally generated city with a heightmap parameter using Perlin noise is viable for use in games. Methods: An implementation generating both a height-mapped terrain parameter and city using Perlin noise has been created, along with that a user survey to test the generated city and terrain parameters viability in games. Results: This work successfully implemented an application that can generate cities affected with a heightmapped terrain parameter that is viable for use in games. Conclusions: This work concludes that it is possible to generate cities affected with a height-mapped terrain parameter by utilizing the noise algorithm Perlin noise. The generated cities and terrains are both viable and believable for use in games.

  • 227.
    Brodén, Alexander
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Pihl Bohlin, Gustav
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Towards Real-Time NavMesh Generation Using GPU Accelerated Scene Voxelization2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Producing NavMeshes for pathfinding in computer games is a time-consuming process. Recast and Detour is a pair of stateof-the-art libraries that allows automation of NavMesh generation. It builds on a technique called Scene Voxelization, where triangle geometry is converted to voxels in heightfields. The algorithm is expensive in terms of execution time. A fast voxelization algorithm could be useful in real-time applications where geometry is dynamic. In recent years, voxelization implementations on the GPU have been shown to outperform CPU implementations in certain configurations.

    Objectives. The objective of this thesis is to find a GPU-based alternative to Recast’s voxelization algorithm, and determine when the GPU-based solution is faster than the reference. Methods. This thesis proposes a GPU-based alternative to Recast’s voxelization algorithm, designed to be an interchangeable step in Recast’s pipeline, in a real-time application where geometry is dynamic. Experiments were conducted to show how accurately the algorithm generates heightfields, how fast the execution time is in certain con- figurations, and how the algorithm scales with different sets of input data.

    Results. The proposed algorithm, when run on an AMD Radeon RX 480 GPU, was shown to be both accurate and fast in certain configurations. At low voxelfield resolutions, it outperformed the reference algorithm on typical Recast reference models. The biggest performance gain was shown when the input contained large numbers of small triangles. The algorithm performs poorly when the input data has triangles that are big in relation to the size of the voxels, and an optional optimization was presented to address this issue. Another optimization was presented that further increases performance gain when many instances of the same mesh are voxelized.

    Conclusions. The objectives of the thesis were met. A fast, GPUbased algorithm for voxelization in Recast was presented, and conclusions about when it can outperform the reference algorithm were drawn. Possibilities for even greater performance gains were identified for future research.

  • 228.
    Bron, Mikael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Communication Systems.
    Hantering av fysiska säkerhetsrisker – en kunskapsöversikt2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The competence to manage risks related to health, security, fire and safety is a sought-after skill.This is especially noticeable in both business and public administration job postings for therecruitment process of managers, administrators or coordinators to security departments. At thesame time there is little specialist literature available in Swedish on the subject of risk managementin the context of protecting assets and people from physical security threats. The lack of literatureaffects the study of risk management from a physical and procedural security perspective,particularly at an academic level where this is a relatively new topic. To move forward and expandthe field of knowledge is an important step, not only for the scientific community but also for theindustry. This bachelor thesis attempts to be an initial but significant contribution to a topic thatis likely to grow. By mapping what has already been published on the subject in English as wellas summing up and analyzing the scientific knowledge from similar disciplines the thesis has alsohad an additional goal: to reach out with knowledge to those dealing with risk management inpractice, and thus raising their awareness and developing their professional skills.The purpose of this study is to present the current state of knowledge and at the same time toshow the width and depth of the risk management process. This is done by identifying similaritiesand differences in definitions, process descriptions, problems and best practice of the studied areaswhile at the same time account for any criticism offered against risk management as a concept.The results show that there are more similarities than differences in the risk management processand methods regardless of whether the purpose is to protect people and assets from healthhazards, crime, fire or accidents.The paper has been conducted as a descriptive literature study and a comparative textual analysis.The risk management process has been described with reference to the generic ISO standard(31000:2009, Risk management - Principles and guidelines). Also, ten common risk analysismethods that cover all steps in the risk assessment process have been described. The narrative andrelated analysis follow the same order as the ISO-standard process description.The material has been supplemented and compared with guidelines and scientific papers from threetypes of risks management contexts: (1) health hazards, (2) fire and safety, and (3) security.The paper also provides examples of the inconsistent use of terms and definitions both between andwithin different disciplines involved in risk management. One of the conclusions of the report is thatcreating a unified, universal terminology to be used in the security context probably is impossibleas well as being not necessary. Instead, certain terminological misunderstandings can be avoided byproviding clear definitions and explanations of their meaning in each particular case.

