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  • 251.
    Kuzniarz, Ludwik
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Martins, Luiz Eduardo Galvão
    Federal University of São Paulo, BRA.
    Teaching model-driven software development: A pilot study2016In: Proceedings of the 2016 ITiCSE Working Group Reports, ITiCSE 2016, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2016, p. 45-56Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software development is a process starting with specification of requirements, then providing design of the required software and implementing the design. Introducing understanding of the process and teaching the skills required for conducting the process is an important learning objective in any CS/SE curriculum. Recently a new paradigm - model-driven software development - has been introduced and extensively used in order to manage increasing complexity in the development of software. We want to investigate and discuss the state-of-The-practice of teaching MDSD and further to provide suggestions on what to include in the teaching curricula and how to teach MDSD in a proper way. The paper presents the results of the work performed by the ITiCSE 2016 "Teaching Model-Driven Software Development" working group. The objective for the work performed at ITiCSE was to elaborate on a foreseen survey based framework for the research by performing a pilot study using the framework. The pilot study was supposed to validate the framework by performing the initial survey, presenting the results, drawing conclusions from the results but also to find out necessary changes and modifications for the research framework so that it could be used for further more extensive research. CCS Concepts • Computing methodologies→Modeling and Siumlation →Model development and analysis→Modeling methodologies • Social and professional topics → Professional topics→Computing education→Computing education programs?Software engineering education.

  • 252.
    Lenberg, Per
    et al.
    Chalmers, SWE.
    Alégroth, Emil
    Chalmers, SWE.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wallgren, Lars-Göran
    Göteborgs Universitet, SWE.
    An initial analysis of differences in software engineers’ attitudes towards organizational change2016In: Proceedings - 9th International Workshop on Cooperative and Human Aspects of Software Engineering, CHASE 2016, ACM Press, 2016, p. 1-7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to manage change is important in software engineering organizations, where rapid progress in technologies and constantly evolving methodologies create a turbulent environment. Research has identified employees’ attitudes towards organizational change as a key factor in the change process. Nonetheless, few studies exist that explore such attitudes in a software engineering context. The nature of change efforts is such that they often do not equally affect the various roles in the organization, which indicates that the roles may hold different attitudes. This study aimed to verify the existence of these presumed differences in attitudes towards organizational change between roles in a software engineering organization and to identify factors that contribute to these differences. The result of a survey (N=51) confirmed that there were significant differences, and that the software developers had a more positive attitude towards change and had deeper knowledge about the intended outcome compared to the line managers. The result of in-depth interviews (N=11) revealed that the software engineers evaluate the planned change in relation to the norms, values and standards of their peer group, meaning that an employee will have a positive attitude towards a change if its result is likely to make, or has made, it easier for him/her to uphold the peer group’s norms and values.

  • 253. Lenberg, Per
    et al.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wallgren, Lars Goran
    Behavioral software engineering: A definition and systematic literature review2015In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 107, p. 15-37Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout the history of software engineering, the human aspects have repeatedly been recognized as important. Even though research that investigates them has been growing in the past decade, these aspects should be more generally considered. The main objective of this study is to clarify the research area concerned with human aspects of software engineering and to create a common platform for future research. In order to meet the objective, we propose a definition of the research area behavioral software engineering (BSE) and present results from a systematic literature review based ori the definition. The result indicates that there are knowledge gaps in the research area of behavioral software engineering and that earlier research has been focused on a few concepts, which have been applied to a limited number of software engineering areas. The individual studies have typically had a narrow perspective focusing on few concepts from a single unit of analysis. Further, the research has rarely been conducted in collaboration by researchers from both software engineering and social science. Altogether, this review can help put a broader set of human aspects higher on the agenda for future software engineering research and practice. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 254. Lenberg, Per
    et al.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wallgren, Lars Göran
    Human Factors Related Challenges in Software Engineering: An Industrial Perspective2015In: 2015 IEEE/ACM 8TH INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON COOPERATIVE AND HUMAN ASPECTS OF SOFTWARE ENGINEERING CHASE, IEEE Press, 2015, p. 43-49Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 255. Lenberg, Per
    et al.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wallgren, Lars-Göran
    Towards a Behavioral Software Engineering2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout the history of Software Engineering (SE) it has been repeatedly found that the humans involved, i.e. the engineers and developers in addition to other stakeholders, are a key factor in determining project outcomes and success. However, the amount of research that focuses on human aspects has been limited compared to research with technology or process focus. With increasing maturity of the field, interest in agile methods and a growing dissatisfaction with the continued challenges of developing high-quality software on time, the amount of SE research putting human aspect in primary focus has increased. In this paper we argue that a synthesized view of the emerging human-focused SE research is needed and can add value through giving focus, direction and help identify gaps. Taking cues from the addition of Behavioral Economics as an important part of the area of Economics we propose the term Behavioral Software Engineering (BSE) as an umbrella concept for research that focus on behavioral and social aspects in the work activities of software engineers. We propose that a model based on three units of analysis can give structure and point to concepts that are important for BSE. To add detail to this model we are conducting a systematic review to map out what is currently known. To exemplify the model and the area we here present the results from a subset of the identified concepts.

  • 256.
    Lenberg, Per
    et al.
    Chalmers, SWE.
    Wallgren Tengberg, Lars Göran
    Göteborgs Universitet, SWE.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    An initial analysis of software engineers’ attitudes towards organizational change2017In: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 2179-2205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Employees’ attitudes towards organizational change are a critical determinant in the change process. Researchers have therefore tried to determine what underlying concepts that affect them. These extensive efforts have resulted in the identification of several antecedents. However, no studies have been conducted in a software engineering context and the research has provided little information on the relative impact and importance of the identified concepts. In this study, we have combined results from previous social science research with results from software engineering research, and thereby identified three underlying concepts with an expected significant impact on software engineers’ attitudes towards organizational change, i.e. their knowledge about the intended change outcome, their understanding of the need for change, and their feelings of participation in the change process. The result of two separate multiple regression analysis, where we used industrial questionnaire data (N=56), showed that the attitude concept openness to change is predicted by all three concepts, while the attitude concept readiness for change is predicted by need for change and participation. Our research provides an empirical baseline to an important area of software engineering and the result can be a starting-point for future organizational change research. In addition, the proposed model prescribes practical directions for software engineering organizations to adopt in improving employees’ responses to change and, thus, increase the probability of a successful change.

  • 257.
    Leshob, Abderrahmane
    et al.
    University of Quebec at Montreal, CAN.
    Mili, Hafedh
    University of Quebec at Montreal, CAN.
    Gonzalez-Huerta, Javier
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Boubaker, Anis
    University of Quebec at Montreal, CAN.
    A value-oriented approach to business process specialization: Principles, proof-of-concept, and validation2017In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 127, p. 120-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations build information systems to support their business processes. Precise modeling of an organization's processes is a prerequisite for building information systems that support those processes. Our goal is to help business analysts produce detailed models of the business processes that best reflect the needs of their organizations. To this end, we propose to a) leverage the best practices in terms of a kernel of generic business processes, and b) provide analysts with tools to customize those processes by generating new process variants. We use business patterns from the Resource Event Agent ontology to identify variation points, and to codify the transformations inherent in the generation of the process variants. We developed a prototype process specialization tool using the Eclipse modeling ecosystem. We tested our approach on a set of processes from the Enterprise Resource Planning literature, and a set of variation points to assess the extent to which: 1) the identified variation points made sense, and 2) whether the generated variants made sense, from a business point of view. The results showed that 94.12% of the variation points made sense, and that 80.6% of the generated process variants corresponded to what the business process management specialists expected.

  • 258.
    Li, Junyang
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Xing, Xueer
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Evaluation of Test Data Generation Techniques for String Inputs2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. The effective generation of test data is regarded as very important in the software testing. However, mature and effective techniques for generating string test data have seldom been explored due to the complexity and flexibility in the expression form of the string comparing to other data types.

