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  • 201. Berander, Patrik
    et al.
    Andrews, Anneliese Amschler
    Requirements Prioritization2005Inngår i: Engineering and Managing Software Requirements / [ed] Aurum, Aybüke; Wohlin, Claes, Berlin: Springer Verlag , 2005, s. 69-94Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter provides an overview of techniques for prioritization of requirements for software products. Prioritization is a crucial step towards making good decisions regarding product planning for single and multiple releases. Various aspects of functionality are considered, such as importance, risk, cost, etc. Prioritization decisions are made by stakeholders, including users, managers, developers, or their representatives. Methods are given how to combine individual prioritizations based on overall objectives and constraints. A range of different techniques and aspects are applied to an example to illustrate their use. Finally, limitations and shortcomings of current methods are pointed out, and open research questions in the area of requirements prioritization are discussed.

  • 202. Berander, Patrik
    et al.
    Jönsson, Per
    A Goal Question Metric Based Approach for Efficient Measurement Framework Definition2006Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 203. Berander, Patrik
    et al.
    Jönsson, Per
    Hierarchical Cumulative Voting (HCV) Prioritization of Requirements in Hierarchies2006Inngår i: International Journal of Software Engineering & Knowledge Engineering, ISSN 0218-1940 , Vol. 16, nr 6, s. 819-849Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision support in requirements engineering is an activity that plays an important role in enabling the delivery of value to stakeholders. Requirements prioritization has been identified as an integral (and important) part of requirements negotiation and release planning in incremental software development, which makes prioritization a key issue in requirements engineering decision support. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) has for long been considered as the technique to use when prioritizing requirements on a ratio scale. Several studies have reported positively about AHP, but lately a number of studies have also reported about weaknesses, without identifying any better ratio-scale alternatives. In this paper, the strengths and weaknesses of AHP and another ratioscale prioritization technique, Cumulative Voting (CV), are compared. Based on this comparison, a new technique for prioritizing hierarchically structured requirements on a ratio scale is presented, called Hierarchical Cumulative Voting (HCV). HCV addresses the weaknesses of AHP while inheriting the strengths of CV. The suitability of HCV is discussed theoretically as well as in the light of empirical results from using HCV and CV in industrial settings. It is concluded that HCV seems very promising, but additional empirical studies are needed to address some of the open questions about the technique.

  • 204. Berander, Patrik
    et al.
    Khan, K.A.
    Lehtola, L.
    Towards a Research Framework on Requirements Prioritization2006Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 205. Berander, Patrik
    et al.
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    Evaluating two Ways of Calculating Priorities in Requirements Hierarchies: an Experiment on Hierarchical Cumulative Voting2009Inngår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212 , Vol. 82, nr 5, s. 836-850Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When developing large-scale software systems, there is often a large amount of requirements present, and they often reside on several hierarchical levels. In most cases, not all stated requirements can be implemented into the product due to different constraints, and the requirements must hence be prioritized. As requirements on different abstraction levels shall not be compared, prioritization techniques that are able to handle multi-level prioritization are needed. Different such techniques exist, but they seem to result in unfair comparisons when a hierarchy is unbalanced. In this paper, an empirical experiment is presented where an approach that compensate for this challenge is evaluated. The results indicate that some form of compensation is preferred, and that the subjects’ preference is not influenced by the amount of information given.

  • 206. Berander, Patrik
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Differences in Views between Development Roles in Software Process Improvement: A Quantitative Comparison2004Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a quantitative study that evaluates how different roles in a software development organization view different issues in software process improvement. The study is conducted in a large Swedish telecommunication organization with the traditional roles of software development. The respondents of the study got five different questions related to process improvement. The result was that the different roles disagreed in three of the questions while they agreed in two of the questions. The disagreement was related to issues about importance of improvement, urgency of problems, and threat against successful process management, while the questions where the roles agreed focused on communication of the processes (documentation and teaching). It is concluded that it is important to be aware and take into account the different needs of different roles and that looking into other areas (e.g. marketing) could be beneficial when conducting process improvements.

  • 207. Berander, Patrik
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Identification of Key Factors in Software Process Management: A Case Study2003Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When conducting process related work within an organization, it is important to be aware of which factors that are most important to consider. This paper presents an empirical study that was performed in order to find the key success factors in process management. One factor, namely synchronization of processes, was considered as much more important within the studied organization than within the studied literature. This shows that more research might be needed in this area. The study further shows that it is important to relate process improvement work to the properties of the affected organization and that the key factors identified are highly interrelated.

  • 208. Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Dagiéne, Valentina
    Forword to the Special Section on the ECOOP'06 Workshop on Pedagogies and Tools for the Teaching and Learning of Object-Oriented Concepts2007Inngår i: Informatics in Education, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 3-4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 209.
    Bergstrand, Fredrik
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för programvarusystem.
    Bergstrand, Johan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för programvarusystem.
    Gunnarsson, Håkan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för programvarusystem.
    Localization of Spyware in Windows Environments2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This is a thesis about different methods that can be used to detect spyware. Methods included are Layered Service Provider, Internet Protocol Helper API, TDI filtering and API hooking. Some firewall testing applications, leak tests, that use methods that can be used by real spyware program to penetrate firewalls have also been examined. The goal was to develop a Windows 2000/XP program that is able to detect as many of our examined leak tests as possible. Our program uses the methods TDI filtering and API hooking for detection of spyware because our study showed that these methods were the best. To evaluate the program it was tested against our examined leak test programs. Our program managed to detect all leak tests except one.

  • 210.
    Bergström, Jonas
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för programvarusystem.
    Dahlqvist, Andreas
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för programvarusystem.
    BESMART: a framework for shifting from BESpoke to MARkeT-driven requirements engineering2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Requirements Engineering has two main directions, Bespoke (product developed for one customer) and Market-Driven (several potential customers for the same product). These two are in some ways very much alike but in some aspects very different. Over the last couple of years the software development industry has tended to shift more and more to Market-Driven Requirements Engineering. This has brought attention to the challenges facing a Market-Driven development organization, without focusing on the actual shift from Bespoke development. Based on the differences and similarities between Bespoke and Market-Driven Requirements Engineering, this thesis presents a framework for shifting from the former to the latter. The framework (BESMART) involves three steps. Firstly, the organization assesses their potential to become more Market-Driven. Secondly they assess their current way of working to identify which areas that may need to be improved. Finally, BESMART provides multiple suggestions that address the identified improvement areas. The organization is then able to choose the one that best suits their needs. This also lets the organization choose a solution that they find feasible. The framework was used at a case organization during its development. This way it was ensured that the theoretical framework could actually be used in a real world setting. The practical use of BESMART resulted in some refinements aimed at making it more applicable in industry. Once the framework had been applied, it was evaluated by representatives from the case organization. The industry evaluation resulted in some improvement suggestions but showed that the framework was both useful and usable and provided an improvement plan that seemed promising enough to pilot in the organization.