  • 229.
    Brozovic, Martin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Communication Systems.
    ON EFFICIENT AUTOMATED METHODS FOR SIMULATION OUTPUT DATA ANALYSIS2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the increase in computing power and software engineering in the past years computer based stochastic discrete-event simulations have become very commonly used tool to evaluate performance of various, complex stochastic systems (such as telecommunication networks). It is used if analytical methods are too complex to solve, or cannot be used at all. Stochastic simulation has also become a tool, which is often used instead of experimentation in order to save money and time by the researchers. In this thesis, we focus on the statistical correctness of the final estimated results in the context of steady-state simulations performed for the mean analysis of performance measures of stable stochastic processes. Due to various approximations the final experimental coverage can differ greatly from the assumed theoretical level, where the final confidence intervals cover the theoretical mean at much lower frequency than it was expected by the preset theoretical confidence level. We present the results of coverage analysis for the methods of dynamic partially-overlapping batch means, spectral analysis and mean squared error optimal dynamic partially-overlapping batch means. The results show that the variants of dynamic partially-overlapping batch means, that we propose as their modification under Akaroa2, perform acceptably well for the queueing processes, but perform very badly for auto-regressive process. We compare the results of modified mean squared error optimal dynamic partially-overlapping batch means method to the spectral analysis and show that the methods perform equally well.

  • 230. Buchinger, Shelley
    et al.
    Lopes, Rui J.
    Jumisko-Pyykkö, Satu
    Zepernick, Hans-Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Communication Systems.
    Advances in tools, techniques and practices for multimedia QoE2015In: Multimedia tools and applications, ISSN 1380-7501, E-ISSN 1573-7721Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been realized that the success of multimedia services or applications relies on the analysis of the entire user experience (UX). The relevance of this paradigm ranges from Internet protocol television to video-on-demand systems for distributing and sharing professional television (TV) and user-generated content that is consumed and produced ubiquitously. To obtain a pleasurable user experience, a large amount of aspects have to be taken into account. Major challenges in this context include the identification of relevant UX factors and the quantification of their influence on Quality of Experience (QoE). This special issue is dedicated to advances in, tools, techniques and practices for multimedia QoE that tackle several of the aforementioned challenges.

  • 231.
    Budda, Shiva Tarun
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Performance Analysis of Proxy based Encrypted communication in IoT environments: Security and Privacy ~ Distributed Systems Security2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 232. Bulling, Andreas
    et al.
    Dachselt, Raimund
    Duchowski, Andrew T.
    Jacob, Robert J.
    Stellmach, Sophie
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Gaze Interaction in the Post-WIMP World2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With continuous progression away from desktop to post-WIMP applications, including multi-touch, gestural, or tangible interaction, there is high potential for eye gaze as a more natural human-computer interface in numerous contexts. Examples include attention-aware adaptations or the combination of gaze and hand gestures for interaction with distant displays. This SIG meeting provides a discussion venue for researchers and practitioners interested in gaze interaction in the post-WIMP era. We wish to draw attention to this emerging field and eventually formulate fundamental research questions. We will discuss the potential of gaze interaction for diverse application areas, interaction tasks, and multimodal user interface combinations. Our aims are to promote this research field, foster a larger research community, and establish the basis for a workshop at CHI 2013.

  • 233.
    Bunyakitanon, Monchai
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Communication Systems.
    Peng, Mengyuan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Communication Systems.
    Performance Measurement of Live Migration Algorithms2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis involves the area of virtualization. We have studied about improving load balancing in data center by using automated live migration techniques. The main idea is to migrate virtual machine(s) automatically from high loaded hosts to less loaded hosts with efficiency. The successful implementation can help administrator of data center maintain a load-balanced environment with less effort than before. For example, such a system can automatically identify hotspots and coldspots in a large data center and also decide which virtual machine to migrate, and which host should the machine be migrated to. We have implemented previously developed Push and Pull strategies on a real testbed for Xen and KVM. A new strategy, Hybrid, which is the combination of Push and Pull, has been created. All scripts applied in the experiments are Python-based for further integration to the orchestration framework OpenStack. By implementing the algorithms on a real testbed, we have solved a node failure problem in the algorithms, which was not detected previously through simulation. The results from simulation and those from testbed are similar. E.g. Push strategy has quick responses when the load is medium to high, while Pull strategy has quick responses when the load is low to medium. The Hybrid strategy behaves similar to Push strategy with high load and to Pull strategy with low load, but with greater number of migration attempts, and it responds quickly regardless to the load. The results also show that our strategies are able to handle different incidents such as burst, drain, or fluctuation of load over time. The comparison of results from different hypervisors, i.e., Xen and KVM, shows that both hypervisors conduct in the same way when applying same strategies in the same environment. It means the strategies are valid for both of them. Xen seems to be faster in improving the System performance. The migration attempts are similar, but KVM has much less Migrations over time than Xen with same scenario.

