Change search
Refine search result
3456789 251 - 300 of 590
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 251.
    Khan, Rizwan Bahrawar
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Comparative Study of Performance Testing Tools: Apache JMeter and HP LoadRunner2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Software Testing plays a key role in Software Development. There are two approaches to software testing i.e. Manual Testing and Automated Testing which are used to detect the faults. There are numbers of automated software testing tools with different purposes but it is always a problem to select a software testing tool according to the needs. In this research, the author compares two software testing tools i.e. Apache JMeter and HP LoadRunner to determine their usability and efficiency. To compare the tools, different parameters were selected which guide the tool evaluation process. To complete the objective of the research, a scenario-based survey is conducted and two different web applications were tested. From this research, it is found that Apache JMeter got an edge over HP Loadrunner in different aspects which include installation, interface and learning.

  • 252. Khurum, Mahvish
    et al.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    The Contextual Nature of Innovation: An Empirical Investigation of Three Software Intensive Products2015In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 57, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: New products create significant opportunities for differentiation and competitive advantage. To increase the chances of new product success, a universal set of critical activities and determinants have been recommended. Some researchers believe, however, that these factors are not universal, but are contextual. Objective: This paper reports innovation processes followed to develop three software intensive products for understanding how and why innovation practice is dependent on innovation context. Method: This paper reports innovation processes and practices with an in-depth multi-case study of three software product innovations from Ericsson, IBM, and Rorotika. It describes the actual innovation processes followed in the three cases and discusses the observed innovation practice and relates it to state-of-the-art. Results: The cases point to a set of contextual factors that influence the choice of innovation activities and determinants for developing successful product innovations. The cases provide evidence that innovation practice cannot be standardized, but is contextual in nature. Conclusion: The rich description of the interaction between context and innovation practice enables future investigations into contextual elements that influence innovation practice, and calls for the creation of frameworks enabling activity and determinant selection for a given context – since one size does not fit all.

  • 253. Khurum, Mahvish
    et al.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Extending value stream mapping through waste definition beyond customer perspective2014In: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 26, no 12, p. 1074-1105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Value Stream Mapping is one of the several Lean practices, which has recently attracted interest in the software engineering community. In other contexts (such as military, health, production), Value Stream Mapping has achieved considerable improvements in processes and products. The goal is to also leverage on these benefits in the software intensive product development context. The primary contribution is that we are extending the definition of waste to fit in the software intensive product development context. As traditionally in Value Stream Mapping everything that is not considered valuable is waste, we do this practically by looking at value beyond the customer perspective, and using the Software Value Map. A detailed illustration, via application in an industrial case at Ericsson AB, demonstrates usability and usefulness of the proposed extension. The case study results consist of two parts. First, the instantiation and motivations for selecting certain strategies have been provided. Second, the outcome of the value stream map is described in detail. Overall, the conclusion is that this case study indicates that Value Stream Mapping and the integration with the Software Value Map is useful in a software intensive product development context. In a retrospective the value stream approach was perceived positively by the practitioners with respect to process and outcome.

  • 254.
    Kihlström, Kalle
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Responsive Images: A comparison of responsive image techniques with a focus on performance2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis dives into the topic of responsive images on the web. With more and more devices different devices accessing the web all with different conditions, serving the right image for each and every device is an important matter. This thesis looks into the topic and compares a few available techniques that potentially could solve this problem of providing the right image.

    This thesis will include a literature study as well as an experiment. When both these parts are done they will be presented, analyzed and summarized for the reader. The experiment is a performance benchmark of two different responsive image techniques, a non responsive image alternative is also tested in order to have something to evaluate the responsive image techniques with and see how big of a difference the techniques can make.

    Ultimately both responsive image techniques put through the experiment performed relatively even and both showed huge improvements in terms of performance over the non responsive alternative.

  • 255.
    Kitamura, Takashi
    et al.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, JPN.
    Alégroth, Emil
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Ramler, Rudolf
    Software Competence Center Hagenber, AUT.
    Industry-Academia Collaboration in Software Testing: An Overview of TAIC PART 20172017In: Proceedings - 10th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, p. 42-43Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaboration between industry and academia in software testing leads to improvement and innovation in industry, and it is the basis for achieving transferable and empirically evaluated results. Thus, the aim of TAIC PART is to forge collaboration between industry and academia on the challenging and exciting problem of real-world software testing. The workshop is promoted by representatives of both industry and academia, bringing together industrial software engineers and testers with researchers working on theory and practice of software testing. We present an overview of the 12th Workshop on Testing: Academia-Industry Collaboration, Practice and Research Techniques (TAIC PART 2017) and its contributions. © 2017 IEEE.

