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  • 201. Nomura, Hideyuki
    et al.
    Kamakura, Tomoo
    Clement, Gregory
    Hedberg, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Visualization of parametric sound generation process based on wave number filtering using numerical simulation2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A parametric sound is generated from a nonlinear interaction of two or more intense ultrasounds at different but neighboring frequencies. The purpose of this study is to visualize the generation process of the parametric sound in a time domain using a numerical simulation. In particular, we focus on the generation of length-limited parametric sound beam, which is generated from a pair of parametric sound sources and indicates a truncated array length with a special radial beam pattern like a Mexican hat. To visualize nonlinear components, a simulated nonlinear sound wave is transformed into spatial spectra in a wave number space, and a nonlinear component such as the difference frequency sound is extracted using wave number filtering. The visualization of length-limited sound generation indicates discontinuities of wave fronts near a sound source. From the result, it is suggested that the discontinuity of wave front causes the special radial pattern of the beam with narrow width.

  • 202. Ny, Henrik
    et al.
    Haraldsson, Hördur V.
    Sverdrup, Harald U.
    Robert, Karl-Henrik
    Systems Dynamic Modeling within Sustainability Constraints2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we are asking ourselves whether ■Systems Dynamic Modelling■ can be combined with ■Backcasting from Sustainability Principles■ to support strategic planning towards sustainability. From the perspective of a ■Backcasting Practitioner■, ■Systems Dynamic Modelling■ is a set of tools that help gaining insight into the detailed functioning of a given system, but lacks the ability to support strategic planning towards sustainability ■ unless complemented with a satisfactory goal definition. ■Backcasting from Sustainability Principles■, in the eyes of a ■Systems Modeller■, is the planning step of a learning loop that also includes action implementation and follow-up. Since no dynamic modelling takes place this methodology typically produces laundry lists of isolated problems and solutions, thereby missing potentially important feedback loops, delays, hidden problems and suitable intervention points in the system.

  • 203. Nyqvist, Robert
    Algebraic Dynamical Systems, Analytical Results and Numerical Simulations2007Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis we study discrete dynamical system, given by a polynomial, over both finite extension of the fields of p-adic numbers and over finite fields. Especially in the p-adic case, we study fixed points of dynamical systems, and which elements that are attracted to them. We show with different examples how complex these dynamics are. For certain polynomial dynamical systems over finite fields we prove that the normalized average of the numbers of linear factors modulo prime numbers exists. We also show how to calculate the average, by using Chebotarev's Density Theorem. The non-normalized version of the average of the number of linear factors of linearized polynomials modulo prime numbers, tends to infinity, so in that case we find an asymptotic formula instead. We have also used a computer to study different behaviors, such as iterations of polynomials over the p-adic fields and the asymptotic relation mention above. In the last chapter we present the computer programs used in different part of the thesis.

  • 204.
    Nyqvist, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Science.
    Asymptotic behaviour of numbers of cycles of dynamical systems in finite fields2007In: Proceedings of the Jangjeon Mathematical Society, ISSN 1598-7264, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 205. Nyqvist, Robert
    et al.
    Svensson, Per-Anders
    On the Number of Equivalence Classes of Attracting Dynamical Systems2009In: P-Adic Numbers, Ultrametric Analysis, and Applications, ISSN 2070-0466, E-ISSN 2070-0474, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 264-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study discrete dynamical systems of the kind h(x) = x + g(x), where g(x) is a monic irreducible polynomial with coefficients in the ring of integers of a p-adic field K. The dynamical systems of this kind, having attracting fixed points, can in a natural way be divided into equivalence classes, and we investigate whether something can be said about the number of those equivalence classes, for a certain degree of the polynomial g(x).

  • 206. Olander, Ewy
    Transition practice: theory – practice for improving health counselling in Child Health Services2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Child Health Services (CHS) in Sweden form a strategic arena for Swedish health promotion, from a societal as well as individual perspective. CHS nurses are important health promotion actors and health counsellors. They give the final sharp to health promotion in the individual meetings with parents and children. CHS nurse’s educational activity is highly institutionalised, but not explicitly expressed, discussed or problematical from a health promotion aspect. During seven years Participatory Action Research (PAR) was accomplished in a Child Health Centre to improve health counselling in CHS. The Health Action process was used for the developing process. Grounded Theory (GT) was also used to increase theoretical understanding and to emerge theory for health counselling grounded in practice. The PAR and the Health Action process approach contributed to a learning process in which the nurses got more aware of the CHS context and got skills to continue improvement of health counselling. Through the GT studies the CHS nurses two missions: a public health mission (a government demand based on families as parts of the population), and a family health mission (a request from individual families) got obvious and how the CHS nurses' synthesise these two opposing missions and approaches in their practical work. PAR and GT are well corresponding for increased understanding of health promotion practice and development, and thereby supporting the transition practice - theory - practice for improving health counselling in CHS. Together a grounded theory and learning outcomes can be practice-based evidence useful to evolve evidence-based practice.

  • 207. Olsson, Roger
    et al.
    Adhikarla, Vamsi Kiran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Schwarz, Sebastian
    Sjöström, Mårten
    Converting conventional stereo pairs to multi-view sequences using morphing2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autostereoscopic multi view displays require multiple views of a scene to provide motion parallax. When an observer changes viewing angle different stereoscopic pairs are perceived. This allows new perspectives of the scene to be seen giving a more realistic 3D experience. However, capturing arbitrary number of views is at best cumbersome, and in some occasions impossible. Conventional stereo video (CSV) operates on two video signals captured using two cameras at two different perspectives. Generation and transmission of two views is more feasible than that of multiple views. It would be more efficient if multiple views required by an autostereoscopic display can be synthesized from these sparse set of views. This paper addresses the conversion of stereoscopic video to multiview video using the video effect morphing. Different morphing algorithms are implemented and evaluated. Contrary to traditional conversion methods, these algorithms disregard the physical depth explicitly and instead generate intermediate views using sparse sets of correspondence features and image morphing. A novel morphing algorithm is also presented that uses scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) and segmentation to construct robust correspondences features and qualitative intermediate views. All algorithms are evaluated on a subjective and objective basis and the comparison results are presented.