  • 211. Berntsson Svensson, Richard
    et al.
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Paech, Barbara
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Sharma, Devesh
    Software architecture as a means of communication in a globally distributed software development context2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The management and coordination of globally distributed development poses many new challenges, including compensating for informal implicit communication, which is aggravated by heterogeneous social and engineering traditions between development sites. Although much research has gone into identifying challenges and working with practical solutions, such as tools for communication, little research has focused on comparing communication mechanisms in terms of their ability to provide large volumes of rich information in a timely manner. Data was collected through in-depth interviews with eleven practitioners and twenty-eight responses through a web-based questionnaire from three product lines at an international software development organization. This paper assesses the relative importance of ten commonly used communication mechanisms and practices across local and global development sites. The results clearly indicate that some communication mechanisms are more important than others in providing large volumes of rich information in a timely manner. The prevalence of architecture in providing rich information in large volumes for both local and global communication can be clearly observed.

  • 212.
    Berntsson Svensson, Richard
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Bengtsson, PerOlof
    Widerberg, Jonas
    Telenor, SWE.
    BAM: backlog assessment method2019Inngår i: Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing: AGILE PROCESSES IN SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AND EXTREME PROGRAMMING, XP 2019 / [ed] Kruchten, P; Fraser, S; Coallier, F, Springer Verlag , 2019, Vol. 355, s. 53-68Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The necessity of software as stand-alone products, and as central parts of non-traditional software products have changed how software products are developed. It started with the introduction of the agile manifesto and has resulted in a change of how software process improvements (SPI) are conducted. Although there are agile SPI methods and several agile practices for evaluating and improving current processes and ways-of-working, no method or practices for evaluating the backlog exists. To address this gap, the Backlog Assessment Method (BAM) was developed and applied in collaboration with Telenor Sweden. BAM enables agile organizations to assess backlogs, and assure that the backlog items are good-enough for their needs and well aligned with the decision process. The results from the validation show that BAM is feasible and relevant in an industrial environment, and it indicates that BAM is useful as a tool to perform analysis of items in a specific backlog. © The Author(s) 2019.

  • 213.
    Berntsson Svensson, Richard
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Regnell, Björn
    Lunds universitet, SWE.
    Is role playing in Requirements Engineering Education increasing learning outcome?2017Inngår i: Requirements Engineering, ISSN 0947-3602, E-ISSN 1432-010X, Vol. 22, nr 4, s. 475-489Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Requirements Engineering has attracted a great deal of attention from researchers and practitioners in recent years. This increasing interest requires academia to provide students with a solid foundation in the subject matter. In Requirements Engineering Education (REE), it is important to cover three fundamental topics: traditional analysis and modeling skills, interviewing skills for requirements elicitation, and writing skills for specifying requirements. REE papers report about using role playing as a pedagogical tool; however, there is a surprising lack of empirical evidence on its utility. In this paper we investigate whether a higher grade in a role playing project have an effect on students’ score in an individual written exam in a Requirements Engineering course. Data are collected from 412 students between the years of 2007 and 2014 at Lund University and Chalmers | University of Gothenburg. The results show that students who received a higher grade in the role playing project scored statistically significant higher in the written exam compared to the students with a lower role playing project grade. © 2016 Springer-Verlag London

  • 214.
    Berntsson Svensson, Richard
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Taghavianfar, Maryam
    Selecting creativity techniques for creative requirements: An evaluation of four techniques using creativity workshops2015Inngår i: 2015 IEEE 23RD INTERNATIONAL REQUIREMENTS ENGINEERING CONFERENCE (RE), IEEE, 2015, s. 66-75Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Requirements engineering is recognized as a creative process where stakeholders jointly discover new creative ideas for innovative and novel products that eventually are expressed as requirements. This paper evaluates four different creativity techniques, namely Hall of Fame, Constraint Removal, Brainstorming, and Idea Box, using creativity workshops with students and industry practitioners. In total, 34 creativity workshops were conducted with 90 students from two universities, and 86 industrial practitioners from six companies. The results from this study indicate that Brainstorming can generate by far the most ideas, while Hall of Fame generates most creative ideas. Idea Box generates the least number of ideas, and the least number of creative ideas. Finally, Hall of Fame was the technique that led to the most number of requirements that was included in future releases of the products.

  • 215. Berntsson-Svensson, R.
    et al.
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Wohlin, Claes
    Hu, Ganglan
    Successful Software Project and Products: An Empirical Investigation Comparing Australia and Sweden2006Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 216.
    Berntsson-Svensson, Richard
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för programvarusystem.
    Successful Software Projects and Products: A quantitative study2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Successful or failed software projects have been discussed in literature for many years. Successful software projects are often defined as meeting business objectives, deliver on time and within budget, and meeting requirements. Different factors that contribute to software project success have been identified in the literature. Some of the most common factors that lead to software project success are: user involvement, management support, realistic requirements, and having good estimations. However, there are different opinions about what a successful software project is. Linberg found in a study that managers had a different perception from software practitioners (developers, testers etc.) about what a successful software project is. Since there are different perceptions of what a successful project is among different roles in software development, there may be differences from other perspectives too. This observation relates to the overall research questions in the thesis: Could there be different perceptions about what success factors are for software projects among different countries and customer-supplier relationships? Do people from different countries have different perceptions about what success factors are for software products? This study investigated if there are any differences and similarities between Swedish and Australian companies. In addition, a comparison between bespoke and market driven and bespoke and in-house customer-supplier relationships was made. The result shows that there are differences of which factors that lead to software project success among the two countries as well as between different types of customer-supplier relationships.

  • 217.
    Bertilsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Institutionen för programvaruteknik och datavetenskap.
    Näsman, Gustav
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Institutionen för programvaruteknik och datavetenskap.
    Improving progress tracking using automated testing techniques2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    One of the problems when developing software is the difficulty of knowing how much that is done in a project. This is a basic condition to be able to estimate the remaining efforts with increased accuracy over time. To get accurate progress information it is important that the progress tracking is done in an objective way and also in an as simple way as possible. Our focus in this work has been software projects in general but a case study has also been performed at Ericsson Software Technology AB in Ronneby. We have studied the organization and performed interviews with project managers to find out if this really is a problem and if the process can be improved in some way to ease the task of progress tracking. This case study together with our literature study has resulted in a proposition for a solution. Our approach has been to use automated testing as a way to make progress tracking more objective. The result presented in this thesis is a base for a system that could ease the tracking of progress. In short, the system extracts information from an automated testing process and compares it with estimated figures to be able to automatically generate progress information.

  • 218.
    Betz, Stefanie
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Andreas, Oberweis
    Rolf, Stephan
    Knowledge transfer in offshore outsourcing software development projects: an analysis of the challenges and solutions from German clients2014Inngår i: Expert systems (Print), ISSN 0266-4720, E-ISSN 1468-0394, Vol. 31, nr 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge transfer is a critical factor in ensuring the success of offshore outsourcing software development projects and is, in many cases, neglected. Compared to in-house or co-located projects, however, such globally distributed projects feature far greater complexity. In addition to language barriers, factors such as cultural differences, time zone variance, distinct methods and practices, as well as unique equipment and infrastructure can all lead to problems that negatively impact knowledge transfer, and as a result, a project's overall success. In order to help minimise such risks to knowledge transfer, we conducted a research study based on expert interviews in six projects. Our study used German clients and focused on offshore outsourcing software development projects. We first identified known problems in knowledge transfer that can occur with offshore outsourcing projects. Then we collected best-practice solutions proven to overcome the types of problems described. Afterward, we conducted a follow-up study to evaluate our findings. In this subsequent stage, we presented our findings to a different group of experts in five projects and asked them to evaluate these solutions and recommendations in terms of our original goal, namely to find ways to minimise knowledge-transfer problems in offshore outsourcing software development projects. Thus, the result of our study is a catalog of evaluated solutions and associated recommendations mapped to the identified problem areas.

