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  • 201. Bai, Guohua
    A Sociocybernetic Model of Sustainable Social Systems2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ongoing economic crisis world around has asked for a theoretical understanding and deep analysis of what have been wrong in our economic system in specific and social system as whole. Discussions in many forums and mass media have mostly focused on a level of first order casual-effects such as bank and credit system in relation to house loans and car industries, and where and how much the stimulating packages should be distributed, etc. This is what I called a liveability level problem. A second order understanding of fundamental systems structure and social subsystems relationships however, have not been much addressed properly. This is what I called the sustainability problem. This paper will propose an epistemological model based on cybernetic feedback principle and the Activity Theory to interpret the second order problems that deeply embed in our social-economic system structure. So the liveability and sustainability are coherently discussed within a socio-cybernetic system. The first part of the paper introduces shortly principles of feedbacks from cybernetics, especially understanding the behaviours of positive and negative feedbacks. Then, the Activity Theory and related concepts from social autopoietic theory are introduced. The aim of introducing those concepts is to provide the basic elements/components to the construction of a double-loops feedback model in the second part. In the last, the current economic crisis is interpreted based on the constructed model, to verify the usability of the proposed model.

  • 202.
    Bai, Guohua
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    A Sustainable Platform for E-services System Design2004In: Journal of Systems Science and Systems Engineering, ISSN 1004-3756, E-ISSN 1861-9576, Vol. 13, no No.4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By integrating system thinking and social psychology, this paper presents an Activity System Theory (AST) approach to the platform design of e-service systems in general, and e-healthcare systems in specific. In the first part, some important principles of AST and a sustainable model of human activity system are introduced. Then a project ‘Integrated Mobile Information System for Healthcare (IMIS)’ is presented to demonstrate how to construct a comprehensive platform for various complex e-service systems based on the sustainable model of AST. Our research focused on the complex e-healthcare system in Sweden, and the results showed that the model of AST can provide the designers of e-service system with a comprehensive and sustainable platform for designing various kinds of e-service system

  • 203.
    Bai, Guohua
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Activity System Theory Approach to Healthcare Information System2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Healthcare information system is a very complex system and has to be approached from systematic perspectives. This paper presents an Activity System Theory (ATS) approach by integrating system thinking and social psychology. First part of the paper, the activity system theory is presented, especially a recursive model of human activity system is introduced. A project ‘Integrated Mobile Information System for Diabetic Healthcare (IMIS)’ is then used to demonstrate a practical application of the Activity System Theory especially in constructing healthcare information system. Our conclusion is that the activity system model can provide the service system designers with a comprehensive and integrated framework for designing healthcare information system in specific, and for designing various kinds of service systems in general.

  • 204. Bai, Guohua
    Activity Theory as a Framework for CSCW Software Architecture Design.2002In: Activity Theory and Sociocultural Research. / [ed] Nissen, M; Westerberg, K, 2002Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 205. Bai, Guohua
    An Epistemological Model of Social Activities: Sociocybernetics2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 206.
    Bai, Guohua
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    An Organic View of Prototyping in Information System Development2014In: 2014 IEEE 17th International Conference on Computational Science and Engineering (CSE) / [ed] Liu, X; ElBaz, D; Hsu, CH; Kang, K; Chen, W, ChengDu: IEEE, 2014, Vol. Article number 07023844, p. 1814-1818Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an organic view of prototyping for managing dynamic factors involved in evolutionary design of information systems (IS). Those dynamic factors can be caused by, for example, continuing suggestions from users, changes in the technologies, and users-designers learning related stepwise progresses. Expanding the evolutionary prototyping to ‘start small and grow’, the organic view of prototyping proposes two prerequisites to do so, namely 1) a sustainable and adaptive ‘embryo’ – an organic structure of the future system, and 2) an embedded learning and feedback management that the actors of the system (users, designers, decision makers, administrators) can communicate with each other. An example of eHealth system design demonstrates how the prerequisites can be implemented.

  • 207. Bai, Guohua
    e-Health – Challenges and Approaches2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: e-Health has been one of the most expected IT (information technology) applications just like e-Business, e-Learning, e-Government, and e-Democracy. However, e-Health has not reached the expected scale of use IT. There are challenges especially involved in healthcare sectors that are so different from other sectors. I will stress those challenges and suggest some approaches to meet the challenges from my past 10 years experience as a researcher in this area. I hope this will provide with researchers, entrepreneurs, and practitioners some hints when e-Health is the target area.

  • 208.
    Bai, Guohua
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    E-hälsa: Utmaningen och Möjligheter2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As the organiser of the workshop 'IT-stöd för vård och omsorg i hemmet', the author presents a general picture of the subject, and call for one day's discussion with around 30 participants from all around Sweden.

  • 209. Bai, Guohua
    Feedback Principle for Studies of Social Activities2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 210. Bai, Guohua
    Globalization Through Feedback of Social Activities2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 211.
    Bai, Guohua
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    ICT PROJECTS: Case Study Reports2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The case study of OVK (Seamless healthcare chain supported by ICT (Obruten vårdkedja med IT –stöd) describes some basic key factors for sucessful eHealth project, and is documented in the projects database in IANIS+

  • 212. Bai, Guohua
    Integrated Mobile Information System (IMIS) for Healthcare Work.2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 213. Bai, Guohua
    Integrerade Nätverk i Hemsjukvården För Personer Med Diabetes (IMIS)2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presentation is a IMIS project report to VINNOVA's programkonferens IT i Hemsjukvård.

  • 214. Bai, Guohua
    Integrerade nätverk i hemsjukvården för personer med diabetes (IMIS)2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    IT för sjukvård i hemmet är ett program inom VINNOVAs enhet Tjänster och IT användning.

  • 215.
    Bai, Guohua
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Guo, Yang
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    A General Architecture For Developing A Sustainable Elderly Care e-Health System2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on some identified problems and challenges to the current healthcare system, this paper proposes architecture for developing e-health system to meet the challenges and resolve some problems. The architecture is based on a solid theoretical model of human activity, and it has properties such as sustainability, generality, and expandability. We demonstrate the properties of the architecture through an ongoing research project. We concluded that this architecture can be widely used to integrate various small scale applications of e-health systems and to resolve some current design problems such as interoperability and knowledge sharing.

