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  • 201.
    Lindahl, Pia
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Approaching Strategic Sustainable Materials Management2013Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Society’s sustainability challenges relatedto materials management have been an area of concern for policymakers, industry and the public for decades. However, if those challenges are managed in a strategic way, they are not only aproblem, but could also bring in new opportunity for companies and other organizations to improve their competitiveness through developingproduct-service systems that promote sustainable development of society. The overall aim of this thesis is to explore how aframework for strategic sustainable development (FSSD) can support the development and design of sustainable materials management strategies in product innovation. This is achieved by four studies investigating howsustainability considerations are, or could be, integrated in decisions regarding materials selection. The studies are informed by the FSSD, Maxwell’s model for qualitative research design and the design research methodology. The first study is a theoretical discussion which provides a base for the following three exploratory studies. The exploratory studies have, through literature reviews and semi-structured interviews, investigated general sustainabilityconsiderations in companies, made a comparison of the strategic potential of two product improvement strategies and finally studied what considerations that are in focus and what types of solutions that are revealed when companies apply a strategic sustainability perspective to materials management. The studies have shown that decisions regarding materials management often arebased on compliance with legislation and on avoiding substances with characteristics commonly considered problematic (such as toxicity, persistency, etc.), and that decision support regarding how materials could be managed in a sustainable way are lacking. However, the results also include some examples from companies that have successfully developed pro-active strategies towards sustainable materials management. They have approached this through managing materials in closedtechnical loops, enabled material substitution through value chain collaboration and reduced material flows through new and innovative design. Most importantly, they have assessedactions not only regarding their potential to reduce a selection of current socio-ecological impacts but also regarding their potential to link toforthcoming actions towards the full scope of socio-ecological sustainability. Through this approach, they have found several ways by which materials with characteristics that are commonly considered problematic can be. The results highlight the possibility of enabling sustainable materials management practices by using a strategic sustainability perspective in combination with material characteristics knowledge and that a static division of “sustainable” vs. “unsustainable” materials (e.g., through lists of forbidden and allowed materials) is not necessarily serving the purpose in the best way. More subtle considerations are needed. By not applying a strategic sustainability perspective to materials management, organizations risk using “sustainable” materials in unsustainable ways or phasing out “unsustainable” materials that, managed differently, could be helpful for sustainable development. Developing decision support for materials management that integrates this new way of thinking will be the focus of future work.

  • 202. Lindahl, Pia
    et al.
    Broman, Göran
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    Material substitution and weight reduction as steps towards a sustainable disposable diaper2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing market demands for 'sustainable products' has in the development of disposable diapers resulted in a focus on material substitution and weight reduction. In this study we have compared the strategic potential of these two approaches for development of the absorbing core of the product. The study indicates that regardless what strategy a company selects for reducing a products socio-ecological impact, both society and environment would benefit from a stronger focus on the long term goal of a sustainably product, instead of the milestones.

  • 203.
    Lu, Lei
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Zhang, WeiGuang
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Zhang, WeiQing
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Transitioning Wood Furniture Products towards Sustainability2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Wood Furniture Products (WFPs) play a significant role in both the global economy and the transition of society towards sustainability. This paper begins with a brief description of the industry and highlights the current challenges and compelling measures of WFPs from a systems perspective through the lens of the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD) and by applying backcasting from sustainability principles (SPs). An examination of the challenges and opportunities of WFPs is performed using an ABCD analysis based on Strategic Life Cycle Management (SLCM). SLCM and Templates for Sustainable Product Development (TSPDs) approaches were applied in order to engage the participating Ningbo Fubang Company in the transition process towards sustainability and to provide an applicable tool for WFP development. The TSPDs were created based on the views of sustainability and WFP experts. This has developed the templates further and contributed to the overall development of the WFPs towards sustainability. Other recommended and compelling measures for the sustainable development of WFPs include: cooperating with non-government organizations (NGOs), conserving forests resources, clean production methods, "take-back" policy in the wood furniture industry, reforming government policies relevant to the industry, implementing waste management systems, green supply chains, clean energy use and distribution, and smart packaging.

  • 204.
    Lundholm, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Richard, Renaud
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Engaging Individuals to act Strategically Towards Sustainability2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reach sustainability, all parts of the system “individuals within organisations within society within the biosphere” must change. Individuals are major leverage points, and being more efficient in engaging them to act strategically towards sustainability is and will be of critical importance. To explore how to help the engager improve this engagement process, the authors did a broad transdisciplinary literature review; structured their information in a “Five Elements Guide – Structured information to help engage individuals to act strategically towards sustainability”; and used three brief examples to illustrate how to use their results. Based upon a deeper awareness about determinants of human behaviour and about how individuals change and become engaged, the results are structured into five interdependent elements: - ‘The Fifth Element’ – Think ‘Systems’. - ‘Earth’ – Understand yourself and what you want to achieve. - ‘Water’ – Understand the other’s behaviour and the influence of context. - ‘Air’ – Understand how change happens. - ‘Fire’ – Design an approach and perform it. This structure also allows for the addition of further findings that might be helpful for engaging individuals to act strategically towards sustainability.

  • 205.
    Lydiatt, Tracy
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Mequita, Patricia
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Nolan, Anne
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Sustainable Mining? Applying the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development to Mining Projects2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Precious and base metal mining projects can serve as a stepping-stone in moving the mining industry towards achieving compliance with a scientific-principled definition of global socio-ecological sustainability. Using the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development to assess the current reality of mine project development has resulted in identifying gaps between current best practices and a desired vision of sustainability constrained by science based principles. These gaps provide opportunities for sustainability driven innovation. Evaluation of mining project phases and their impacts on ecological and social systems using the four Sustainability Principles highlight specific opportunities to create value for social, economic and ecologic systems. Companies choosing to develop mining projects using the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development can expect to achieve many business benefits, including improved reputation, increased transparency and stakeholder trust. Strengthening these aspects will provide robust support to companies as they manoeuvre to define their role in a sustainable society. This thesis examines how current processes for mining projects can be developed to support a successful transition into a sustainable society.

  • 206.
    MacKay, Laura
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Scheerer, Ann
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Takada, Tomomi
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Entrepreneurs as Change Agents to Move Communities towards Sustainability2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis argues that since the current global economic system contributes to the degradation of local economies and communities, alternative economic models based on multiple self-reliant economies led by community-based entrepreneurs could create a basis for a more sustainable global society. The research questions work to clarify how this vision of an alternate economic structure could become reality, and identify a gap in the skills base of current progressive entrepreneurs. Employing the method of backcasting and using an iterative research dynamic between the current reality of progressive entrepreneurs, as understood through case study interviews in four countries, and a vision of entrepreneurs as community-based change leaders, a new concept of entrepreneurship emerges in community sustainability entrepreneurship. The results point to four interactive skills for entrepreneurs, specifically that entrepreneurs a) hold and realize a vision of sustainable enterprise within sustainable community, b) support community needs through an ability to capitalize on community assets, c) develop competency in sustainable development and d) participate effectively in networks. Conclusions detail specific steps that can be taken by entrepreneurs, community development professionals and academics to realize the vision of entrepreneurs as community-based change leaders.