  • 208.
    Popescu, Alexandru
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Lennerstad, Håkan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    On Curriculum, Bildung and the Dialogue Seminar2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A teacher is in a sense a guide that points the way. By following the signs students are lead towards a goal. Obviously the students need to believe in their hearts that the signs are point-ing correctly and will take them to a destination worth while. Finding the correct signs is ef-fective pedagogy. It requires two way communication and a teacher that constantly wants to learn more about the art of sign design. We begin this paper with a brief overview of the his-tory of education, and focus particularly on the difference between the American-Saxon cur-riculum and the German Bildung (Didactic). We also describe the Dialogue Seminar as a means to enhance Bildung and teacher development and to enrich the educational process and teaching profes-sion.

  • 209. Rakus-Andersson, Elisabeth
    A Choice of Optimal Medicines by Fuzzy Decision Making Including Unequal Objectives2005In: Issues in the Representation and Processing of Uncertain and Imprecise Information / [ed] K., Atanassov; J., Kacprzyk; M., Krawczak; E., Szmidt, Warsaw: "EXIT" - The Publishing House of Polish Academy of Sciences , 2005, p. 307-321Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Some researches have already developed fuzzy decision making theoretical algorithms, but there are only a few medical fields of their applications. We thus make a trial of adopting the Yager decision making algorithm to extract the optimal medicine from a collection of drugs that can be given to a patient to cure him of an illness. The choice of the most efficacious remedy is based on clinical symptoms typical of the considered morbid unit.

  • 210. Rakus-Andersson, Elisabeth
    Adjusted S-parametric Functions in the Creation of Symmetric Constraints2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most important features of fuzzy set theory is its potential for the modeling of natural language expressions. Most works done on this topic focus on some parts of natural language, mostly those that correspond to the so-called “evaluating linguistic expressions”. We build constraints for the mathematical substitutes of these expressions to mark characteristic limits on an ordered scale. In the current work we form families of constraints which originate from one function. By introducing a parameter in the initial membership function we can model the rest of family functions, whose shapes depend only on a number of functions and the length of a reference set. This procedure fits perfectly for being a segment of computer programs, where the loops providing us with many functions need only the initializations of two data values.

  • 211. Rakus-Andersson, Elisabeth
    Approximate Reasoning in Cancer Surgery2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The compositional rule of inference, grounded on the modus ponens law, is one of the most effective fuzzy systems. We modify the classical version of the Zadeh rule to propose an original model, which concerns determining an operation chance for gastric cancer patients. The operation prognosis will be dependent on values of biological markers indicating the progress of the disease.

  • 212. Rakus-Andersson, Elisabeth
    Approximate Reasoning in Surgical Decisions2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Approximate reasoning is one of the most effective fuzzy systems. The compositional rule of inference founded on the logical law modus ponens is furnished with a true conclusion, provided that the premises of the rule are true as well. Even though there exist different approaches to an implication, being the crucial part of the rule, we modify the early implication proposed by Zadeh in our practical model concerning a medical application. The approximate reasoning system presented in this work considers evaluation of a risk in the situation when physicians weigh necessity of the operation on a patient. The patient’s clinical symptom levels, pathologically heightened, indicate the presence of a disease possible to recover by surgery. We wish to evaluate the extension of the operation danger by involving particularly designed fuzzy sets in the algorithm of approximate reasoning.

  • 213.
    Rakus-Andersson, Elisabeth
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Approximation and Rough Classification of Letter-Like Polygon Shapes2013In: Rough Sets and Intelligent Systems: Professor Zdzislaw Pawlak in Memoriam - Volume 1 / [ed] Skowron, Andrzej; Suraj, Zbigniew, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer , 2013, p. 455-474Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is a privilege for the author to be involved in composing a book chapter in the anthology devoted to the life and scientific occupation of Professor Zdzisław Pawlak. The author made a personal acquaintance with the outstanding scientist Professor Pawlak and still remembers him as a warm and gentle human being. Professor Pawlak’s theory of rough sets was taught to students during the courses in Computational Intelligence established at Blekinge Institute of Technology in Karlskrona, Sweden. In some Master of Science theses, the principles of rough set theory were discussed in the aspects of technical applications. In this context, we can feel that the theory is still alive and very useful. In this work, we recall again the basics of rough sets to apply them to the classification of discrete two dimensional point sets, which form the shapes resembling some letters. These possess very irregular patterns and cannot be approximated by standard curves without committing large errors. Since the approximation of letter-like point sets is required by the latter classification of their shapes then we, due to own model, wish to find a continuous curve which fits best for each distribution of points. To accomplish the thorough approximation of finite point sets, we test parametric s-truncated functions piecewise, which warrants a high accuracy of approximating. By operating on the functions, replacing samples of points obtained during experiments carried out, we are able to adopt the rough set technique to verify decisions about the primary recognitions of the curves’ appearance as letter shapes. Even if the curves are stretched and shaped differently in the plane, we will divide them in classes gathering similar objects. Our investigations have not a character of pure art — on the contrary— their results are utilized in the classifications of internet packet streams or the analysis of wave signals typical of, e.g., medical examinations.

