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  • 2501. Claesson, Ingvar
    et al.
    Dahl, Mattias
    Nordebo, Sven
    Applied Complex Chebyshev Optimization Using Dual Nested Complex Approximation2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2502. Claesson, Ingvar
    et al.
    Dahl, Mattias
    Nordebo, Sven
    Nordholm, Sven
    Acoustic Echo Cancelling with microphone arrays1995Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2503. Claesson, Ingvar
    et al.
    Dahl, Mattias
    Nordebo, Sven
    Nordholm, Sven
    Chebyshev Optimization of Circular Arrays Inequalities1998Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2504. Claesson, Ingvar
    et al.
    Håkansson, Lars
    Active Control of Machine-Tool Vibration in a Lathe1997Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the turning operation the relative dynamic motion between cutting tool and workpiece, or vibration is a frequent problem, which affects the result of the machining, in particular the surface finish. The tool life is also influenced by the vibrations. When the working environment is considered, noise is frequently introduced by dynamic motion between the cutting tool and the workpiece. By proper machine design, e.g. improved stiffness of the machine structure, the problem of relative dynamic motion between cutting tool and workpiece may be partially solved. However, by active control of machine-tool vibration, a further reduction of the dynamic motion between cutting tool and workpiece can be achieved. It was found that adaptive feedback control based on the filtered-x LMS-algorithm enables a reduction of the vibration with up to 40 dB at 1.5 kHz and simultaneously with approximately 40 dB at 3 kHz. A significant improvement of the workpiece surface was observed and a substantial improvement of the acoustic noise level was obtained with adaptive control.

  • 2505. Claesson, Ingvar
    et al.
    Håkansson, Lars
    Adaptive Active Control of Machine-Tool Vibration In a Lathe1998In: International Journal of Acoustics and Vibration, ISSN 1027-5851, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 155-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the turning operation the relative dynamic motion between cutting tool and workpiece, or vibration, is a frequent problem, which affects the result of the machining, and in particular, the surface finish. Tool life is also influenced by vibration. Noise in the working environment frequently occurs as a result of dynamic motion between the cutting tool and the workpiece. With proper machine design, i.e. improved stiffness of the machine structure, the problem of relative dynamic motion between cutting tool and workpiece may be partially solved. However, by active control of machine-tool vibration, a further reduction of the dynamic motion between cutting tool and workpiece can be achieved. It was found that adaptive feedback control of tool vibration in the cutting speed direction, based on the filtered-x LMS-algorithm, enables a reduction in vibration, by up to 40 dB at 1.5 kHz, and by approximately 40 dB at 3 kHz. It was also observed that the introduction of leakage in the filtered-x LMS-algorithm improved the stability properties of the feedback control system. A significant improvement in the workpiece surface was observed and a substantial improvement in the acoustic noise level was obtained with adaptive control.

  • 2506.
    Claesson, Ingvar
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Signal Processing.
    Håkansson, Lars
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Signal Processing.
    Lagö, Thomas L
    Robust Control of Machine-Tool Vibration in a Lathe1999Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the turning operation the relative dynamic motion between cutting tool and workpiece, or vibration, is a frequent problem, which affects the result of the machining, and, in particular, the surface finish. Tool life is also influenced by vibration. Severe acoustic noise in the working environment frequently occurs as a result of dynamic motion between the cutting tool and the workpiece. These problems can be reduced substantially by active control of the machine-tool vibration. Adaptive feedback control based on the filtered-x LMS-algorithm, enables a reduction of the vibration by up to 40 dB at 1.5 kHz and by approximately 40 dB at 3 kHz. The active control performeds a broadband attenuation of the sound pressure level by up to 35 dB. However, the process of machining a workpiece usually involves a variety of cutting data which in turn are likely to cause substantial variations in the spectral properties of the tool vibrations. Hence, variations in the spectral properties originates from changes in the excitation of the tool holder and changes in the structural response of the tool holder. To handle the potential large variations in the spectral properties of tool vibration in the turning operation the robustness of the control system has to be improved. By applying the leaky version of the filtered-x LMS algorithm in the active control of machine tool vibration it was found that the robustness of the adaptive control system was improved substantially to large variations in the spectral properties of tool vibration.

  • 2507. Claesson, Ingvar
    et al.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Cancellation of Humming GSM Mobile Telephone Noise2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sometimes annoying problem in the most internationally widespread cellular telephone system, the GSM system, is an interfering signal generated by the switching nature of TDMA cellular telephone system. A humming noise originating from the speech frames, equivalent to 160 samples of data corresponding to 20 ms at 8 kHz sampling rate is sometimes clearly audible. This paper describes a study of two different software solutions designed to suppress such interference internally in the mobile handset. The methods are Notch Filtering, which is performed on a sample-per-sample basis, and Speech Frame Noise Cancellation, which is an alternative method employing correlators and subtraction, similar to Active Noise Control.

  • 2508. Claesson, Ingvar
    et al.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    GSM TDMA Frame Rate Internal Active Noise Cancellation2003In: International Journal of Acoustics and Vibration, ISSN 1027-5851, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 159-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A common problem in the world's most widely-used cellular telephone system, the GSM system, is the interfering signal generated by the switching nature of TDMA cellular telephony in handheld and other terminals. Signals are sent as chunks of data, speech frames, equivalent to 160 samples of data corresponding to 20 ms at sampling rate of 8 kHz. This paper describes a study of two different software solutions designed to suppress such interference internally in the mobile handset. The methods are 1) notch filtering, which is multiplicative in frequency, and 2) subtractive noise cancellation, which is an alternative method employing correlators. The latter solution is a straigtforward, although somewhat unorthodox, application of "in-wire" active noise control. Since subtraction is performed directly in the time domain, and we have access to the state of the mobile, it is also possible to consider a recurring pause in the interference caused by the idle frame in the transmission, when the mobile listens to other base stations communicating. More complex control algorithms, based on the state of the communication between the handset and the base station, can be utilised.

  • 2509. Claesson, Ingvar
    et al.
    Nordholm, Sven
    A Spatial Filtering Approach to Robust Adaptive Beamforming1992In: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, ISSN 0018-926X , Vol. 40, no 9, p. 1093-1096Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This communication treats the problem of controlling the superresolution in adaptive beamformers. A straightforward method is presented that works for both narrow-band and broad-band arrays. The method is based on forming the blocking matrix in a general sidelobe canceller (GSC) structure using a spatial FIR filter. The suppression of this spatial filter and the implicit noise of the leaky (LMS) algorithm together determine the beamformer.