  • 216. Bai, Guohua
    et al.
    Guo, Yang
    Activity Theory Ontology for Knowledge Sharing in E-health2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge sharing has become an imperative and challenging issue in the E-health field for improving total quality of services. However, since the E-health subject is a multi-disciplinary and cross-organizational area, to have shared concepts, vocabulary plus a specification of its intended meaning, namely an ontology, has been an obstacle to develop e-health system. We will in this paper propose a knowledge sharing ontology on the basis of Activity Theory. We believe that Activity Theory can provide high level and rich ontology for the developers of E-health system to encompass the multi-disciplinary and cross-organizational knowledge. We validate our approach in the end by demonstrating our project IMIS (Integrated Mobile Information System for Healthcare) that uses the activity theory as ontological architecture for the construction of the whole system.

  • 217. Bai, Guohua
    et al.
    Malmqvist, Gustav
    Guide to REgional Good Practice eHealth2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report shows the result of the work of IANIS+ eHealth work group (WG). The WG has collected regional eHealth experiences from around Europe through a number of activities: • Regional eHealth case studies of which 17 (from 15 regions) are shown in this report • Four joint meetings of the group of which one was a policy seminar with invited guests from the EU Commission, relevant organisations in the field of eHealth and regional authorities • A meeting with the European Commission DG Information Society & Media, Unit H1 eHealth • Collaboration with the eHealth network within the organisation Assembly of European Regions (AER) • Attendance in recent major eHealth conferences: · Personal Health Systems arranged by the European Commission when launching the eHealth part of the 7th Framework Programme, 11-12 February 2007 · The EU-US eHealth Policy Workshop, 10 May 2007 · The final conference of the INTERREG IIIB project Baltic eHealth, 21-22 May 2007 • eHealth seminars at IANIS+ annual conferences in Blekinge 2006 and Bilbao 2007 The innovation perspective of eHealth in the regions has been the focus for the IANIS+ eHealth WG. Regional diversity regarding strategies, policies, and action plans for eHealth can act as a driving factor for successful eHealth projects, but leads also to challenges for interoperability, standardisation, integrity and security. It is important to learn from others. It may be about how to choose the right technology or what methods to use for implementation. Depending on what area of eHealth, there are numerous projects and up-and-running services from which we can learn. Not to forget there are also many experiences from unsuccessful trials. Even if an eHealth solution has failed in one setting, it can be a success under different circumstances. The aim of the IANIS+ eHealth Working Group was to share experience between regions belonging to the network, and bring up some issues of good practice for regional eHealth implementation. Projects brought up in the IANIS+ working group are projects in there own rights, with pros and cons. The projects cover different perspectives and types of eHealth. Some were difficult to evaluate while others are valuable comparable experiences from different settings and circumstances. In any case, we can learn something from all the cases as examples from reality and as a complement to formal evaluations and scientific studies of eHealth. We would rather use the term good practice than best practice. There is always something good to learn from others while there is hardly any best practice that works under every circumstance.

  • 218. Bai, Guohua
    et al.
    Zhang, Peng
    Developing a Semantic Web Services for Interoperability2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the design problems in healthcare information systems on how to adapt to dynamic factors and diversities so as to reach the interoperability between healthcare actors. Those dynamic factors and diversities are caused by, for example, constant suggestions from users, changes in the applied technologies, and after-learning related stepwise progresses. We suggest applying Web services technology, especially the idea of Semantic Web to tackle the problem of diversity in healthcare branch. In order to tackle the problem of dynamic changes during the design process, we suggest an evolutionary design methodology based upon an organic development metaphor – embryonic prototyping approach (EmA). We demonstrate our idea by the project IMIS that is to design a semantic Web service for the diabetic healthcare.

  • 219. Bai, Guohua
    et al.
    Zhang, Peng
    Functions For eHealth Communication Systems Design2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of eHealth systems calls for a clear needs analysis and functions based on the users’ perspective. However, this is often the most difficult part of designing eHealth service systems, because of the diversity of users and diversified needs. This paper provides a general mapping and overview of the basic functions of eHealth systems identified through two studies: (1) a comprehensive study of the resource book of eHealth projects under the European Sixth Framework programme (FP6), and (2) a theoretical study based on the framework of Activity Theory. The first study provides the eHealth system designers with an overview of a number of important and particular functions that the users/citizens need in order to get good services; while the second study presents a fundamental ‘skeleton’ and architecture for providing those particular functions in an orderly and coherent system.

  • 220.
    BAIG, CLEMENT RANJITH ANTHIKKAD & IRFAN AHMED
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT OF OFDM IN PAPR REDUCTION USING NEW COMPANDING TRANSFORM AND ADAPTIVE AC EXTENSION ALGORITHM FOR NEXT GENERATION NETWORKSPERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT OF OFDM IN PAPR REDUCTION USING NEW COMPANDING TRANSFORM AND ADAPTIVE AC EXTENSION ALGORITHM FOR NEXT GENERATION NETWORKS2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a new hybrid PAPR reduction technique for the OFDM signal, which combines a multiple symbol representations method with a signal clipping method. The clipping method is a nonlinear PAPR reduction scheme, where the amplitude of the signal is limited to a given threshold. Considering the fact that the signal must be interpolated before A/D conversion, a variety of clipping methods has been proposed. Some methods suggest the clipping before interpolation, having the disadvantage of the peaks re-growth. Other methods contributed that the clipping after interpolation, having the disadvantage of out-of-band power production. In order to overcome this problem different filtering techniques have been proposed. Filtering can also cause peak re-growth, but less than the clipping before interpolation. Another clipping technique supposes that only subcarriers having the highest phase difference between the original signal and its clipped variant will be changed. This is the case of the partial clipping method. To further reduce the PAPR, the dynamic of the clipped signal can be compressed. Linear methods like partial transmit sequence or selective mapping has been proposed for the reduction of PAPR as well. Another PAPR reduction method is the tone reservation. It uses tones on which no data is sent to reduce the transmitted signal peaks. Derivatives of this method with lower computation complexity and improved performance have been proposed: One-Tone One-Peak and one by-one iteration. A similar PAPR reduction method is the multiple symbol representations, where alternative signalling points are used to represent one symbol. The simulation results highlight the advantages of the proposed PAPR reduction method.