  • 214. Rakus-Andersson, Elisabeth
    Approximation of Clock-like Point Sets2007In: Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing, ISSN 1434-9922, E-ISSN 1860-0808, Vol. 202, p. 155-181+183-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter has a theoretical character and can be studied by some medical staff researchers that seek methods of approximation of very irregular point sets. When the shape of an obtained polygon based on the point set is similar to a chain of bells, then it will be difficult to find a continuous standard curve that should approximate the polygon without making a large approximation error. The studies of some medical data give rise to the creation of polygons consisting of finite numbers of points tied together. Since the polygons are not formalized by some mathematical expressions, we suggest creating continuous functions that approximate them thoroughly in spite of their irregular shapes. To warrant a high accuracy of approximation, otherwise impossible to obtain when using standard curves, we test a continuous function composed of joined truncated π-functions or joined truncated s-functions. © 2007 Springer.

  • 215.
    Rakus-Andersson, Elisabeth
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Science.
    Complementary Solutions in Diagnostic Models2007In: Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing, ISSN 1434-9922, E-ISSN 1860-0808, Vol. 212, p. 63-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We should admit that the case of patient P1 in Ex. 3.16 has not been very easy to solve especially when you consider the proper interpretation of PD3. By equipping us with equal values of the membership degrees it has not made it easy enough to make the proper choice of an unknown diagnosis. © 2007 Springer.

  • 216. Rakus-Andersson, Elisabeth
    Continuous Fuzzy Sets as Probabilities of Continuous Fuzzy Events2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the first part of this study we explore continuous fuzzy numbers in the interval- and the alpha-cut forms to detect their similar nature. The conversion from one form to the other is a question of using the appropriate apparatus, which we also provide. Since the fuzzy numbers can reproduce fuzzy events we then will make a trial of extending the concept of fuzzy probability, defined by R. Yager for discrete fuzzy events, on continuous fuzzy events. In order to fulfill the task we utilize conclusions made about fuzzy numbers to propose an initial conception of approximating the Gauss curve by a particularly designed function originated from the pi-class functions. Due to the procedure of the approximation, characterized by an irrelevant cumulative error, we expand fuzzy probabilities of continuous fuzzy events in the form of continuous fuzzy sets. Furthermore, we assume that this sort of probability holds some conditions formulated for probabilities of discrete fuzzy events.

  • 217. Rakus-Andersson, Elisabeth
    Decision Making Algorithms in Toxoplasmosis2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theoretical fuzzy decision-making models mostly developed by Zadeh, Bellman, Jain and Yager can be adopted as useful tools to estimation of the total effectiveness-utility of a drug when appreciating its positive influence on a collec-tion of symptoms characteristic of a considered diagnosis. The expected effectiveness of the medicine is evaluated by a physician as a verbal expression for each distinct symptom. By converting the words at first to fuzzy sets and then numbers we can regard the effectiveness structures as entries of a utility matrix that constitutes the common basic component of all methods. We involve the matrix in a number of computations due to different decision algorithms to obtain a sequence of tested medicines in conformity with their abilities to soothe the unfavorable impact of symptoms. An adjustment of the large spectrum of applied fuzzy decision-making models to the extraction of the best medicines provides us with some deviations in obtained results but we are thus capable to select this method whose effects closest converge to the physicians’ judgments and expectations. In the current speech we apply fuzzy decision making algorithms to ranking medicines in multifocal toxoplasmosis.

  • 218. Rakus-Andersson, Elisabeth
    Evaluation of Medicine Action Levels2007In: Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing, ISSN 1434-9922, E-ISSN 1860-0808, Vol. 212, p. 93-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the previous chapters, we have discussed some ways of determining the most credible diagnosis in a patient who could be identified by his set of clinical symptoms. The same symptoms are usually found in several illnesses. Therefore, it is often difficult to recognize the value of each of their deterministic yet individual characteristics all at once. After improving the diagnostic model by adding complementary solutions we are at last aware of a diagnosis of the patient. The next step would be to prescribe him medication that will lead to a cure. It is seldom possible to give the patient only one remedy to remove completely all unfavourable symptoms. In order to broaden a list of medicines that complement each other, we usually want to evaluate levels of one medicine and its impact on all of the symptoms. Preferably, we want to estimate the lowest and the highest levels of effectiveness of the medicines tested, one by one, when considering their curative powers. © 2007 Springer.

  • 219. Rakus-Andersson, Elisabeth
    Factor Analysis with Qualitative Factors and Yager’s Probability in the Lattice of Verbal Fuzzy Numbers2005In: Issues in Soft Computing Theory and Applications / [ed] P., Grzegorzewski; M., Krawczak; S., Zadrozny, Warsaw: EXIT - the Publishing House of Polish Academy of Sciences , 2005, p. 241-260Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The classical crisp version of Factor Analysis seldom is used in the case of qualitative factors, which often are presented by codes. It is rather difficult to divide codes in level groups without possessing appropriate criteria. To omit this obstacle, we thus propose a fuzzy application of Factor Analysis, which gives a possibility to investigate the strength of an influence of qualitative factors on a tested qualitative variable. When making a new approach to the analysis of factors, we introduce a space of verbal fuzzy numbers that first are expressed as descriptions coming from a natural language and then designed in L-R form. Since the definition of newly created verbal fuzzy numbers deviates from the general conception of fuzzy numbers, we also will check effects of other operations performed on verbal numbers, which are different from the arithmetic based on the extension principle. The verbal fuzzy numbers represent both the qualitative variable and the qualitative factors in all computations that follow the Factor Analysis algorithm. For the first time we also formulate the Yager probability of an event expanded as the verbal fuzzy number.