    Objectives. Based on this problem, this study is to investigate strengths and limitations of existing string test data generation techniques to support future work for exploring an effective technique to generate string test data. This main goal was achieved via two objectives. First is investigating existing techniques for string test data generation; as well as finding out criteria and Classes-Under-Test (CUTs) used for evaluating the ability of string test generation. Second is to assess representative techniques through comparing effectiveness and efficiency.

    Methods. For the first objective, we used a systematic mapping study to collect data about existing techniques, criteria, and CUTs. With respect to the second objective, a comparison study was conducted to compare representative techniques selected from the results of systematic mapping study. The data from comparison study was analysed in a quantitative way by using statistical methods.

    Results. The existing techniques, criteria and CUTs which are related to string test generation were identified. A multidimensional categorisation was proposed to classify existing string test data generation techniques. We selected representative techniques from the search-based method, symbolic execution method, and random generation method of categorisation. Meanwhile, corresponding automated test generation tools including EvoSuite, Symbolic PathFinder (SPF), and Randoop, which achieved representative techniques, were selected to assess through comparing effectiveness and efficiency when applied to 21 CUTs.

    Conclusions. We concluded that: search-based method has the highest effectiveness and efficiency in three selected solution methods; random generation method has a low efficiency, but has a high fault-detecting ability for some specific CUTs; symbolic execution solution achieved by SPF cannot support string test generation well currently due to possibly incomplete string constraint solver or string generator.

  • 259.
    Li, Wenguang
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Fan, Shuhan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    A Study of Elicitation Techniques in Market-Driven Requirements Engineering2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Compare with bespoke RE, market-driven requirements engineering (MDRE), has manyclassical requirements engineering activities of bespoke RE. Elicitation is one of these activities. Thisprocess is to capture, extract and obtain needs from stakeholders. And there are many techniques toguide MDRE elicitation, and some techniques for bespoke RE are also used in MDRE contextnowadays. However, not all of these techniques are suitable for MDRE due to the difference betweenMDRE and bespoke RE, for example, in MDRE context, there is no specific customers’ participation.Meanwhile, there is a lack of studies that compare elicitation techniques by evaluating theircompetence of mitigating MDRE challenges.

    Objectives. In this study, we investigate and collect techniques which can be used for MDREelicitation. We also identify challenges of MDRE elicitation practice from literature as evaluatingcriteria. Then, we evaluate elicitation techniques’ competence of mitigating these challenges. Finally,we discuss with some interviewees to validate our result with real-world MDRE context.

    Methods. We use literature review and snowball sampling to investigate and collect MDRE elicitationtechniques and challenges. Next, we summarize elicitation techniques’ advantages and limitationsfrom literature and compare these techniques by evaluating whether they can mitigate MDREchallenges we find. Next, we conduct interview with 8 interviewees who are practitioners or havedeveloping experience in order to find out and discuss the difference between academic and realworldMDRE.

    Results. We identify 6 elicitation techniques which can be used in MDRE to compare. We also collect6 challenges which may happen in MDRE elicitation process. We compare them by literature studyand interview with practitioners and find that although some interviewees’ opinions are similar withliterature, there are still many different cases we need to consider before choosing elicitationtechniques.

    Conclusions. In this research, we fill the gap that there is a lack of studies about the comparison ofelicitation techniques in MDRE context. We also find 4 factors which should be studied in-depth inthe future MDRE elicitation techniques research, and validate our result with practice and discuss thereason of differences. Our result can help requirements engineers to choose suitable elicitationtechniques in MDRE projects.

  • 260.
    Li, Xian
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Cao, Qian
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    A Comparative Study of Value in Agile Software Development Organizations2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Agile software development mainly focuses on value creation, and the first principle of theAgile Manifesto is to deliver a valuable software to customers. In spite of the great significance of value,there are few studies investigated what value is from the perspective of industry practitioners.

    Objectives. In this study we perform a replication study about value definitions, usage, andmeasurements in China and make a comparative analysis with the similar study did in Sweden. Theprimary objectives of this study are to: a) identify value aspects from Chinese software organizations;b) list and describe activities to achieve or maximize the value aspects, and also with the measurements;c) find the similarities and differences between China and Sweden.

    Methods. The data was collected by using the semi-structured interviews from 30 participants in 20Chinese agile software development organizations. We utilized the content analysis and the Statisticsmethods to analyze the 30 data points.

    Results. The participants identified 18 value aspects and prioritized them, and the value aspects wereanalyzed by domains and roles. The three most important value aspects are the Delivery process w.r.t.time, Organization, and Team members; different domain focused on different value aspects; the projectmanager concerned more about the Delivery process w.r.t. time, Organization, and Team members,while the product owners focused more on Customer satisfaction. Then, we list and described theactivities to achieve or maximize the value aspects, described some methods and strategies tomeasure/assure/evaluate them. Most of the activities were related to agile practices and the mostactivities were used to achieve the Delivery process w.r.t. time. Finally, we presented the similaritiesand differences between those value results from China and Sweden, the most important difference isthat the Swedish participants put the Customer value perspective at the first place, while Chineseparticipants would like to balance the value between Customer and Internal Business.

    Conclusions. We concluded that: 1) the Chinese participants thought that the key success factor of asoftware product was to delivery it with high quality to customers on time; 2) the main activities toachieve value were related to agile practices, and some participants used some tools to assure projectprocess; 3) For better communications and collaborations between Chinese and Swedish softwarecompanies, we recommend: a) for Chinese companies, they need to i) concern more about Customerperspective than before; ii) understand the core concepts of agile methods and their using contexts forflexible application; iii) transfer from traditional organization architecture to project-based organizationarchitecture; b) for Swedish companies, they need to i) focus more on Internal business perspective; ii)use some tools and methods to achieve their value aspects; iii) find a suitable way to collaborate betweenagile teams and non-agile teams.

  • 261. Liebel, G.
    et al.
    Olaru, A.
    Lönn, H.
    Kaijser, H.
    Rajendran, S.
    Ingelsson, U.
    Berntsson Svensson, Richard
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Addressing model complexity in automotive system development: Selection of system model elements for allocation of requirements2016In: MODELSWARD 2016: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Model-Driven Engineering and Software Development / [ed] Pires L.F.,Desfray P.,Hammoudi S.,Selic B., 2016, p. 168-175Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern automotive embedded systems are developed by Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) together with multiple suppliers. A key problem for a supplier is to allocate an OEM’s requirements specification to their own subsystem design. This is a difficult manual task especially on complex systems and it requires expert knowledge about the system design. To address this problem, this paper presents a design science research to develop and evaluate a Requirements Allocation Assistant tool (RAA). The tool provides functionality to search through and filter requirements and system models to enable efficient requirements allocation even in the presence of complexity. RAA is built on top of the EATOP/Eclipse framework using EAST-ADL as system modelling language. The tool was evaluated and validated during a qualitative usability study with 17 engineers active in the Swedish automotive industry. Key findings are that searching is used to learn about a system, whereas filtering is used to narrow down a set of candidate elements of the system design. Engineers request further support in narrowing down a set of candidate elements and in checking that an allocation is correct.

  • 262.
    Lilja, Erik
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Rosander, William
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Lead time analysis for code changes in a large-scale telecom development environment: An Ericsson case study2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigate how lead time is affected during development of a large-scale telecom product. We

    collected raw data from the product’s Gerrit repository which were later processed with statistical analysis. When

    we analysed the various areas, we concluded that a method to divide the lead time into different sequences would be

    the preferred method. We therefore chose to analyse lead time for different parts of the development. We found that

    on average lead time is roughly 3,4 days for the areas we investigate. The results indicated that lead time for

    reviewing increases with the years. The results also indicated that the lead time decreases for developers as they

    become more familiar with the product however the overall lead time for implementation did not. This can be as

    developers switch tasks internally or decides to change employment. The results also indicated that there is no

    relation between the amount of submitted LOC and lead time.

  • 263.
    Liljegren, Alexander
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Franksson, Robin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Measuring a LoRa Network: Performance, Possibilities and Limitations2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main goal of this thesis is to highlight the various limitations that the LPWAN LoRa and by proxy other similar technologies currently suffers from to give further insight into how these limitations can affect implementations and products using such a network. The thesis will be supported by experiments that test how a LoRa network gets affected by different environmental attributes such as distance, height and surrounding area by measuring the signal strength, signal to noise ratio and any resulting packet loss. The experiments are conducted using a fully deployed LoRa network made up of a gateway and sensor available to the public.