  • 221.
    Baig, Mirza Hamid
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Kiani, Hassan Shahzad
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Performance Evaluation of MANET using MPLS2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is special kind of wireless network which does not have any fixed structure. They are paired for specific purpose within some concise time period. As the concept of “Micro Products” with a feature of “Mobility” has gain popularity, the MANET has benefited the mankind in many ways and in number of situations such as Natural Disaster, War Zone, and Medical Camp in far-flung Earthquake hit areas etc. In every situation mobile nodes organized themselves on temporary bases in network topology. Autonomous nodes having wireless infrastructure are interconnected to form an autonomous network and easily establish a connection from one place to another. These mobile nodes act either as routers or as a host. These nodes have routing capabilities for multi hop paths through which these are interconnected. The mobility of nodes needs efficient routing for MANET. So therewith, Multi Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) enhances routing with respect to path and packet forwarding. In our thesis we try to analyze the various effects of MPLS on MANET protocols when integrated with MPLS. Simulations were carried out using OPNET modeler 14.5 for analyzing the MPLS effects on the metrics like route discovery time, packet end-to-end delay and throughput. Moreover case study is also included to present a conceptual model for integrating MPLS with MANET protocols.

  • 222.
    Bajwa, Sohaib-Shahid
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Interaction and System Design.
    Investigating the Nature of Relationship between Software Size and Development Effort2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Software effort estimation still remains a challenging and debatable research area. Most of the software effort estimation models take software size as the base input. Among the others, Constructive Cost Model (COCOMO II) is a widely known effort estimation model. It uses Source Lines of Code (SLOC) as the software size to estimate effort. However, many problems arise while using SLOC as a size measure due to its late availability in the software life cycle. Therefore, a lot of research has been going on to identify the nature of relationship between software functional size and effort since functional size can be measured very early when the functional user requirements are available. There are many other project related factors that were found to be affecting the effort estimation based on software size. Application Type, Programming Language, Development Type are some of them. This thesis aims to investigate the nature of relationship between software size and development effort. It explains known effort estimation models and gives an understanding about the Function Point and Functional Size Measurement (FSM) method. Factors, affecting relationship between software size and development effort, are also identified. In the end, an effort estimation model is developed after statistical analyses. We present the results of an empirical study which we conducted to investigate the significance of different project related factors on the relationship between functional size and effort. We used the projects data in the International Software Benchmarking Standards Group (ISBSG) dataset. We selected the projects which were measured by utilizing the Common Software Measurement International Consortium (COSMIC) Function Points. For statistical analyses, we performed step wise Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Analysis of Co-Variance (ANCOVA) techniques to build the multi variable models. We also performed Multiple Regression Analysis to formalize the relation.

  • 223.
    Bakht, Syed Sikandar
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Ahmad, Qazi Sohail
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    A Multi Agent Web Based Simulation Model for Evaluating Container Terminal Management2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis provides a software prototype of Container Terminal Management system with the help of a Multi Agent systems technology. The goal that has been tried to achieve during this research work was to solve the management issues residing in a CT. The software prototype can be implemented as simulation software that will help the Terminal Managers to take necessary decisions for the better productivity of CT. The CTs are struggling with taking proper management decisions. There are many policies implemented but the use of a certain policy at a proper time is the main issue. It is possible with simulation software to visualize the affects of decisions taken by the implementation of a policy and see the expected output. This can really improve the performance of a CT. The management decision problem is solved by modeling the whole CT in a computer modeling language. The prototype shows all the actors appearing in a CT in the form of Agents and these agents are responsible for carrying out certain tasks. The prototype is the final contribution along with partial implementation. The model is proposed to be a web based system which removes the platform dependability problem and provide availability online.

  • 224.
    Bakht, Syed Sikandar
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Ahmad, Qazi Sohail
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    A Multi Agent Web Based Simulation Model for Evaluating Container Terminal Management2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis provides a software prototype of Container Terminal Management system with the help of a Multi Agent systems technology. The goal that has been tried to achieve during this research work was to solve the management issues residing in a CT. The software prototype can be implemented as simulation software that will help the Terminal Managers to take necessary decisions for the better productivity of CT. The CTs are struggling with taking proper management decisions. There are many policies implemented but the use of a certain policy at a proper time is the main issue. It is possible with simulation software to visualize the affects of decisions taken by the implementation of a policy and see the expected output. This can really improve the performance of a CT. The management decision problem is solved by modeling the whole CT in a computer modeling language. The prototype shows all the actors appearing in a CT in the form of Agents and these agents are responsible for carrying out certain tasks. The prototype is the final contribution along with partial implementation. The model is proposed to be a web based system which removes the platform dependability problem and provide availability online.

  • 225.
    Bakhtyar, Shoaib
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Designing Electronic Waybill Solutions for Road Freight Transport2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In freight transportation, a waybill is an important document that contains essential information about a consignment. The focus of this thesis is on a multi-purpose electronic waybill (e-Waybill) service, which can provide the functions of a paper waybill, and which is capable of storing, at least, the information present in a paper waybill. In addition, the service can be used to support other existing Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) services by utilizing on synergies with the existing services. Additionally, information entities from the e-Waybill service are investigated for the purpose of knowledge-building concerning freight flows.

    A systematic review on state-of-the-art of the e-Waybill service reveals several limitations, such as limited focus on supporting ITS services. Five different conceptual e-Waybill solutions (that can be seen as abstract system designs for implementing the e-Waybill service) are proposed. The solutions are investigated for functional and technical requirements (non-functional requirements), which can potentially impose constraints on a potential system for implementing the e-Waybill service. Further, the service is investigated for information and functional synergies with other ITS services. For information synergy analysis, the required input information entities for different ITS services are identified; and if at least one information entity can be provided by an e-Waybill at the right location we regard it to be a synergy. Additionally, a service design method has been proposed for supporting the process of designing new ITS services, which primarily utilizes on functional synergies between the e-Waybill and different existing ITS services. The suggested method is applied for designing a new ITS service, i.e., the Liability Intelligent Transport System (LITS) service. The purpose of the LITS service isto support the process of identifying when and where a consignment has been damaged and who was responsible when the damage occurred. Furthermore, information entities from e-Waybills are utilized for building improved knowledge concerning freight flows. A freight and route estimation method has been proposed for building improved knowledge, e.g., in national road administrations, on the movement of trucks and freight.