  • 2510. Claesson, Ingvar
    et al.
    Nordholm, Sven
    Robust Adaptive Beamforming using Spatial Filter Design1990Report (Other academic)
  • 2511. Claesson, Ingvar
    et al.
    Nordholm, Sven
    Bengtsson, Bengt
    Car Perfomance of an Adaptive Microphone Array1992Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2512. Claesson, Ingvar
    et al.
    Nordholm, Sven
    Bengtsson, Bengt
    Car Performance of an Adaptive Microphone Array1992Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hands free input of mobile telephones is often almost impossible due to the noise situation in the car and the channel quality. The authors present a method to enhance the quality using an adaptive microphone array. Measurements show an improvement of the input with approximately 10 dB. Tape results are available for subjective evaluation

  • 2513. Claesson, Ingvar
    et al.
    Nordholm, Sven
    Bengtsson, Bengt
    Car Performance of an Adaptive Microphone Array1992Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hands free input of mobile telephones is often almost impossible due to the noise situation in the car and the channel quality. The authors present a method to enhance the quality using an adaptive microphone array. Measurements show an improvement of the input with approximately 10 dB. Tape results are available for subjective evaluation.

  • 2514. Claesson, Ingvar
    et al.
    Nordholm, Sven
    Bengtsson, Bengt
    Car Performance of an Adaptive Microphone Array1992Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2515. Claesson, Ingvar
    et al.
    Nordholm, Sven
    Bengtsson, Bengt
    Eriksson, Per
    A Multi-DSP implementation of a Broadband Adaptive Beamformer for use in a Hands-free Mobile Radio Telephone1991In: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, ISSN 0018-9545 , Vol. 40, no 1, p. 194-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An implementation of a broadband adaptive array on a multiprocessor digital signal processing (DSP) system for use in a hands-free mobile radio telephone is described. This implementation of a five-microphone adaptive Griffiths-Jim array can handle FIR filters with up to 128 taps behind each microphone at a sampling rate of 8 kHz. The filter structure makes it possible to combine an adaptive array with a noise canceler. The near-field problem has been solved by using focusing, a speech-controlled adaptive algorithm, and a short hourglass. Preliminary measurements indicate a considerable potential for this technique in hands-free mobile telephony. The array gives a 20-30-dB suppression of a broadband jammer covering 300-1100 Hz, even with three reflecting walls surrounding the microphone.

  • 2516. Claesson, Ingvar
    et al.
    Nordholm, Sven
    Eriksson, Per
    Noise Canceling Convergence Rates for the LMS Algorithm1991In: Mechanical systems and signal processing, ISSN 0888-3270, E-ISSN 1096-1216, Vol. 5, no 5, p. 375-388Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2517. Claesson, Ingvar
    et al.
    Nordholm, Sven
    Eriksson, Per
    Noise Cancelling Convergence Rates for the LMS Algorithm1991In: Mechanical Systems & Signal Processing, ISSN 0888-3270 , Vol. 5, no 5, p. 375-388Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2518. Claesson, Ingvar
    et al.
    Nordholm, Sven
    Eriksson, Per
    Wiener Solution for the Broadband Griffiths-Jim Beamformers1990Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of finding the Wiener filters for a wideband adaptive beamformer is treated. Explicit expressions are given for the filters and the error power spectrum in the frequency domain. The expressions are simple to program and make it possible to investigate superresolution for wideband signals and to determine sufficient lengths of finite-impulse-response filters in adaptive arrays.

  • 2519. Claesson, Ingvar
    et al.
    Rossholm, Andreas
    Notch Filtering of Humming GSM Mobile Telephone Noise2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A common problem in the world's most widespread cellular telephone system, the GSM system, is the interfering signal generated in TDMA cellular telephony. The infamous "bumblebee" is generated by the switching nature of TDMA cellular telephony, the radio circuits are switched on and off at a rate of approximately 217 Hz (GSM). This paper describes a study of two solutions for eliminating the humming noise with IIR notch filters. The simpler one is suitable for any exterior equipment. This method still suffers from a small residual of the noise, resulting from the IDLE slots of the sending mobile. The more advanced IIR structure for use within the mobile also eliminates this residual.

  • 2520.
    Claesson, Jonas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    CMP Developer2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since first published in 1998, the Enterprise JavaBeans technology has become a popular choice for the development of middleware systems. Even though its popularity, the technology is considered quite complex and rather difficult to master. The main contribution to its complexity is the part of the EJB that deals with persistence. The most common and most popular way of implementing EJB persistence is called Container Managed Persistence (CMP). Today, developers consider the utilization of CASE tools for the EJB development process obvious. Despite this, available CASE tools have very limited support for the complete CMP development process. In this thesis we have isolated steps within the CMP development process that could benefit from CASE tool support. We have then identified possible solutions and remedies to address these steps. These solutions where then implemented in a full fledged CASE tool, called CMP Developer.

  • 2521.
    Claesson, Jonas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    CMP Developer -A CASE Tool Supporting the Complete CMP Development Process2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since first published in 1998, the Enterprise JavaBeans technology has become a popular choice for the development of middleware systems. Even though its popularity, the technology is considered quite complex and rather difficult to master. The main contribution to its complexity is the part of the EJB that deals with persistence. The most common and most popular way of implementing EJB persistence is called Container Managed Persistence (CMP). Today, developers consider the utilization of CASE tools for the EJB development process obvious. Despite this, available CASE tools have very limited support for the complete CMP development process. In this thesis we have isolated steps within the CMP development process that could benefit from CASE tool support. We have then identified possible solutions and remedies to address these steps. These solutions where then implemented in a full fledged CASE tool, called CMP Developer.