  • 219.
    Betz, Stefanie
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Alignment of business, architecture, process, and organisation in a software development context2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigate the current state of work regarding alignment of Business, Architecture, Process, and Organisation (BAPO) perspectives in a software product development context. We planned to do that by conducting a systematic literature study to capture the state of the art in alignment of BAPO in software development. But, as it turned out we found that almost no substantial information is available about the alignment of BAPO in software development. Thus, based on the available literature and a small qualitative study, we defined a conceptual model of the alignment of BAPO including five levels of alignment that can be used as a basis for future empirical studies.

  • 220.
    Betz, Stefanie
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Moss, Andrew
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Afzal, Wasif
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    An Evolutionary Perspective on Socio-Technical Congruence:The Rubber Band Effect2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Conway’s law assumes a strong association between the system’s architecture and the organization’s communication structure that designs it. In the light of contemporary software development, when many companies rely on geographically distributed teams, which often turn out to be temporarily composed and thus having an often changing communication structure, the importance of Conway’s law and its inspired work grows. In this paper, we examine empirical research related to Conway’s law and its application for cross-site coordination. Based on the results obtained we conjecture that changes in the communication structure alone sooner or later trigger changes in the design structure of the software products to return the sociotechnical system into the state of congruence. This is further used to formulate a concept of a rubber band effect and propose a replication study that goes beyond the original idea of Conway’s law by investigating the evolution of socio-technical congruence over time.

  • 221.
    Bhatti, Ansar Malook
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för programvarusystem.
    Abdullah, Hafiz Muhammad
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för programvarusystem.
    Deciding on Optimum Set of Measures in Software Organizations2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Software measurement process is a significant part of process improvement in software organizations. The organizations usually follow a measurement process that includes measures selection, data collection, and analysis to improve their processes. Most of the software organizations face difficulties in deciding the measures to collect since there is no universal set of measures for all types of organizations and projects. Experience shows that measurement can be more successful if the measures are collected based on the goals of the organization or the project which it will serve. A few methodologies exist to aid the software organizations. Goal Question Metric (GQM) is one of the most widely known and used one. However, one of the major constraints for the organizations is the associated cost when collecting the measures. Therefore, software organizations also require selecting the optimum set of measures which are good enough for the organization. This thesis study aims to provide solution for this problem. We propose a model, named ‗Optimum Measure Set Decision Model (OMSD)‘, which is an extension of GQM paradigm. The model is based on a heuristics approach, which aims to provide the optimum set of measures from a large number of possible measures. To develop the model, we identified the factors which are significant in selecting the optimum set of measures based on the literature survey results. Then, we evaluated those factors by conducting an empirical study. As the empirical research strategy, we used traditional fixed non-experimental design strategy. We performed a survey by distributing a structured questionnaire in order to evaluate the important factors we identified when selecting the optimum number of measures to be collected in an organization. We evaluated the heuristics rules by means of some sample cases we created. Moreover, we provided an idea for an alternative solution to optimize the number of measures to be collected for the future research.

  • 222. Bhatti, Ansar Malook
    et al.
    Abdullah, Hafiz Muhammad
    Gencel, Cigdem
    A Model for Selecting an Optimum Set of Measures in Software Organizations2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the software organizations face difficulties in choosing the measures to collect since there is no universal set of measures for all types of organizations and projects. Experience shows that measurement can be more successful if the measures are collected based on the goals of the organization or the project which it will serve. However, one of the major constraints for the organizations is the associated cost for the resources needed when collecting the measures. Therefore, based on their goals, the software organizations require collecting not only as few measures from a large number of possible measures as possible but an optimum set of measures as well. In this paper, we propose a model, called ‘Optimum Measures Set Decision (OMSD) Model’, which is an extension of the well-known Goal Question Metric (GQM) paradigm using a heuristics approach. We performed a survey by distributing a structured questionnaire to a number of people from the industry in order evaluate and get feedback on these factors. We evaluated the rules of the model by means of some sample cases we created. In this paper, we discuss OMSD as well as the empirical studies we conducted in order to develop it.

  • 223.
    Bhatti, Khurram
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Ghazi, Ahmad Nauman
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Effectiveness of Exploratory Testing, An empirical scrutiny of the challenges and factors affecting the defect detection efficiency2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Software testing is an integral part of software development life cycle. To improve the quality of software there are different testing approaches practiced over the years. Traditionally software testing is carried out by following approach focusing on prior test design. While exploratory testing is an approach to test software where the tester does not require to follow a specific test design. But rather, exploratory testing should facilitate the tester in testing the complete system comprehensively. Exploratory testing is seen by some, as a way to conduct simultaneous learning, test design and execution of tests simultaneously. While others point to exploratory testing enabling constant evolution of tests in an easy manner. Objectives: In this study we have investigated the field of exploratory testing in literature and industry to understand its perception and application. Further among the stated claims by practitioners, we selected defect detection efficiency and effectiveness claim for empirical validation through an experiment and survey. Methods: In this study, a systematic literature review, interview, experiment and survey are conducted. In the systematic review a number of article sources are used, including IEEE Xplore, ACM Digital Library, Engineering village, Springer Link, Google Scholar and Books database. The systematic review also includes the gray literature published by the practitioners. The selection of studies was done using two-phase and tollgate approach. A total of 47 references were selected as primary studies. Eight semi-structures interviews were conducted with industry practitioners. Experiment had total 4 iterations and 70 subjects. The subjects were selected from industry and academia. The experimental design used was one factor with two interventions and one response variable. Results: Based on our findings from literature review and interviews, the understanding of exploratory testing has improved over the period but still lacks empirical investigation. The results drawn from experimental and survey data shows that exploratory testing proved effective and efficient in finding more critical bugs in limited time. Conclusions: We conclude that exploratory testing has a lot of potential and much more to offer to testing industry. But more empirical investigation and true facts and figures are required to motivate the testing industry to adapt it. We have reported a number of advantages, disadvantages, challenges and factors in this study. We further investigated the claims stated by the ET practitioners through an experiment and survey. The statistical tests were conducted on the collected data to draw meaningful results. We found statistical significance difference in number of true defects found. Using exploratory testing approach testers found far more defects than test case based testing. Although, there was no statistical significance difference between the two approaches for false defects.

  • 224.
    Bheri, Sujeet
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Vummenthala, SaiKeerthana
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    An Introduction to the DevOps Tool Related Challenges2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction : DevOps bridges the gap between the development and operations by improving the collaboration while automating the as many as steps from developing the software to releasing the product to the customers. To automate the software development activities, DevOps relies on the tools. There are many challenges associated with the tool implementation such as choosing the suitable tools and integrating tools with existed tools and practices. There must be a clear understanding on what kind of tools are used by the DevOps practitioners and what challenges does each tool create for them.

    Objectives: The main aim of our study is to investigate the challenges faced by the DevOps practitioners related to the tools and compare the findings with the related literature. Our contributions are (i) a comprehensive set of tools used by Developers and Operators in the software industries; (ii) challenges related to tools faced by the practitioners; and (iii) suggested recommendations and its effectiveness to mitigate the above challenges.