    The results from this thesis can be used to support the choice of practical e-Waybill service implementation, which has the possibility to provide high synergy with ITS services. This may lead to a higher utilization of ITS services and more sustainable transport, e.g., in terms of reduced congestion and emissions. Furthermore, the implemented e-Waybill service can be an enabler for collecting consignment and traffic data and converting the data into useful traffic information. In particular, the service can lead to increasing amounts of digitally stored data about consignments, which can lead to improved knowledge on the movement of freight and trucks. The knowledge may be helpful when making decisions concerning road taxes, fees, and infrastructure investments.

  • 226.
    Bakhtyar, Shoaib
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    On the Synergies Between an Electronic Waybill and Intelligent Transport Systems Services2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this thesis is to investigate potential synergies between an electronic waybill (e-Waybill) and other Intelligent Transport System (ITS) services. An e-Waybill service, as presented in this thesis, should be able to perform the functions of a paper waybill (which is an important transport document and contains essential information about a consignment) and it should contain at least the information specified in a paper waybill. To investigate synergies between the e-Waybill solutions and ITS services, we present 5 conceptual e-Waybill solutions that differ in where the e-Waybill information is stored, read, and written. These solutions are further investigated for functional and technical requirements (non-functional requirements), which can potentially impose constraints on a potential system that should implement the e-Waybill service. A set of 20 ITS services are considered for synergy analysis in this thesis. These services are mainly for road transport, however most of them are relevant to be considered for utilization in other modes of transport as well. For information synergy analysis, the e-Waybill solutions are assessed based on their synergies with ITS services. For different ITS services, the required input information entities are identified; and if at least one information entity can be provided by an e-Waybill at the right location we regard it to be a synergy. The result from our synergy analysis may support the choice of practical e-Waybill systems, which has the possibility to provide high synergy with ITS services. This may lead to a higher utilization of ITS services and more sustainable transport, e.g., in terms of reduced congestion and emissions. Additionally, a service design method has been proposed for supporting the process of designing new ITS services, which primarily utilizes on functional synergies with already existing ITS services. In order to illustrate the usage of the suggested method, we have applied it for designing a new ITS service, i.e., the Liability Intelligent Transport System (LITS) service. The purpose of the LITS service is to support the process of identifying when, where, and by whom a consignment has been damaged and who was responsible when the consignment was damaged.

  • 227.
    Bakhtyar, Shoaib
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Afridi, Qaisar Zaman
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Performance Evaluation of Two Different Usability Evaluation Methods in the Context of Collaborative Writing Systems2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s world of rapid technological development one cannot deny the importance of collaborative writing systems. Besides many advantages of a collaborative writing system the major one is to allow its end users to work in collaboration with each other without having to physically meet. In the past various researches has been carried out for the usability evaluation of collaborative writing systems using the think aloud protocol method however there is no study conducted on the comparison of different usability evaluation methods in the context of collaborative writing systems. In this thesis work the authors have tried to find the limitations and capabilities of think aloud protocol and co-discovery learning methods in the context of a collaborative writing system called ZOHO, as well as the usability evaluation of ZOHO using think aloud protocol and co-discovery learning methods. The authors found various usability errors in ZOHO. Apart from this the authors also observed the two usability evaluation methods when they were used for usability evaluation of ZOHO. The authors found that both the methods have its’ own benefits and drawbacks. While the co-discovery learning method was fast enough, it was expensive in terms of human resource. On the other hand think aloud protocol method was slow to perform but there was less human resource used. Both the usability methods found almost the same usability errors.

  • 228.
    Bakhtyar, Shoaib
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Holmgren, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Persson, Jan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    A synergy based method for designing ITS services2013In: international Journal of Advanced Logistics, ISSN 2287-7592, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 45-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we propose a method for supporting the process of designing Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) services, which utilizes on primarily functional synergies with already existing services. Using synergies between services will enable sharing of resources, such as, information entities, functions and technical resources, which in turn may lead to reduced costs for implementing services. The method is built around an existing service description framework, which is used to describe both existing services and the service to be designed. In order to illustrate the usage of the suggested method, we have applied it for designing a new ITS service, i.e., the Liability Intelligent Transport System (LITS) service. The purpose of the LITS service is to support the process of identifying when, where and why freight has been damaged, and which actor was responsible when the freight was damaged. The LITS service may lead to better quality control of consignments and may also facilitate the identification of which actor was responsible for the freight damage, which is of particular interest in multi-modal transport. By applying our service design method we were able to identify that three out of four functions of the LITS service already exist in other existing ITS services. Therefore, the LITS service can be designed based on synergies with these services.

  • 229.
    Bakhtyar, Shoaib
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Holmgren, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Persson, Jan A.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Technical Requirements of the e-Waybill Service2016In: International Journal of Computer and Communication Engineering, ISSN 2010-3743, ISSN 2010-3743, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 130-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An electronic waybill (e-Waybill) is a service whose purpose is to replace the paper waybill, which is a paper documents that traditionally follows a consignment during transport. An important purpose of the e-Waybill is to achieve a paperless flow of information during freight transport. In this paper, we investigate five e-Waybill solutions, that is, system design specifications for the e-Waybill, regarding their non-functional (technical) requirements. In addition, we discuss how well existing technologies are able to fulfil the identified requirements. We have identified that information storage, synchronization and conflict management, access control, and communication are important categories of technical requirements of the e-Waybill service. We argue that the identified technical requirements can be used to support the process of designing and implementing the e-Waybill service.

  • 230. Bakhtyar, Shoaib
    et al.
    Persson, Jan A.
    Holmgren, Johan
    Achieving services when turning a waybill into an e-waybill2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this paper is to present potential electronic waybill (e-waybill) solutions for a traditional waybill with the potential for supporting different Intelligent Transport System (ITS) services, such as, identification of freight, automating the exchange of content-related data for regulatory or commercial purposes, etc. At present there are some initiatives, for instance, by the International Air Transport Association (IATA) and the e-Freight framework, for achieving solutions that can handle e-waybills. Both these solutions focus on actor-to-actor communication, however we hypothesize that the storage of a waybill’s data both locally and centrally (i.e. actor-to-actor as well as goods-to-actor communication) can support more services than only central storage of the waybill’s data. Further we look at the information required and possible communication links between different actors in order to identify different ITS services that can be achieved through an e-waybill solution. We then map this information on to the e-waybill solutions that we have proposed, which will allow us to identify which services are supported by the different e-waybill solutions.