  • 207. Magnevall, Martin
    Methods for Simulation and Characterization of Nonlinear Mechanical Structures2008Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Trial and error and the use of highly time-consuming methods are often necessary for modeling, simulating and characterizing nonlinear dynamical systems. However, for the rather common special case when a nonlinear system has linear relations between many of its degrees of freedom there are particularly interesting opportunities for more efficient approaches. The aim of this thesis is to develop and validate new efficient methods for the theoretical and experimental study of mechanical systems that include significant zero-memory or hysteretic nonlinearities related to only small parts of the whole system. The basic idea is to take advantage of the fact that most of the system is linear and to use much of the linear theories behind forced response simulations. This is made possible by modeling the nonlinearities as external forces acting on the underlying linear system. The result is very fast simulation routines where the model is based on the residues and poles of the underlying linear system. These residues and poles can be obtained analytically, from finite element models or from experimental measurements, making these forced response routines very versatile. Using this approach, a complete nonlinear model contains both linear and nonlinear parts. Thus, it is also important to have robust and accurate methods for estimating both the linear and nonlinear system parameters from experimental data. The results of this work include robust and user-friendly routines based on sinusoidal and random noise excitation signals for characterization and description of nonlinearities from experimental measurements. These routines are used to create models of the studied systems. When combined with efficient simulation routines, complete tools are created which are both versatile and computationally inexpensive. The developed methods have been tested both by simulations and with experimental test rigs with promising results. This indicates that they are useful in practice and can provide a basis for future research and development of methods capable of handling more complex nonlinear systems.

  • 208. Magnevall, Martin
    Simulation and Experimental Methods for Characterization of Nonlinear Mechanical Systems2011Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Trial and error and the use of highly time-consuming methods are often necessary for investigation and characterization of nonlinear systems. However, for the rather common case where a nonlinear system has linear relations between many of its degrees of freedom there are opportunities for more efficient approaches. The aim of this thesis is to develop and validate new efficient simulation and experimental methods for characterization of mechanical systems with localized nonlinearities. The purpose is to contribute to the development of analysis tools for such systems that are useful in early phases of the product innovation process for predicting product properties and functionality. Fundamental research is combined with industrial case studies related to metal cutting. Theoretical modeling, computer simulations and experimental testing are utilized in a coordinated approach to iteratively evaluate and improve the methods. The nonlinearities are modeled as external forces acting on the underlying linear system. In this way, much of the linear theories behind forced response simulations can be utilized. The linear parts of the system are described using digital filters and modal superposition, and the response of the system is recursively solved for together with the artificial external forces. The result is an efficient simulation method, which in conjunction with experimental tests, is used to validate the proposed characterization methods. A major part of the thesis addresses a frequency domain characterization method based on broad-band excitation. This method uses the measured responses to create artificial nonlinear inputs to the parameter estimation model. Conventional multiple-input/multiple-output techniques are then used to separate the linear system from the nonlinear parameters. A specific result is a generalization of this frequency domain method, which allows for characterization of continuous systems with an arbitrary number of localized zero-memory nonlinearities in a structured way. The efficiency and robustness of this method is demonstrated by both simulations and experimental tests. A time domain simulation and characterization method intended for use on systems with hysteresis damping is also developed and its efficiency is demonstrated by the case of a dry-friction damper. Furthermore, a method for improved harmonic excitation of nonlinear systems using numerically optimized input signals is developed. Inverse filtering is utilized to remove unwanted dynamic effects in cutting force measurements, which increases the frequency range of the force dynamometer and significantly improves the experimental results compared to traditional methods. The new methods form a basis for efficient analysis and increased understanding of mechanical systems with localized nonlinearities, which in turn provides possibilities for more efficient product development as well as for continued research on analysis methods for nonlinear mechanical structures.

  • 209. Magnevall, Martin
    et al.
    Josefsson, Andreas
    Ahlin, Kjell
    Experimental Verification of a Control Algorithm for Nonlinear Systems2006Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    When using electrodynamic vibration exciters to excite structures, the actual force applied to the structure under test is the reaction force between the exciter and the structure. The magnitude and phase of the reaction force is dependent upon the characteristics of the structure and exciter. Therefore the quality of the reaction force i.e. the force applied on the structure depends on the relationship between the exciter and structure under test. Looking at the signal from the force transducer when exciting a structure with a sine wave, the signal will appear harmonically distorted within the regions of the resonance frequencies. This phenomenon is easily observed when performing tests on lightly damped structures. The harmonic distortion is a result of nonlinearities produced by the shaker when undergoing large-amplitude vibrations, at resonances. When dealing with non-linear structures, it's of great importance to be able to keep a constant force level as well as a non-distorted sine wave in order to get reliable results within the regions of the resonance frequencies. This paper presents the method and results from an experimental test creating a nondistorted excitation signal with constant force level.

  • 210. Magnevall, Martin
    et al.
    Josefsson, Andreas
    Ahlin, Kjell
    On Nonlinear Parameter Estimation2006Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial demand on good dynamical simulation models is increasing. Since most structures show some form of nonlinear behavior, linear models are not good enough to predict the true dynamical behavior. Therefore nonlinear characterization, localization and parameter estimation becomes important issues when building simulation models. This paper presents identification techniques for nonlinear systems based on both random and harmonic excitation signals. The identification technique based on random excitation builds on the well known reverse-path method developed by Julius S. Bendat. This method treats the nonlinearity as a feedback forcing term acting on an underlying linear system and the parameter estimation is performed in the frequency domain by using conventional MISO/MIMO techniques. Although this method provides a straightforward and systematic way of handling nonlinearities, it has been somewhat limited in use due to the complexity of creating uncorrelated inputs to the model. As is shown in this paper, the parameter estimation will not be improved with conditioned inputs and the nonlinear parameters and the underlying linear system can still be estimated with partially correlated inputs. This paper will also describe a parameter estimation method to be used with harmonic input signals. By using the principle of harmonic balance and multi-harmonic balance it is possible to estimate an analytical frequency response function of the studied nonlinear system. This frequency response function can, in conjunction with measured nonlinear transfer functions, be used to estimate the nonlinearity present in the system. This method is also applicable on nonlinear systems with memory, e.g. systems with hysteresis effects. The above mentioned methods are applied to multi-degree-of-freedom and single-degree-of-freedom systems with different types of nonlinearities. Also, techniques for locating nonlinearities are discussed.