  • 234.
    Burke, Clive
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Communication Systems.
    Implementation and Evaluation of Virtual Network Functions Performance in the Home Environment2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 235.
    Byanyuma, Mastidia
    et al.
    Neslon Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, TZA.
    Zaipuna, Yonah
    Neslon Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, TZA.
    Simba, Fatuma
    University of Dar es Salaam, TZA.
    Trojer, Lena
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Utilization of Broadband Connectivity in Rural and Urban-Underserved Areas: The case of Selected Areas in Arusha-Tanzania2018In: International Journal of Computing and Digital Systems, E-ISSN 2210-142X, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 75-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Utilization is a key aspect in the management of any societal resource not only when it is scarce but in all cases to allow for optimum benefits to be accrued to everyone in the society. Internet bandwidth, which is a rare commodity especially in rural areas is hardly available where needed at the same cost and quality due to various reasons. Tanzania as a case study is among countries that have invested much in international, national and metro backbone networks, but still, there are areas without or with inadequate internet access services implying a significant utilization problem. In this paper, we present as a case study, the status of broadband connectivity in selected rural areas in Tanzania (Arusha) and the status is used to make recommendations for optimized utilization of installed capacity.

  • 236.
    Byman, Emelie
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Catovic, Lejla
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Saleh, Wafa
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Vattnets möte med land: Hur kan man uppmärksamma hållbarhet i ett fysiskt rum.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With this bachelor thesis we want to raise awareness and to convey sustainability, with a focus on consumption and plastic littering in the sea. This bachelor thesis will result in a design that will be in a physical room. The physical room is a breakroom and is located in the Naval museum in Karlskrona, which is also our external partner. We believe that it is important to write about consumption and plastic littering in the sea because it has a devastating impact on humanity and our planet. The design that this bachelor thesis will produce will be supported by the design perspective X for Change. Methods and idea generating methods that helped our work move forward are brainstorming, moodboard, mindmaps and prototypes. We chose these methods because we consider that it could provide the greatest possible potential for the work.

    In the end we have a design created through many different decisions and selection. We use a technique called double exposure 3d which we placed on one of the walls of the room. Double exposure 3d is that with the help of a pair of “old” 3d glasses, which has a blue and red side, can filter out different color channels which then results in two different images, which at the same time is a whole. We made two illustrations of plastic littering where one is put on the red side and the other on the blue side. This is to represent today and how the future will look like if we continue with our unsustainable consumption and littering. The illustration is fictional and is only a representation of how the world could look in the future. The wall will also be supported by informative posters, including suggestions on what an individual can contribute with.

  • 237.
    Bäck, Oscar
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Andersson, Niklas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Google AMP and what it can do for mobile applications in terms of rendering speed and user-experience2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    On today’s web, a web page needs to load fast and have a great user experiencein order to be successful. The faster the better. A server side rendered webpage can have a prominent initial load speed while a client side rendered webpage will have a great interactive user experience. When combining the two,some users with a bad internet connection or a slow device could receive a pooruser experience. A new technology called Amplified Mobile Pages (AMP) wascreated by Google to help combat this issue.The authors of this report gives an answer to if Google AMP could maintain theuser experience while still contributing with a fast initial load speed for applica-tions. To do this, we conducted an experiment through creating a Google AMPapplication and compared it to another application using a different renderingengine called Pug. We have also measured the metrics: page load time, speedindex and application size between the two applications. To fully understandthe AMP format, the authors conducted a literature study, to further strengthentheir findings.Google AMP is a great technology but it can still grow to become better. Theformat could increase the speed of a website, however the same result could beachieved without AMP if focus was set on writing a fast application. From theexperiment, the authors concluded that Google AMP takes a great time to learnbecause of its own version of JavaScript through modules. The format also hasa different structure than standard HTML. From the tests, a smaller applica-tion does not favor the implementation of AMP. We did however derive fromthe experiment and the literature study that bigger applications could benefitfrom the perks of AMP and could therefor be a potential choice for old and newapplications.