    To successfully deploy a LoRa network one needs to have concrete information about how to set it up depending on different use cases as battery lifetime and a solid connection has to be kept in mind. We test the various performance aspects of a LoRa network including signal quality and packet loss at different communication ranges. In addition to that we also test different environments and investigate how these can impact the performance.

    The conclusions made in this thesis are that a LoRa network is limited in its use cases for smaller scale projects with low gateway elevation that still require a large distance. This is due to the obstruction of the signal quickly making it reach unusable levels at roughly 300m in a city and 600m in a forest. Making the line of sight free either by elevation of the hardware or by adapting to the terrain makes the network perform very well making the possibility for packet loss lower which in combination with the low duty cycle of the transmissions is needed as every packet lost is going to be very noticeable.

  • 264.
    Lindblom, William
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Johnsson, Jesper
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    The Effects of Parallelizing Builds in Continuous Integration Software2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Quick feedback in regards to build times is important in Continuous Integration. If builds become too long, it can hurt the rate of software development. There are multiple methods to reduce build times. One commonly suggested method is to parallelize builds.

    This thesis aims to investigate the effects of parallelizing builds in Continuous Integration software and provide support for whether parallelizing is a good way of reducing build times or not.

    We conducted an experiment consisting of running tests on different Continuous Integration software with different configurations. These configurations changed how many tests were executed and how many parallel build agents were used. The aspects that were observed and analyzed was how build time, average CPU usage and CPU time were affected.

    What we found was that parallelizing a Continuous Integration build drastically improves build time, while RAM usage and CPU time remains similar. This entails that there are no major consequences to parallelizing other than utilizing more threads and therefore using more of the available CPU resources.

  • 265.
    Linåker, Johan
    et al.
    Lund universitet, SWE.
    Munir, Hussan
    Lund universitet, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Mols, Carl Eric
    Sony Mobile, SWE.
    Motivating the contributions: An Open Innovation perspective on what to share as Open Source Software2018In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 135, p. 17-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Open Source Software (OSS) ecosystems have reshaped the ways how software-intensive firms develop products and deliver value to customers. However, firms still need support for strategic product planning in terms of what to develop internally and what to share as OSS. Existing models accurately capture commoditization in software business, but lack operational support to decide what contribution strategy to employ in terms of what and when to contribute. This study proposes a Contribution Acceptance Process (CAP) model from which firms can adopt contribution strategies that align with product strategies and planning. In a design science influenced case study executed at Sony Mobile, the CAP model was iteratively developed in close collaboration with the firm's practitioners. The CAP model helps classify artifacts according to business impact and control complexity so firms may estimate and plan whether an artifact should be contributed or not. Further, an information meta-model is proposed that helps operationalize the CAP model at the organization. The CAP model provides an operational OI perspective on what firms involved in OSS ecosystems should share, by helping them motivate contributions through the creation of contribution strategies. The goal is to help maximize return on investment and sustain needed influence in OSS ecosystems. © 2017

  • 266.
    Linåker, Johan
    et al.
    Lund University, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Requirements Analysis and Management for Benefiting Openness (RAMBO)2016In: Proceedings - 2016 IEEE 24th International Requirements Engineering Conference Workshops, REW 2016, IEEE, 2016, p. 344-349Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Requirements Engineering has recently been greatly influenced by the way how firms use Open Source Software (OSS) and Software Ecosystems (SECOs) as a part of their product development and business models. This is further emphasized by the paradigm of Open Innovation, which highlights how firms should strive to use both internal and external resources to advance their internal innovation and technology capabilities. The evolution from market-driven requirements engineering and management processes, has reshaped the understanding of what a requirement is, and how it is documented and used. In this work, we suggest a model for analyzing and managing requirements that is designed in the context of OSS and SECOs, including the advances and challenges that it brings. The model clarifies how the main stages of requirements engineering and management processes can be adjusted to benefit from the openness that the new context offers. We believe that the model is a first step towards the inevitable adaptation of requirements engineering to an open and informal arena, where processes and collaboration are decentralized, transparency and governance are the key success factors.

  • 267.
    Liu, Di
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Zhai, Zhichao
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    An empirical study of Agile planning critical success factors2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. With the popularity of Agile methods, many studies about Agile software development has been done by researchers. Among the phases in Agile software projects, planning is critical because it provides an overview of the project and a guiding of future work. In addition, success factors are also mandatory to the success of Agile software development. The current literature focus on the success factors during the whole lifecycle rather than planning phase, and they don’t make an in-depth analysis on the factors. In this thesis, we perform an empirical study to deeply study the critical success factors at agile planning phase.

    Objectives. The main aim of our research is to identify the critical success factors at Agile planning phase and challenges associated with each factor. We list four objectives to support our main aim. First is to investigate the factors that are mandatory to the success of Agile software development at planning phase. Second is to investigate the challenges associated with each factor. Third is to find out the ways to address these challenges. The last is to identify the consequence of not ensuring these factors.

    Methods. We employed two research methods: systematic mapping and survey. Systematic mapping is used to identify the critical success factors of entire lifecycle in current literature. To find critical success factors at agile planning phase and make in-depth analysis, we conducted a survey based on an online questionnaire. The online questionnaire was consisted of open-ended questions and was sent to respondents who have experience on Agile development.

    Results. Through systematic mapping, we identified 13 papers and 47 critical success factors for Agile software development. We also made a frequency analysis for these factors and they will be the effective evidence to support the results of survey. Through the survey, we identified 13 critical success factors at agile planning and made an in-depth analysis for these 13 factors. These 13 factors are divided into two categories: people factor (individual-level, team-level) and process factor. Through the contrastive analysis of mapping results and survey results, we found that 7 factors of survey results are same or similar with some factors shown in mapping. The other 6 factors of survey are first shown.

    Conclusions. The factors proposed in this thesis are proved that they are important to the success of the project at planning phase. Failure to consider these critical success factors may lead to inefficient planning and even result in the failure ofthe whole project. The challenges and corresponding solutions can help organizations well manage these critical success factors. In conclusion, these detailed descriptions of critical success factors can be used as a guideline to help people increase the chance of successfully developing software with high quality and low cost in practice. 

  • 268. Lokan, Chris
    et al.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Investigating the use of duration-based moving windows to improve software effort prediction: A replicated study2014In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 56, no 9, p. 1063-1075Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Most research in software effort estimation has not considered chronology when selecting projects for training and testing sets. A chronological split represents the use of a projects starting and completion dates, such that any model that estimates effort for a new project p only uses as training data projects that were completed prior to p's start. Four recent studies investigated the use of chronological splits, using moving windows wherein only the most recent projects completed prior to a projects starting date were used as training data. The first three studies (S1-S3) found some evidence in favor of using windows; they all defined window sizes as being fixed numbers of recent projects. In practice, we suggest that estimators think in terms of elapsed time rather than the size of the data set, when deciding which projects to include in a training set. In the fourth study (S4) we showed that the use of windows based on duration can also improve estimation accuracy. Objective: This papers contribution is to extend S4 using an additional dataset, and to also investigate the effect on accuracy when using moving windows of various durations. Method: Stepwise multivariate regression was used to build prediction models, using all available training data, and also using windows of various durations to select training data. Accuracy was compared based on absolute residuals and MREs; the Wilcoxon test was used to check statistical significances between results. Accuracy was also compared against estimates derived from windows containing fixed numbers of projects. Results: Neither fixed size nor fixed duration windows provided superior estimation accuracy in the new data set. Conclusions: Contrary to intuition, our results suggest that it is not always beneficial to exclude old data when estimating effort for new projects. When windows are helpful, windows based on duration are effective.