  • 211. Magnevall, Martin
    et al.
    Josefsson, Andreas
    Ahlin, Kjell
    Parameter Estimation of Hysteresis Elements Using Harmonic Input2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial demand on good dynamical simulation models is increasing. Since most structures show some form of nonlinear behavior, linear models are not good enough to predict the true dynamical behavior. Hysteresis is a highly nonlinear phenomenon which occurs in for example dampers and mechanical joints. This paper presents a method for parameter estimation on nonlinear systems under harmonic excitation. By using the principle of harmonic balance or multi harmonic balance a theoretical frequency response function of the studied system can be estimated. This frequency response function can, in conjunction with measured nonlinear transfer functions, be used to make parameter estimations of the nonlinearity present in the system. A major benefit using this method is the ability to use arbitrary nonlinear functions. This means that the method can be applied to nonlinear systems with memory, for instance systems with hysteresis effects. The method is applied to both simulated systems and an experimental test rig.

  • 212.
    Magnevall, Martin
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Josefsson, Andreas
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Ahlin, Kjell
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Nonlinear structural identification by the "reverse Path" spectral method2012Inngår i: Journal of Sound and Vibration, ISSN 0022-460X, E-ISSN 1095-8568, Vol. 331, nr 4, s. 938-946Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When dealing with nonlinear dynamical systems, it is important to have efficient, accurate and reliable tools for estimating both the linear and nonlinear system parameters from measured data. An approach for nonlinear system identification widely studied in recent years is "Reverse Path". This method is based on broad-band excitation and treats the nonlinear terms as feedback forces acting on an underlying linear system. Parameter estimation is performed in the frequency domain using conventional multiple-input-multiple- output or multiple-input-single-output techniques. This paper presents a generalized approach to apply the method of "Reverse Path" on continuous mechanical systems with multiple nonlinearities. The method requires few spectral calculations and is therefore suitable for use in iterative processes to locate and estimate structural nonlinearities. The proposed method is demonstrated in both simulations and experiments on continuous nonlinear mechanical structures. The results show that the method is effective on both simulated as well as experimental data.

  • 213.
    Magnevall, Martin
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Lundblad, Mikael
    Ahlin, Kjell
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    High Frequency Measurements of Cutting Forces in Milling by Inverse Filtering2012Inngår i: Machining science and technology, ISSN 1091-0344, E-ISSN 1532-2483, Vol. 16, nr 4, s. 487-500Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate estimates of cutting forces are important in the evaluation of different cutting tool geometries and concepts. However, dynamic influences from the measurement system affect the result, which can make the obtained cutting force data erroneous and misleading. This article presents a method to obtain an inverse filter which compensates for the dynamic influences of the measurement system. Using this approach, unwanted dynamic effects of the measurement system can be counteracted, making it possible to retain information related to the cutting forces contained in the high frequency region. The advantage of the proposed method is illustrated by comparing simulated, inverse- and low-pass filtered forces to unfiltered forces under different cutting conditions. The results show that inverse filtering increases the usable frequency range of the force dynamometer and thereby provide more reliable results compared to both low-pass and unfiltered forces.

  • 214.
    Manchu, Sreenivasarao
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Parameter Identification for Mechanical Joints2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    All but the simplest physical systems contains mechanical joints. The behavior of these joints is sometimes the dominant factor in over all system behavior. The potential for occurence of microslip and macroslip normally makes the behavior of joints non-linear. Accurate modeling of joints requires a non-linear ramework. As clamping pressures are typically random ad variable, the behavior of the joints becomes random. Joint geometries are random along with other unknowns of the joints. Two different methods for measuring the energy dissipation are explained. In the experimental method, the energy dissipation of a non-linear joint is calculated from the slope of the envelope of the time response of acceleration. The simulation work is carried out by considering a smooth hysteresis model with the help of Matlab programming. Finally, the parameters are extracted for a specific non-linear system by comparing analytical and experimental results.

  • 215.
    Mandalapu, Harikishan
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Karanamsetty, Sandeep
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Parameter analysis of creep models of PP/CaCo3 nanocomposites2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The present report is about the parameter analysis of creep models of Nanocomposites (Isotactic polypropylene and CaCo3).The parametric analysis of the nanocomposites under creep was carried out, and the parameters related to creep model are determined by comparing to the experimental results. The influence of these parameters on the creep was studied. Using commercially available software ABAQUS, Finite Element Calculations were done for elastic and creep conditions. The results obtained from theoretical analysis were verified with the Experimental Results. Also Abaqus results are compared with the Experimental results.

  • 216.
    Massimo, Panarotto
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Åsa, Ericson
    Tobias, Larsson
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Intangibles in Design of PSS Value Propositions2013Inngår i: The Philosopher's Stone for Sustainability / [ed] Yoshiki, Shimomura; Koji, Kimita, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer , 2013, s. 85-90Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Product-service systems (PSS), or value propositions, are foreseen to bring about challenges in product development. Traditionally, engineers normally manage tangible elements in relation to products, and are lacking approaches to deal with the intangibles incorporated in PSS development. The purpose of the paper is to elaborate on and propose a framework for value assessment and a simulation approach. Conceptual examples are used to discuss the proposed framework, and a contribution of the paper is that it exemplifies the reasons why intangible value have to be addressed more directly in industry in general and in PSS in particular.

  • 217.
    Matsuura, Eri
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    ye, Yan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    He, Xiaoxuan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Sustainability Opportunities and Challenges of Bioplastics2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Bioplastics (BPs) can be defined as plastics made of biomass such as corn and sugarcane. These substances have been increasingly spotlighted as means to saving fossil fuels, reducing CO2 emission and plastic wastes. Biodegradability of BPs has been widely publicized in society and the demand for packaging is rapidly increasing among retailers and the food industry at large. However, there is little consensus on actual impacts of BPs production. This thesis therefore aims to identify current strengths and weaknesses and future threats and opportunities and leverage points for the bioplastics industry in a move towards sustainability?” The Strategic Life Cycle Management (SLCM) and Templates for Sustainable Product Development (TSPD) approaches were used to reveal current ecological and social impacts in relation to Sustainability Principles from the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development. Various sustainability challenges and opportunities were identified. Most threats were in agricultural production and in the disposal of products. Compelling measures for the BP industry include: having a consensus in BPs applications based on strategic sustainable development, universal labelling and recycling systems for BPs, government strategic policies to encourage research into new technologies in improving biodegradability and energy efficiency in manufacturing.