  • 238.
    Bäckström, Ola
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Från rigg till sändning: En studie i ljudproduktionsflöde på SVT2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstrakt Detta arbete har ljudproducenten i fokus. Det undersöker och tar fram verktyg som du som ljudproducent kan använda dig av för att öppna upp för ett större kreativt utrymme i en produktion. Undersökningen tar också upp och bearbetar en problematik kring ljudproduktion, nämligen den att ljud, generellt sett, ofta underprioriteras och inte ägnas lika stort allvar som övriga sektioner i en produktion. Arbetet har SVT (Sveriges Television) i fokus och hur ljudproduktionen ser ut där. Undersökningen tar fram olika teorier framtagna ur tidigare forskning och tillämpar dem i olika produktioner på Sveriges SVT. Abstract The focus of this thesis is the sound producer. It examines and produces tools that you, as a sound producer, can use to open up for a larger creative space in a production. The research also discuss the problem with sound production, namely that sound, generally speaking, is often under prioritized and is not given the same seriousness as the other sections in the production. The thesis has SVT (Sweden's television) in focus and how their sound production looks like. It uses different theories taken from earlier research and practices them on different productions at SVT.

  • 239.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Caspersen, Michael E.
    Nordström, Marie
    Beauty and the Beast: on the readability of object-oriented example programs2016In: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 231-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some solutions to a programming problem are more elegant or more simple than others and thus more understandable for students. We review desirable properties of example programs from a cognitive and a measurement point of view. Certain cognitive aspects of example programs are captured by common software measures, but they are not sufficient to capture a key aspect of understandability: readability. We propose and discuss a simple readability measure for software, SRES, and apply it to object-oriented textbook examples. Our results show that readability measures correlate well with human perceptions of quality. Compared with other readability measures, SRES is less sensitive to commenting and white-space. These results also have implications for software maintainability measures.

  • 240.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Hilburn, Thomas B.
    Team Projects in Computing Education2015In: ACM Transactions on Computing Education, ISSN 1946-6226, E-ISSN 1946-6226, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 16:1-16:4, article id 16Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Team projects are a way to expose students to conflicting project objectives, and "[t]here should be a strong real-world element … to ensure that the experience is realistic" [ACM/IEEE-CS 2015b]. Team projects provide students an opportunity to put their education into practice and prepare them for their professional careers. The aim of this special issue is to collect and share evidence about the state-of-practice of team projects in computing education and to help educators in designing and running team projects. From a record number of 69 submitted abstracts, 19 were invited to submit a full paper. Finally, nine papers were accepted for publication in this and a subsequent issue. The articles presented in the present issue cover the following topics: real projects for real clients, open source projects, multidisciplinary team projects, student and team assessment, and cognitive and psychological aspects of team projects.

  • 241.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Hilburn, Thomas B.
    Team Projects in Computing Education II2016In: ACM Transactions on Computing Education, ISSN 1946-6226, E-ISSN 1946-6226, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 4:1-4:4, article id 4Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Team projects are a way to expose students to conflicting project objectives, and "[t]here should be a strong real-world element … to ensure that the experience is realistic" [ACM/IEEE-CS 2015b]. Team projects provide students an opportunity to put their education into practice and prepare them for their professional careers. The aim of this special issue is to collect and share evidence about the state-of-practice of team projects in computing education and to help educators in designing and running team projects. From a record number of 69 submitted abstracts, 19 were invited to submit a full paper. Finally, nine papers were accepted for publication in this and a subsequent issue. The articles presented in the present issue cover the following topics: real projects for real clients, open source projects, multidisciplinary team projects, student and team assessment, and cognitive and psychological aspects of team projects.

  • 242.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Paech, Barbara
    The Role of Method Chains and Comments in Software Readability and Comprehension – An Experiment2016In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 42, no 9, p. 886-898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software readability and comprehension are important factors in software maintenance. There is a large body of research on software measurement, but the actual factors that make software easier to read or easier to comprehend are not well understood. In the present study, we investigate the role of method chains and code comments in software readability and comprehension. Our analysis comprises data from 104 students with varying programming experience. Readability and comprehension were measured by perceived readability, reading time and performance on a simple cloze test. Regarding perceived readability, our results show statistically significant differences between comment variants, but not between method chain variants. Regarding comprehension, there are no significant differences between method chain or comment variants. Student groups with low and high experience, respectively, show significant differences in perceived readability and performance on the cloze tests. Our results do not show any significant relationships between perceived readability and the other measures taken in the present study. Perceived readability might therefore be insufficient as the sole measure of software readability or comprehension. We also did not find any statistically significant relationships between size and perceived readability, reading time and comprehension.