    Methods: we adopted case study for our study to achieve our research objectives. We have chosen literature review and semi-structured interviews as our data collection methods. Results: In our study we identified seven tools used by developers and operators which were not reported in the literature such as Intellij, Neo4j, and Postman. We identified tool related challenges from the practitioners such as difficulty in choosing the suitable tools, lack of maturity in tools such as Git, and learning new tools. We also identified recommendations for addressing tool related challenges such as Tech-Talks and seminars using complementary tools to overcome the limitations of other tools. We also identified benefits related to the adoption of such recommendations.

    Conclusion: We expect the DevOps tool landscape to change as old tools either become more sophisticated or outdated and new tools are being developed to better support DevOps and more easily integrate with deployment pipeline. With regard to tool related challenges literature review as well as interviews show that there is a lack of knowledge on how to select appropriate tools and the time it takes to learn the DevOps practices are common challenges. Regarding suggested recommendations, the most feasible one appears to be seminars and knowledge sharing events which educate practitioners how to use better tools and how to possible identify suitable tools.

  • 225.
    Bhoomgoud, Uday
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för programvarusystem.
    P, Kiran
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för programvarusystem.
    An Empirical Study On Requirements Engineering Core Practices2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Requirements engineering (RE) is the primary task (process) that is done when agreed upon to develop a software product. The success of the software product is gauged on its ability to meet the intended needs of the stakeholders. There is abundant literature emphasizing the significance of RE and its influence on the entire software project, apart from its importance as the first step for a successful development endeavor. There are several established methodologies that are acknowledged to support the RE process and assist in creating a reliable structure of creating software. Despite the availability of such techniques and solutions, it was observed that umpteen number of software product failures are attributed to unsatisfactory RE practices. In this thesis, we have conducted a study with six organizations to emphasize the gap between the state of the art and the state of the practice, and consequently identify the factors that hinder the industrial community to implement state of the art RE. As a result of this empirical research we have found that to a great extent, state of the art practices are unpopular, more specifically in small organizations. Interestingly the majority of the problems associated with RE are associated to non technical issues.

  • 226.
    Bilski, Mateusz
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för datalogi och datorsystemteknik.
    Migration from blocking to non-blocking web frameworks2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of performance and scalability of web applications is challenged by most of the software companies. It is difficult to maintain the performance of a web application while the number of users is continuously increasing. The common solution for this problem is scalability. A web application can handle incoming and outgoing requests using blocking or non-blocking Input/Output operation. The way that a single server handles requests affects its ability to scale and depends on a web framework that was used to build the web application. It is especially important for Resource Oriented Architecture (ROA) based applications which consist of distributed Representational State Transfer (REST) web services. This research was inspired by a real problem stated by a software company that was considering the migration to the non-blocking web framework but did not know the possible profits. The objective of the research was to evaluate the influence of web framework's type on the performance of ROA based applications and to provide guidelines for assessing profits of migration from blocking to non-blocking JVM web frameworks. First, internet ranking was used to obtain the list of the most popular web frameworks. Then, the web frameworks were used to conduct two experiments that investigated the influence of web framework's type on the performance of ROA based applications. Next, the consultations with software architects were arranged in order to find a method for approximating the performance of overall application. Finally, the guidelines were prepared based on the consultations and the results of the experiments. Three blocking and non-blocking highly ranked and JVM based web frameworks were selected. The first experiment showed that the non-blocking web frameworks can provide performance up to 2.5 times higher than blocking web frameworks in ROA based applications. The experiment performed on existing application showed average 27\% performance improvement after the migration. The elaborated guidelines successfully convinced the company that provided the application for testing to conduct the migration on the production environment. The experiment results proved that the migration from blocking to non-blocking web frameworks increases the performance of web application. The prepared guidelines can help software architects to decide if it is worth to migrate. However the guidelines are context depended and further investigation is needed to make it more general.

  • 227.
    bin Ali, Nauman
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Towards Guidelines for Conducting Software Process Simulation in Industry2013Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Since the 1950s explicit software process models have been used for planning, executing and controlling software development activities. To overcome the limitation of static models at capturing the inherent dynamism in software development, Software Process Simulation Modelling (SPSM) was introduced in the late 1970s. SPSM has been used to address various challenges, e.g. estimation, planning and process assessment. The simulation models developed over the years have varied in their scope, purpose, approach and the application domain. However, there is a need to aggregate the evidence regarding the usefulness of SPSM for achieving its intended purposes. Objective: This thesis aims to facilitate adoption of SPSM in industrial practice by exploring two directions. Firstly it aims to establish the usefulness of SPSM for its intended purposes, e.g. for planning, training and as an alternative to study the real world software (industrial and open source) development. Secondly to define and evaluate a process for conducting SPSM studies in industry. Method: Two systematic literature reviews (SLR), a literature review, a case study and an action research study were conducted. A literature review of existing SLRs was done to identify the strategies for selecting studies. The resulting process for study selection was utilized in an SLR to capture and aggregate evidence regarding the usefulness of SPSM. Another SLR was used to identify existing process descriptions of how to conduct an SPSM study. The consolidated process and associated guidelines identified in this review were used in an action research study to develop a simulation model of the testing process in a large telecommunication vendor. The action research was preceded by a case study to understand the testing process at the company. Results: A study selection process based on the strategies identified from literature was proposed. It was found to systemize selection and to support inclusiveness with reasonable additional effort in an SLR of the SPSM literature. The SPSM studies identified in literature scored poorly on the rigor and relevance criteria and lacked evaluation of SPSM for the intended purposes. Lastly, based on literature, a six-step process to conduct an SPSM study was used to develop a System Dynamics model of the testing process for training purposes in the company. Conclusion: The findings identify two potential directions for facilitating SPSM adoption. First, by learning from other disciplines having done simulation for a longer time. It was evident how similar the consolidated process for conducting an SPSM study was to the process used in simulation in general. Second the existing work on SPSM can at best be classified as strong ``proof-of-concept’’ that SPSM can be useful in the real world software development. Thus, there is a need to evaluate and report the usefulness of SPSM for the intended purposes with scientific rigor.