  • 231.
    Bala, Jaswanth
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Filtering estimated series of residential burglaries using spatio-temporal route calculations2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. According to Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention, there is an increase of 19% in residential burglary crimes in Sweden over the last decade and only 5% of the total crimes reported were actually solved by the law enforcement agencies. In order to solve these cases quickly and efficiently, the law enforcement agencies has to look into the possible linked serial crimes. Many studies have suggested to link crimes based on Modus Operendi and other characteristic. Sometimes crimes which are not possible to travel spatially with in the reported times but have similar Modus Operendi are also grouped as linked crimes. Investigating such crimes could possibly waste the resources of the law enforcement agencies.

    Objectives. In this study, we investigate the possibility of the usage of travel distance and travel duration between different crime locations while linking the residential burglary crimes. A filtering method has been designed and implemented for filtering the unlinked crimes from the estimated linked crimes by utilizing the distance and duration values.

    Methods. The objectives in this study are satisfied by conducting an experiment. The travel distance and travel duration values are obtained from various online direction services. The filtering method was first validated on ground truth represented by known linked crime series and then it was used to filter out crimes from the estimated linked crimes.

    Results. The filtering method had removed a total of 4% unlinked crimes from the estimated linked crime series when the travel mode is considered as driving. Whereas it had removed a total of 23% unlinked crimes from the estimated linked crime series when the travel mode is considered as walking. Also it was found that a burglar can take an average of 900 seconds (15 minutes) for committing a burglary.

    Conclusions. From this study it is evident that the usage of spatial and temporal values in linking residential burglaries gives effective crime links in a series. Also, the usage of Google Maps for getting distance and duration values can increase the overall performance of the filtering method in linking crimes.

  • 232.
    Banelis, Justas
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Proscevicius, Arunas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Streaming Video Based on an Intelligent Frame Skipping Technique2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Video streaming is an important field of global communications and data processing. It is divided into server and client sides connected via network. Video streaming is concerned with delivering video data from server to client over the network as fast and with as little loss as possible. In this study the possibilities to minimize the amount of data transferred over the network in video streaming are investigated and a video streaming technique comprised of server and client sides is proposed. To expand the flexibility and adaptability of the proposed video streaming technique an operational parameter system was constructed and the parameter value ranges were defined. The proposed video streaming technique was then applied to three sample videos. Before streaming the server side of the proposed technique reduced the frame count of input videos based on operational parameter values while the client side reconstructed the skipped frames. Then the quality of the resulting videos was measured and evaluated. To evaluate the reconstructed frames and videos the PSNR measurement method was used. The study concludes that by using the proposed video streaming technique it is possible to reduce the amount of transfer data by dropping frames on the server side and reconstructing them on the client side.

  • 233. Bao, Vo Nguyen Quoc
    et al.
    Duong, Quang Trung
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Tellambura, Chintha
    On the performance of cognitive underlay multihop networks with imperfect channel state information2013In: IEEE Transactions on Communications, ISSN 0090-6778, E-ISSN 1558-0857, Vol. 61, no 12, p. 4864-4873Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes and analyzes cognitive multihop decode-and-forward networks in the presence of interference due to channel estimation errors. To reduce interference on the primary network, a simple yet effective back-off control power method is applied for secondary multihop networks. For a given threshold of interference probability at the primary network, we derive the maximum back-off control power coefficient, which provides the best performance for secondary multihop networks. Moreover, it is shown that the number of hops for secondary network is upper-bounded under the fixed settings of the primary network. For secondary multihop networks, new exact and asymptotic expressions for outage probability (OP), bit error rate (BER) and ergodic capacity over Rayleigh fading channels are derived. Based on the asymptotic OP and BEP, a pivotal conclusion is reached that the secondary multihop network offers the same diversity order as compared with the network without back off. Finally, we verify the performance analysis through various numerical examples which confirm the correctness of our analysis for many channel and system settings and provide new insight into the design and optimization of cognitive multihop networks.

  • 234. Baptista, Ana Alice
    et al.
    Linde, PeterBlekinge Institute of Technology, The Library.Lavesson, NiklasBlekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.Brito, Miguel Abrunhosa de
    Social Shaping of Digital Publishing: Exploring the Interplay Between Culture and Technology - Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Electronic Publishing2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the advent of the Web, the processes and forms of electronic publishing have been changing. The open access movement has been a major driver of change in recent years with regard to scholarly communication; however, changes are also evident in other fields of application such as e-government and e-learning. In most cases these changes are driven by technological advances, but there are also cases where a change in social reality pushes technological development. Both the social and mobile web and linked data are currently shaping the edge of research in digital publishing. Liquid publishing is on the more daring agendas. Digital preservation is an issue that poses great challenges which are still far from being solved. The legal issues, security and trust continue to deserve our full attention. We need new visualization techniques and innovative interfaces that will keep pace with the global dimension of information. This is the current scenario, but what will follow? What are the technologies and social and communication paradigms that we will be discussing in ten or twenty years? ELPUB 2012 focuses on the social shaping of digital publishing, exploring the interplay between culture and technology. This makes the fact that it is being held in the European Capital of Culture for 2012, Guimarães, Portugal, all the more appropriate. 52 submissions were received for ELPUB 2012, from which 23 articles and 10 posters were accepted after peer review. Of the accepted articles, 11 were submitted as full articles and 12 as extended abstracts. These articles have been grouped into sessions on the following topics: Sessions 1 and 4 – Digital Scholarship & Publishing; Session 2 – Special Archives; Session 3 – Libraries & Repositories, Session 5 – Digital Texts & Readings, and Session 6 – Future Solutions & Innovations. The programme features two keynote speeches. Kathleen Fitzpatrick's speech is entitled “Planned Obsolescence: Publishing, Technology, and the Future of the Academy”, that of Antonio Câmara is entitled “Publishing in 2021”. Finally we call your attention to the panel on e-books, which is entitled “Academic e-books – Technological hostage or cultural redeemer?”. We believe this is another great edition of the ELPUB conference. We would like to take this opportunity to thank both the members of the ELPUB executive committee and the members of the local advisory committee, for making it happen. Together they provided valuable advice and assistance during the entire organization process. Secondly we would like to mention our colleagues on the program committee, who assured the quality of the conference through the peer review process. Last but not least, we wish to thank the local organization team for ensuring that all this effort culminates in a very interesting scientific event on the 14th and 15th of June. Thank you all for helping us to maintain the quality of ELPUB and merit the trust of our authors and attendees. We wish you all a good conference and we say farewell, hoping to see you again in Sweden in 2013!