  • 218.
    McElroy, Rachelle
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Orozco, Itzel
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Simard, Renee
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Applying Strategic Sustainability: For Small and Medium Sized Enterprises2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) are an underutilised sector to disseminating sustainability within communities. Entrepreneurs are action-oriented individuals who enjoy challenges and act upon environmental feedback, making them ideal change agents. However, there is a lack of tools specifically targeted towards SMEs to help them act strategically towards sustainability. In order to support entrepreneurs and motivate them into becoming catalysts for change towards sustainability the research team identified the need to provide them with a customized tool. The tool will be focused towards entrepreneurs interested in starting up new businesses with a core strategy of sustainable development. If the entrepreneur is able to apply sustainability at the beginning of their business venture, it reduces the need for later corrections. The research examines what is needed in a tool to support entrepreneurs and how to encourage them through the conception of adopting sustainable strategies.

  • 219. Mfoumou, Etienne
    Low Frequency Acoustic Excitation and Laser Sensing of Vibration as a Tool for Remote Characterization of Thin Sheets2008Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need to monitor the existence and effects of damage in structural materials. Bulk components provide a much publicized example, but the need exists in a variety of other structures, such as layered materials used in food packaging industries. While several techniques and models have been proposed for characterization and condition monitoring of bulk materials, less attention has been devoted to thin films having no bending rigidity. This study is therefore devoted to the development of a new method for remote acoustic non-destructive testing and characterization of thin films used in food packaging materials or similar structures. A method for assessing the strength in the presence of crack of thin layers used in food packaging is first presented using a modified Strip Yield Model. Resonance frequency measurement is then introduced and it is shown, at low frequency range, less than 2kHz, that a change in the physical properties such as a reduction in stiffness causes detectable changes in the modal properties, specifically in the resonance frequency. This observation leads to the implementation of a method for damage severity assessment on sheet materials, supported by a new theory illustrating the feasibility of the detection of inhomogeneity in form of added mass, as well as damage severity assessment, using a measurement of the resonance frequency shift. A relationship is then established between the resonance frequency and the material’s elastic property for single layers as well as for laminates, which yields a new modality for sheet materials remote characterization. Further, the method has allowed demonstrating that thin sheets having no bending stiffness exhibit a slow non-equilibrium dynamics when slightly loaded within their elastic region and monitored at constant strain. We found that the resonance frequency shifts downward in response to a conditioning strain and to the number of cycles. This is an indication of a long-time slow dynamics relaxation, similar to that observed on bulk materials of many types. Differences and similarities in the setup as well as features observed are pointed out in this work. This type of measurement is important for the fundamental understanding of material dynamics and for further development of theories on thin sheets dynamics. The result of this study is the foundation of a method, based on low-frequency acoustic excitations and laser detection, for non-contact nondestructive testing and characterization of sheet materials.

  • 220. Mfoumou, Etienne
    et al.
    Hedberg, Claes
    Kao-Walter, Sharon
    Static Versus Low Frequency Dynamic Elastic Modulus Measurement of Thin Films2006Inngår i: Electronical Journal of Technical Acoustics, ISSN 1819-2408, E-ISSN 1819-2408, nr 17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A new experimental technique for evaluating Young’s (or elastic) modulus of a vibrating thin film from a dynamic measurement is presented. The technique utilizes bending resonance from a remote acoustic excitation to determine Young’s modulus. Equations relating the natural frequencies to the mechanical properties are obtained, and Young’s modulus is subsequently determined. Young’s modulus values from dynamic test are compared with those (static) obtained by a standard tensile test, and consistent results are obtained. The proposed technique is relatively simple and could be used to determine Young’s modulus of a wide variety of sheet materials initially having no bending stiffness. It can also be used for determining other mechanical properties, such as compliance methods in connections with fracture mechanical testing, fatigue and damage measurements. This work emphasizes the feasibility of a damage assessment of components in-service by evaluating changes in the material characteristics.

  • 221. Mfoumou, Etienne
    et al.
    Hedberg, Claes
    Kao-Walter, Sharon
    Vibration-Based Damage Detection and Evaluation of Sheet Materials using a Remote Acoustic Excitation2008Inngår i: Acoustical Physics, ISSN 1063-7710 (print) 1562-6865 (online) , Vol. 54, nr 1, s. 127-134Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A simple method of damage severity assessment on sheet materials is suggested and proved by theory and experiment. The investigated defect types are in forms of added mass and crack. The method is based on the frequency shift measurement of a material vibrating as a membrane subjected to static tension and irradiated by an acoustic wave. It is shown both theoretically and experimentally that the natural frequency of the damaged membrane is shifted relative to its position in the ideal material. A local increase in thickness (or addition of mass) shifts the natural frequency down, while a crack shifts the frequency up. The method can be considered as acoustic weighting through the frequency shift. The sensitivity of this method can be high because frequency measurement is one of the most accurate measurements in physics and metrology.

  • 222. Mfoumou, Etienne
    et al.
    Hedberg, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Kao-Walter, Sharon
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Narayanswamy, S.
    A New Method of Acoustical Remote Evaluation of Defective Structures and Material Characterization2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The feasibility of a remote monitoring of structures for a progressive damage assessment as well as material characterization using a simple and inexpensive experimental setup is discussed. The method is based on a remote acoustic excitation of transverse vibrations on a membrane using an ordinary broadband low frequency loudspeaker, and the measurement of the response using a Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV). Theoretical modeling is also developed to correlate the experimental results obtained, and this yields a new method for Non Destructive Testing (NDT) of sheet-like materials. The function generator provides an input voltage of a sine signal to the loudspeaker, and laser detection of the surface vibrational response of the sample is accomplished with the laser vibrometer.

  • 223. Mfoumou, Etienne
    et al.
    Kao-Walter, Sharon
    Fracture Toughness Testing of Non Standard Specimens2004Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The fracture behavior of the main layers used in food packaging material is studied. Investigations include aluminium foil (9μm), paper board (100 μm) and Low Density Polyethylene (27 μm). The plane stress fracture toughness of each layer is derived based on a centered crack panel. Different crack sizes have been tested. A compromise (crack length) was found, at which Strip Yield Model as well as Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics allow the validation of experimental results. Meanwhile, accurate results are obtained using the Strip Yield Model with a geometric correction. The result is also used to evaluate crack initiation from a notch when all three layers are laminated.

  • 224. Mfoumou, Etienne
    et al.
    Kao-Walter, Sharon
    Hedberg, Claes
    Fracture Mechanism and Acoustic Damage Analysis of Thin Materials2005Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The fracture behavior of paper board (100 μm) used in food packaging material is studied. The plane stress fracture toughness is measured based on a centered crack panel. Different crack sizes have been tested. A compromise (crack length) was found, at which Strip Yield Model as well as Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics allow the validation of experimental results. Meanwhile, accurate results are obtained using the Strip Yield Model with a geometric correction. Besides, detection of damage in food packaging material is an interesting feature in quality control of the product. Therefore the material is investigated using an acoustic method. The method consists of a vibration-based damage assessment and leads to a first level differentiation between damaged and non-damaged specimens. The fracture behavior of paper board (100 μm) used in food packaging material is studied. The plane stress fracture toughness is measured based on a centered crack panel. Different crack sizes have been tested. A compromise (crack length) was found, at which Strip Yield Model as well as Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics allow the validation of experimental results. Meanwhile, accurate results are obtained using the Strip Yield Model with a geometric correction. Besides, detection of damage in food packaging material is an interesting feature in quality control of the product. Therefore the material is investigated using an acoustic method. The method consists of a vibration-based damage assessment and leads to a first level differentiation between damaged and non-damaged specimens.