  • 228.
    Bin Ali, Nauman
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik. Blekinge Inst Technol, Karlskrona, Sweden..
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik. Blekinge Inst Technol, Karlskrona, Sweden..
    Nicolau de Franca, Breno Bernard
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, ESE Grp, PESC COPPE, BR-68511 Rio De Janeiro, Brazil..
    Evaluation of simulation-assisted value stream mapping for software product development: Two industrial cases2015Inngår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 68, s. 45-61Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Value stream mapping (VSM) as a tool for lean development has led to significant improvements in different industries. In a few studies, it has been successfully applied in a software engineering context. However, some shortcomings have been observed in particular failing to capture the dynamic nature of the software process to evaluate improvements i.e. such improvements and target values are based on idealistic situations. Objective: To overcome the shortcomings of VSM by combining it with software process simulation modeling, and to provide reflections on the process of conducting VSM with simulation. Method: Using case study research, VSM was used for two products at Ericsson AB, Sweden. Ten workshops were conducted in this regard. Simulation in this study was used as a tool to support discussions instead of as a prediction tool. The results have been evaluated from the perspective of the participating practitioners, an external observer, and reflections of the researchers conducting the simulation that was elicited by the external observer. Results: Significant constraints hindering the product development from reaching the stated improvement goals for shorter lead time were identified. The use of simulation was particularly helpful in having more insightful discussions and to challenge assumptions about the likely impact of improvements. However, simulation results alone were found insufficient to emphasize the importance of reducing waiting times and variations in the process. Conclusion: The framework to assist VSM with simulation presented in this study was successfully applied in two cases. The involvement of various stakeholders, consensus building steps, emphasis on flow (through waiting time and variance analysis) and the use of simulation proposed in the framework led to realistic improvements with a high likelihood of implementation. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 229.
    bin Ali, Nauman
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    A systematic literature review on the industrial use of software process simulation2014Inngår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, Vol. 97Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context Software process simulation modelling (SPSM) captures the dynamic behaviour and uncertainty in the software process. Existing literature has conflicting claims about its practical usefulness: SPSM is useful and has an industrial impact; SPSM is useful and has no industrial impact yet; SPSM is not useful and has little potential for industry. Objective To assess the conflicting standpoints on the usefulness of SPSM. Method A systematic literature review was performed to identify, assess and aggregate empirical evidence on the usefulness of SPSM. Results In the primary studies, to date, the persistent trend is that of proof-of-concept applications of software process simulation for various purposes (e.g. estimation, training, process improvement, etc.). They score poorly on the stated quality criteria. Also only a few studies report some initial evaluation of the simulation models for the intended purposes. Conclusion There is a lack of conclusive evidence to substantiate the claimed usefulness of SPSM for any of the intended purposes. A few studies that report the cost of applying simulation do not support the claim that it is an inexpensive method. Furthermore, there is a paramount need for improvement in conducting and reporting simulation studies with an emphasis on evaluation against the intended purpose.

  • 230.
    bin Ali, Nauman
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Use and evaluation of simulation for software process education: a case study2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Software Engineering is an applied discipline and concepts are difficult to grasp only at a theoretical level alone. In the context of a project management course, we introduced and evaluated the use of software process simulation (SPS) based games for improving students’ understanding of software development processes. The effects of the intervention were measured by evaluating the students’ arguments for choosing a particular development process. The arguments were assessed with the Evidence-Based Reasoning framework, which was extended to assess the strength of an argument. The results indicate that students generally have difficulty providing strong arguments for their choice of process models. Nevertheless, the assessment indicates that the intervention of the SPS game had a positive impact on the students’ arguments. Even though the illustrated argument assessment approach can be used to provide formative feedback to students, its use is rather costly and cannot be considered a replacement for traditional assessments.

  • 231.
    Birkestedt, Sara
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för programvarusystem.
    Hansson, Andreas
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för programvarusystem.
    Can web-based statistic services be trusted?2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of statistic services exist today, which shows that there is a great interest in knowing more about the visitors on a web site. But how reliable is the result the services are giving? The hypothesis examined in the thesis is: Web-based statistic services do not show an accurate result The purpose of the thesis is to find out how accurate the web-based statistic services are regarding unique visitors and number of pages viewed. Our hope is that this thesis will bring more knowledge about the different statistic services that exists today and the problems surrounding them. We will also draw attention to the importance of knowing how your statistic software works to be able to interpret the results correctly. To investigate this, we chose to do practical tests on a selection of web-based statistic services. The services registered the traffic from the same web site during a test period. During the same period a control program registered the same things and stored the result in a database. In addition to the test, we have done an interview with a person working with web statistics. The investigation showed that there are big differences between the results from the web-based statistic services in the test and that none of them showed an accurate result, neither for the total number of page views nor unique visitors. This led us to the conclusion that web-based statistic services do not show an accurate result, which verifies our hypothesis. Also the interview confirmed that there is a problem with measuring web statistics.

  • 232.
    Bitla, Krishna Sai
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Veesamsetty, Sairam Sagar
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Measuring Process Flow using Metrics in Agile Software Development2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Software Project management focuses on planning and executing the activities for developing software. Agile Software Project Management helps to plan shorter iterations and frequent changes to customer requirement. Developing the process flow metrics helps to monitor the process and to tune the process for the given context.

    Objectives. The main objectives in the thesis are to identify process flow metrics and frameworks that are suitable for measuring the process flow in Agile projects especially projects with significant dependence on hardware components. Apart from identified metrics from the literature, we identify the impact, challenges, and advantages of using agile models with the help of productivity and process flow metrics and implement them on a test phase project and compare the productivity of agile model with waterfall model.

    Methods. The thesis presents a two-step study. The first step was to perform a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) and collect the metrics from the literature study that can be used for the comparison of the productivity of both the processes. The Second step was to conduct a case study at Volvo Cars to get us a better understanding the impact of the agile and how the process flow metrics can be used in real time for measuring and comparison.  

    Results. In the first step of SLR, 363 metrics that can be used by software teams have been identified of which 10 were suitable for the comparison of our current case study required by the second step of our thesis. In the second step, in the first iteration after the transition, an increase in productivity of 6.25% is achieved by the team following the agile process over the team following the traditional process. Several advantages and challenges faced during the transition have been identified which might have affected the achieved productivity.

    Conclusions. We conclude from the results achieved that metrics can be used as a tool to enhance the benefits of the Agile process. Process Flow metrics can be of good use to compare the difference of productivity between different processes and make improvements to the current processes. Use of process flow metrics increases the insight of all the team members on the progress of the project and guides them to enhance team performance and stay on track with the project schedule.

  • 233.
    Bjarnason, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Lund Univ, SWE.
    Morandini, Mirko
    Fdn Bruno Kessler, ITA.
    Borg, Markus
    Lund Univ, SWE.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Felderer, Michael
    Univ Innsbruck, AUT.
    Staats, Matthew
    Google Inc, CHE.
    2nd International Workshop on Requirements Engineering and Testing (RET 2015)2015Inngår i: 2015 IEEE/ACM 37TH IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, VOL 2, IEEE , 2015, s. 997-998Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The RET (Requirements Engineering and Testing) workshop provides a meeting point for researchers and practitioners from the two separate fields of Requirements Engineering (RE) and Testing. The goal is to improve the connection and alignment of these two areas through an exchange of ideas, challenges, practices, experiences and results. The long term aim is to build a community and a body of knowledge within the intersection of RE and Testing. One of the main outputs of the 1st workshop was a collaboratively constructed map of the area of RET showing the topics relevant to RET for these. The 2nd workshop will continue in the same interactive vein and include a keynote, paper presentations with ample time for discussions, and a group exercise. For true impact and relevance this cross-cutting area requires contribution from both RE and Testing, and from both researchers and practitioners. For that reason we welcome a range of paper contributions from short experience papers to full research papers that both clearly cover connections between the two fields.