  • 235.
    Basa, Srinivas
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Interaction and System Design.
    Ganji, Naveen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Interaction and System Design.
    Enhanced NMS Tool Architecture for Discovery and Monitoring of Nodes2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis work intends to provide an architecture for discovery and monitoring of nodes in a network with improved performance and security. The proposed work addresses limitations identified within the scope of this thesis. The limitations are identified by analyzing some of the better existing monitoring tools in the market with the use of different protocols. The proposed work use different protocols depending on the situation of the problem that exists in a network. Analyze the existing network monitoring tools, by performing metrics and overcoming the limitations. We proposed a new architecture motivated from traditional network monitoring tools with subtle changes. Proposed architecture is also conceptually evaluated for its viability.

  • 236.
    Basit, Syed Abdul
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Interaction and System Design.
    Malik, Omar
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Interaction and System Design.
    Planning and Analysis of Knowledge Intensive Enterprise Resource Planning Systems2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ERP software and applications have become basic requirement of almost every organization in order to compete with each other and in time constraint. In order to develop an efficient application, project planning and analysis play very important role in better understanding of the problem domain and to provide a risk free solution. There are many different approaches which software developers used to develop the systems. These traditional approaches have some drawbacks and constraints. Either these are ad-hoc basis or have some fixed patterns and rules. We discussed all these techniques and suggest that planning and analysis of ERP application during its development can be done by applying more appropriate knowledge engineering commonKADS model. CommonKADS is a structured approach, It comprises of different model suites. Thesis presents that by using commonKADS model for project planning and analysis, real problem domain and efficient solution can be identified. Also domain process is identified. Tasks related to each process in the domain are identified. Knowledge assets related to each task are identified. These features help in defining real knowledge specification. In this way, ERP applications can be made knowledge based. ERP systems were introduced to solve different organizational problems and provide integrated structure. Although ERP packages offer advantages to enterprises, they have not achieved many of their anticipated benefits. Autonomous and heterogeneous applications co-exist in companies with ERP systems and integration problem having not been addressed. This thesis seeks to make some suggestions to this area by studying and analyzing ERP problems, through mapping commonKADS methodology in a case study. Thesis in start, presents an overview about ERP applications, Knowledge Engineering and commonKADS methodology. In the end, thesis presents our contribution a case study ―online courses Registration Portal for BTH which shows that planning and analysis of ERP applications by using commonKADS methodology helps in reaching knowledge based and more accurate solutions.

  • 237.
    Baskaravel, Yogaraj
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Implementation and evaluation of global router for Information-Centric Networking2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. A huge majority of the current Internet traffic is information dissemination. Information-Centric Networking (ICN) is a future networking paradigm that focuses on global level information dissemination. In ICN, the communication is defined in terms of requesting and providing Named Data Objects (NDO). NetInf is a future networking architecture based on Information-Centric Networking principles. Objectives. In this thesis, a global routing solution for ICN has been implemented. The authority part of NDO's name is mapped to a set of routing hints each with a priority value. Multiple NDOs can share the same authority part and thus the first level aggregation is provided. The routing hints are used to forward a request for a NDO towards a suitable copy of the NDO. The second level aggregation is achieved by aggregating high priority routing hints on low priority routing hints. The performance and scalability of the routing implementation are evaluated with respect to global ICN requirements. Furthermore, some of the notable challenges in implementing global ICN routing are identified. Methods. The NetInf global routing solution is implemented by extending NEC's NetInf Router Platform (NNRP). A NetInf testbed is built over the Internet using the extended NNRP implementation. Performance measurements have been taken from the NetInf testbed. The performance measurements have been discussed in detail in terms of routing scalability. Results. The performance measurements show that hop-by-hop transport has significant impact on the overall request forwarding. A notable amount of time is taken for extracting and inserting binary objects such as routing hints at each router. Conclusions. A more suitable hop-by-hop transport mechanism can be evaluated and used with respect to global ICN requirements. The NetInf message structure can be redefined so that binary objects such as routing hints can be transmitted more efficiently. Apart from that, the performance of the global routing implementation appears to be reasonable. As the NetInf global routing solution provides two levels of aggregation, it can be scalable as well.

  • 238. Bathelt, Jens
    et al.
    Jönsson, Anders
    How to Implement the Virtual Machine Concept Using xPC Target2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an overview of the historical background of the virtual machine, containing a real control, a machine simulation and a 3D machine visualisation. This setup enables realistic system simulations, since the simulation input comes from a real control. The first known implementation of the virtual machine using xPC Target is described with an existing water jet cutting machine as an example. MathWorks products offer all necessary software for the presented setup, except the interface for the actual speed value from the simulated incremental encoder to the control. The unique xPC driver implementation, as a noninlined C-MEX S-Function, is presented at the end of this paper. The successful implementation of the virtual machine demonstrates the feasibility of the presented approach.

  • 239. Bayer, J.
    et al.
    Eisenbarth, M.
    Lehner, T.
    Petersen, Kai
    Service Engineering Methodology2008In: Semantic Service Provisioning / [ed] Kuropka, D.; Tröger, P.; Weske, S. Staab and M., Berlin: Springer Verlag , 2008, p. 185-202Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 240.
    Bayer, Peter
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Widenfors, Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Information Hiding: Steganografic Content in Streaming Media2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For a long time, information hiding has focused on carriers like images and audio files. A problem with these carriers is that they do not support hiding in new types of network-based services. Nowadays, these services often arise as a consequence of the increasingly demand for higher connection speed to the Internet. By introducing streaming media as a carrier of hidden information, hiding in new network-based services is supported. The main purposes with this thesis are to investigate how information can be hidden in streaming media and how it measures up compared to images and audio files. In order to evaluate the approach, we have developed a prototype and used it as a proof of concept. This prototype hides information in some of the TCP/IP header fields and is used to collect experimental data as well. As reference, measurements have been collected from other available carriers of hidden information. In some cases, the results of these experiments show that the TCP/IP header is a good carrier of information. Its performance is outstanding and well suited for hiding information quickly. The tests showed that the capacity is slightly worse though.