  • 225.
    Mikalsen, Tommy
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Ahnstedt, Jörgen
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Agardh, Andreas
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Mapping of grounding applications regarding Volvo S80/XC90, VCBC´s assortment.2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The high technology cars of today contain an enormous amount of advanced electronic equipment. To ensure the function of the electrical system these must be grounded in the body of the car. The grounding is made possible by welding unthreaded nuts into the body of the car. If the grounding doesn’t work as it should in the car, the strangest defects can occur and they can be very hard to locate. To maintain the functionality of the entire electronic system it’s of the highest importance to get an adequate grounding capability on the grounding element. The project is like an element in VCBC:s work to meet Volvos goal: “To be No. 1 in customer satisfaction in the premium segment of the car industry.” The purpose is to increase the communication and widen the individually understanding in all segments within the company. The most important task is, and will always be, to deliver a car without any ground related problems to the costumers even in the future. Measurements and physical tests have been done and the results have been documented in a thorough and clear way so that it will be easy to track and identify the actual grounding connections. The work has been of investigating character and included information retrieval, information sorting and information documentation. The result of our work is going to be a great help regarding possible changes and investigations of the cars electrical system.

  • 226.
    Mirza, Muddassar Sabir
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Muqtader, Syed
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Process Zone Analysis of a Thin Laminated Composite2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This report takes an insight look into the process zone of a thin laminated composite. Mostly work was focused on microscopic observation and thickness calculations around the process zone of laminates. The laminates used in the work are Aluminium and Polyethylene. Investigations were done on a centred crack of constant length. Experiment and Finite element methods were used for analysis. Finite element modelling was used for comparison with experimental results. A commercial software ABAQUS is used for FEM calculations to find load, stress and reaction forces. The simulation results were observed to have a good agreement with experimental results. Thickness change was observed along the length of crack propagation and at the end of crack edge.

  • 227. Missimer, Merlina
    et al.
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    Broman, Göran
    Sverdrup, Harald
    Exploring the possibility of a systematic and generic approach to social sustainability2010Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 18, nr 10-11, s. 1107-1112Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing need to understand how existing concepts and tools for sustainability relate to each other and to a robust, trans-disciplinary systems perspective for sustainability. As a response, a group of scientists, including some of the authors, have developed a framework based on backcasting from sustainability principles over the last 20 years – the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD), also known as The Natural Step Framework. The intent of this study is to scrutinize the existing framework as regards its social dimension. The study demonstrates dichotomies and lack of robustness and proposes a way forward to make the social dimension of the FSSD more cohesive as well as operational.

  • 228.
    Mohamed, Amer
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Load Calculation and Simulation of an Asphalt Roller2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Free body diagrams of an Asphalt Roller were designed for several load cases and used for an optimisation study. Assumptions for the load calculations for each load case were carried out in MATLAB®. The Roller was built in I-DEAS® and the results were compared with the theoretical results

  • 229.
    Mohammed, Anssaf
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    investigation of the table in the student lab2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Finite element modal was performed on structure(T-form) with free-free boundary conditions and an experimental modal was performed on the table in the student lab. FRF coupling was achieved between the updated modal of the structure and the experimental modal of the table. A new finite element modal was performed on the structure with restrain boundary condition

  • 230.
    Mohareb, Adrian
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Murray, Kate
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Ogbuagu, Chidi
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Sustainable Cities: Realizing the Seven Forms of Community Capital2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This report aimed to understand the reasoning that leads cities to undertake efforts to move towards sustainability. Interviews and surveys were undertaken with cities that are following the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development and other models in moving towards sustainability to understand the motivators and drivers, the barriers and challenges, and the benefits that these cities have encountered and realized through the move to sustainability. The motivators and drivers, barriers and challenges, and benefits were categorized within seven forms of community capital – natural, economic/financial, physical/built, social, cultural, human, and political. Returns on investment were categorized, and those that were pronounced were highlighted. A guidebook has been developed to assist sustainability practitioners and sustainability leaders in cities to engage senior-level decision-makers with language that would encourage them to move towards sustainability.

  • 231.
    Mohebbi, Mohsen
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Self-Exciting Oscillation in Gas Fired Appliance2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Self exciting oscillation in gas fired appliances leads to abnormal combustion noise which is focused in this work. For studying this phenomena and modeling abnormal combustion noise a simple hand made instrument was made. Then the property of fundamental parts of unit is studied and also some practical methods for reducing the loud noise are given. These methods are based on modification of the fundamental parts of unit. The mathematical model of this phenomenon is illustrated and also the stability criteria for the unit based on this model is given. Then the effect of changing excitation point in this phenomenon is studied and finally the experimental stability diagram based on modification on fuel/air ratio is given.

  • 232.
    Monteverde, Monique
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Pease, Katie
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Thompson, Anthony W.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Community Food Systems: Working towards Sustainability and Satisfying Human Needs2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: A community food system (CFS) can assist a community in satisfying human needs while also working toward a principle-based understanding of sustainability. Utilizing a whole-systems perspective and the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development, we identify generic satisfiers of human needs (as defined by Max-Neef: Subsistence, Participation, Identity, Idleness, Creation, Freedom, Affection, Understanding and Protection) that are affected by a CFS. Then we identify specific leverage points within the community food system that most enhance those generic satisfiers. By implementing strategies developed around those leverage points, a community food system will provide opportunities to meet Human Needs and help a community move toward sustainability. In doing so, the CFS can have a significant ―ripple effect‖ within the community, and on into society, that serves to support movement towards a sustainable future.