  • 243.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Störrle, Harald
    QAware GmbH, DEU.
    Toll, Daniel
    Linné University, SWE.
    van Assema, Jelle
    University of Amsterdam, NLD.
    Duran, Rodrigo
    Aalto University, FIN.
    Hooshangi, Sara
    George Washington University, USA.
    Jeuring, Johan
    Utrecht University, NLD.
    Keuning, Hieke
    Windesheim University of Applied Sciences, NLD.
    Kleiner, Carsten
    University of Applied Sciences & Arts Hannover, DEU.
    MacKellar, Bonnie
    St John’s University, USA.
    I know it when I see it: Perceptions of Code Quality ITiCSE'17 Working Group Report2017In: ITICSE-WGR'17: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2017 ITICSE CONFERENCE WORKING GROUP REPORTS, ACM Digital Library, 2017, p. 70-85Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Code quality is a key issue in software development. The ability to develop high quality software is therefore a key learning goal of computing programs. However, there are no universally accepted measures to assess the quality of code and current standards are considered weak. Furthermore, there are many facets to code quality. Defining and explaining the concept of code quality is therefore a challenge faced by many educators.

    Objectives. In this working group, we investigated code quality as perceived by students, educators, and professional developers, in particular, the differences in their views of code quality and which quality aspects they consider as more or less important. Furthermore, we investigated their sources for information about code quality and its assessment.

    Methods. We interviewed 34 students, educators and professional developers regarding their perceptions of code quality. For the interviews they brought along code from their own experience to discuss and exemplify code quality.

    Results. There was no common definition of code quality among or within these groups. Quality was mostly described in terms of indicators that could measure an aspect of code quality. Among these indicators, readability was named most frequently by all groups. The groups showed significant differences in the sources they use for learning about code quality with education ranked lowest in all groups.

    Conclusions. Code quality should be discussed more thoroughly in educational programs.

  • 244.
    Böttcher, Anja Verena
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Twitter, News Aggegators & Co: Journalistic Gatekeeping in the Age of Digital Media Culture2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the advent of blogs, search engines, RSS and news feeds, the role of online journalists as those who shape everyone’s social reality has decreased. . Currently because of emerging digital tools and outlets, “amateurs” have the ability to not only assemble their own news stream, but they can also publish their own material to a wide audience in only seconds. Gatekeeping is a fundamental concept of media studies and has long been a tool to determine the power of journalists over society. However, digital media requires reconsidering gatekeeping in the traditional sense, as new gatekeepers, such as Twitter-users, “gatejumpers,” new forms of digital influencers, and content aggregators also have gatekeeping power. In my research, I will review and examine the relationship of traditional journalism pratices for gatekeeping in comparison to online journalists.

  • 245.
    Callele, David
    et al.
    Experience First Design Inc., CAN.
    Dueck, Philip
    Experience First Design Inc., CAN.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Hynninen, Peitsa
    Aalto University Espoo, FIN.
    Experience requirements in video games definition and testability2015In: Requirements Engineering Conference (RE), 2015 IEEE 23rd International, IEEE, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A properly formed requirement is testable, a necessity for ensuring that design goals are met. While challenging in productivity applications, entertainment applications such as games compound the problem due to their subjective nature. We report here on our efforts to create testable experience requirements, the associated scope challenges and challenges with test design and result interpretation. We further report on issues experienced when performing focus group testing and provide practitioner guidance.

  • 246.
    Callele, David
    et al.
    University of Saskatchewan, CAN.
    Penzenstadler, Birgit
    California State University Long Beach, USA.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Public policy challenges: An RE perspective2018In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings / [ed] Chitchyan R.,Venters C.C.,Penzenstadler B., CEUR-WS , 2018, p. 24-33Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this perspective paper, we investigate the parallels between public policy and IT projects from the perspective of traditional RE practice. Using the mainstream media as an information source (as would an average citizen), over a period of approximately one year we captured documents that presented analyses of public policy issues. The documents were categorized into eight topic areas, then analyzed to identify patterns that RE practitioners would recognize. We found evidence of policy failures that parallel project failures traceable to requirements engineering problems. Our analysis revealed evidence of bias across all stakeholder groups, similar to the rise of the “beliefs over facts” phenomenon often associated with “fake news”. We also found substantial evidence of unintended consequences due to inadequate problem scoping, terminology definition, domain knowledge, and stakeholder identification and engagement. Further, ideological motivations were found to affect constraint definitions resulting in solution spaces that may approach locally optimal but may not be globally optimal. Public policy addresses societal issues; our analysis supports our conclusion that RE techniques could be utilized to support policy creation and implementation. © 2018 SPIE. All rights reserved.