  • 234. Bjarnason, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Runeson, Per
    Borg, Markus
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Engström, Emelie
    Regnell, Björn
    Sabaliauskaite, Giedre
    Loconsole, Annabella
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Challenges and Practices in Aligning Requirements with Verification and Validation: A Case Study of Six Companies2014Inngår i: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 19, nr 6, s. 1809-1855Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Weak alignment of requirements engineering (RE) with verification and validation (VV) may lead to problems in delivering the required products in time with the right quality. For example, weak communication of requirements changes to testers may result in lack of verification of new requirements and incorrect verification of old invalid requirements, leading to software quality problems, wasted effort and delays. However, despite the serious implications of weak alignment research and practice both tend to focus on one or the other of RE or VV rather than on the alignment of the two. We have performed a multi-unit case study to gain insight into issues around aligning RE and VV by interviewing 30 practitioners from 6 software developing companies, involving 10 researchers in a flexible research process for case studies. The results describe current industry challenges and practices in aligning RE with VV, ranging from quality of the individual RE and VV activities, through tracing and tools, to change control and sharing a common understanding at strategy, goal and design level. The study identified that human aspects are central, i.e. cooperation and communication, and that requirements engineering practices are a critical basis for alignment. Further, the size of an organisation and its motivation for applying alignment practices, e.g. external enforcement of traceability, are variation factors that play a key role in achieving alignment. Our results provide a strategic roadmap for practitioners improvement work to address alignment challenges. Furthermore, the study provides a foundation for continued research to improve the alignment of RE with VV.

  • 235. Bjarnason, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Borg, Markus
    Engström, Emelie
    A Multi-Case Study of Agile Requirements Engineering and the Use of Test Cases as Requirements2016Inngår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 77, s. 61-79Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    [Context] It is an enigma that agile projects can succeed ‘without requirements’ when weak requirementsengineering is a known cause for project failures. While agile development projects often manage well withoutextensive requirements test cases are commonly viewed as requirements and detailed requirements are documented astest cases.[Objective] We have investigated this agile practice of using test cases as requirements to understand how test casescan support the main requirements activities, and how this practice varies.[Method] We performed an iterative case study at three companies and collected data through 14 interviews and 2focus groups.[Results] The use of test cases as requirements poses both benefits and challenges when eliciting, validating,verifying, and managing requirements, and when used as a documented agreement. We have identified five variants ofthe test-cases-as-requirements practice, namely de facto, behaviour-driven, story-test driven, stand-alone strict andstand-alone manual for which the application of the practice varies concerning the time frame of requirementsdocumentation, the requirements format, the extent to which the test cases are a machine executable specification andthe use of tools which provide specific support for the practice of using test cases as requirements.[Conclusions] The findings provide empirical insight into how agile development projects manage andcommunicate requirements. The identified variants of the practice of using test cases as requirements can be used toperform in-depth investigations into agile requirements engineering. Practitioners can use the providedrecommendations as a guide in designing and improving their agile requirements practices based on projectcharacteristics such as number of stakeholders and rate of change.

  • 236.
    Bjarnason, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Engström, Emelie
    Lund University.
    Borg, Markus
    Lund University.
    An Industrial Case Study on the Use of Test Cases as Requirements2015Inngår i: Lecture Notes in Business Information, Springer, 2015, s. 27-39Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is a conundrum that agile projects can succeed 'without requirements' when weak requirements engineering is a known cause for project failures. While Agile development projects often manage well without extensive requirements documentation, test cases are commonly used as requirements. We have investigated this agile practice at three companies in order to understandhow test cases can fill the role of requirements. We performed a case study based on twelve interviews performed in a previous study.The findings include a range of benefits and challenges in using test cases for eliciting, validating, verifying, tracing and managing requirements. In addition, we identified three scenarios for applying the practice, namely as a mature practice, as a de facto practice and as part of an agile transition. The findings provide insights into how the role of requirements may be met in agile development including challenges to consider.

  • 237.
    Björk, Carl
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för programvarusystem.
    Salomonsson, Per
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för programvarusystem.
    Creating Interface-Controllers using Model Driven Architecture2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis we will examine a telecom industry case, where combining synchronous and asynchronous interfaces causes problems. A solution to the problem is being presented in form of an interface controller framework that is based on patterns of common functionality of interface controllers. The solution is implemented using four different implementation methods (Java, Erlang, XDE, Executable UML), and compared in lines of code, performance and throughput.

  • 238.
    Björklund, Marcus
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Hjelmar, Jonas
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Adopting Software Product Lines: Guidelines based on the Maturity of Organizations2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Software Product Lines (SPL) is a relatively new way of working in software development. A SPL is an enforced architecture and a collection of components common for more than one product within a domain. Development using SPL utilizes tools and techniques for creating software systems from a common set of core assets in order to satisfy a certain market. In this study we investigate how to proceed when transitioning to a SPL development approach by evaluating proposed and used adoption approaches, methods and frameworks. We performed a systematic literature review using three main sources; Compendex/Inspec, CiteSeerX and Google Scholar. The results are analyzed using a qualitative analysis technique called Recursive Abstraction where the results are iteratively summarized to extract the essence of the data. A manageable collection of frameworks, methods and approaches are summarized as a starting point for a reader who wants to dig deeper into the subject. A set of guidelines is suggested for companies who are considering a transition to SPL development. We also investigate the link between SPL and organization maturity, with a focus on the benefits of combining a SPL initiative with a CMMI initiative. We conclude that the transition process should not be taken lightly; in most cases it should be made in incremental steps. There is a fairly standard approach to adopt SPL and there are a few frameworks that are commonly accepted. However, we also conclude that most research areas of SPL development lacks in validation. Concerning the link between SPL and CMMI we identify some PA's that are more important when considering SPL development and a few others that may be harder to execute. We conclude that SPL benefits from process maturity and discipline as SPL development is process controlled and a lack in process discipline may cause corrosion of the SPL. A CMMI maturity level of Defined processes should be considered a prerequisite for a complete SPL practice. We could not find any indication that the organization maturity would benefit from SPL practices alone. Neither could we identify any drawbacks of having both an CMMI initiative and SPL transition initiative within the same organization.

  • 239.
    Björling, Erik
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Institutionen för programvaruteknik och datavetenskap.
    Hoff, Anna
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Institutionen för programvaruteknik och datavetenskap.
    An Evaluation of a Maintenance Model: A comparison with theory and results from case studies2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis was performed in cooperation with SchlumbergerSema. During the project we identified several maintenance methodologies and studied the characteristics of both the ISO and IEEE standard. The base for our evaluation of the CURE maintenance model (developed by SchlumbergerSema) were both the result of our case study that comprised interviews from five maintenance projects as well as maintenance literature available. Both the interviews and the literature studies resulted in lists of requirements that each area make on a maintenance model. We compare the CURE model to the requirements found within these two areas. Based on the result of the comparison we give our recommendations for maintenance in general, maintenance within SchlumbergerSema as well as specific recommendations for the CURE development team. Our conclusions drawn from our work were mostly positive about CURE. However we have suggested several issues for further development such as e.g. certification to a standard. Other conclusions are that no matter what model you choose as a maintenance model, make sure that you implement the model fully. A major pitfall is to allow it to become "just a fancy book on the shelf".

  • 240.
    Blal, Redouane
    et al.
    Universite du Quebec a Montreal, CAN.
    Leshob, Abderrahmane
    Universite du Quebec a Montreal, CAN.
    Gonzalez-Huerta, Javier
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Mili, Hafedh
    Universite du Quebec a Montreal, CAN.
    Boubaker, Anis
    Universite du Quebec a Montreal, CAN.
    From inter-organizational business process models to service-oriented architecture models2018Inngår i: Service Oriented Computing and Applications, ISSN 1863-2386, E-ISSN 1863-2394, Vol. 12, nr 3-4, s. 227-245Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s business processes become increasingly complex and often cross the boundaries of the organizations. On the one hand, to support their business processes, modern organizations use enterprise information systems that need to be aware of the organizations’ processes and contexts. Such systems are called Process-Aware Information System (PAIS). On the other hand, the service-oriented architecture (SOA) is a fast emerging architectural style that has been widely adopted by modern organizations to design and implement PAIS that support their business processes. This paper aims to bridge the gap between inter-organizational business processes and SOA-based PAISs that support them. It proposes a novel model-driven design method that generates SOA models expressed in SoaML taking the specification of collaborative business processes expressed in BPMN as input. We present the principles underlying the approach, the state of an ongoing implementation, and the results of two studies conducted to empirically validate the method in the context of ERP key processes. © 2018, Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature.