  • 220. Rakus-Andersson, Elisabeth
    Fuzzy and Rough Techniques in Medical Diagnosis and Medication2007Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume provides readers with selected fuzzy and rough tools used to medical tasks, especially diagnosing and medication. To build a link between theoretical, mathematical excerpts and practical medical applications, the contents is formed as a sequence of occurrences in which a patient appears to be diagnosed and cured. The fuzzy and rough elements are inserted in the book in the order required by the presentation of medical substance to maintain the logical unity of the book’s essence. In conformity with this pattern the essay presents in turn some necessary elements of fuzzy set theory, the classical fuzzy diagnostic model with extensions, the fuzzy diagnostic model with clinical examinations extended throughout time based on distance theory, methods of drug effectiveness measurements and algorithms selecting the optimal medicine. As the complement, the solution of an approximation problem is suggested to find a curve that surrounds two-dimensional clock-like point sets with the little approximation error. A lot of appealing examples are added to facilitate comprehension of theoretical principles for a reader, so that even a beginner in fuzzy set theory can follow calculation steps without implementing computer programs. It should be emphasized that all models are also applicable to other fields, especially to technical domains after necessary adaptations. This confirms the existence of the large spectrum of applicable fuzzy and rough methods not only in medicine but also in natural sciences.

  • 221. Rakus-Andersson, Elisabeth
    Fuzzy probabilities of biological continuous fuzzy events2009In: International Journal of Computational Intelligence Studies, ISSN 1755-4977, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 191-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the first part of this study we explore continuous fuzzy numbers in the interval and the α-cut forms to detect their similar nature. The conversion from one form to the other is a question of using the appropriate apparatus, which we also provide. Since the fuzzy numbers can reproduce fuzzy events we then will make a trial of extending the concept of fuzzy probability, defined by R. Yager (1979) for discrete fuzzy events, on continuous fuzzy events. In order to fulfil the task we utilise conclusions made about fuzzy numbers to propose an initial conception of approximating the Gauss curve by a particularly designed function originated from the π-class functions. Due to the procedure of the approximation, characterised by an irrelevant cumulative error, we expand fuzzy probabilities of continuous fuzzy events in the form of continuous fuzzy sets.

  • 222. Rakus-Andersson, Elisabeth
    Hybridization of Immunological Computation and Fuzzy Systems in Surgery Decision Making2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From the domain of Computational Intelligence we have selected immunological computation and fuzzy systems to combine them in a new hybrid model. This novel numerical method has been tested on patient data strings to make decisions about the choices of surgery types. The model input clinical data concerns patients who suffer from gastric cancer.

  • 223. Rakus-Andersson, Elisabeth
    Minimization of Regret in the Selection of the Most Efficacious Drug Medicating Compound Qualitative Symptoms2009In: Advances in Fuzzy Sets, Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets, Generalized Nets and Related Topics / [ed] Atanassov, K.; Hryniewicz, O.; Kacprzyk, J.; Krawczak, M.; Nahorski, Z.; Szmidt, E.; Zadrozny, S., Warsaw: EXIT the Publishing House of Polish Academy of Sciences , 2009, p. 141-154Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Minimization of regret has been adopted here as a decision making algo-rithm in order to select the best medicine from a collection of drugs considered in the treatment of an individual patient. We assume that symp-toms affected by medicines have a compound qualitative complexion. A model of evaluating the effectiveness of drugs, exerting an influence on qualitative features, is employed to found the utility matrix, which constitutes the input system in decision-making. We thus discuss the method that converts information obtained from a questionnaire to entries of the matrix mentioned. The last technique constitutes a main own contribution in evolving methods of fuzzy calculus.

  • 224. Rakus-Andersson, Elisabeth
    Minimization of Regret versus Unequal Multi-objective Fuzzy Decision Process in a Choice of Optimal Medicines2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some researches have already developed fuzzy decision making theoretical algorithms, but there are only a few medical fields of their applications. We thus make a trial of adopting two decision-making algorithms based on unequal objectives and minimization of regret to extract the optimal medicine from a collection of drugs recommended to a patient. A choice of the most efficacious remedy is based on clinical symptoms typical of the considered morbid unit.

  • 225.
    Rakus-Andersson, Elisabeth
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Multi-dimensional Model of Approximate Reasoning in Surgical Chance Evaluation2012In: International Journal of Computers in Healthcare, ISSN 1755-3202, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 199-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Approximate reasoning is one of the most effective fuzzy systems. The compositional rule of inference founded on the logical law Modus Ponens is furnished with a true conclusion, provided that the premises of the rule are true as well. One of the premises is formed as the implication, which is represented by different mathematical approaches, but we are especially fond of the results brought by the early implication proposed by Zadeh, which is modified in our practical model concerning a medical application. The approximate reasoning system, grounded on the extended and modified version of Modus Ponens law, will be employed here to predict a chance of survival after the operation for a patient who suffers from cancer. The patient’s symptom levels are the indicators of the disease. If the symptoms do not exceed their critical values there is still a chance to save the patient’s life by trying surgery. We wish to evaluate the verbal prognosis of the surgery by involving specifically designed fuzzy sets in the algorithm of approximate reasoning. Since the chance of successful surgery depends on the interactions of several symptoms then we will name the decision model multi-dimensional.

  • 226. Rakus-Andersson, Elisabeth
    One-dimensional Model of Approximate Reasoning in Surgical Considerations2010In: Developments in Fuzzy Sets, Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets, Generalized Nets and Related Topics. Volume II: Applications / [ed] Atanasov, K.; Homenda, W.; Hryniewicz, O.; Kacprzyk, J.; Krawczak, M.; Nahorski, Z.; Szmidt, E.; Zadrozny, S., Warsaw: System Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences , 2010, p. 233-246Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Approximate reasoning is one of the most effective fuzzy systems. The compositional rule of inference founded on the logical law Modus Ponens is furnished with a true conclusion, provided that the premises of the rule are true as well. There exist different approaches to an implication, being the crucial part of the rule, but we are especially fond of the results brought by the early implication proposed by Zadeh, which is modified in our practical model concerning a medical application. The approximate reasoning system, grounded on the extended version of Modus Ponens law, will be employed here to predict a chance of positive effects of the operation on a patient who suffers from stomach cancer. The patient’s CRP (C-reactive proteins) symptom level, pathologically heightened, indicates the presence of a disease. When the CRP-value does not exceed a critical border it can be realistic to try surgery to recover the patient from his/her illness due to Do-Kyong Kim. We wish to evaluate the verbal prognosis of the surgery by involving particularly designed fuzzy sets in the algorithm of approximate reasoning.