  • 269. Lucas, Gren
    et al.
    Torkar, Richard
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Robert, Feldt
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    The prospects of a quantitative measurement of agility: A validation study on an agile maturity model2015In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 107, p. 38-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agile development has now become a well-known approach to collaboration in professional work life. Both researchers and practitioners want validated tools to measure agility. This study sets out to validate an agile maturity measurement model with statistical tests and empirical data. First, a pretest was conducted as a case study including a survey and focus group. Second, the main study was conducted with 45 employees from two SAP customers in the US. We used internal consistency (by a Cronbach’s alpha) as the main measure for reliability and analyzed construct validity by exploratory principal factor analysis (PFA). The results suggest a new categorization of a subset of items existing in the tool and provides empirical support for these new groups of factors. However, we argue that more work is needed to reach the point where a maturity models with quantitative data can be said to validly measure agility, and even then, such a measurement still needs to include some deeper analysis with cultural and contextual items.

  • 270.
    Madala, Anvitha
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Reasons behind changing of sourcing strategies in software organizations: in India2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context Global Software Development plays a crucial role in the growthof software organizations. It gives a way to global sourcing, which involvescongregation of knowledge forces from all over the world to work for thecompletion of software projects with benefits. Most of the organizations usesourcing strategies to connect with other organizations in order to form aprocess for the work. The document incorporates the types of organizationsinvolved in this practice. The sourcing specifications vary from those of thesoftware organizations when compared to the others. The sourcing strategieshave some criteria for their selection but the existing literature doesnot reflect the change of sourcing strategy. This forms a research gap whichfocuses on the reasons behind the change of sourcing strategies, particularlyin software organizations. When considering this, it varies from one locationto other. Taking this into account, India is chosen as it is one of thedeveloping countries globally.Objectives The main objective of this research is to investigate the reasonsbehind the change of sourcing strategies in the present software organizationswhich are located in India. This information should act as a primarysource of information which acts as a reference for selecting the sourcingstrategy based on reasons behind changing sourcing strategies.Methods In this research, mixed method approach is used. Through thisapproach both the criteria that are qualitative and quantitative data is obtained.At first for the literature review, the systematic mapping is usedto scrutinize the available information within the topic area. Secondly, thesurvey is done to gain the input at present from software organizations inIndia and finally, the interviews (India) are conducted to validate the resultsobtained from both the above mentioned methods. Further, for thesampling of the data from research, the convenience sampling is used. Theanalysis of qualitative data is done using the thematic analysis method andfor quantitative data, the descriptive statistics is used.Results The general reasons for the change of sourcing strategies implementedby software organizations are obtained from literature and also thestate of practice in India is retrieved through surveys. Also the final primarysource of information,a checklist of reasons behind the change of sourcingstrategies in India are documented.Conclusions The main objectives of the research are answered. The generalreasons are obtained by studying the state of art. State of practice also liststhe upcoming reasons caused due to recent changes in software organizationsin India. The primary source of information which are reasons behindthe change of sourcing strategies are mentioned with each particular sourcingstrategy segregating them in both technical and non-technical reasons inIndia. So that, it will act as a checklist for practitioners, apart from havingthe criteria of selection, this checklist based on reasons behind changing thesourcing strategies in India will help them to select the sourcing strategyand understand the reasons which will lead to run the process smoothly.

  • 271.
    Maddila, Kalyan Chakravarthy
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Potential metrics for Agile and Lean: Systematic Literature Review and Survey2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Despite continuously increasing importance of Agile and Lean in software development, the number of studies that investigate on use of metrics relevant to Agile or Lean are limited and yet few studies implements was unclear. Unclear is which are the prominent metrics that are useful in industries, and their purpose of usage. Objectives: Main goal of this study is to find the metrics useful in Agile and Lean practicing industries; that are evaluated in industries by systematically identifying all the metrics from empirical evidence found in Literature as well as verifying which of them are prominently being used in industries. In addition, the purpose of using these metrics in industries are reported, and causes for dissatisfaction on use of some of the identified metrics among surveyed companies are investigated and reported. Methods: Two research methodologies are used; Systematic Literature Review (SLR) and Industrial Survey. SLR is performed using snowballing as search approach to select primary studies. SLR is used to identify all the metrics that are useful for Agile and Lean software development. Rigor and relevance analysis is performed to assess the quality of the resulted primary studies. Industrial survey was conducted in order to verify and extend the empirical evidence exists in Literature regarding metrics by finding which of them are more prominently being used. Moreover causes for dissatisfaction over outcome of metrics use for process improvements were observed by performing comparative analysis between unsatisfied respondents results and satisfied respondents results. Results: In total 20 metrics were identified from the studies having high rigor and high relevance. Moreover 11 out of these 20 metrics were identified to be prominently being used in industries using survey and other 9 metrics are found useful for Agile or Lean methods but need more awareness. Evidence from both SLR and survey shows that most of these identified or potential metrics are used for time associated purposes which are predictability, tracking, forecasting or planning, and very little evidence found for metrics that are being used directly for quality purpose. It was observed that some of the surveyed respondents who answered not satisfied with the metrics being used are not aware of the potential benefits these metrics can offer in Agile or Lean settings. Conclusion: Evidence from both SLR and survey shows that the identified 20 metrics are very important and useful for Agile or Lean methods. 11 out of these 20 metrics are prominently being used by industries and evidence shows for other 9 metrics are also useful for Agile but needs more awareness for industries to realize their potential benefits in large scale. Also, more evidence is found for metrics that are used for time related purposes which are being dominant and important in industries than quality focused metrics. Therefore, it is important for industries not only to know which metrics are appropriate for Agile or Lean but also to have a deep understating of metrics behaviors. This will help to realize the level predictability these metric’s offer in order to make right assumptions or planning.

  • 272.
    Madeyski, Lech
    et al.
    Wrocław University of Science and Technology, POL.
    Kitchenham, Barbara Ann
    Keele University, GBR.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Introduction to the special section on Enhancing Credibility of Empirical Software Engineering2018In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 99, p. 118-119Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 273. Madeyski, Lech
    et al.
    Orzeszyna, Wojciech
    Torkar, Richard
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Józala, Mariusz
    Overcoming the equivalent mutant problem: A systematic literature review and a comparative experiment of second order mutation2014In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 23-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. The equivalent mutant problem (EMP) is one of the crucial problems in mutation testing widely studied over decades. Objectives. The objectives are: to present a systematic literature review (SLR) in the field of EMP; to identify, classify and improve the existing, or implement new, methods which try to overcome EMP and evaluate them. Method. We performed SLR based on the search of digital libraries. We implemented four second order mutation (SOM) strategies, in addition to first order mutation (FOM), and compared them from different perspectives. Results. Our SLR identified 17 relevant techniques (in 22 articles) and three categories of techniques: detecting (DEM); suggesting (SEM); and avoiding equivalent mutant generation (AEMG). The experiment indicated that SOM in general and JudyDiffOp strategy in particular provide the best results in the following areas: total number of mutants generated; the association between the type of mutation strategy and whether the generated mutants were equivalent or not; the number of not killed mutants; mutation testing time; time needed for manual classification. Conclusions. The results in the DEM category are still far from perfect. Thus, the SEM and AEMG categories have been developed. The JudyDiffOp algorithm achieved good results in many areas.