  • 241.
    Bodicherla, Saikumar
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Pamulapati, Divyani
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Knowledge Management Maturity Model for Agile Software Development2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Knowledge is the major aspect of an organization which enables the enterprise to be more productive and to deliver the high complexity services. Knowledge management plays a key role in agile software development because it supports cultural infrastructure esteems like collaboration, communication, and knowledge transfer. This research aims to explore how organizations that adopts Agile Software Development (ASD) implement knowledge management utilizing practices that supports the key process areas. Several knowledge management maturity models have been proposed over a decade ago but not all of the models that is specially stated knowledge Management Maturity Model (KMMM) for Agile software development. To fulfil this research gap, we introduce the maturity model which emphasize knowledge management in ASD among the practitioners. This maturity model helps to assess their knowledge management in organization and provides a road map to the organizations for any further improvement required in their processes. 

    Objectives: In this thesis, we investigate the key process areas of knowledge management maturity models that could support agile software development. Through investigation about the key process areas, we found that the organizations should emphasis on key process areas and its practices in order to improve the software process. The objectives of this research include:

    • Explore the key process areas and practices of knowledge management in the knowledge management maturity models. 
    • Identify the views of practitioners on knowledge management practices and key process areas for Agile software development.
    • To propose the maturity model for Knowledge management in Agile software development among the practitioner’s opinions. 

    Methods: In this research, we conducted two methods: Systematic mapping and Survey to fulfil our aim and objectives. We conducted Systematic mapping study through the snowballing process to investigate empirical literature about Knowledge management maturity models. To triangulate the systematic mapping results, we conducted a survey. From the survey results, we obtained the responses and were analyzed statistically using descriptive statistics.

    Results: From Systematic mapping, we identified 18 articles and analyzed 24 practices of Knowledge management maturity models. These practices are indicated in key process areas such as process, people, technology. Through the systematic mapping results, 9 KM practices that were found from KMMM literature were listed in the survey questionnaire and answered by software engineering practitioners. Moreover, 5 other new practices for agile have suggested in the survey that was not found in KMMM literature. To address the systematic mapping and survey results, we propose the maturity model which emphasize knowledge management practices in ASD among the practitioners.

    Conclusions: This thesis lists the main elements of practices that are utilized by the organization and also show the usage of maturity levels at each practice in detail. Furthermore, this thesis helps the organization's to assess the current levels of maturity that exist to each practice in a real process. Hence, the researchers can utilize the model from this thesis and further they can improve their Km in organizations.

  • 242.
    Bodireddigari, Sai Srinivas
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    A Framework To Measure the Trustworthiness of the User Feedback in Mobile Application Stores2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Mobile application stores like Google Play, Apple store, Windows store have over 3 million apps. Users download the applications from their respective stores and they generally prefer the apps with the highest ratings. In response to the present situation, application stores provided the categories like editor’s choice or top charts, providing better visibility for the applications. Customer reviews play such critical role in the development of the application and the organization, in such case there might be flawed reviews or biased opinions about the application due to many factors. The biased opinions and flawed reviews are likely to cause user review untrustworthiness. The reviews or ratings in the mobile application stores are used by the organizations to make the applications more efficient and more adaptable to the user. The context leads to importance of the user’s review trustworthiness and managing the trustworthiness in the user feedback by knowing the causes of mistrust. Hence, there is a need for a framework to understand the trustworthiness in the user given feedback.

    Objectives: In the following study the author aims for the accomplishment of the following objectives, firstly, exploring the causes of untrustworthiness in user feedback for an application in the mobile application stores such as google play store. Secondly, Exploring the effects of trustworthiness on the users and developers. Finally, the aim is to propose a framework for managing the trustworthiness in the feedback.

    Methods: To accomplish the objectives, author used qualitative research method. The data collection method is an interview-based survey that was conducted with 13 participants, to find out the causes of untrustworthiness in the user feedback from user’s perspective and developer’s perspective. Author follows thematic coding for qualitative data analysis.

    Results:Author identifies 11 codes from the description of the transcripts and explores the relationship among the trustworthiness with the causes. 11 codes were put into 4 themes, and a thematic network is created between the themes. The relations were then analyzed with cost-effect analysis.

    Conclusions: We conclude that 11 causes effect the trustworthiness according to user’s perspective and 9 causes effect the trustworthiness according to the developer’s perspective, from the analysis. Segregating the trustworthy feedback from the untrustworthy feedback is important for the developers, as the next releases should be planned based on that. Finally, an inclusion and exclusion criteria to help developers manage trustworthy user feedback is defined. 

  • 243.
    Bogale, Helen Yeshiwas
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Ahmed, Zohaib
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    A Framework for Security Requirements: Security Requirements Categorization and Misuse Cases2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Security Requirements engineering is necessary to achieve secure software systems. Many techniques and approaches have been proposed to elicit security requirements in the initial phases of development. With the growing importance of security and immense increase in security breaches over the past few years, researchers and practitioners have been striving to achieve a mature process of coping with security requirements. Much of the activities in this regard are seen in academia but industry still seems to be lacking in giving the required importance to security requirements engineering. That is why, security requirements engineering is still not always considered as a central part of requirements engineering. This study is targeted to bridge this gap between academia and industry in terms of security requirements engineering and to provide a concrete approach to efficiently elicit and specify security requirements. The Misuse case technique is proposed for this purpose. However it lacks in providing guidelines for enabling scalable use. This limitation has been addressed to achieve a mature process of security requirements elicitation. Objectives: In this study, we propose a framework to elicit security requirements early in the software development using misuse case technique. Objective is to make misuse case technique scalable and applicable to the real-world projects. The proposed framework was presented to two representatives from the Swedish Armed Forces (SWAF). The feedback received from the representatives was utilized to refine, update and finalize the framework. Methods: The study involved a systematic review to gain an insight of the academic perspective in the area of study. Document extraction was adopted to observe the industrial trends in the said subject. These were the software requirements specification documents of the real-world systems. Document extraction was supported with informed brainstorming because the study revolved around misuse case technique and informed brainstorming is considered to be the most suitable technique for this purpose. A workshop was conducted with two representatives of Swedish Armed Forces followed by two subsequent asynchronous communication rounds and a facilitated session to get feedback about the proposed solution. This feedback was utilized to refine, update and finalize the proposed solution. Results: The results of the systematic review were organized in tabular forms for a clear understanding and easy analysis. A security requirements categorization was obtained as a result which was finalized after an initial validation with the help of real-world projects. Furthermore, a framework was proposed utilizing this categorization to address the limitations of misuse case technique. The framework was created and refined through workshop and different communication rounds with representatives of SWAF. Their feedback was used as input to further improve the usefulness and usability aspects of the framework. Conclusions: The significance of security requirements engineering is undisputedly accepted both in academia and industry. However, the area is not a subject of practice in industrial projects. The reasons include lack of mature processes as well as expensive and time consuming solutions. Lack of empirical evidences adds to the problems. The conducted study and proposed process of dealing with this issue is considered as a one step forward towards addressing the challenges.