  • 233.
    Motamediyan Dehkordi, Farnaz
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Thompson, Anthony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Impacts of project-overload on innovation inside organizations: Agent-based modeling2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Market competition and a desire to gain advantages on globalized market, drives companies towards innovation efforts. Project overload is an unpleasant phenomenon, which is happening for employees inside those organizations trying to make the most efficient use of their resources to be innovative. But what are the impacts of project overload on organization’s innovation capabilities? Advanced engineering teams (AE) inside a major heavy equipment manufacturer are suffering from project overload in their quest for innovation. In this paper, Agent-based modeling (ABM) is used to examine the current reality of the company context, and of the AE team, where the opportunities and challenges for reducing the risk of project overload and moving towards innovation were identified. Project overload is more likely to stifle innovation and creativity inside teams. On the other hand, motivation on proper challenging goals are more likely to help individual to alleviate the negative aspects of low level of project overload

  • 234.
    Muchu, Gerald
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Sindowe, Benny
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Vummadi, Pavan Kumar
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Transitioning towards sustainable rural electrification in developing countries: a case study of Luangwa district in Zambia2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research is to examine how rural areas in developing countries can strategically transit towards sustainable electricity generation and how this transition can help promote strategic progress towards sustainable rural communities. Luangwa district in Zambia is studied as a special case but an approach that is generic for rural areas in developing countries is strived for. Based on a literature review of existing and potentially sustainable technologies for electricity generation, other case studies, and a survey of local conditions, this study proposes Small Scale Hydro and Solar as appropriate for Luangwa district. A strategic implementation plan is suggested. Some barriers to the transition and possible ways of overcoming them are pointed out, e.g., through technical and public policy measures. Potential economic, socio-political and environmental benefits of this transition are highlighted. The study concludes that with a well structured vision of a sustainable rural electrification, it is possible to strategically implement existing technologies based on renewable energy sources. However, the type of technologies that are suitable for different areas will differ considerably due to different local conditions, such as geography and climate.

  • 235. Mustafa, Wail
    et al.
    Yu, Jhang Shih
    Rakus-Andersson, Elisabeth
    Mohammed, Abbas
    Kulesza, Wlodek
    Fuzzy-based Opportunistic Power Control Strategy in Cognitive Radio Networks2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers the spectrum sharing network consisting of a pair of primary users (PUs) and a pair of cognitive users (CRs) in a fading channel. The pair of PUs establishes a wireless link as the PU link. The pair of CRs establishes a wireless link as the CR link. The PU link and CR link utilize spectrum simultaneously with different priorities. The PU link has a higher priority to utilize spectrum with respect to the CR link. When the PU link utilizes spectrum, a desired quality of service (QoS) is given to be assured and the CR utilizes spectrum with an opportunistic power scale under this constraint, assuring the desired QoS on the PU link. To compute an optimal opportunistic power scale for the CR link, a fuzzy-based opportunistic power control strategy is proposed based on the Mamdani fuzzy control model using two input variables: the PU’s SNR and PU’s interference channel gain. By the proposed fuzzy-based power control strategy, the desired QoS could be assured on the PU link and the bit error rate (BER) is also reduced compared with the spectrum sharing network without power control strategy.

  • 236.
    Nelson, David
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Lazarowich, Renée
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Health and Strategic Sustainability: Business to Business2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This is a study of how businesses might influence other businesses to move towards sustainability. Two health club businesses in North America actively participated and were selected because of their private ownership structureand their similar size and services. One health club had significant experience with working towards sustainability, and the other had little or no such experience. This is a descriptive study that applied an Active Research model in which researchers andbusiness management teams all actively participated. Five cycles of learning and adaptation are documented, including three work sessionsand initial and final interviews. Data from these five cycles were analysed to assess changes in perceptions of and knowledge about sustainability in business. We have concluded that the least experienced health club demonstrated sound increases in their knowledge and perception about sustainability. In addition, itis actively considering implementing select practices in itsfacilities that represent movement towards sustainability. The club with significant sustainability experience did not demonstrate increased knowledge or perceptions about sustainability, but did perceive value in the business-to-business sustainability discussions.

  • 237. Nilsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Wallin, Johanna
    Benaim, Andre
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Annosi, Maria Carmela
    Berntsson, Richard
    Ritzén, Sofia
    Magnusson, Mats
    Re-thinking Innovation Measurement to Manage Innovation-Related Dichotomies in Practice2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation performance measurement has developed from focusing on issues of control and monitoring towards a more supportive role for managers on a strategic, informative and motivational level. Despite its potential to facilitate innovation management measuring provides a challenge in practice not the least when a company has the ambition to manage both radical and incremental innovation. This paper, based on literature review with empirical illustrations from three case studies, argues that these issues derives from the need to manage a number of dichotomies which are present due to the essential differences associated to each type of innovation. These dichotomies are related to time, uncertainty, flexibility and control. The implications on the design and use of an innovation performance measurement system are explored and analyzed through the lens of dichotomies. The study contributes to the innovation measurement theory and provides basis for an analytical framework aiming to support the design and implementation of innovation performance measurement in practice.

  • 238.
    Nolan, Caroline
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Ostafi, Mary
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Planchenault, Mélina
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Catalytic City Planning: Leveraging the Development Planning Process to move a Community Strategically towards Sustainability with Dublin City Case Study2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    More than half the world’s population now lives in urban areas putting the city on the frontline of the social and environmental challenge and yet, city planning presents many opportunities to move a city towards sustainability. The city development plan (DP) is a powerful vehicle for change. This research seeks to understand the gaps between an ideal catalytic development planning process and current reality, and provide recommendations to support the attainment of a city’s sustainability objectives. The Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD) was used to define a generic “Golden Standard” planning process to help the local authority better leverage its internal resources and refine governance systems to achieve long-lasting cultural change from within to accelerate the city’s progression towards sustainability. A case study with the Dublin City Council’s Planning Department in Ireland provided valuable insight and limited practical application of the Golden Standard.

  • 239.
    Nomura, Hideyuki
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Hedberg, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Kamakura, Tomoo
    Estimation of parametric sound field controlled by source amplitudes and phases using numerical simulation2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The parametric array is formed by two finite-amplitude ultrasound beams with neighboring frequencies. The nonlinear interaction of the beams generates a highly directive audible sound at the difference frequency. Up to now, we have analyzed theoretically parametric sound fields in a free space. This study proposes a numerical simulation method of nonlinear ultrasound propagation to estimate the parametric sound field in the time domain. Using the finite-difference time-domain method based on the Yee algorithm with operator splitting, axisymmetric nonlinear propagation was simulated on the basis of equations for a compressible viscous fluid. As model application, a lengthlimited parametric sound beam, which is formed by four finite-amplitude ultrasound beams with different frequencies and controlled by phases and amplitudes of sound sources and has a truncated array length [C.M. Hedberg et al., Acoust. Phys. 56, 637–639 (2010)], was numerically simulated. The simulation showed a spatially restricted and very narrow difference frequency sound beam similar to their experiment. In addition, to investigate the dependence of amplitude and phase on the lengthlimited beam profiles, parametric sound fields were numerically estimated by varying the amplitude and phase slightly from the condition of the length-limited beam. Numerical results indicated that the changes of the amplitude and phase affected the beam length and width, in particular, amplitude changes drastically deformed the beam shape from that of the length-limited beam. This result suggests that precisely controlled sound sources are necessary to obtain the best length-limited sound beam.