  • 2522.
    Claesson, Lena
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Applied Signal Processing.
    Remote Electronic and Acoustic Laboratories in Upper Secondary Schools2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During a substantial part of their time young people of today actually live in a virtual world. The medial evolution has also influenced education and today much research work basically concerns the transfer of the physical world into the virtual one. One example is laboratories in physical science that are available in virtual rooms. They enable studentsto sit at home in front of a computer and on screen watch and operate the physical equipment in the laboratory at school. It is a general agreement that laboratory lessons are necessary in subjects such as physics, chemistry and biology. Physical experiments provide a great way for students to learn more about nature and its possibilities as well as limitations. Experimental work can be provided bylaboratories in three different categories; 1) hands-on, 2) remote and 3) simulated. This thesis concerns the usage of remotely controlled laboratories in physics education at an upper secondary school. It is based on work carried out in a joint project between Katedralskolan (upper secondary school), Lund, Sweden, and Blekinge Institute of Technology (BTH). The object with this project is to investigate feasibility of using the VISIR (Virtual Instruments System in Reality) technology for remotely controlled laboratories, developed at BTH, in upper secondary schools. This thesis consists of an introduction, followed by three parts where the first part concerns the introduction of the remote lab to students and the usage of the remote lab by students at the upper secondary school, Katedralskolan. Both first year students and third year students carried out experiments using the remote lab. The second part concerns activities carried out by 2 teachers and 94 students using the remote laboratory VISIR. An integration of VISIR with the learning management system used at school is described. Teaching activities carried out by teachers at Katedralskolan involving the VISIR lab are discussed, e.g., an exam including problems of experimental work using the VISIR lab and an example of a student report. Survey results on student satisfaction with the VISIR lab at BTH and the perception of it are presented, indicating that VISIR is a good learning tool. Furthermore, the survey resulted in a proposal of improvements in the VISIR lab user interface. Finally, the third part focuses on enhancements of the VISIR lab at BTH. An improved version in the VISIR user interface is presented. New iPad and smart phone availability of the VISIR lab is presented. Electronic experiments for upper secondary school students are described in detail and examples of suitable configurations are given. A new VISIR acoustic lab has beenimplemented and initial experimentation by upper secondary school students have been carried out. The outcomes from these experiments are discussed.

  • 2523.
    Claesson, Lena
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Applied Signal Processing.
    Håkansson, Lars
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Applied Signal Processing.
    Displacement measurements versus time using a remote inclined plane laboratory2016In: Proceedings of 2016 13th International Conference on Remote Engineering and Virtual Instrumentation, REV 2016, IEEE Press, 2016, p. 355-356Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a remote implementation of Galileos inclined plane experiment, focused on secondary school students. A remotely controlled inclined plane has been designed and implemented in the VISIR lab at Blekinge Institute of Technology (BTH), Sweden. In this demo session, it will be demonstrated how to perform measurements remotely in the remotely controlled Inclined Plane Laboratory. A web camera is used to show the experiment. Data concerning the distance a cube has slided down the inclined plane are collected. These data are stored in a file and can subsequently be analyzed by the students. The friction acting on the cube sliding down the inclined plane and its acceleration may for instance be investigated.

  • 2524.
    Claesson, Lena
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Håkansson, Lars
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Using an online remote laboratory for electrical experiments in uppersecondary education2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2525.
    Claesson, Lena
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Håkansson, Lars
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Using an Online Remote Laboratory for Electrical Experiments inUpper Secondary Education2012In: International Journal of Online Engineering, ISSN 1868-1646, E-ISSN 1861-2121, Vol. 8, no S2, p. 24-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of remote laboratories in courses at university level has been reported in literature numerous times since the mid 90?s. In this article focus is on activities carried out by teachers and students, at the Upper Secondary School Level, using the remote laboratory VISIR (Virtual Instrument Systems in Reality). The Upper Secondary School, Katedralskolan in Lund, Sweden, cooperate with Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden, in a project that concerns the introduction of remote laboratory environment suitable for Upper Secondary School science courses. A remote laboratory in electronics has been introduced and is used as a complement to the traditional workbench in the hands-on laboratory. Significant results from the project are; 1) the great interest shown by the students for the remote experiments, 2) the students appreciation for the fact that it was not simulations but actual real experiments, 3) the remote laboratory is easy to implement for use by both teachers and students and 4) it can be used simultaneously by many students.

  • 2526.
    Claesson, Lena
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Applied Signal Processing.
    Lundberg, Jenny
    Linnéuniversitetet, SWE.
    Zackrisson, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Applied Signal Processing.
    Johansson, Sven
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Applied Signal Processing.
    Hakansson, Lars
    Linnéuniversitetet, SWE.
    Expert Competence in Remote Diagnostics - Industrial Interests, Educational Goals, Flipped Classroom & Laboratory Settings2018In: ONLINE ENGINEERING & INTERNET OF THINGS / [ed] Auer, ME Zutin, DG, 2018, p. 438-451Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The manufacturing industry are dependent of engineering expertise. Currently the ability to supply the industry with engineering graduates and staff that have an up-to-date and relevant competences might be considered as a challenge for the society. In this paper an education approach is presented where academia - industry - research institutes cooperate around the development and implementation of master level courses. The methods applied to reach the educational goals, concerning expert competence within remote diagnostics, have been on site and remote lectures given by engineering, medical and metrology experts. The pedagogical approach utilized has been flipped classroom. The main results show that academic courses developed in cooperation with industry requires flexibility, time and effort from the involved partners. The evaluation interviews indicate that student are satisfied with the courses and pedagogical approach but suggests more reconciliation meetings for course development. Labs early in the course was considered good, and division of labs at the system and the component level. However further long-term studies of evaluation of impact is necessary.

  • 2527.
    Claesson, Linda
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    Forsberg, Oskar
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    Barn av vår tid: En retrospektiv studie om före detta besökares erfarenhet av fritidsgårdar samt dess påverkan på individen i dess nuvarande liv.2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen handlar om hur fritidsgården har påverkat sina före detta besökare. För att genomföra detta använder vi oss av både enkäter och kvalitativa intervjuer. Studien är gjord i samarbete med Karlskrona kommun och kommer vara en del i ett större forskningsprojekt som ungdomsstyrelsen driver. Ungdomsstyrelsen arbetar med ett pilot projekt som Karlskrona kommun är en del av. Målsättningen för Karlskona kommun är att effektstudera förebyggande och främjande arbete inom kultur och fritidsområdet. Syftet med studien är att få en inblick i hur före detta fritidsgårds besökare upplevde sin tid som fritidsgårdsbesökare och hur detta har påverkat dem i deras fortsatta liv. Problemområdet kan sammanfattas med; äldre ungdomars syn på sin tid då de besökte en fritidsgård i Karlskrona kommun. Det vi vill få fram i stort om denna grupp är hur deras tid som gårdsbesökare påverkat dem i deras fortsatta liv, fick det någon konsekvens i deras syn på brott, våld, droger m.m. Fick de tillräckligt stöd från personalen, fick de vara med och påverka innehållet m.m. För att kunna förstå och förklara hur unga människor tänker och agerar utifrån de valmöjligheter de har använder vi oss av två moderna teoretiker som båda har ägnat sig åt att analysera samhället och människan. Den ena är Anthony Giddens samhällsteori om identitet i det moderna samhället och den andra teoretikern är Tomas Ziehe och hans teori om ungdomskulturer. I resultatet framkom vikten av att det finns en fritidsgård i samhället samt att det finns ett behov av en fritidsgård för dagens ungdomar i deras jakt på sin identitet. Vilket behandlas i analysen utifrån Giddens teori om identitet och identitetsskapande. Även Ziehes teorier om vikten av att ungdomar kan välja sina stilar som forma deras identitet behandlas i analysen. Diskussionen visar på hur vida fritidsgården är en plats för ungdomarnas identitetskapande samt det finns ett behov av en fritidsgård i dagens samhälle. Studien deltagare anser att fritidsgårdarna är en plats som bör finnas kvar i dagens samhälle och är en miljö som kan ha en positiv inverkan på besökarna.