  • 244.
    Bohdanowicz, Daniel
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för programvarusystem.
    Toward Tool Support for Usage of Object-Oriented Design Patterns Expressed in Unified Modeling Language2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Design patterns describe solutions that can be used in a particular context for commonly recurring problems at the detailed design level of a software system. Patterns have become an important concept in object-oriented development and their usage is a widely accepted practice. This thesis investigates issue of tool support for design patterns usage that can be offered by UML modelling tools, and proposes UML based method and notation for specification of the patterns, and documentation of their instances in a design model, facilitating such support. Different ways of such support are presented and classified, and comparison of tools offering assistance for patterns usage is depicted. UML profile supporting specification of structural aspects of solutions proposed by design patterns, and documentation of their instances is specified in the thesis.

  • 245. Boldt, Martin
    et al.
    Borg, Anton
    Carlsson, Bengt
    On the Simulation of a Software Reputation System2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, there are difficulties finding all malicious programs due to juridical restrictions and deficits concerning the anti-malicious programs. Also, a "grey-zone" of questionable programs exists, hard for different protection programs to handle and almost impossible for a single user to judge. A software reputation system consisting of expert, average and novice users are proposed as a complement to let anti-malware programs or dedicated human experts decide about questionable programs. A simulation of the factors involved is accomplished by varying the user groups involved, modifying each user's individual trust factor, specifying an upper trust factor limit and accounting for previous rating influence. As a proposed result, a balanced, well-informed rating of judged programs appears, i.e. a balance between quickly reaching a well-informed decision and not giving a single voter too much power.

  • 246.
    Boldt, Martin
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för datalogi och datorsystemteknik.
    jacobsson, andreas
    Malmö University, SWE.
    Baca, Dejan
    Fidesmo AB, SWE.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för datalogi och datorsystemteknik.
    Introducing a novel security-enhanced agile software development process2017Inngår i: International Journal of Secure Software Engineering, ISSN 1947-3036, E-ISSN 1947-3044, ISSN 1947-3036, Vol. 8, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a novel security-enhanced agile software development process, SEAP, is introduced. It has been designed, tested, and implemented at Ericsson AB, specifically in the development of a mobile money transfer system. Two important features of SEAP are 1) that it includes additional security competences, and 2) that it includes the continuous conduction of an integrated risk analysis for identifying potential threats. As a general finding of implementing SEAP in software development, the developers solve a large proportion of the risks in a timely, yet cost-efficient manner. The default agile software development process at Ericsson AB, i.e. where SEAP was not included, required significantly more employee hours spent for every risk identified compared to when integrating SEAP. The default development process left 50.0% of the risks unattended in the software version that was released, while the application of SEAP reduced that figure to 22.5%. Furthermore, SEAP increased the proportion of risks that were corrected from 12.5% to 67.9%, a more than five times increment.

  • 247.
    Bollineni, Pavan Kumar
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Neupane, Kumar
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Implications for adopting cloud computing in e-Health2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Cloud computing is an emerging and growing field in an IT industry. Cost minimization, fast processing, easy accessibility and scalability are found to be the main attracting features of cloud computing. Cloud computing is known to be as robust authentication and enhanced security provider technology and it is increasing its scope in many sensitive areas like health sectors where data privacy and security hold the key position. Some of the issues when applying cloud solution is; trust of the new system, data confidentiality, security, storage and most importantly data sharing between different data centers locating in different geographical locations. Objectives: The aim of this thesis is to explore the limitations and find the opportunities and barriers between cloud computing and e-Health and finally suggest guidelines for adoption of cloud computing in an e-Health based sectors based on associates concerns. In the context of this research work, the authors have studied issues involved in the deployment of cloud computing, associates concerns and factors regarding adoption of cloud computing in e-Health and finally suggestion of future of cloud computing in e-Health. Methods: In order to identify and to get a deeper understanding of those issues, the author performed literature review, conducted interview with health care personnel and cloud computing associates and finally backed up with a web-based survey from the associates of cloud computing and e-Health. Results: Finally after the completion of entire analysis authors purposed suitable deployment model and guidelines for adoption of cloud computing in e-Health. Conclusions: Authors concluded that most people’s concerns can be due to lack of knowledge about cloud computing and the trust of vendor. However, authors also observed that people are facing problems with data security, data integrity and too much dependency to the technology and vendors.

  • 248. Boman, Magnus
    et al.
    Velde, Walter Van deHägg, Staffan
    MAAMAW´97 Poster Proceedings1997Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Eight European Workshop on Modelling Autonomous Agents in a Multi-Agent World

  • 249.
    Bondesson, Tobias
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för programvarusystem.
    Software Engineering Education Improvement: An Assessment of a Software Engineering Programme2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    An assessment of a software engineering program has been carried out by reviewing state-of-the-art literature pertaining to software engineering education. Six surveys have been adopted and the result implies that the balance of the curriculum should be revised, and that software engineering education ought to expand the technical oriented knowledge areas somewhat. Relevant curriculum data have been derived hereby, which also confirms other studies in the area. This data, along with a benchmark of the software engineering program to the Software Engineering Body of Knowledge (SWEBOK), is very constructive to universities as it assists educators, trainers, and software engineering practitioners in evaluating, designing, and recommending existing and proposed curricula.

  • 250.
    Borg, Anton
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Decision Support for Estimation of the Utility of Software and E-mail2012Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Computer users often need to distinguish between good and bad instances of software and e-mail messages without the aid of experts. This decision process is further complicated as the perception of spam and spyware varies between individuals. As a consequence, users can benefit from using a decision support system to make informed decisions concerning whether an instance is good or bad. Objective: This thesis investigates approaches for estimating the utility of e-mail and software. These approaches can be used in a personalized decision support system. The research investigates the performance and accuracy of the approaches. Method: The scope of the research is limited to the legal grey- zone of software and e-mail messages. Experimental data have been collected from academia and industry. The research methods used in this thesis are simulation and experimentation. The processing of user input, along with malicious user input, in a reputation system for software were investigated using simulations. The preprocessing optimization of end user license agreement classification was investigated using experimentation. The impact of social interaction data in regards to personalized e-mail classification was also investigated using experimentation. Results: Three approaches were investigated that could be adapted for a decision support system. The results of the investigated reputation system suggested that the system is capable, on average, of producing a rating ±1 from an objects correct rating. The results of the preprocessing optimization of end user license agreement classification suggested negligible impact. The results of using social interaction information in e-mail classification suggested that accurate spam detectors can be generated from the low-dimensional social data model alone, however, spam detectors generated from combinations of the traditional and social models were more accurate. Conclusions: The results of the presented approaches suggestthat it is possible to provide decision support for detecting software that might be of low utility to users. The labeling of instances of software and e-mail messages that are in a legal grey-zone can assist users in avoiding an instance of low utility, e.g. spam and spyware. A limitation in the approaches is that isolated implementations will yield unsatisfactory results in a real world setting. A combination of the approaches, e.g. to determine the utility of software, could yield improved results.

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