  • 240.
    Nopparat, Nanond
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Kianian, Babak
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Thompson, Anthony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Resource Consumption in Additive Manufacturing with a PSS Approach2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1980’s, additive manufacturing (AM) has gradually advanced from rapid prototyping applications towards fabricating end consumer products. Many small companies may prefer accessing AM technologies through service providers offering production services as result-oriented Industrial Product-Service System (IPSS) rather than investing in their own production line. This study investigated potential benefits of IPSS using system dynamics modeling to study resource demands between two situations: one where an IPSS approach is used and one that is the traditional ownership of production equipment. This study concluded that AM service providers with demand-varying customers could increase service performance and maximize use of production equipment.

  • 241. Ny, Henrik
    Strategic Life-Cycle Modeling and Simulation for Sustainable Product Innovation2009Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Many specific methods and tools have been developed to deal with sustainability problems. However, without a unifying theory it is unclear how these relate to each other and how they can be used strategically. A Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD) is being developed to cover this need for clarity and structure. It includes backcasting from a principled definition of sustainability as a key feature. The aim of this thesis is to study how this framework can guide the use and improvement of detailed methods and tools, in particular to support sustainable product innovation (SPI). First, a new strategic life-cycle management approach is presented, in which the selection of aspects to be considered are not based on typical down-stream impact categories, but on identified major violations of sustainability principles. Ideas of how this approach can inform various specific methods and tools are also presented, as a basis for an integrated “toolbox” for SPI. As part of such, a new “template” approach for sustainable product development (TSPD) is developed through a sustainability assessment case study of TVs. That study indicates that this approach can create a quick and strategically relevant overview of critical sustainability aspects of a product, as well as facilitate communication between top management, product developers and external stakeholders. Based on such an assessment, it is sometimes necessary to go deeper into details, including the use of specific engineering methods and tools. To facilitate a coordinated assessment of sustainability aspects and technical aspects, an introductory procedure for sustainability-driven design optimization is suggested trough a water jet cutting case study. Equally important, to get a breakthrough for SPI, it is essential to integrate sustainability aspects into the overall decision-making process at different levels in companies. An approach to assessing sustainability integration in strategic decision systems is therefore also developed through a case study involving several companies. Finally, the integration between the FSSD and general systems modeling and simulation (SMS) is discussed and tested in another water jet cutting case study. It is shown feasible to start with the FSSD to create lists of critical flows and practices, ideas of long term solutions and visions, and a first rough idea about prioritized early investments. After that, SMS can be applied to study the interrelationships between the listed items, in order to create more robust and refined analyses of the problems at hand, possible solutions and investment paths, while constantly coupling back to the sustainability principles and guidelines of the FSSD. This research shows that the combination of the FSSD with detailed methods and tools cohesively provides decision-makers with both a robust overview and, when needed, a more coordinated and effective detailed support. To utilize its full potential, this approach should now be integrated into decision processes, software and manuals for SPI.

  • 242. Ny, Henrik
    Strategic Life-Cycle Modeling for Sustainable Product Development2006Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision makers are challenged by complex sustainability problems within the socio-ecological system. In response, a vast range of sustainability-related methods/tools have been developed, each focusing on certain aspects of this challenge. Without a unifying theory it is, however, unclear how these methods/tools can support strategic progress towards sustainability and how they relate to each other. This need for clarity and structure urged some sustainability pioneers to start develop an overarching framework for strategic sustainable development (SSD), often called “The Natural Step (TNS) framework”, from the NGO that has facilitated its development and application, or the “backcasting from sustainability principles (BSP) framework” from its main operational philosophy. The aim of this thesis is to study if, and in that case how, this framework can aid coordination and further development of various sustainability-related methods/tools, specifically to increase their capacity to support sustainable product development (SPD). Life-cycle assessment (LCA), “templates” for SPD and systems modeling and simulation (SMS) are the methods/tools in focus. A new strategic life-cycle management approach is presented, in which the main sustainability aspects, LCA “impacts”, are identified through socioecological sustainability principles. This creates new opportunities to avoid the reductionism that often follows from traditional system boundaries or from a focus on specific impacts. Ideas of how this approach can inform the studied tools are given. This may eventually lead to a whole integrated toolbox for SPD (a “Design Space”). As part of such a Design Space, a new “template” approach for SPD is developed. A case study of a sustainability assessment of TVs at the Matsushita Electric Group indicates that this approach can create a quick overview of critical sustainability aspects in the early part of the product development process and facilitate communication of this overview between top management, product developers, and other stakeholders. A potential integration between BSP and SMS is also discussed. It is suggested that this should start with BSP to create lists of critical presentday flows and practices, ideas of long term solutions and visions, and a first rough idea about prioritized early investments. After that, SMS should be applied to study the interrelationships between the listed items, in order to create more robust and refined analyses of the problems at hand, possible solutions and investment paths, while constantly coupling back to the sustainability principles and guidelines of the BSP framework. v Decision makers seem to need more of an overview and of simplicity around sustainability issues. A general conclusion is, however, that it is important that this is achieved without a loss of relevant aspects and their interrelations. Over-simplifications might lead to sub-optimized designs and investments paths. Combining the BSP framework with more detailed methods/tools seems to be a promising approach to finding the right balance and to get synergies between various methods/tools.

  • 243.
    Ny, Henrik
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Sustainability Constraints as System Boundaries. An Approach to Making Life-Cycle Management Strategic.2006Inngår i: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 10, nr 1-2, s. 61-77Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable management of materials and products requires continuous evaluation of numerous complex social, ecological, and economic factors. A number of tools and methods are emerging to support this. One of the most rigorous is life-cycle assessment (LCA). But LCAs often lack a sustainability perspective and bring about difficult trade-offs between specificity and depth, on the one hand, and comprehension and applicability, on the other. This article applies a framework for strategic sustainable development (often referred to as The Natural Step (TNS) framework) based on backcasting from basic principles for sustainability. The aim is to foster a new general approach to the management of materials and products, here termed “strategic life-cycle management.” This includes informing the overall analysis with aspects that are relevant to a basic perspective on (1)sustainability, and (2) strategy to arrive at sustainability. The resulting overview is expected to help avoid costly assessments of flows and practices that are not critical from a sustainability and/or strategic perspective and to help identify strategic gaps in knowledge or potential problems that need further assessment. Early experience indicates that the approach can complement some existing tools and concepts by informing them from a sustainability perspective—for example, current product development and LCA tools.