  • 274.
    Madhira, Phani Srikara Sastry
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Investigating the Applicability of Agile Practices in Software Organizations2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Agile software development has gained significant importance the recent years. Software practitioners have recognized the importance of agile development due to the benefits offered. Therefore, agile software development has been identified as the replacement to traditional or plan driven style of development. There are different frameworks or methods, which follow agile principles, known as agile methodologies. SCRUM and XP are the most popular and widely used agile methods or framework. There are different types of agile methodologies, each containing a set of practices, which can be adapted and implemented in an organization. However, there is still a need for empirical studies to understand the factors like requirements/modifications, challenges and mitigation strategies/techniques, which can enable successful implementation of agile practices in software organizations. In this study, the primary objective is to provide a comprehensive model or framework to practitioners, which includes the list of important requirements/modifications, challenges and mitigation strategies/techniques while implementing agile, and also pertaining to adoption/implementation of individual agile practices specific to SCRUM and XP. This model also includes the categorization of the requirements/modifications and challenges into different levels of an organization, to which they mostly apply. This conceptual model or framework can aid the practitioners in understanding and implementing agile practices in a better way in their organizations. In this study, an industrial survey is conducted in order to identify the list of important requirements/modifications that are needed to implement agile, challenges faced during implementation, and mitigation strategies/techniques needed to address the challenges. Also, categorization of the identified lists into different levels of the organization is also performed using survey. A systematic literature review is performed in order to identify the primary lists of requirements/modifications, challenges and mitigation strategies/techniques, which are further validated and classified using survey. Also, systematic literature review is used to identify the list of requirements/modifications, challenges and mitigation strategies/techniques that are needed while implementing individual agile practices specific to SCRUM and XP. Based on the systematic literature review, 53 primary studies were identified which are relevant to the research area. Upon analyzing the primary studies, the list of requirements/modifications, challenges and solutions are identified for generic agile adoption/implementation and also pertaining to individual practices specific to SCRUM and XP. Thereupon, an industrial survey is conducted where, identified list of requirements/modifications, challenges and mitigation strategies/techniques are provided to the respondents. Respondents were asked to classify the obtained aspects based on the level of importance. Also, they were asked to categorize the obtained requirements/modifications and challenges into different levels of an organization. The survey has obtained 48 responses from different parts of the world. From the results of survey, requirements/modifications, challenges and mitigation strategies/techniques are classified based on the level of importance. Also, requirements/modifications and challenges are categorized into different levels of an organization. Using the obtained factors, a conceptual model or framework was constructed for practitioners that can enable them to understand and implement agile practices in their organizations in a better way. To conclude this research, a comprehensive model or framework was constructed using the final list of important requirements/modifications, challenges and mitigation strategies/techniques while implementing/adopting agile and also pertaining to the individual agile practices, and also based on the categorization of the requirements and challenges into levels of an organization, where they are applicable. The final list of identified lists of requirements/modifications; challenges and mitigation strategies/techniques pertaining to individual agile practices can help practitioners to understand the implementation criteria of agile practices in software organizations. It was observed from the results of survey that perception of literature and practitioners are different in terms of usage of agile practices, as some practices, which were given high focus in the literature, were not given equal priority by the respondents. Empirical findings also help to identify change in policies and procedures and change to open workspace as most important requirements/modifications, organizational resistance and lack of motivated programmers as most critical challenges and proper training and inclusion of experts as most used mitigation strategies/techniques. Moreover, it was concluded that there is also a need for further full-scale empirical works on identifying the factors that affect adoption of agile. Practitioners can identify the benefits from this research and researchers can extend this work to remaining agile methodologies.

  • 275.
    Magapu, Akshay Kumar
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Yarlagadda, Nikhil
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Performance, Scalability, and Reliability (PSR) challenges, metrics and tools for web testing: A Case Study2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Testing of web applications is an important task, as it ensures the functionality and quality of web applications. The quality of web application comes under non-functional testing. There are many quality attributes such as performance, scalability, reliability, usability, accessibility and security. Among these attributes, PSR is the most important and commonly used attributes considered in practice. However, there are very few empirical studies conducted on these three attributes.

    Objectives. The purpose of this study is to identify metrics and tools that are available for testing these three attributes. And also to identify the challenges faced while testing these attributes both from literature and practice.

    Methods. In this research, a systematic mapping study was conducted in order to collect information regarding the metrics, tools, challenges and mitigations related to PSR attributes. The required information is gathered by searching in five scientific databases. We also conducted a case study to identify the metrics, tools and challenges of the PSR attributes in practice. The case study is conducted at Ericsson, India where eight subjects were interviewed. And four subjects working in other companies (in India) were also interviewed in order to validate the results obtained from the case company. In addition to this, few documents of previous projects from the case company are collected for data triangulation.

    Results. A total of 69 metrics, 54 tools and 18 challenges are identified from systematic mapping study. And 30 metrics, 18 tools and 13 challenges are identified from interviews. Data is also collected through documents and a total of 16 metrics, 4 tools and 3 challenges were identified from these documents. We formed a list based on the analysis of data that is related to tools, metrics and challenges.

    Conclusions. We found that metrics available from literature are overlapping with metrics that are used in practice. However, tools found in literature are overlapping only to some extent with practice. The main reason for this deviation is because of the limitations that are identified for the tools, which lead to the development of their own in-house tool by the case company. We also found that challenges are partially overlapped between state of art and practice. We are unable to collect mitigations for all these challenges from literature and hence there is a need for further research to be done. Among the PSR attributes, most of the literature is available on performance attribute and most of the interviewees are comfortable to answer the questions related to performance attribute. Thus, we conclude there is a lack of empirical research related to scalability and reliability attributes. As of now, our research is dealing with PSR attributes in particular and there is a scope for further research in this area. It can be implemented on the other quality attributes and the research can be done in a larger scale (considering more number of companies).

  • 276.
    Maglyas, Andrey
    et al.
    Lappeenrannan Teknillinen Yliopisto, FIN.
    Nikula, Uolevi
    Lappeenrannan Teknillinen Yliopisto, FIN.
    Smolander, Kari
    Aalto Yliopisto Tuotantotalouden Laitos, FIN.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Core software product management activities2017In: Journal of Advances in Management Research, ISSN 0972-7981, E-ISSN 2049-3207, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 23-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Software product management (SPM) unites disciplines related to product strategy, planning, development, and release. There are many organizational activities addressing technical, social, and market issues when releasing a software product. Owing to the high number of activities involved, SPM remains a complex discipline to adopt. The purpose of this paper is to understand what are the core and supporting SPM activities. Design/methodology/approach - The authors adopted the research method of meta-ethnography to present a set of techniques for synthesizing individual qualitative studies to increase the degree of conceptualization. The results obtained from three empirical studies were synthesized using the meta-ethnography approach to enhance, rethink, and create a higher level abstraction of the findings. Findings - The results show that the study has both theoretical and practical contribution. As the meta-ethnography synthesis has not been widely applied in software engineering, the authors illustrate how to use this research method in the practice of software engineering research. The practical contribution of the study is in the identification of five core and six supporting SPM activities. Originality/value - The practical value of this paper is in the identification of core SPM activities that should be present in any company practicing SPM. The list of supporting SPM consists of activities that are not reported to product manager but affect the product success.

  • 277.
    Mahmood, Farrukh
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Rasheed, Waqas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Quality Requirement Abstraction Model (QRAM)2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Requirement engineering (RE) is an important phase in any project. Both functional and non-functional requirements are required to be elicited. Quality requirements (QRs) are usually catered at the end of software development process. Along with functional requirements, non-functional (QRs) also need to be handled and implemented through a structural way. It is observed that most organizations do not have proper management for quality requirements in their project life cycles. Especially if we consider the case of market driven requirement engineering (MDRE), it is a dire need to handle those QRs along with the functional requirement using a structural way. In this study we investigate Requirements Abstraction Model (RAM), which is basically designed for MDRE and is the case of continuous RE. The purpose was to analyze RAM specifications, which could be able to provide an effective way of manage QRs. RAM also deals with the specification of QRs, so it was required to investigate that how effective RAM can handle the creation of QRs.

  • 278.
    Mahmud, Zakaria
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Source of New and Advance Scientific Knowledge of Software Practitioners2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Academic researchers publish their results of new and advanced scientific knowledge (often in close collaboration with industry) in academic journals and conferences. However, it is not know to what extent this information reaches the practitioners. So far this has not been investigated. This information will help researchers in the dissemination process of their research findings. Objectives: In this study we investigate which types of knowledge dissemination forums exist in software engineering, how frequent and aware they are to software practitioners and how useful they find it in improving their professional activities. Methods: We conducted a survey of software practitioners posted on LinkedIn, Yahoo, Facebook, Google+, Meetup and Google groups. The survey contained demographics information, seven types of forums for obtaining scientific knowledge and how important respondents felt these forums improve their professional activities. Results: The results of the survey indicate that Book Publishers, Blogs, Video Tutorial and Social Media are considerable forums of sharing new and advance scientific knowledge for software practitioners. Whilst, IT magazines, scientific journals and meetings are suggested to be less considered forums in gaining new and advanced scientific knowledge. Conclusions: We conclude that academic researchers could improve the exposure of their research findings by presenting their results not only in journals and meetings. But also in new forums where they can represent results in the form of videos, blogs or social media. This exposes their research findings to a larger audience of software practitioners.