  • 227. Rakus-Andersson, Elisabeth
    Rough set theory in the classification of diagnoses2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rough sets, surrounded by two approximation sets filled with sure and possible members constitute perfect mathematical tools of the classification of some objects. In this work we adopt the rough technique to verify diagnostic decisions concerning a sample of patients whose symptoms are typical of a considered diagnosis. The objective is to extract the patients who surely Suffer from the diagnosis, to indicate the patients who are free from it, and even to make decisions in undefined diagnostic cases. By applying selected logical decision rules, we also discuss a possibility of reducing of symptom sets to their minimal collections preserving the previous results in order to minimize a number of numerical calculations.

  • 228. Rakus-Andersson, Elisabeth
    Rough Set Theory in the Classification of Diagnoses2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rough sets, surrounded by two approximation sets filled with sure and possible members constitute perfect mathematical tools of the classification of some objects. In this work we adopt the rough technique to verify diagnostic decisions concerning a sample of patients whose symptoms are typical of a considered diagnosis. The objective is to extract the patients who surely suffer from the diagnosis, to indicate the patients who are free from it, and even to make decisions in undefined diagnostic cases. By applying selected logical decision rules, we also discuss a possibility of reducing of symptom sets to their minimal collections preserving the previous results in order to minimize a number of numerical calculations.

  • 229. Rakus-Andersson, Elisabeth
    Rough Set Theory in the Classification of Diagnoses2009In: Computers in Medical Activity. Series: Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing / [ed] E., Kacki; M., Rudnicki; J., Stempczynska, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag , 2009, p. 41-52Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rough sets, surrounded by two approximation sets filled with sure and possible members constitute perfect mathematical tools of the classification of some objects. In this work we adopt the rough technique to verify diagnostic decisions concerning a sample of patients whose symptoms are typical of a considered diagnosis. The objective is to extract the patients who surely suffer from the diagnosis, to indicate the patients who are free from it, and even to make decisions in undefined diagnostic cases. By applying selected logical decision rules, we also discuss a possibility of reducing of symptom sets to their minimal collections preserving the previous results in order to minimize a number of numerical calculations.

  • 230. Rakus-Andersson, Elisabeth
    Rough Sets Based on Reducts of Conditional Attributes in Medical Classification of the Diagnosis Status2008, June 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rough sets constitute helpful mathematical tools of the classification of objects belonging to a certain universe when dividing the universe in two collections filled with sure and possible members. In this work we adopt the rough technique to verify diagnostic decisions concerning a sample of patients whose symptoms are typical of a considered diagnosis. The objective is to extract the patients who surely suffer from the diagnosis, to indicate the patients who are free from it, and even to make decisions in undefined diagnostic cases. We also consider a decisive power of reducts being minimal collections of symptoms, which preserve the previous classification results. We use them in order to minimize a number of numerical calculations in the classification process. Finally, by testing influence of symptom intensity levels on the diagnosis indisputable appearance we select these standards, whose either presence or absence in the patients allows us to add complementary remarks making the classification effects even more readable.

  • 231.
    Rakus-Andersson, Elisabeth
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Selected Algorithms of Computational Intelligence in Gastric Cancer Decision Making2012In: New Advances in the Basic and Clinical Gastroenterology / [ed] Brzozowski, Thomas, Rijeka, Croatia: InTech , 2012, p. 529-546Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the latest research the subject of Computational Intelligence has been divided into five main regions, namely, neural networks, evolutionary algorithms, swarm intelligence, immunological systems and fuzzy systems. Our attention has been attracted by the possibilities of medical applications provided by immunological computation algorithms. Immunological computation systems are based on immune reactions of the living organisms in order to defend the bodies from pathological substances. Especially, the mechanisms of the T-cell reactions to detect strangers have been converted into artificial numerical algorithms. Immunological systems have been developed in scientific books and reports appearing during the two last decades. The basic negative selection algorithm NS was invented by Stefanie Forrest to give rise to some technical applications. We can note such applications of NS as computer virus detection, reduction of noise effect, communication of autonomous agents or identification of time varying systems. Even a trial of connection between a computer and biological systems has been proved by means of immunological computation. Hybrids made between different fields can provide researchers with richer results; therefore associations between immunological systems and neural networks have been developed as well. In the current chapter we propose another hybrid between the NS algorithm and chosen solutions coming from fuzzy systems. This hybrid constitutes the own model of adapting the NS algorithm to the operation decisions “operate” contra “do not operate” in gastric cancer surgery. The choice between two possibilities to treat patients is identified with the partition of a decision region in self and non-self, which is similar to the action of the NS algorithm. The partition is accomplished on the basis of patient data strings/vectors that contain codes of states concerning some essential biological markers. To be able to identify the strings that characterize the “operate” decision we add the own method of computing the patients’ characteristics as real values. The evaluation of the patients’ characteristics is supported by inserting importance weights assigned to powerful biological indices taking place in the operation decision process. To compute the weights of importance the Saaty algorithm is adopted.