  • 241.
    Beder, Paweł
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    LANGUAGE LEARNING VIA AN ANDROID AUGMENTED REALITY SYSTEM2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Augmented Reality (AR) can be described as one of possible steps between real world and fully virtual reality. Into this mixed reality we can make an overlay with virtual objects onto the real world typically by capturing camera images in real-time to produce a new layer to the environment with which we can interact. Mobile Augmented Reality (MAR) is a term used when equipment through which we achieve AR is small in size and typically easy to carry e.g. a smartphone or a tablet. The concept of using AR in facilitating learning and improving its quality seems to attract more attention in the academic world in recent years. One of the areas that receive much attention is AR language learning. In this thesis an experiment on a group of 20 people was conducted to answer the question: “Is MAR language learning system a viable solution for language learning?” For the purpose of the experiment an AR Language Learning Tool was designed for Android smartphones. This AR Language Learning Tool facilitated vocabulary learning by displaying 3D objects along with their spelling and providing audio of pronunciation. Participants were divided into an equal control group and test group. The control group learned new vocabulary through classic flashcards while the test group used the previously designed AR Language Learning Tool. The Vocabulary Knowledge Scale questionnaires were provided for both groups right after learning and one week later. By performing statistical analysis with Student’s t-test on gathered data it was discovered that there is a positive improvement in long term recall rate in the AR Language Learning Tool group when compared with the flashcards learning group. No difference was found in short term recall rate between both groups. Participants also provided feedback about their quality of experience and enthusiasm for new learning methods. Their answers were very positive and provided proof that mobile AR is a viable method of learning vocabulary.

  • 242.
    Begnert, Joel
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Tilljander, Rasmus
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Combining Regional Time Stepping With Two-Scale PCISPH Method2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. In computer graphics, realistic looking fluid is often desired. Simulating realistic fluids is a time consuming and computationally expensive task, therefore, much research has been devoted to reducing the simulation time while maintaining the realism. Two of the more recent optimization algorithms within particle based simulations are two-scale simulation and regional time stepping (RTS). Both of them are based on the predictive-corrective incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics (PCISPH) algorithm.

    Objectives. These algorithms improve on two separate aspects of PCISPH, two-scale simulation reduces the number of particles and RTS focuses computational power on regions of the fluid where it is most needed. In this paper we have developed and investigated the performance of an algorithm combining them, utilizing both optimizations.

    Methods. We implemented both of the base algorithms, as well as PCISPH, before combining them. Therefore we had equal conditions for all algorithms when we performed our experiments, which consisted of measuring the time it took to run each algorithm in three different scene configurations.

    Results. Results showed that our combined algorithm on average was faster than the other three algorithms. However, our implementation of two-scale simulation gave results inconsistent with the original paper, showing a slower time than even PCISPH. This invalidates the results for our combined algorithm since it utilizes the same implementation.

    Conclusions. We see that our combined algorithm has potential to speed up fluid simulations, but since the two-scale implementation was incorrect, our results are inconclusive.

  • 243. Bell, Tim
    et al.
    Aspvall, Bengt
    Sorting algorithms as special cases of a priority queue sort2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper offers an exercise for revisiting the main sorting algorithms after they have been taught to students. This is done in a way that emphasizes the relationships between them, and shows how considering abstraction and extreme cases can lead to the generation of new algorithms. A number of authors (including textbook authors) have noted particular relationships between algorithms, such as an uneven split in merge sort being equivalent to insertion sort. In this paper we use a flexible priority queue, the d-heap, to derive three common sorting algorithms. We combine this with using a BST as a priority queue, plus prior observations in the literature, to show strong relationships between the main sorting algorithms that appear in textbooks. In the process students are able to revisit a number of algorithms and data structures and explore elegant relationships between them. This approach can also lead to exercises and exam questions that go beyond desk-checking to evaluate students' understanding of these algorithms.

  • 244. Bell, Tim
    et al.
    Wada, Ben T
    Kanemunu, Susumu
    Xia, Xie
    Lee, WonGyu
    Choi, SookKyoung
    Aspvall, Bengt
    , Anna Wingkvist
    Making Computer Science Activities Accessible for the Languages and Cultures of Japan, Korea, China and Sweden2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When teaching material is translated into another language, text-based examples can lose their significance, analogies may be meaningless in the local culture, and there may even be problems with physical access to the material. We consider principles for addressing these issues so that teaching examples can be made accessible to a diverse range of languages and cultures. We present a case study of the adaptation of a free resource for school outreach and lecture demonstrations (csunplugged.org), looking at issues encountered for Japanese, Korean, Chinese and Swedish translations. These represent a large range of languages, types of alphabets and cultures.

  • 245.
    Bengtsson, Johan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Interaction and System Design.
    Hansson, Emma
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Interaction and System Design.
    DRM: Digital Rights Management2001Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, technological developments have led to digital files being more easily distributed, for example through Napster (a file sharing service on the Internet). In order to manage and control the distribution of digital files, a new concept has been developed, called DRM (Digital Rights Management). The purpose is to set every single file with individual rights that are extremely hard to break, and consequently make people pay and use the files legally. The file will then be fully protected from intrusion and alteration until the set rights expire. The goal of this thesis is to look into and summarise DRM of today. We have concentrated on the mobile DRM market, and especially mobile phones. Especially the solutions/applications that already exist and their functionality and properties, but also requirements regarding security levels, compatibility etc. We have also added predictions of the near future, ours as well as others. Existing applications for DRM are well made but few are constructed for mobile phones. Mobile phones will however be a good and secure platform for DRM. At present there is no DRM application inserted in mobile phones in Europe. The third generation (3G) network will push the progress with the capability of broader bandwidth, with capacity of downloading more content to the phone. Since the mobile phone software is embedded and the mobile phones are within a trusted network, the security level of a DRM application in a mobile phone can be discussed. A lower level of security would make it easier for managing content but also open up the market for hackers that wish to trespass. With a lower level of security you always have to consider the consequences and often it creates more problems than it solves. We believe the DRM market and its value will increase exponentially over the next few years. The number of players on the mobile Internet DRM market will be less than on the Internet DRM market, due to the complexity of getting applications into the phone. The latter will consist of many more players, and remain fragmented, since it is an open market.