  • 279.
    Maksimov, Yuliyan V.
    et al.
    FHNW University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, CHE.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Tutschku, Kurt
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Artifact Compatibility for Enabling Collaboration in the Artificial Intelligence Ecosystem2018In: Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, Springer, 2018, Vol. 336, p. 56-71Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different types of software components and data have to be combined to solve an artificial intelligence challenge. An emerging marketplace for these components will allow for their exchange and distribution. To facilitate and boost the collaboration on the marketplace a solution for finding compatible artifacts is needed. We propose a concept to define compatibility on such a marketplace and suggest appropriate scenarios on how users can interact with it to support the different types of required compatibility. We also propose an initial architecture that derives from and implements the compatibility principles and makes the scenarios feasible. We matured our concept in focus group workshops and interviews with potential marketplace users from industry and academia. The results demonstrate the applicability of the concept in a real-world scenario.

  • 280.
    Marculescu, Bogdan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Interactive Search-Based Software Testing: Development, Evaluation, and Deployment2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 281.
    Marculescu, Bogdan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Interactive Search-Based Testing of Embedded Software: Understanding the Benefits and Difficulties of Industrial Application2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ubiquity of software has wide-ranging consequences for its development and testing. Increasingly often, software is developed and tested by engineers specialized in other areas. Embedded software, for example, is developed ad-hoc, for each product, by systems and domain engineers. Supporting testing activities in this context requires a highly flexible approach, powerful enough to create useful test cases, yet simple enough to not require specialized training in software testing. Search-based software testing promises the ability to generate and evaluate large numbers of test cases at minimal cost. It is, however, a set of complex techniques that cannot be used off-the-shelf as part of the software development process of a company. The objective of the work presented in this thesis is to investigate the applicability of Search-Based Software Testing in an industrial environment. A second objective was identifying additional knowledge gaps relating to integrating such techniques in existing software development processes. Investigating how meaningful interaction is to take place, what information is needed in order for both stakeholders to be able to achieve their objectives is a third goal. The findings are obtained by means of a series of case studies in a company developing both embedded software and the tools to enable embedded software development. A prototype Interactive Search-Based Software Testing (ISBST) system was developed that uses user interaction to drive the search-based component towards interesting test cases. The ISBST system was evaluated constantly, and improved based on the findings of each case study. The latest case study was an empirical evaluation of the system with the engineers, both software engineers and domain specialists, in the company. The empirical work includes both qualitative and quantitative data, with a focus on the exploratory study of the practical factors affecting the use of the ISBST system. A key early finding is that interactivity is essential when implementing search-based techniques in the industrial context described above. Repeated validations conducted with the company yielded additional information on the practicalities of interaction. The strength of SBST proved useful in investigating areas of the test space that were normally overlooked due to limitations in terms of resources. At the same time, developers were able to use their experience and intuition to guide the SBST system towards test cases that were more likely to be problematic. Overall, the results obtained indicate that the search-based techniques provide a useful complement to existing testing techniques. SBST, in its interactive form, can be a useful complement to existing testing techniques. An Interactive SBST (ISBST) system has been developed as a result of this research. Results show that this system is usable by the developers of embedded software, that often specialize on acquiring domain knowledge rather than software engineering expertise.

  • 282.
    Marculescu, Bogdan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Torkar, Richard
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Practitioner-Oriented Visualization in an Interactive Search-Based Software Test Creation Tool2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Search-based software testing uses meta-heuristic search techniques to automate or partially automate testing tasks, such as test case generation or test data generation. It uses a fitness function to encode the quality characteristics that are relevant, for a given problem, and guides the search to acceptable solutions in a potentially vast search space. From an industrial perspective, this opens up the possibility of generating and evaluating lots of test cases without raising costs to unacceptable levels. First, however, the applicability of search-based software engineering in an industrial setting must be evaluated. In practice, it is difficult to develop a priori a fitness function that covers all practical aspects of a problem. Interaction with human experts offers access to experience that is otherwise unavailable and allows the creation of a more informed and accurate fitness function. Moreover, our industrial partner has already expressed a view that the knowledge and experience of domain specialists are more important to the overall quality of the systems they develop than software engineering expertise. In this paper we describe our application of Interactive Search Based Software Testing (ISBST) in an industrial setting. We used SBST to search for test cases for an industrial software module and based, in part, on interaction with a human domain specialist. Our evaluation showed that such an approach is feasible, though it also identified potential difficulties relating to the interaction between the domain specialist and the system.

  • 283.
    Marculescu, Bogdan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Torkar, Richard
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Poulding, Simon
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    An initial industrial evaluation of interactive search-based testing for embedded software2015In: Applied Soft Computing, ISSN 1568-4946, E-ISSN 1872-9681, Vol. 29, p. 26-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Search-based software testing promises the ability to generate and evaluate large numbers of test cases at minimal cost. From an industrial perspective, this could enable an increase in product quality without a matching increase in the time and effort required to do so. Search-based software testing, however, is a set of quite complex techniques and approaches that do not immediately translate into a process for use with most companies. For example, even if engineers receive the proper education and training in these new approaches, it can be hard to develop a general fitness function that covers all contingencies. Furthermore, in industrial practice, the knowledge and experience of domain specialists are often key for effective testing and thus for the overall quality of the final software system. But it is not clear how such domain expertise can be utilized in a search-based system. This paper presents an interactive search-based software testing (ISBST) system designed to operate in an industrial setting and with the explicit aim of requiring only limited expertise in software testing. It uses SBST to search for test cases for an industrial software module, while also allowing domain specialists to use their experience and intuition to interactively guide the search. In addition to presenting the system, this paper reports on an evaluation of the system in a company developing a framework for embedded software controllers. A sequence of workshops provided regular feedback and validation for the design and improvement of the ISBST system. Once developed, the ISBST system was evaluated by four electrical and system engineers from the company (the ’domain specialists’ in this context) used the system to develop test cases for a commonly used controller module. As well as evaluating the utility of the ISBST system, the study generated interaction data that were used in subsequent laboratory experimentation to validate the underlying search-based algorithm in the presence of realistic, but repeatable, interactions. The results validate the importance that automated software testing tools in general, and search-based tools, in particular, can leverage input from domain specialists while generating tests. Furthermore, the evaluation highlighted benefits of using such an approach to explore areas that the current testing practices do not cover or cover insufficiently. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 284.
    Marculescu, Bogdan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Torkar, Richard
    Chalmers, SWE.
    Poulding, Simon
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Transferring Interactive Search-Based Software Testing to Industry2018In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 142, p. 156-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Search-Based Software Testing (SBST), and the wider area of Search-Based Software Engineering (SBSE), is the application of optimization algorithms to problems in software testing, and software engineering, respectively. New algorithms, methods, and tools are being developed and validated on benchmark problems. In previous work, we have also implemented and evaluated Interactive Search-Based Software Testing (ISBST) tool prototypes, with a goal to successfully transfer the technique to industry. Objective: While SBST and SBSE solutions are often validated on benchmark problems, there is a need to validate them in an operational setting, and to assess their performance in practice. The present paper discusses the development and deployment of SBST tools for use in industry, and reflects on the transfer of these techniques to industry. Method: In addition to previous work discussing the development and validation of an ISBST prototype, a new version of the prototype ISBST system was evaluated in the laboratory and in industry. This evaluation is based on an industrial System under Test (SUT) and was carried out with industrial practitioners. The Technology Transfer Model is used as a framework to describe the progression of the development and evaluation of the ISBST system, as it progresses through the first five of its seven steps. Results: The paper presents a synthesis of previous work developing and evaluating the ISBST prototype, as well as presenting an evaluation, in both academia and industry, of that prototype's latest version. In addition to the evaluation, the paper also discusses the lessons learned from this transfer. Conclusions: This paper presents an overview of the development and deployment of the ISBST system in an industrial setting, using the framework of the Technology Transfer Model. We conclude that the ISBST system is capable of evolving useful test cases for that setting, though improvements in the means the system uses to communicate that information to the user are still required. In addition, a set of lessons learned from the project are listed and discussed. Our objective is to help other researchers that wish to validate search-based systems in industry, and provide more information about the benefits and drawbacks of these systems.