  • 2528.
    Claesson, Simon
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    Möllheden, Rebecka
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    Hur olika lärstilar påverkar individens upplevelse av feedback2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet är att beskriva hur användningen av feedback effektiviserar organisationer. Metod: I denna uppsats har en kvalitativ ansats använts för att studera upplevelsen av feedback på individnivå. Respondenterna, från två medelstora företag i södra Sverige, har dels intervjuats genom en riktad öppen intervjukaraktär samt fått svara på en enkätundersökning för att kategoriseras efter lärstilarna. Slutsatser: Vårt resultat visar att individers olika upplevelser av feedback kan spåras till individens lärstil. Varje lärstil har sina egna utmärkande faktorer som organisationer bör ta hänsyn till vid förmedling av feedback till de anställda. Vi har kommit fram till att organisationers effektivitet kan höjas vid medveten användning av feedback och genom att ta hänsyn till individens lärstil.

  • 2529.
    Clarberg, Frida
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Granlöf, Pontus
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Att leva med en person med demenssjukdom: Hur närståendes livsvärld påverkas av att vårda en person med demenssjukdom i ordinärt boende2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det har visat sig att närstående som vårdar en person med demenssjukdom använder i större utsträckning psykofarmaka samt löper större risk att drabbas av depression. Känslor av otillräcklighet, skuld, dåligt samvete och skam är vanligt. Att leva med en person med demenssjukdom kan göra det svårt att tillgodose sitt eget sociala behov vilket kan leda till ensamhet som i sin tur leder till sämre hälsa och lägre livskvalitet. Syftet med studien var att belysa livsvärlden för närstående som vårdar en person med demenssjukdom i ordinärt boende. Metoden var en litteraturstudie baserad på åtta stycken vetenskapliga artiklar. Artiklarna granskades utifrån en kvalitativ innehållsanalys där det manifesta innehållet identifierades. Resultatet visade att närstående som vårdar en person med demenssjukdom i hemmet tyckte att det svåraste var den sjukes personlighetsförändring. Ensamheten som blev till följd av minskat socialt engagemang påverkade de närstående negativt. Av de närstående krävdes ökat ansvar för den sjuke och dennes tillhörigheter. Detta ledde till ständig övervakning för att förvissa sig om att till exempel den sjuke inte gick vilse eller stoppade på sig varor i affären. Sammanfattningsvis visade det sig att närståendes livsvärld förändrades då de vårdar en person med demenssjukdom i ordinärt boende.

  • 2530.
    Clarelid, Andreas
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Health.
    Sjösvärd, Evelina
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Health.
    Att leva med en tarmstomi: En kvalitativ litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Antalet personer med stomi har ökat. Tarmstomi innefattar ileostomi och kolostomi. Vid tarmstomi skapas en öppning i buken och en del av tarmen sys upp utvärtes på huden. Avföring och gasbildning avlägsnas därmed från kroppen via öppningen i buken. Att erhålla en tarmstomi medför en förändrad kroppsfunktion och därmed en förändring i vardagen, upplevelsen av att leva med en tarmstomi kan variera och upplevas både positivt och negativt.

    Syfte: Studiens syfte var att belysa personers upplevelse av att leva med en tarmstomi.

    Metod: En kvalitativ litteraturstudie baserad på tio vetenskapliga artiklar. Samtliga artiklar har kvalitetsgranskats utifrån Forsberg och Wengströms granskningsmall för kvalitativa artiklar. Dataanalysen är baserad på Graneheim och Lundmans innehållsanalys.

    Resultat: I resultatet framkom det tre kategorier: en förändrad kropp, stomins påverkan på det sociala livet och att anpassa sig till en ny livssituation. I resultatet framkom det att leva med en tarmstomi innebär en stor förändring som påverkar individernas liv på olika sätt.

    Slutsats: Upplevelsen av att leva med en tarmstomi kan variera. Upplevelsen kan vara att personerna har svårt att acceptera den nya livssituationen och anpassa sig till en förändrad kropp medan andra upplevde tarmstomin som en befrielse och var tacksamma över förändringen.

  • 2531.
    Clark, David
    et al.
    UCL, GBR.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Poulding, Simon
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Yoo, Shin
    UCL, GBR.
    Information Transformation: An Underpinning Theory for Software Engineering2015In: 2015 IEEE/ACM 37th IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering, Vol 2, IEEE , 2015, p. 599-602Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software engineering lacks underpinning scientific theories both for the software it produces and the processes by which it does so. We propose that an approach based on information theory can provide such a theory, or rather many theories. We envision that such a benefit will be realised primarily through research based on the quantification of information involved and a mathematical study of the limiting laws that arise. However, we also argue that less formal but more qualitative uses for information theory will be useful. The main argument in support of our vision is based on the fact that both a program and an engineering process to develop such a program are fundamentally processes that transform information. To illustrate our argument we focus on software testing and develop an initial theory in which a test suite is input/output adequate if it achieves the channel capacity of the program as measured by the mutual information between its inputs and its outputs. We outline a number of problems, metrics and concrete strategies for improving software engineering, based on information theoretical analyses. We find it likely that similar analyses and subsequent future research to detail them would be generally fruitful for software engineering.

  • 2532.
    Claurentzius, Jenny
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Malmborg, Fanny
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Svedin, Sofie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Sociala medier och musikfestivaler: En kvantitativ och jämförande studie om skillnaden mellan män och kvinnors användande av musikfestivaler's konton på sociala medier sett från ett marknadsföringsperspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Social media and music festivals - a quantitative and comparative study about men and women's differences in the use of the accounts run by music festivals on social media, seen from a marketing perspective.

    Authors: Jenny Claurentzius, Fanny Malmborg and Sofie Svedin

    Supervisor: Thomas Michel

    Department: School of Management, Blekinge Institute of Technology

    Course: Bachelor’s thesis in Business Administration, 15 credits

    Purpose: To increase the understanding of the differences between men and women´s usage of social media accounts run by music festivals.

    Method: We conducted a quantitative study where we distributed an online survey on Facebook where we asked people who had visited a festival this year (2017) or previous year (2016) to take part.

    Results: We discovered differences in the way men and women uses, interacts and identifies with a music festival and its accounts on social media.