  • 232. Rakus-Andersson, Elisabeth
    S-truncated Functions and Rough Sets in Approximation and Classification of Bottleneck Polygons2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some collections of two-dimensional points form very irregular shapes, which cannot be approximated by standard curves without making large errors. We approximate the sets of points to introduce formal mathematical expressions giving rise for future predictions for other points, which are not placed in data sets. To accomplish the thorough approximation of finite point sets we test parametric s-truncated functions piecewise, which warrants a high accuracy of approximating. By operating with the functions, which represent samples of points obtained during experiments carried out, and by adopting the rough set technique, we attempt a classification of curves. Even if the curves are stretched and shaped differently we will divide them in classes gathering similar objects. To confirm availability and correctitude of the approximation and the classification proposed, we consider an examination of Internet packet streams, especially a bottleneck distribution based on throughput values.

  • 233. Rakus-Andersson, Elisabeth
    The Composition of the Book in Fuzzy Logic Adapted to Stationary and Distance Courses for Advanced Students2007Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The project titled: “The Composition of the Book in Fuzzy Logic Adapted to Stationary and Distance Courses for Advanced Students” has been granted by the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences in 2007 The following contents of the book “Basic Concepts and Applications of Fuzzy Set Theory” is primarily designed as: Contents 1. Introduction 2. Fuzzy sets 3. Fuzzy and linguistic variables 4. Operations on fuzzy sets 5. T and S Norms 6. Fuzzy measures and measures of fuzziness 7. Extension principles 8. Fuzzy numbers and their arithmetic 9. The L-R, interval and alpha-cut representations of fuzzy numbers 10. Fuzzy relations, The compositional rule of inference 11. The eigen sets of a fuzzy relation 12. Fuzzy analysis 13. Possibility theory, Probability of fuzzy events 14. Fuzzy logic and approximate reasoning 15. Fuzzy decision making, 16. Fuzzy control, 17. Imprecise optimization 18. Choquet and Sugeno integrals 19. Rough set theory 20. Discussion of other imprecise theories

  • 234. Rakus-Andersson, Elisabeth
    The concept of distances between fuzzy sets as a criterion in the diagnostic process2007In: Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets and Generalized nets, 2007Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 235. Rakus-Andersson, Elisabeth
    The Greatest and the Least Eigen Fuzzy Sets in Evaluation of the Drug Effectiveness Levels2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The eigen fuzzy set of a given fuzzy relation often corresponds to an occurrence of invariability in natural sciences. By determining the fuzzy relations as connections between pairs of symptoms we utilize the greatest and the least eigen fuzzy sets in order to find the estimates of the medicine effectiveness levels.

  • 236. Rakus-Andersson, Elisabeth
    The Lattice of Verbal Fuzzy Numbers in IP-Traffic Prediction2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fuzzy numbers constitute a helpful tool for some users who deal with imprecise data. To facilitate a procedure of performing operations on fuzzy numbers for these users who do not possess deep mathematical qualifications, we introduce a special space of fuzzy numbers verbally defined. This consists of families of fuzzy numbers in the L-R form provided that every family has a common mean value. We not only discuss some properties of the space, but also propose new conceptions of the arithmetical operations on the verbally expressed fuzzy numbers. The classification of the IP-traffic can act as a practical aspect, which clarifies the theoretical assumptions formulated in the paper.

  • 237.
    Rakus-Andersson, Elisabeth
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    The Mamdani Expert-system with Parametric Families of Fuzzy Constraints in Evaluation of Cancer Patient Survival Length2013In: Emerging Paradigms in Machine Learning / [ed] S., Ramanna; L.C, Jain; J., Howlett R., Berlin Heidelberg New York: Springer , 2013, p. 359-378Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strict analytic formulas are the tools usually derived for determining the formal relationships between a sample of independent variables and a variable which they affect. If we cannot formalize the function tying the independent and dependent variables then we will utilize some expert-system control actions. We often adopt their fuzzy variants developed by Mamdani, Sugeno and Takagi. Fuzzy expert-system algorithms are furnished with softer mechanisms, when comparing them to crisp versions. An efficient action of these softer mechanisms depends on the proper fuzzification of variables. At the stage of fuzzifying the variable levels we will prove some parametric expressions, which rearrange one function to several forms needed by the expert-system algorithm. The general parametric equation of membership functions allows creating arbitrary lists without any intuitive assumptions. The fuzzy expert-system algorithms are particularly adaptable to support medical tasks to solve. These tasks often cope with uncertain premises and conclusions. From the medical point of view it would be desirable to prognosticate the survival length for patients suffering from gastric cancer. We thus formulate the objective of the current chapter as the utilization of the Mamdani fuzzy control actions as a methodology adapted for the purpose of making the survival prognoses.

  • 238.
    Rakus-Andersson, Elisabeth
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    The Meeting with Fuzzy Mathematics as the Great Adventure of my Life2013In: On Fuzziness: Homage to Lotfi A. Zadeh / [ed] Seising, Rudolf; Trillas, Enric; Moraga, Claudio; Termini, Settimo, Berlin Heidelberg New York: Springer , 2013, p. 137-142Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has passed over twenty five years since I encountered fuzzy mathematics for the first time but I can still feel this excitement, which I have experienced during that meeting with an unknown mathematical domain. This was different from other classical mathematical fields but I immediately felt that the concept of imprecision would be expected to have a fine future. Since that day in 1987, when I held in my hand the first available paper on the medical applications of fuzzy relations, it was obvious for me that I could devote my time to investigate the topic much deeper. I made an acquaintance with the creator of fuzzy mathematics, Professor Lotfi Zadeh, in Budapest in 1999. I expected to be confronted with a self-confident and outstanding scientist who was not going to talk to unknown people. Instead I saw a very nice and modest man speaking to everybody in a very friendly manner, especially to new members of the fuzzy society. His behavior awoke in me sympathy and gratitude for his kindness and I wanted to meet him again. The idea of editing a book, based on our memories and experiences concerning fuzzy mathematics, is really great. Let me thus tell you about my own scientific carrier in which fuzzy mathematics has played a dominant role.