  • 247.
    Callele, David
    et al.
    University of Saskatchewan, CAN.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    A Process for Product and Service Definition2016In: 9th International Workshop on Software Product Management (IWSPM 2016), IEEE, 2016, p. 322-327Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This short paper presents an iterative and incrementalprocess to improve the probability that the product or service definition leading to requirements and implementation is both representative of the market needs and has a reasonable expecta-tion of a financially viable business model. Rather than a relative-ly linear process wherein marketing delivers a product definition to the development team, this process ensures that all assump-tions are validated during the definition stage and that all team members are engaged. The process balances the need to address current challenges against future opportunities, providing short-term customer satisfaction (and justification for purchasing or adoption) and a coherent vision for future development efforts (and maintaining and growing the customer base). The process is applied to a case in the agriculture commodities sector.

  • 248.
    Callele, David
    et al.
    University of Saskatchewan, CAN.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Penzenstadler, Birgit
    California State University Long Beach, USA.
    New Frontiers for Requirements Engineering2017In: 2017 IEEE 25th International Requirements Engineering Conference, RE 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, p. 184-193, article id 8048904Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Requirements Engineering (RE) has grown from its humble beginnings to embrace a wide variety of techniques, drawn from many disciplines, and the diversity of tasks currently performed under the label of RE has grown beyond that encom-passed by software development. We briefly review how RE has evolved and observe that RE is now a collection of best practices for pragmatic, outcome-focused critical thinking-A pplicable to any domain. We discuss an alternative perspective on, and de-scription of, the discipline of RE and advocate for the evolution of RE toward a discipline that supports the application of RE prac-tice to any domain. We call upon RE practitioners to proactively engage in alternative domains and call upon researchers that adopt practices from other domains to actively engage with their inspiring domains. For both, we ask that they report upon their experience so that we can continue to expand RE frontiers. © 2017 IEEE.

  • 249.
    Cardellini, Valeria
    et al.
    Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, ITA.
    Casalicchio, Emiliano
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Grassi, Vincenzo
    Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, ITA.
    Iannucci, Stefano
    Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, ITA.
    Lo Presti, F.
    Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, ITA.
    Mirandola, Raffaela
    Politecnico di Milano, ITA.
    MOSES: A platform for experimenting with qos-driven self-adaptation policies for service oriented systems2017In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer Verlag , 2017, Vol. 9640, p. 409-433Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Architecting software systems according to the service-oriented paradigm, and designing runtime self-adaptable systems are two relevant research areas in today’s software engineering. In this chapter we present MOSES, a software platform supporting QoS-driven adaptation of service-oriented systems. It has been conceived for service-oriented systems architected as composite services that receive requests generated by different classes of users. MOSES integrates within a unified framework different adaptation mechanisms. In this way it achieves a greater flexibility in facing various operating environments and the possibly conflicting QoS requirements of several concurrent users. Besides providing its own self-adaptation functionalities, MOSES lends itself to the experimentation of alternative approaches to QoS-driven adaptation of service-oriented systems thanks to its modular architecture. © Springer International Publishing AG 2017.

  • 250.
    Carlson, Jan
    et al.
    Malardalen Univ, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    Swedish Inst Comp Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    A Context Model for Architectural Decision Support2016In: PROCEEDINGS 2016 1ST INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON DECISION MAKING IN SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURE, IEEE Computer Society, 2016, p. 9-15Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing efficient and effective decision making support includes identifying means to reduce repeated manual work and providing possibilities to take advantage of the experience gained in previous decision situations. For this to be possible, there is a need to explicitly model the context of a decision case, for example to determine how much the evidence from one decision case can be trusted in another, similar context. In earlier work, context has been recognized as important when transferring and understanding outcomes between cases. The contribution of this paper is threefold. First, we describe different ways of utilizing context in an envisioned decision support system. Thereby, we distinguish between internal and external context usage, possibilities of context representation, and context inheritance. Second, we present a systematically developed context model comprised of five types of context information, namely organization, product, stakeholder, development method & technology, and market & business. Third, we exemplary illustrate the relation of the context information to architectural decision making using existing literature.

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