    Conclusions: Men are more observant and interact less with accounts held by festival organisers on social media, they care less about the festivals image matching their own and they are more impulsive in the way they make updates and decisions. Women interact more with the accounts held by festival organisers on social media, they care more about the festivals image matching their own, they are more emotionally engaged and more practical in their decision making.

    Keywords: social media, music festival, marketing, gender difference, trademark

  • 2533.
    Clausson, Hanna
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Östlund, Hannah
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Hur livsvärlden påverkas hos personer som lever med diabetes typ 22010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: De vanligaste riskfaktorerna för diabetes typ 2 är övervikt och fysisk inaktivitet men även stress, rökning och alkohol ökar risken. Behandlingen består främst av tabletter, livsstilsåtgärder och en bra egenvård. När livsvärldsansatsen används i vårdandet fokuserar vårdaren på hur patienter upplever sin hälsa, lidande, välbefinnande och sin vård. Detta kan inte mätas med olika instrument utan vårdaren får lyssna på personens egen berättelse och livshistoria. Syfte: Syftet var att beskriva hur livsvärlden påverkas hos personer som lever med diabetes typ 2. Metod: En litteraturstudie utformades baserat på tio vetenskapliga artiklar som sökts i databaserna PubMed och ELIN. Dessa analyserades och delades in i kategorier. Resultat: I studien framkom tre huvudkategorier och sex subkategorier. Huvudkategorierna var; livsstilsförändringar, stöd och lära sig leva med diabetes typ 2. Under huvudkategorin livsstilsförändringar finns två subkategorier; fysisk aktivitet och kosthållning och förhållningssätt till medicinering. Under huvudkategorin stöd finns två subkategorier; socialt stöd och brist på stöd. Slutligen finns två subkategorier under huvudkategorin lära sig leva med diabetes typ 2; diagnosens påverkan på livet och integrera sjukdomen i vardagen. Slutsatser: Relationen till sig själv, familj, vänner och kost är några faktorer som kan påverkas men personer kan uppfatta dem som både positiva och negativa. Det är därför viktigt att som sjuksköterska lyssna till den enskilda personens uppfattning av sin sjukdom så att vården kan planeras på ett sätt så att personen känner sig delaktig.

  • 2534.
    Clausson, Lotta
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Lilja, Emma
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Kvinnors upplevelse av att leva med bröstcancer: En litteraturstudie2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bröstcancer är den vanligaste formen av cancer bland kvinnor i såväl Sverige som i övriga världen. I Sverige drabbas årligen omkring 7 000 kvinnor, vilket resulterar i att varje dag, tolv månader om året, diagnostiseras ett 20- tal kvinnor med bröstcancer. Diagnosen bröstcancer leder ofta till en krisreaktion på grund av den psykologiska och den existentiella påfrestningen. Syftet med studien var att belysa kvinnors upplevelse av att leva med bröstcancer. En litteraturstudie baserad på vetenskapliga artiklar som bygger på nio artiklar med en kvalitativ ansats har gjorts. Artiklarna analyserades enligt Graneheim och Lundmans (2004) sammanställning. Resultat visade att kvinnorna kunde uppleva diagnosbeskedet olika men även att det fanns olika sätt att hantera sjukdomens utmaningar för att kunna klara av att leva med sjukdomen bröstcancer. Det visade sig även att hur ett diagnosbesked gavs och det bemötandet kvinnan fick vid tillfället påverkade kvinnans känslomässiga reaktion. Det visade sig att få relevant information, ett optimalt bemötande samt att erhålla stöd ifrån hela sin omgivning, var betydelsefullt och avgörande för dessa kvinnor för att kunna fortsätta leva med sjukdomen bröstcancer.

  • 2535.
    Clementson, Martin
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Augustsson, John
    User Study of Quantized MIP Level Data In Normal Mapping Techniques2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     The standard MIP mapping technique halves the resolution of textures for each level of the MIP chain. In this thesis the bits per pixel(bpp) is reduced as well. Normal maps are generally used with MIP maps, and todays industry standard for these are usually 24 bpp.The reduction is simulated as there is currently no support for the lower bpp in GPU hardware.

    Objectives: To render images of normal mapped objects with decreasing bpp for each level in a MIP chain and evaluate these against the standard MIP mapping technique using a subjective user study and an objective image comparison method.

    Methods: A custom software is implemented to render the images with quantized normal maps manually placed in a MIP chain. For the subjective experiment a 2AFC test is used, and the objective part consists of a PDIFF test for the images.

    Results: The results indicate that as the MIP level is increased and the bpp is lowered, users can increasingly see a difference.

    Conclusions: The results show that participants can see a difference as the bpp is reduced, which indicates normal mapping as not suitable for this method, however further study is required before this technique can be dismissed as an applicable method

  • 2536.
    Cobbe, Brian
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    Measuring Innovation2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to conduct an on-site survey of IKEA Of Sweden, Älmhult (IKEA 2010b), with the aim to determine if IKEA Of Sweden, as an empirical case, innovates within its organization. Measuring innovation is achieved by investigating the level of alignment of the daily operational activities employed by the IKEA Of Sweden organization, with key, modern managerial theorists in the field of innovation and organizational structure; namely, Henry Chesbrough’s Open Innovation paradigm and Michael Hammer’s reengineering framework. The results are discussed; namely, that a methodological, innovative structure facilitating the discovery, execution, and measurement of ideas is not implemented. The on-site survey involved a qualitative technique to collect information via four departments; namely, the Product Development department, the Packaging department, the Material and Technology Development department, and HR department. There was one interviewee respondent in each department. The collected information was augmented with approved, roll descriptions, and the IKEA testimony (EMU 2010). All surveyed departments act as embedded sub-cases within the overall holistic study. The questioning employed was open-ended, enabling the collected answers be subjected to further analysis. Objective analysis is achieved via the Use Case technique; utilizing the research methodologies used by Robert K. Yin, as an empirical inquiry where more than one source of evidence is used (Yin 1984).