  • 285.
    Marculescu, Bogdan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Torkar, Rickard
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Using Exploration Focused Techniques to Augment Search-Based Software Testing: An Experimental Evaluation2016In: Proceedings - 2016 IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation, ICST 2016, IEEE Computer Society, 2016, p. 69-79, article id 7515460Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Search-based software testing (SBST) often uses objective-based approaches to solve testing problems. There are, however, situations where the validity and completeness of objectives cannot be ascertained, or where there is insufficient information to define objectives at all. Incomplete or incorrect objectives may steer the search away from interesting behavior of the software under test (SUT) and from potentially useful test cases. This papers investigates the degree to which exploration-based algorithms can be used to complement an objective-based tool we have previously developed and evaluated in industry. In particular, we would like to assess how exploration-based algorithms perform in situations where little information on the behavior space is available a priori. We have conducted an experiment comparing the performance of an exploration-based algorithm with an objective-based one on a problem with a high-dimensional behavior space. In addition, we evaluate to what extent that performance degrades in situations where computational resources are limited. Our experiment shows that exploration-based algorithms are useful in covering a larger area of the behavior space and result in a more diverse solution population. Typically, of the candidate solutions that exploration-based algorithms propose, more than 80% were not covered by their objective-based counterpart. This increased diversity is present in the resulting population even when computational resources are limited. We conclude that exploration-focused algorithms are a useful means of investigating high-dimensional spaces, even in situations where limited information and limited resources are available.

  • 286.
    Marculescu, Bogdan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Jabbari, Ramtin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Molléri, Jefferson Seide
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Perception of Scientific Evidence: Do Industry and Academia Share an Understanding?2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Collaboration depends on communication and upon having a similar understanding of the notions that are being discussed, and a similar appraisal of their value. Existing work seems to show that the collaboration between industry and academia is hampered by a difference in values. In particular, academic work focuses more on generalizing on the basis of existing evidence, while industry prefers to particularize conclusions to individual cases. This has lead to the conclusion that industry values scientific evidence less than academia does. 

    Objective: This paper seeks to re-evaluate that conclusion, and investigate if industry and academia share a definition of scientific evidence. If evidence can be found of competing views, we propose a more finely grained model of empirical evidence and its role in building software engineering knowledge. Moreover, we seek to determine if a more nuanced look the notion of scientific evidence has an influence on how academics and industry practitioners perceive that notion. 

    Method: We have developed a model of key concepts related to understanding empirical evidence in software engineering. An initial validation has been conducted, consisting of a survey of master students, to determine if competing views of evidence exist at that level. The model will be validated by further literature study and semistructured interviews with industry practitioners. 

    Results: We propose a model of empirical evidence in software engineering, and initial validation of that model by means of a survey. The results of the survey indicate that conflicting opinions already exist in the student body regarding the notion of evidence, how trustworthy different sources of evidence and knowledge are, and which sources of evidence and types of evidence are more appropriate in various situations.

    Conclusion: Rather than a difference in how industry and academia value scientific evidence, we see evidence of misunderstanding, of different notions of what constitutes scientific evidence and what strength of evidence is required to achieve specific goals. We propose a model of empirical evidence, to provide a better understanding of what is required in various situations and a better platform for communication between industry and academia.

  • 287.
    Marculescu, Bogdan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Poulding, Simon
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Torkar, Richard
    Chalmers, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Tester interactivity makes a difference in search-based software testing: A controlled experiment2016In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 78, p. 66-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Search-based software testing promises to provide users with the ability to generate high quality test cases, and hence increase product quality, with a minimal increase in the time and effort required. The development of the Interactive Search-Based Software Testing (ISBST) system was motivated by a previous study to investigate the application of search-based software testing (SBST) in an industrial setting. ISBST allows users to interact with the underlying SBST system, guiding the search and assessing the results. An industrial evaluation indicated that the ISBST system could find test cases that are not created by testers employing manual techniques. The validity of the evaluation was threatened, however, by the low number of participants. Objective: This paper presents a follow-up study, to provide a more rigorous evaluation of the ISBST system. Method: To assess the ISBST system a two-way crossover controlled experiment was conducted with 58 students taking a Verification and Validation course. The NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) is used to assess the workload experienced by the participants in the experiment. Results:The experimental results validated the hypothesis that the ISBST system generates test cases that are not found by the same participants employing manual testing techniques. A follow-up laboratory experiment also investigates the importance of interaction in obtaining the results. In addition to this main result, the subjective workload was assessed for each participant by means of the NASA-TLX tool. The evaluation showed that, while the ISBST system required more effort from the participants, they achieved the same performance. Conclusions: The paper provides evidence that the ISBST system develops test cases that are not found by manual techniques, and that interaction plays an important role in achieving that result. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 288.
    Martins, Luiz Eduardo G.
    et al.
    Univ Fed Sao Paulo, BRA.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    AN AGENDA FOR THE COMING YEARS2017In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 56-57Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 289. Martins, Luiz Eduardo G.
    et al.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Requirements engineering for safety-critical systems: A systematic literature review2016In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 75, p. 71-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Safety-Critical Systems (SCS) are becoming increasingly present in our society. A considerable amount of research effort has been invested into improving the SCS requirements engineering process as it is critical to the successful development of SCS and, in particular, the engineering of safety aspects. Objective: This article aims to investigate which approaches have been proposed to elicit, model, specify and validate safety requirements in the context of SCS, as well as to what extent such approaches have been validated in industrial settings. The paper will also investigate how the usability and usefulness of the reported approaches have been explored, and to what extent they enable requirements communication among the development project/team actors in the development of SCS. Method: We conducted a systematic literature review by selecting 151 papers published between 1983 and 2014. The research methodology to conduct the SLR was based on the guidelines proposed by Kitchenham and Biolchini. Results: The results of this systematic review should encourage further research into the design of studies to improve the requirements engineering for SCS, particularly to enable the communication of the safety requirements among the project team actors, and the adoption of other models for hazard and accident models. The presented results point to the need for more industry-oriented studies, particularly with more participation of practitioners in the validation of new approaches. Conclusion: The most relevant findings from this review and their implications for further research are as follows: integration between requirements engineering and safety engineering areas; dominance of the traditional approaches; early mortality of new approaches; need for industry validation; lack of evidence for the usefulness and usability of most approaches; and the lack of studies that investigate how to improve the communication process throughout the lifecycle. Based on the findings, we suggest a research agenda to the community of researchers and advices to SCS practitioners. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 290.
    Martins, Luiz Eduardo Galvão
    et al.
    Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, BRA.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Requirements Engineering for Safety-Critical Systems: An Interview Study with Industry Practitioners2018In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have conducted in-depth interviews with experienced practitioners in the Safety-Critical Systems (SCS) domain in order to investigate several aspects related to requirements specification and safety analysis for SCS. We interviewed 19 practitioners from eleven SCS companies in different domains with the intention of verifying which approaches they use day-today, and what their perceptions are in relation to the approaches used to elicit, analyze, specify and validate safety requirements. The aim of this study is to obtain an in-depth understanding of how requirements engineering is carried out in companies that develop SCS. IEEE

  • 291.
    Martins, Luiz Eduardo Galvão
    et al.
    Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, BRA.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Requirements Engineering for Safety-Critical Systems: Overview and Challenges2017In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 49-57, article id 7974683Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a world that depends increasingly on complex, critical, and intertwined systems, requirements engineering is crucial to developing and maintaining safety-critical systems (SCSs). Researchers studied the state of the art (through the literature) and the state of the practice (through in-depth interviews with practitioners) to discover what approaches are available for capturing, specifying, and communicating safety requirements throughout the SCS lifecycle and to determine the remaining challenges. © 2017 IEEE.