  • 239. Rakus-Andersson, Elisabeth
    The Parametric Modification of Fuzzy Sets Constituting a Content of Medical Linguistic Variables2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most important features of fuzzy set theory is its potential for the modeling of natural language expressions. Most works done on this topic focus on some parts of natural language, mostly those that correspond to the so-called “evaluating linguistic expressions”. We build constraints for the mathematical substitutes of these expressions to mark characteristic limits on an ordered scale. We discuss a case of creating the total list of terms of the linguistic variable “symptom presence in diagnosis” replaced by fuzzy sets all emerging from one presence description “seldom”. To accomplish this task we insert a particular parameter in the membership functions of the sets.

  • 240.
    Rakus-Andersson, Elisabeth
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    The Parametric s-functions and the Perceptron in Gastric Cancer Surgery Decision Making2012In: World Congress in Computational Intelligence (WCCI), Brisbane, Australia: IEEE , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current paper we mathematically try to support the medical operation decision made for the sake of patients suffering from gastric cancer. We involve the linear model of the simple neural perceptron to distinguish between two decision states determined as “operate” contra “do not operate”. The perceptron input signals are proposed to be given as codes of levels of the most decisive biological markers, considered in surgery decision making. To find the level intervals, tied to the codes, we introduce a procedure of level fuzzification by a family of parametric membership functions.

  • 241. Rakus-Andersson, Elisabeth
    The Presentation of the book titled "Fuzzy and Rough Techniques in Medical Diagnosis and Medication"2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this presentation the author intends to advertise her book titled “Fuzzy and Rough Techniques in Medical Diagnosis and Medication” printed by Springer-verlag in 2007. The volume provides readers with selected fuzzy and rough tools used to medical tasks, especially diagnosing and medication. To build a link between theoretical, mathematical excerpts and practical medical applications, the contents is formed as a sequence of occurrences in which a patient appears to be diagnosed and cured. The fuzzy and rough elements are inserted in the book in the order required by the presentation of medical substance to maintain the logical unity of the book’s essence. In conformity with this pattern the essay presents in turn some necessary elements of fuzzy set theory, the classical fuzzy diagnostic model with extensions, the fuzzy diagnostic model with clinical examinations extended throughout time based on distance theory, methods of drug effectiveness measurements and algorithms selecting the optimal medicine. As the complement, the solution of an approximation problem is suggested to find a curve that surrounds two-dimensional clock-like point sets with the little approximation error. It should be emphasized that all models are also applicable to other fields, especially to technical domains after necessary adaptations. This confirms the existence of the large spectrum of applicable fuzzy and rough methods not only in medicine but also in natural sciences.

  • 242. Rakus-Andersson, Elisabeth
    The Survey of Fuzzy Decision-making Techniques in Ranking of Medicine Effectiveness2008In: Advanced Computational Intelligence Paradigms in Healthcare: 3 / [ed] Margarita, Sordo; Sachin, Vaidya; C., Jain Lakhmi, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer verlag Studies in Computational Intelligence Series , 2008, p. 21-45Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theoretical fuzzy decision-making models mostly developed by Zadeh, Bellman, Jain and Yager can be adopted as useful tools to estimation of the total effectiveness-utility of a drug when appreciating its positive influence on a collection of symptoms characteristic of a considered diagnosis. The expected effectiveness of the medicine is evaluated by a physician as a verbal expression for each distinct symptom. By converting the words at first to fuzzy sets and then numbers we can regard the effectiveness structures as entries of a utility matrix that constitutes the common basic component of all methods. We involve the matrix in a number of computations due to different decision algo-rithms to obtain a sequence of tested medicines in conformity with their abili-ties to soothe the unfavorable impact of symptoms. An adjustment of the large spectrum of applied fuzzy decision-making models to the extraction of the best medicines provides us with some deviations in obtained results but we are thus capable to select this method whose effects closest converge to the physicians’ judgments and expectations.

  • 243. Rakus-Andersson, Elisabeth
    Two–player Games Conducted by Fuzzy Entries of the Payoff Matrix and the Yager Fuzzy Probabilities as Predictors of Strategic Movements2009In: Recent Advances in Intelligent Support System / [ed] Rakus-Andersson, Elisabeth; Ichalkaranje, Nikhil; Jain, Lakhmi, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer verlag, Series: Studies in Computational Intelligence , 2009Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We expand the classical model of a two-player game by inserting fuzzy sets as payoff values in the game matrix. Players can thus formulate their payoff expectations with words instead of deciding on numerical entries of the matrix. In this way we count on the better verbal communication between players when designing the preliminaries of the game. The players can also assign powers-weights to their strategies to mark importance of all tactics introduced in the game. As a final result we expect to obtain samples of the players’ optimal strategies, which will follow the final results in order to preserve the profit of the game on the neutral level. We also intend to estimate fuzzy probabilities of adapting the optimal strategies to achieve the objective of the game.

  • 244.
    Rakus-Andersson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Frey, Janusz
    Fuzzy Numbers as Utilities of Decision Making in Treatment of Radiation Cystitis2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theoretical fuzzy decision-making models mostly developed by Zadeh, Bellman, Jain, Herrera and Yager can be adopted as useful tools to estimation of the total effectiveness-utility of a treatment when appreciating its distinct influences on a collection of symptoms characteristic of a considered diagnosis. We prove, as a novelty of the classical fuzzy decision making model, the insertion of fuzzy numbers in the α-cut form to a utility matrix. In the current paper we wish to apply the modified fuzzy decision making to extract the most efficacious treatment in radiation cystitis.