  • 2537.
    Colakovic, Dana
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Planning and Media Design.
    Exploatering av kustnära områden: Hot och möjligheter2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete behandlar problematiken med att bygga kustnära, samtidigt som det i relation till klimatförändringen och den globala uppvärmningen sker en havsnivåhöjning. Syftet med arbetet är att upplysa om olika skydds- och bygg-nadsmetoder, som kan användas för att upprätthålla traditionen av att bygga vid kusten samt att kunna stilla den efterfrågan som idag finns för havsnära lägen utan att utsätta människor för risken av översvämningar. Arbetet börjar med en översiktlig bild av dagsprognosen för de stundande kli-matförändringarna samt vilka effekter dessa har för den globala havsnivåhöj- ningen, för att sedan beta sig ner till en mer lokal nivå och beskriva dagsläget för södra Sverige samt prognosen fram till slutet på seklet. Det presenteras även en aktuell bild för hur lagstiftningens, kommunernas, länsstyrelsernas och den fysiska planeringens roll förhåller sig till den stundande havsnivåhöjningen samt vilka kli-matanpassningsåtgärder som kan göras med havsnivåhöjningen i fokus. Avsnittet, ”Att bygga för framtiden” ger en kort översikt för olika skydds- och byggnadsmetoder som finns med hänsyn till havsnivåhöjningen. Här presenteras även influenser och inspirationer från Holland, ett land känt för sin eviga kamp mot översvämningar och för sin innovativa arkitektur vad gäller kustnära bebyg-gelse. Som slutsats appliceras några av dessa metoder på ett illustrationsförslag för Saltö Hamn, ett havsnära område i Karlskrona Kommun.

  • 2538.
    Coley, Alex
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Jerkovich, Jordan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Pilgaard Madsen, Mikkel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Pursuing Sustainability and Prosperity in Swedish Municipalities: Using Indicators to Inform Strategic Governance2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Deciding between sustainability or prosperity may be a false choice when the phenomena are appropriately defined and considered together (Stiglitz et al. 2009). With reference to existing indicator systems and frameworks, including the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD) and the Community Capitals Framework (CCF), this research developed three novel indices (SMSI, SMSI+, and CCFI) using a Strategic Sustainable Development (SSD) approach to measure and analyze the correlation between sustainability (SMSI, SMSI+) and prosperity (CCFI) in Swedish municipalities. The spearman rank-order coefficient values were 0.259 and 0.588 for SMSI and CFFI and SMSI+ and CCFI, respectively. Both were significantly correlated with a p-value of 0.05, where SMSI+ and CCFI were 0.329 more correlated than SMSI and CCFI. This showed that an index that more comprehensively considers an SSD approach correlates more with CCFI. Furthermore, only six out of 234 Swedish municipalities ranked in the top 10 percent of both SMSI+ and CCFI, showing that it is difficult to successfully pursue sustainability and prosperity together in practice. Importantly, this research also demonstrates that it is possible to create indices using an SSD approach while outlining the methods for how to do so

  • 2539. Collange, Denis
    et al.
    Mahdi, Hajji
    Shaikh, Junaid
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Fiedler, Markus
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Arlos, Patrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    User Impatience and Network Performance2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we analyze from passive measurements the correlations between the user-induced interruptions of TCP connections and different end-to-end performance metrics. The aim of this study is to assess the possibility for a network operator to take into account the customers' experience for network monitoring. We first observe that the usual connection-level performance metrics of the interrupted connections are not very different, and sometimes better than those of normal connections. However, the request-level performance metrics show stronger correlations between the interruption rates and the network quality-of-service. Furthermore, we show that the user impatience could also be used to characterize the relative sensitivity of data applications to various network performance metrics.

  • 2540.
    Colldahl, Caroline
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Frey, Sonya
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Kelemen, Joseph E.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Smart Cities: Strategic Sustainable Development for an Urban World2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Global urbanisation trends and pressing issues around sustainability pose great challenges for cities. The smart city concept has been developed as a strategy for working with cities as they become systematically more complex through interconnected frameworks, and increasingly rely on the use of Information and Communication Technology to meet the needs of their citizens. This thesis explores the concept of smart cities as a potential urban construct that can address the social and ecological sustainability challenges which society faces. Smart cities are defined as cities where investments in human and social capital, and traditional and modern communication infrastructure fuel sustainable economic growth and a high quality of life, with a wise management of natural resources, through participatory governance. Through structured interviews with smart city practitioners and sustainability experts, the strengths and limitations of the smart city concept are identified and organised through the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD). Then, a Strategic Sustainable Development (SSD) approach is applied as a method to maximise the benefits of the concept, and to mitigate any identified limitations. This thesis recommends a planning guide, informed by an SSD approach, to help smart cities move strategically towards their smart city vision and also move society towards sustainability.

  • 2541.
    Collin, Charlotte
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Technoculture, Humanities and Planning.
    Olsson, Therese
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Technoculture, Humanities and Planning.
    Persson, Sofie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Technoculture, Humanities and Planning.
    Collaboration Between Children: working with the educational software Quest Atlantis2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Will the different levels of knowledge contribute to a collaborative learning? This thesis is based on a tuition experiment with children in small groups, working with the educational software Quest Atlantis at Kensington Park Elementary school in Miami. During this research we have found some similarities and new concepts within Damon’s and Phelps’s three peer learning concepts (1989). Through our investigation of how children collaborate and learn from each other, we discovered that anyone could be a contributor to the collaboration. Through our transcription we defined and measured patterns of collaboration between the pupils, which we used to identify how the pupils collaborated. Out of this we constructed two new concepts, Temporary Expert and Concealed Contributor, which affects the collaboration in different ways.

  • 2542.
    Collin, Helena
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Karlsson, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    EDI eller ebXML: för automatisering av affärsprocesser2001Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning EDI är ett välkänt och beprövat sätt för företag att automatisera sina affärsprocesser. Det är också välkänt att EDI är dyrt att både inverstera i och att använda. EDI anses också som krångligt att lära sig och att förstå. Detta har gjort att EDI aldrig riktigt har slagit igenom bland små och medelstora företag. Det internationella standardiseringsprojektet ?ebXML?, som sponsras av bland annat av UN/CEFACT och OASIS, har släppt ett ramverk för hur XML ska kunna användas för elektronisk handel, även B2B. Visionen för ebXML är att det ska vara en enkel global standard som ska kunna användas av alla, även små och medelstora företag. Syftet med uppsatsen är att ge en vägledning för små och stora företag vilket av EDI och ebXML som skulle vara bäst för just deras företag. För att få fram detta har vi utgått från fyra olika kriterier, marknadsnisch, kundrelationer, ekonomi och kompetens. Sedan har vi analyserat små företag för både EDI och ebXML i varje kriterium och stora företag för både EDI och ebXML i varje kriterium. Efter varje del har vi gjort en bedömning om hur väl EDI eller ebXML stämmer överens med de krav som finns för företaget under respektive kriterium och gjort en poängbedömning från 1 ? 4, där 4 är bäst. Slutsatsen av analysen blev att för små företag är ebXML bäst, då EDI både är dyrt och kompetenskrävande, vilket kan vara svårt för små företag att klara av. Vår slutsats stämmer väl överens med både visionen för ebXML och erfarenheten som finns kring användandet av EDI. Slutsatsen för stora företag blev ingen markant fördel för något av alternativen. De båda alternativen fick nästan lika många poäng. Stora företag får se vilka kriterier som är viktigast för just deras företag och göra bedömningen utifrån detta. Vi konstaterar också att det finns andra aspekter att titta på när man väljer mellan EDI och ebXML. Det vi trycker mest på är säkerheten som vi inte behandlat i denna uppsats men som är ett viktigt område. Slutligen konstaterar vi att om visionen för ebXML uppfylls så kommer ebXML att bli revolutionerande för utvecklingen av B2B.