  • 244. Ny, Henrik
    et al.
    Broman, Göran
    MacDonald, Jamie
    Yamamoto, Ryoichi
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    Sustainable Management of Materials Products and Services – an Approach to Strategic LCA2004Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper outlines the need for a more structured and simplified Life Cycle Assessment approach – called Strategic LCA. It builds on a previously published and peer-reviewed methodology using backcasting from basic principles of socio-ecological sustainability. The idea is to simplify, not by excluding parts of the traditionally covered dimensions in this field, but by a new way of setting system boundaries. Rather than applying boundaries related to geographic regions, or fields of expertise, or particular impacts, all issues found to be relevant as regards achieving sustainability are taken into account. To that end, we use four previously published generic principles of socio-ecological sustainability for the scrutinizing of materials, products and services.

  • 245. Ny, Henrik
    et al.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    Broman, Göran
    Introducing Templates for Sustainable Product Development: A Case Study of Televisions at the Matsushita Electric Group2008Inngår i: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 12, nr 4, s. 600-623Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We have previously developed a method for sustainable product development (MSPD) based on backcasting from basic sustainability principles. The MSPD informs investigations of product-related social and ecological sustainability aspects throughout a concurrent engineering product development process.We here introduce “templates” for sustainable product development (TSPDs) as a complement. The idea is to help product development teams to arrive faster and more easily at an overview of the major sustainability challenges and opportunities of a product category in the early development phases. The idea is also to inform creative communication between top management, stakeholders, and product developers. We present this approach through an evaluation case study, in which the TSPDs were used for a sustainability assessment of televisions (TVs) at the Matsushita Electric Group.We study whether the TSPD approach has the ability to (1) help shift focus from gradual improvements of a selection of aspects in relation to past environmental performance of a product category to a focus on the remaining gap to a sustainable situation, (2) facilitate consensus among organizational levels about major sustainability challenges and potential solutions for a product category, and (3) facilitate continued dialogue with external sustainability experts, identifying improvements that are relevant for strategic sustainable development. Our findings indicate that the TSPD approach captures overall sustainability aspects of the life cycle of product categories and that it has the above abilities.

  • 246. Ny, Henrik
    et al.
    MacDonald, Jamie
    Broman, Göran
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    Sustainability Constraints as System Boundaries: Introductory Steps Toward Stategic Life-Cycle Management2008Inngår i: Web-based green products life-cycle management systems: reverse supply-chain utilization / [ed] Wang, Hsiao-Fan, Hershey, USA: IGI Global: Information Science Reference , 2008Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable management of materials and products requires continuous evaluation of numerous complex social, ecological, and economic factors. Many tools and methods are emerging to support this. One of the most rigorous is life-cycle assessment (LCA). But LCAs often lack a sustainability perspective and bring about difficult trade-offs between specificity and depth, on the one hand, and comprehension and applicability, on the other. This article applies a framework for strategic sustainable development to foster a new general approach to the management of materials and products, here termed “strategic life-cycle management.” This includes informing the overall analysis with aspects that are relevant to a basic perspective on (1) sustainability, and (2) strategy to arrive at sustainability. Early experiences indicate that the resulting overview could help avoiding costly assessments of flows and practices that are not critical from a sustainability and/or strategic perspective and help identifying strategic knowledge gaps that need further assessment.

  • 247.
    Ny, Henrik
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Thompson, Anthony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Lindahl, Pia
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Carlson, Raul
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Introducing strategic decision support systems for sustainable product-service development across value chains2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Most companies do not have a coherent and systematic approach for incorporating sustainability criteria into their decision support systems. Given this, what would such a <em>strategic </em>decision support system (SDSS) look like that that is coherent throughout a development process and systematically incorporates (1) a full sustainability perspective, including (2) a broader approach to meeting needs by product-service systems, and (3) interfaces toward both specific groups of decision makers and specialized in-depth tools? We anticipate such an SDSS being structured by a framework for strategic sustainable development that provides a principle-based definition of sustainability and a systematic method to identify problems and solutions by backcasting from that definition. This should aid identification of potential benefits and challenges of shifting from a product-only focus to a focus on product-service systems. Additionally, the new sustainability and product-service system decision support should be flexible enough to be incorporated into existing decision-making processes. It will likely be formed around a built-in product development process at the companies.

  • 248.
    Odeh, Khuloud
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Seckinger, Annita
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Forsman-Knecht, Carina
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Connected Urban Development (CUD) Initiative as an Approach towards Sustainability in Urban Areas2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    With the increasing number of Information and Communication Technology (ICT)-based initiatives addressing sustainability in urban areas, it is important to examine the possible contributions these initiatives can make when transitioning society as a whole towards sustainability. This thesis investigates CUD‟s potential as a supportive approach to move urban areas towards sustainability, and the adjustment needed in the current strategies for alignment to a goal of global sustainability. This was accomplished by working with CUD Pilot Cities, various experts in urban development, ICT authorities and sustainability researchers. A scientific approach to the understanding of sustainability concepts provides the basis of this evaluation of the CUD initiative, the benefits and challenges, including the role of connectivity and the applicability of ICT. Within this context, recommendations were made to further improve the CUD initiative‟s effectiveness in moving urban areas towards sustainability. An ideal initiative was envisioned in relation to system boundaries and components, strategic guidelines, actions and tools - “CUD Gold” - and steps were suggested for how to make CUD more strategic in its pioneering endeavors of global urban sustainability.

  • 249.
    OGBONNAH, VINCENT
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    CONDITION MONITORING OF GEAR FAILURE WITH ACOUSTIC EMISSION2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Acoustic emission (AE) is an efficient non destructive testing technique for the diagnosis of machine health used in this thesis. The thesis involves using the recorded experimental data obtained from Acoustic emission signals to show how changes over time of different characteristics of acoustics emissions can be used as diagnostic measures of pitting damages on gear teeth. Analysis was done by using wavelet method, presenting results for changes over time in statistical properties of amplitude, frequency change and corresponding energy change. A linear relationship between acoustic emission, gearbox running time and pitting progression was established.

  • 250.
    Okeke, Joseph Chukwuemeka
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Isienyi, Osita Kingsley
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Ezeah, Chinonye
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskinteknik.
    Analysis of Strength of Self -Pierce Riveted Aluminium Plate Using Finite Element Method2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This work aims at providing a numerical tool for the efficient design of the self piercing rivet by means of finite element simulations. Abaqus standard v 6.7 software has been used to establish a 3D model for simulation of the shearing and peel test on the riveted joint. This is done in order to understand the mechanical strength and failure mechanism of the joint. Shear and tensile tests were performed to compare experimental and numerical results. The numerical model was validated against experimental results. The aim of analyzing the strength of SPR is to predict the fatigue life for SPR joined structures through process optimization. Here we found out that mechanical behavior like strength does not only depend on geometry but also depend on process parameters. The complex riveted joint geometry and its three dimensional nature combine to increase the difficulty of obtaining an overall system of governing equations for predicting the mechanical properties of SPR joints and the experimental predictions are time consuming and expensive. Though using FEM frequently solves the problem.

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