  • 245. Rakus-Andersson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Jain, Lakhmi C.
    Computational Intelligence in Medical Decisions Making2009In: Recent Advances in Decision Making / [ed] Rakus-Andersson, Elisabeth; Yager, Ronald R.; Ichalkaranje, Nikhil; , Lakhmi C. Jain, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer verlag , 2009, p. 145-159Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computation intelligence paradigms including artificial neural networks, fuzzy systems, evolutionary computing techniques, intelligent agents and so on provide a basis for human like reasoning in medical systems. Approximate reasoning is one of the most effective fuzzy systems. The compositional rule of inference founded on the logical law modus ponens is furnished with a true conclusion, provided that the premises of the rule are true as well. Even though there exist different approaches to an implication, being the crucial part of the rule, we modify the early implication proposed in our practical model concerning a medical application. The approximate reasoning system presented in this work considers evaluation of a risk in the situation when physicians weigh necessity of the operation on a patient. The patient’s clinical symptom levels, pathologically heightened, indicate the presence of a disease possible to recover by surgery. We wish to evaluate the extension of the operation danger by involving particularly designed fuzzy sets in the algorithm of approximate reasoning.

  • 246.
    Rakus-Andersson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Science.
    Jogréus, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Science.
    The Choquet and Sugeno Integrals as Measures of Total Effectiveness of Medicines2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concepts of the Choquet and Sugeno integrals, based on a fuzzy measure, can be adopted as useful tools in estimation of the total effectiveness of a drug when appreciating its positive influence on a collection of symptoms typical of a considered diagnosis. The expected effectiveness of the medicine is evaluated by a physician as a verbal expression for each distinct symptom. By converting the words at first to fuzzy sets and then numbers we can regard the effectiveness structures as measures in the Choquet and Sugeno problem formu-lations. After comparing the quantities of total effectiveness among medicines, expressed as the values of the Choquet or Sugeno integrals, we accomplish the selection of the most efficacious drug.

  • 247.
    Rakus-Andersson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Kurnatowska, Alicja
    Fuzzy Decision Making in Toxoplasmosis Medication2012In: New Developments in Fuzzy Sets, Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets, Generalized Nets and Related Topics / [ed] K., Atanassov; W., Homenda; O., Hryniewicz; J., Kacprzyk; M., Krawczak; Z., Nahorski; E., Szmidt; S., Zadrozny, Warsaw: Polish Academy of Sciences, System Research Institute , 2012, p. 185-200Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theoretical fuzzy decision-making models mostly developed by Zadeh, Bellman, Jain and Yager can be adopted as useful tools to estimation of the total effectiveness-utility of a drug when appreciating its positive influence on a collection of symptoms characteristic of a considered diagnosis. The expected effectiveness of the medicine is evaluated by a physician as a verbal expression for each distinct symptom. By converting the words at first to fuzzy sets and then numbers we can regard the effectiveness structures as entries of a utility matrix that constitutes the common basic component of all methods. We involve the matrix in a number of computations due to different decision algorithms to obtain a sequence of tested medicines in conformity with their abilities to soothe the unfavorable impact of symptoms. An adjustment of the large spectrum of applied fuzzy decision-making models to the extraction of the best medicines provides us with some deviations in obtained results but we are thus capable to select this method whose effects closest converge to the physicians’ judgments and expectations. In the current paper we apply fuzzy decision making algorithms to rank medicines in multifocal toxoplasmosis.

  • 248. Rakus-Andersson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Salomonsson, Maria
    Pi-truncated Functions and Rough Sets in the Classification of Internet Protocols2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The studies of Internet Protocol data give rise to the creation of polygons consisting of finite numbers of points tied together. Since the polygons are not formalized by some mathematical expressions, we suggest creating continuous functions, which approximate them thoroughly in spite of their irregular shapes. To warrant a high accuracy of approximating, otherwise impossible to obtain when using standard curves, we test a continuous function, which is composed of joined truncated pi-class functions with seven parameters. By operating with the functions representing polygons having unusual shapes, we attempt a classification of Internet traffic data, based on datagram sizes. We adopt rough sets to assign the members to an investigated Internet class even if their origin sometimes is unknown.

  • 249. Rakus-Andersson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Salomonsson, Maria
    Truncated pi-functions in Approximation of Multi-shaped Polygons2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The studies of data, which result in sampled information in the form of finite fuzzy sets, give rise to the creation of polygons consisting of finite numbers of points tied together. Since the polygons are not formalized by some mathematical expressions, it would be desirable to find continuous functions approximating them rather thoroughly in spite of their irregular shapes. An approximation by the standard curves is sometimes too rough to be a reliable source of a further analysis of the polygons. To improve the accuracy of approximating we test a continuous function, which is composed of joined pi-class functions with seven parameters. The function, called by us “the sampled, truncated pi”, is very sensitive for each little deviation in the polygon’s shape, which allows us to classify it exactly without large errors usually accompanying a process of standard approximation.

  • 250. Rakus-Andersson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Salomonsson, Maria
    Zettervall, Hang
    Ranking of Weighted Strategies in the Two-Player Games with Fuzzy Entries of the Payoff Matrix2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We expand the classical model of a two-player game to select the best strategies, whose action is expected to maintain the values of a certain variable on the neutral level. By inserting fuzzy sets as payoff values in the game matrix we facilitate the procedure of formulations of payoff expectations by players. Instead of making difficult decisions about the choice of accurate numerical entries of the matrix the players are able to use words, which should simplify a communication between them when designing the preliminaries of the game. The players also have the possibility of making a ranking of their favorite strategies.

23456 201 - 250 of 287
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