  • 2543.
    Colquechambi, Adriana
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Ulu, Gül
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Nakamura, Mari
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Yu, Xiaohui
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    An Exploration of Strategic Sustainable Development (SSD) Complemented Transformative Social Innovation (TSI) Tools2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The human social system is facing complex social issues and (new) initiatives coming from different social actors are born to try to tackle these complex social issues. Social innovation is the field where these initiatives function, so it is also a complex field to identify and frame. Thus a new theory, the Transformative Social Innovation Theory (TSI), was developed in order to frame and bring more clarification on the social innovation field to contribute to societal transition and transformation. The five TSI tools were developed from the TSI theory and they are training tools. All the TSI tools aim to (dis)empower the social innovation initiatives, actors and networks in the process of transformative social innovation. Transformative Social Innovation is the process of changes in social relations involving challenging, altering and/or replacing dominant institutions and structures which are considered to be the roots of systemic errors. This study sought to explore the Transformative Social Innovation tools from the perspective of the Strategic Sustainable Development (SSD). In this regard, the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD) was adopted as it provides a principle-based and scientifically-proved definition of sustainability as well as a systems thinking approach regarding the complexity of global sustainability challenges. This research project tried to identify the potential contributions of the TSI tools to sustainability and the entry points of the tools where relevant SSD features could complement them so that they can contribute to strategically move the society towards sustainability. A qualitative research approach was selected. The methodology included four research methods, namely document content analysis, interviews, the FSSD analysis and prototyping. The results of this research indicated three main contributions of the TSI tools that could help to strategically move the society towards sustainability. Five entry points where the tools could be complemented with SSD features and a set of add-ins from SSD that could complement the current TSI tools were identified. The add-ins were sent to the TSI theory authors for the expert consultation.

  • 2544.
    Connell, Tamara
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Dubin, Melanie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Szpala, Magdalena
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Carbon Neutrality as Leverage in Transitioning a Financial Organisation Towards Sustainability2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is one of the most pressing environmental issues of our time, as it threatens the survival of human civilisation. With the increasing number of initiatives trying to address climate change, it is important to examine how effective they are and what other roles these initiatives can serve in transitioning society towards sustainability. This thesis investigates the role of one such initiative, carbon neutrality, within a strategic approach to sustainable development, based on the case study of the North American Credit Union (NACU). A scientific understanding of climate change and sustainability provide a strict evaluation of the carbon neutrality concept with its benefits and challenges, including the role of carbon offsets. Within this context, recommendations are provided for roles and actions that a financial organisation such as NACU can take in order to set high standards in this new and still evolving market of voluntary carbon offsets, while striving for full sustainability and leadership within the community.

  • 2545.
    Conrad, Beatrice
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Health, Science and Mathematics.
    Palm, Karl
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Health, Science and Mathematics.
    Att Bygga Broar -att som sjuksköterska skapa en förtroendefull kontakt med en skadad person prehospitalt2001Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det krävs mycket av en sjuksköterska för att kunna skapa tillit och förtroende prehospitalt med en skadad person. Syftet har varit att undersöka vilka faktorer/åtgärder/förhållningssätt som krävs av en sjuksköterska i första mötet med en skadad person för att skapa en förtroendefull och kontakt med känsla av tillit. Undersökningen har genomförts som en litteraturstudie och resultatet visar på att om en förtroendefull kontakt ska skapas mellan sjuksköterskan och en skadad person prehospitalt krävs det framför allt att en kommunikation dem emellan kommer till stånd. Andra slutsatser i resultatet är att en sjuksköterska måste utföra vissa kommunikationsstrategier för att en kontakt ska uppstå. De kommunikationsstrategier som är väsentliga för att skapa en förtroendefull kontakt är bland andra sjuksköterskans förhållningssätt samt att sjuksköterskan har självinsikt och kunskap om effekter av ett sitt agerande. Slutsatsen blev att sjuksköterskan bör känna till sitt eget samt sin patients kroppsspråk så att missförstånd i kontakten undvikes. Sjuksköterskan bör känna empati och kunna avgöra när han gör intrång i patientens privata utrymme. Sjuksköterskan ska därför vara noga med att röra vid patienten med eftertanke. Det är även av stor vikt att sjuksköterskan informerar patienten om läget/ situationen och förklarar vad som sker för att tillit och förtroende ska kunna skapas.

  • 2546.
    Constantinescu, Doru
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Telecommunication Systems.
    Measurements and Models of One-Way Transit Time in IP Routers2005Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main goals of this thesis are towards an understanding of the delay process in best-effort Internet for both non-congested and congested networks. A novel measurement system is reported for delay measurements in IP routers, which follows specifications of the IETF RFC 2679. The system employs both passive measurements and active probing and offers the possibility to measure and analyze different delay components of a router, e.g., packet processing delay, packet transmission time and queueing delay at the output link. Dedicated application-layer software is used to generate UDP traffic with TCP-like characteristics. Pareto traffic models are used to generate self-similar traffic in the link. The reported results are in form of several important statistics regarding processing and queueing delays of a router, router delay for a single data flow, router delay for multiple data flows as well as end-to-end delay for a chain of routers. They confirm results reported earlier about the fact that the delay in IP routers is generally influenced by traffic characteristics, link conditions and, to some extent, details in hardware implementation and different IOS releases. The delay in IP routers may also occasionally show extreme values, which are due to improper functioning of the routers. Furthermore, new results have been obtained that indicate that the delay in IP routers shows heavy-tailed characteristics, which can be well modeled with the help of several distributions, either in the form of a single distribution or as a mixture of distributions. There are several components contributing to the OWTT in routers, i.e., processing delay, queueing delay and service time. The obtained results have shown that, e.g., the processing delay in a router can be well modeled with the Normal distribution, and the queueing delay is well modeled with a mixture of Normal distribution for the body probability mass and Weibull distribution for the tail probability mass. Furthermore, OWTT has several component delays and it has been observed that the component delay distribution that is most dominant and heavy-tailed has a decisive influence on OWTT.