  • 246.
    Bengtsson, Sandra
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Interaction and System Design.
    Gnospelius, Sara
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Interaction and System Design.
    XP ett stöd eller ett hinder?2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a reflection over a software engineering project, WAIS, and the work methodology that has been used within the project. Extreme Programming (XP) was the work methodology used during the process of development. We question if the choice of work methodology is suitable for this kind of project. The project was running by student during spring 2004 at Blekinge Institute of technology (BTH). The project WAIS was a part of a larger project named AIS 42 that runs with funds from VINNOVA. The main projects background and purpose are described in thesis so that the reader can understand the students’ part in the projects as a whole. The students’ main task was to develop a prototype for a system that disseminates information about logistics and transports. The system has many different end users and they come from various organizations that are spread out both physical and organizational. XP is treated as a methodology with in Agile manifesto, which principles are being explained in the thesis. Parallels are being drawn between the work process and the result from the work done. We reflect over the process and the work methodology from a perspective that has been brought forth from our years of education at BTH. The approach is built up upon theories from participatory design and human computer interaction where the user has an essential part of the process of development. The conclusion shows that the project has missed some of the advantages that XP brings. The reasons that we identified were; timeaspects, access to users and the lack of a joint objectiv.

  • 247.
    Berg, Wilhelm
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Terränggenerering och dess påverkan på spelupplevelse2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kontext. Inom speldesign är terräng ofta en viktig aspekt, särskilt i sammanhanget med spelare som ska aktivt interagera med terräng. Dess utformning och design kan både positivt och negativt påverka hur spelaren uppfattar spelet.

    Mål. I detta arbete beskrivs ett arbete i terränggenerering och om terräng kan påverka spelaren i ett interaktivt media för att få bättre förståelse inom ämnet. Har terrängen en påverkan på hur spelaren uppfattar situationer i spel samt deras sätt att spela? Kan den påverka om de uppfattar upplevelsen som negativ eller positiv? Vad är mest påverkande för en spelare och hur?

    Metoder. I arbetet kommer slutsatser och arbetssätt beskrivas tillsammans med data insamlad från ett praktiskt test. Designen för det spel som används för att testa kommer även att beskrivas. I arbetets testande låter vi deltagare spela ett spel som använder sig av en algoritm för att skapa terräng. Efter testet kommer spelare svara på frågor om testet.

    Resultat. Från testandet får vi in svar som används för att nå vissa slutsatser.

    Slutsatser. Från testets resultat kommer vi dra slutsatsen att terräng verkligen kan ha en påverkan på spelarupplevelsen och att terräng kan påverka när den har störst aktivt inverkan på hur spelaren interagerar med spelet.

  • 248.
    Bergh, Håkan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    XML: Internets framtida format?2001Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) introducerades som ett enkelt och plattformsoberoende språk med syftet att göra information tillgänglig över hela världen och är idag det mest kända och använda språket på webben. När HTML skapades var det huvudsakliga användningsområdet publicering. Efter hand ökade mognaden hos användarna och behovet av mer avancerade tillämpningar ökade. Fler och fler började då inse begränsningarna med HTML och dess enkla struktur. Metaspråket XML (eXtensible Markup Language) är ett universellt format för att strukturera dokument och data på Internet. Utveck-lingen av XML startade 1996 och antogs som en W3C-rekommendation (World Wide Web Consortsium) i februari 1998. Syftet med XML var att skapa ett betydligt mer flexibelt språk än HTML, utan att för den skull göra det mer komplext. Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka om det nödvändiga underhållet av presenterad information på webben (WWW) förbättras med hjälp av XML samt undersöka hur XML kan underlätta EDI (Electronic Data Interchange)via Internet. Uppsatsen fakta och påståenden bygger på en s k kvalitativ bearbetning d v s textmaterial i form av rapporter, specifikationer och böcker. I min undersökning har jag kommit fram till att XML kommer att bli ett av morgondagens stora format, både vad gäller skapandet av Internetapplikationer och som meddelandeformat för informationsöverfö-ring. Med XML kan allt från en enkel fil till avancerade affärsdokument skapas. Det som jag anser håller tillbaka XML i dagsläget är samtidigt en av dess styrkor, nämligen flexibiliteten, det vill säga möjligheten att deklarera egna märkord. Genom den här sortens flexibilitet blir även språket mer komplext jämfört med ett språk som t ex HTML. Ett av del-målen W3C satte upp vid skapandet var just att enkelheten skulle bibehållas. Detta delmål har delvis gått förlorat i XML. XML-familjen är idag relativt komplex. Samtidigt välkomnas förslagen till förbättringar och utbyggnad av utvecklarna, då det är kringstandarderna som ger XML flexibel funktionalitet. Den slutsats som kan dras av detta är att det kanske helt enkelt måste finnas en viss komplexitet i ett språk som ska kunna uträtta de saker som faktiskt XML gör.

  • 249. Bergkvist, Markus
    et al.
    Davidsson, Paul
    Persson, Jan A.
    Ramstedt, Linda
    A Hybrid Micro-Simulator for Determining the Effects of Governmental Control Policies on Transport Chains2005In: Multi-Agent and Multi-Agent Based Simulation / [ed] Davidsson, Paul; Logan, Brian; Takadama, and Keiki, Springer , 2005Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A simulation-based tool is described which will be used to investigate how the actors in a transport chain are expected to act when different types of governmental control policies are applied, such as, fuel taxes, road tolls, vehicle taxes and requirements on vehicles. The simulator is composed of two layers, one layer simulating the physical activities taking place in the transport chain, e.g., production, storage, and transports of goods, and another layer simulating the different actors’ decision making processes. The decision layer is implemented by a multi-agent system where each agent corresponds to a particular actor and models the way it acts in different situations. The simulator will be used for analyzing the costs and environmental effects, and will in this way provide guidance in decision making regarding control policies. In addition, it will be possible for companies to use the simulator in order to determine cost-effective strategies given different (future) scenarios.

  • 250. Bergkvist, Markus
    et al.
    Davidsson, Paul
    Persson, Jan A.
    Ramstedt, Linda
    A Hybrid Micro-Simulator for Determining the Effects of Governmental Control Policies on Transport Chains2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A simulation-based tool is described which will be used to investigate how the actors in a transport chain are expected to act when different types of governmental control policies are applied, such as, fuel taxes, road tolls, vehicle taxes and requirements on vehicles. The simulator is composed of two layers, one layer simulating the physical activities taking place in the transport chain, e.g., production, storage, and transports of goods, and another layer simulating the different actors’ decision-making processes. The decision layer is implemented by a multi-agent system where each agent corresponds to a particular actor and models the way it acts in different situations. The simulator will be used for analyzing the costs and environmental effects, and will in this way provide guidance in decision making regarding control policies. In addition, it will be possible for companies to use the simulator in order to determine cost-effective strategies given different (future) scenarios.

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