  • 292.
    Medidi, Prasadbabu
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Waste in Lean Software Development: A Root Cause Analysis2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Removal of wastes is a crucial area in lean software development. It has been found that there was little evidence on root causes of wastes in lean software development. Root causes from the state of practice had not being investigated. Furthermore, relations between wastes were now successfully exposed through root cause identifications process. Objectives: The objective of this study was to perform an in-depth investigation to identify causes which lead to wastes in Lean software development process in the context of medium to large software development. To this end, researcher also identified relationships that exist between wastes. Methods: The researcher conducted Literature review to look for evidence on waste related activities offered in peer-reviewed literature. Furthermore, the author conducted seven semi-structured interviews and used Grounded Theory method for both literature and interview data analysis. Results: The researcher identified three categories of factors of wastes. Namely, Technical, Non-technical and Global software product development. In the technical category, factors relating to different technical aspects to build a product such as required resource issues, solving complexity issues among others were identified. Similarly, factors relating to people knowledge, management issues as well as factors that bothered on communication, coordination and temporal distance were identified as non-technical and global software product development respectively. For all seven kinds of wastes the root causes were identified.

  • 293.
    Mehmood, Qaiser
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    A Maintainability Analysis of Dependability Evaluation of an Avionic System using  AADL to PNML Transformation2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context.In the context of Software Architecture, AADL (ArchitectureAnalysis and Design Language) is one of the latest standards (SAE StandardAS5506) used for analyzing and designing of architectures of software sys-tems. Dependability evaluation of an avionic system, modeled in AADL, isconducted using petri nets standard PNML (ISO standard ISO/IEC15909-2).A maintainability analysis of PNML dependability model is also con-ducted.

    Objectives. In this study we investigate maintainability analysis of PNMLdependability model of an avionic system designed in AADL. Structural,functional, fault-tolerance and recovery dependencies are modeled, imple-mented, simulated and validated in PNML. Maintainability analysis withrespect to ‘changeability’ factor is also conducted.

    Methods.This study is a semi-combination of ’case-study’ and ’implemen-tation’ research methodologies. The implementation of case-study systemis conducted by modeling the case-study system in AADL using OSATE2tool and simulating the dependability models in PNML using Wolfgangtool. PNML dependability models are validated by comparing with GSPNdependability models of previously published research.

    Results. As a result of this research, PNML dependability model was ob-tained. The difficulties that influenced the research in AADL Error ModelAnnex and the OSATE2 tool are also analyzed and documented. PNMLand GSPN are compared for complexity. And maintainability analysis forPNML dependability model w.r.t ‘changeability’ factor is also an outcomeof this research. This research is recommended for software testing at ar-chitecture level as a standardized way for testing the software componentsfor faults and errors and their impact on dependable components.

    Conclusions. We conclude that PNML is an ISO standard and is the al-ternative for GSPN for dependability. Also, AADL Error Model Annex isstill evolving and there is a need of availability of proper literature publiclyfor better understanding. Also, PNML dependability model possesses the‘changeability’ factor of maintainability analysis and therefore it is able toadapt changes in the architecture. Also, dependability factors of a softwarecan be tested at architecture level using the standards; AADL and PNML

  • 294.
    MELDRUM, MAX
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Flexible Paxos: An Industry Perspective2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Paxos is an algorithm for implementing fault-tolerant distributed systems. The core of Paxos is found in many consensus algorithms. Raft and Zab are two prominent protocols that are used in the industry. They serve as the foundation of distributed key-value stores and coordination services such as Consul, Etcd and ZooKeeper. In distributed consensus, the most common way for servers to agree over a value is to use majority quorums. However in 2016, FPaxos (Flexible Paxos) was published. The authors make the observation that majority quorums are not required as intersection is mandatory only across the two phases of Paxos. By taking advantage of this, developers will have more control over the choice between performance and availability. In this paper we will look at how FPaxos can be adopted into existing systems and demonstrate the advantages through a ZooKeeper modification running on City Cloud.

  • 295.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Applying a knowledge management technique to improve risk assessment and effort estimation of healthcare software projects2014In: Communications in Computer and Information Science, ISSN 1865-0929, E-ISSN 1865-0937, Vol. 457, p. 40-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the pillars for sound Software Project Management is reliable effort estimation. Therefore it is important to fully identify what are the fundamental factors that affect an effort estimate for a new project and how these factors are inter-related. This paper describes a case study where a Knowledge Management technique was employed to build an expert-based effort estimation model to estimate effort for healthcare software projects. This model was built with the participation of seven project managers, and was validated using data from 22 past finished projects. The model led to numerous changes in process and also in business. The company adapted their existing effort estimation process to be in line with the model that was created, and the use of a mathematically- based model also led to an increase in the number of projects being delegated to this company by other company branches worldwide.

  • 296.
    Mendes, Emilia
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Ali, Nauman bin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Counsell, Steve
    Brunel University London, GBR.
    Baldassare, Maria Teresa
    Università degli Studi di Bari, ITA.
    Special issue on evaluation and assessment in software engineering2019In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 151, p. 224-225Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 297.
    Mendes, Emilia
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Kalinowski, M.
    Martins, D.
    Ferrucci, F.
    Sarro, F.
    Cross- vs. Within-company cost estimation studies revisited: An extended systematic review2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to extend a previously conducted systematic literature review (SLR) that investigated under what circumstances individual organizations would be able to rely on cross-company based estimation models. [Method] We applied the same methodology used in the SLR we are extending herein (covering the period 2006-2013) based on primary studies that compared predictions from cross-company models with predictions from within-company models constructed from analysis of project data. [Results] We identified 11 additional papers; however two of these did not present independent results and one had inconclusive findings. Two of the remaining eight papers presented both, trials where cross-company predictions were not significantly different from within-company predictions and others where they were significantly different. Four found that cross-company models gave prediction accuracy significantly different from within-company models (one of them in favor of cross-company models), while two found no significant difference. The main pattern when examining the study related factors was that studies where cross-company predictions were significantly different from within-company predictions employed larger within-company data sets. [Conclusions] Overall, half of the analyzed evidence indicated that cross-company estimation models are not significantly worse than within-company estimation models. Moreover, there is some evidence that sample size does not imply in higher estimation accuracy, and that samples for building estimation models should be carefully selected/filtered based on quality control and project similarity aspects. The results need to be combined with the findings from the SLR we are extending to allow further investigating this topic.

  • 298.
    Mendes, Emilia
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Rodriguez, Pilar
    University of Oulu, FIN.
    Freitas, Vitor
    University of Oulu, FIN.
    Baker, Simon
    University of Cambridge, GBR.
    Atoui, Mohamed Amine
    University of Oulu, FIN.
    Correction to: Towards improving decision making and estimating the value of decisions in value-based software engineering: the VALUE framework (Software Quality Journal, (2018), 26, 2, (607-656), 10.1007/s11219-017-9360-z)2018In: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 1595-1596Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in Figs. 1 and 21. © 2018, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.

  • 299.
    Mendes, Emilia
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Viana, Davi
    Univ Fed Maranhao, BRA.
    Vishnubhotla, Sai Datta
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Lundberg, Lars
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Realising Individual and Team Capability in Agile Software Development: A Qualitative Investigation2018In: Proceedings - 44th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2018 / [ed] Bures, T Angelis, L, IEEE , 2018, p. 183-190Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have shown that both individual and team capability can affect software development performance and project success; a deeper understating of such phenomena is crucial within the context of Agile Software Development (ASD), given that its workforce is a key source of agility. This paper contributes towards such understanding by means of a case study that uses data from 14 interviews carried out at a large telecommunications company, within the context of a mobile money transfer system developed in Sweden and India, to identify individual and team capability measures used to form productive teams. Our results identified 10 individual and five team capability measures, of which, respectively, five and four have not been previously characterised by a systematic literature review (SLR) on this same topic. Such review aggregated evidence for a total of 133 individual and 28 team capability measures. Further work entails extending our findings via interviewing other software/software-intensive industries practicing ASD.

  • 300.
    Mendes, Emilia
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Winkler, Dietmar
    Technische Universitat Wien, AUT.
    Special issue on “software quality in software-intensive systems”2018In: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 657-660Article in journal (Refereed)
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