  • 2547. Constantinescu, Doru
    Overlay Multicast Networks: Elements, Architectures and Performance2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, the telecommunication industry is undergoing two important developments with implications on future architectural solutions. These are the irreversible move towards Internet Protocol (IP)-based networking and the deployment of broadband access. Taken together, these developments offer the opportunity for more advanced and more bandwidth-demanding multimedia applications and services, e. g., IP television (IPTV), Voice over IP (VoIP) and online gaming. A plethora of Quality of Service (QoS) requirements and facilities are associated with these applications, e. g., multicast facilities, high bandwidth and low delay/jitter. Moreover, the architectural solution must be a unified one, and be independent of the access network and content management. An interesting solution to these challenges is given by overlay multicast networks. The goal of these networks is to create and to maintain efficient multicast topologies among the multicast participants as well as to minimize the performance penalty involved with application layer multicasting. Since they operate at the application layer, they suffer from two main drawbacks: higher delay and less efficient bandwidth utilization. It is therefore important to assess the performance of overlay multicast networks in “real- world”-like conditions. For this purpose, we first performed an in-depth measurement and modeling study of the packet delay at the network layer. The reported results are in the form of several important statistics regarding processing and queueing delays of a router. New results have been obtained that indicate that the delay in IP routers shows heavy-tailed characteristics, which can be well modeled with the help of several distributions, in the form of a single distribution or as a mixture of distributions. There are several components contributing to the delay in routers, i. e., processing delay, queueing delay and service time. It was observed that the component delay distribution that is most heavy-tailed has a decisive influence on delay. Furthermore, we selected three representative categories of overlay multicast networks for study, namely Application Level Multicast Infrastructure (ALMI), Narada and NICE is the Internet Cooperative Environment (NICE). The performance of these overlay multicast protocols was evaluated through a comprehensive simulation study with reference to a detailed set of performance metrics that captured application and network level performance. A particular interest was given to the issues of scalability, protocol dynamics and delay optimization as part of a larger problem of performance-aware optimization of the overlay networks. The simulations were configured to emulate “real-world”-like characteristics by implementing a heavy-tailed delay at the network level and churn behavior of the overlay nodes. A detailed analysis of every protocol is provided with regard to their performance. Based on our study, significant conclusions can be drawn regarding the scalability of the protocols with reference to overlay multicast group management, resource usage and robustness to churn. These results contribute to a deeper understanding of the requirements for such protocols targeted at, e. g., media streaming.

  • 2548.
    Constantinescu, Doru
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Telecommunication Systems.
    Carlsson, Patrik
    Popescu, Adrian
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Telecommunication Systems.
    One-Way Transit Time Measurements2004Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a contribution towards a better understanding of traffic measurements associated with e2e delays occurring in best-effort networks. We describe problems and solutions associated with OWTT delay measurements, and give examples of such measurements. A dedicated measurement system is reported for delay measurements in IP routers, which follows specifications of the IETF RFC 2679. The system uses both passive measurements and active probing. Dedicated application-layer software is used to generate traffic. Pareto traffic models are used to generate self-similar traffic in the link. Both packet inter-arrival times and packet sizes are matching real traffic models. A passive measurement system is used for data collection that is based on using several so-called Measurement Points, each of them equipped with DAG monitoring cards. Hashing is used for the identification and matching of packets. The combination of passive and active measurements, together with using the DAG monitoring system, gives us an unique possibility to perform precise traffic measurements as well as the flexibility needed to compensate for the lack of analytic solutions. The real value of our study lies in the hop-by-hop instrumentation of the devices involved in the transfer of IP packets. The mixture of passive and active traffic measurements used, allows us to study changes in traffic patterns relative to specific reference points and to observe different contributing factors to the observed changes. This approach offers us the choice of better understanding diverse components that may impact on the performance of packet delay as well as to to measure queueing delays in operational routers.

  • 2549. Constantinescu, Doru
    et al.
    Carlsson, Patrik
    Popescu, Adrian
    Nilsson, Arne A.
    Measurement of One-Way Internet Packet Delay2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper reports on a dedicated measurement system for delay measurements in IP routers, which follows specifications of the IETF RFC 2679. The system uses both passive and active measurements. Dedicated application-layer software is used to generate traffic. Pareto traffic models are used to generate self-similar traffic in the link. Both packet inter-arrival times and packet sizes are matching real traffic models. A passive measurement system is used for data collection that is based on using several so-called Measurement Points, each of them equipped with DAG monitoring cards. Hashing is used for the identification and matching of packets. The combination of passive measurements and active probing, together with using the DAG monitoring system, gives us an unique possibility to perform precise traffic measurements as well as the flexibility needed to compensate for the lack of analytic solutions.

  • 2550. Constantinescu, Doru
    et al.
    Erman, David
    Ilie, Dragos
    Popescu, Adrian
    Congestion and Error Control in Overlay Networks2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, Internet has known an unprecedented growth, which, in turn, has lead to an increased demand for real-time and multimedia applications that have high Quality-of-Service (QoS) demands. This evolution lead to difficult challenges for the Internet Service Providers (ISPs) to provide good QoS for their clients as well as for the ability to provide differentiated service subscriptions for those clients who are willing to pay more for value added services. Furthermore, a tremendous development of several types of overlay networks have recently emerged in the Internet. Overlay networks can be viewed as networks operating at an inter-domain level. The overlay hosts learn of each other and form loosely-coupled peer relationships. The major advantage of overlay networks is their ability to establish subsidiary topologies on top of the underlying network infrastructure acting as brokers between an application and the required network connectivity. Moreover, new services that cannot be implemented (or are not yet supported) in the existing network infrastructure are much easier to deploy in overlay networks. In this context, multicast overlay services have become a feasible solution for applications and services that need (or benefit from) multicast-based functionality. Nevertheless, multicast overlay networks need to address several issues related to efficient and scalable congestion control schemes to attain a widespread deployment and acceptance from both end-users and various service providers. This report aims at presenting an overview and taxonomy of current solutions proposed that provide congestion control in overlay multicast environments. The report describes several protocols and algorithms that are able to offer a reliable communication paradigm in unicast, multicast as well as multicast overlay environments. Further, several error control techniques and mechanisms operating in these environments are also presented. In addition, this report forms the basis for further research work on reliable and QoS-aware multicast overlay networks. The research work is part of a bigger research project, "Routing in Overlay Networks (ROVER)". The ROVER project was granted in 2006 by EuroNGI Network of Excellence (NoE) to the Dept. of Telecommunication Systems at Blekinge Institute of Technology (BTH).

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