  • 256. Kittlaus, Hans-Bernd
    et al.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Software Product Management: The ISPMA-Compliant Study Guide and Handbook2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book gives a comprehensive overview on Software Product Management (SPM) for beginners as well as best practices, methodology and in-depth discussions for experienced product managers. This includes product strategy, product planning, participation in strategic management activities and orchestration of the functional units of the company. The book is based on the results of the International Software Product Management Association (ISPMA) which is led by a group of SPM experts from industry and research with the goal to foster software product management excellence across industries. This book can be used as textbook for ISPMA-based education and as guide for anybody interested in SPM as one of the most exciting and challenging disciplines in the business of software.

  • 257.
    Klotins, Erik
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Software engineering knowledge areas in startup companies: A mapping study2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background – Startup companies are becoming important suppliers of innovative and software intensive products. The failure rate among startups is high due to lack of resources, immaturity, multiple influences and dynamic technologies. However, software product engineering is the core activity in startups, therefore inadequacies in applied engineering practices might be a significant contributing factor for high failure rates. Aim – This study identifies and categorizes software engineering knowledge areas utilized in startups to map out the state-of-art, identifying gaps for further research. Method – We perform a systematic literature mapping study, applying snowball sampling to identify relevant primary studies. Results – We have identified 54 practices from 14 studies. Although 11 of 15 main knowledge areas from SWEBOK are covered, a large part of categories is not. Conclusions – Existing research does not provide reliable support for software engineering in any phase of a startup life cycle. Transfer of results to other startups is difficult due to low rigor in current studies. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.

  • 258.
    Klotins, Eriks
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Software start-ups through an empirical lens: Are start-ups snowflakes?2018In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings / [ed] Wang X.,Munch J.,Suominen A.,Bosch J.,Jud C.,Hyrynsalmi S., CEUR-WS , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the existing research assume that software start-ups are “unique” and require a special approach to software engineering. The uniqueness of start-ups is often justified by the scarcity of resources, time pressure, little operating history, and focus on innovation. As a consequence, most research on software start-ups concentrate on exploring the start-up context and are overlooking the potential of transferring the best engineering practices from other contexts to start-ups. In this paper, we examine results from an earlier mapping study reporting frequently used terms in literature used to characterize start-ups. We analyze how much empirical evidence support each characteristic, and how unique each characteristic is in the context of innovative, market-driven, software-intensive product development. Our findings suggest that many of the terms used to describe startups originate from anecdotal evidence and have little empirical backing. Therefore, there is a potential to revise the original start-up characterization. In conclusion, we identify three potential research avenues for further work: a) considering shareholder perspective in product decisions, b) providing support for software engineering in rapidly growing organizations, and c) focusing on transferring the best engineering practices from other contexts to start-ups. © 2018 CEUR-WS. All rights reserved.

  • 259.
    Klotins, Eriks
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Using the Case Survey Method to Explore Engineering Practices in Software Start-Ups2017In: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE/ACM 1st International Workshop on Software Engineering for Startups, SoftStart 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, p. 24-26Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software start-ups are a new and relatively unexplored field for software engineering researchers. However, conducting empirical studies with start-ups is difficult. Start-ups produce very little 'hard' evidence, thus data collection methods are limited to interviews and surveys. These methods come with their limitations, namely interview studies are not scalable to a large number of companies, and surveys are not generally applicable for exploratory studies. In this paper we present of a hybrid research method aimed to provide a compromise between breadth of a survey and depth of an interview study. The case survey method enables both qualitative and quantitative analysis of studied cases. We adapt the case survey method for use in primary studies and report experience with its application. The case survey method was successfully applied to design and launch a large scale study into engineering aspects of start-ups. We conclude that the case survey method is a promising research method to launch exploratory studies into large samples of start-up companies. © 2017 IEEE.

  • 260.
    Klotins, Eriks
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Prikladnicki, Rafael
    Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, BRA.
    Tripathi, Nirnaya
    Oulun Yliopisto, Oulu, FIN.
    Pompermaier, Leandro Bento
    Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, BRA.
    Exploration of technical debt in start-ups2018In: Proceedings - International Conference on Software Engineering, IEEE Computer Society , 2018, p. 75-84Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Software start-ups are young companies aiming to build and market software-intensive products fast with little resources. Aiming to accelerate time-to-market, start-ups often opt for ad-hoc engineering practices, make shortcuts in product engineering, and accumulate technical debt. Objective: In this paper we explore to what extent precedents, dimensions and outcomes associated with technical debt are prevalent in start-ups. Method: We apply a case survey method to identify aspects of technical debt and contextual information characterizing the engineering context in start-ups. Results: By analyzing responses from 86 start-up cases we found that start-ups accumulate most technical debt in the testing dimension, despite attempts to automate testing. Furthermore, we found that start-up team size and experience is a leading precedent for accumulating technical debt: larger teams face more challenges in keeping the debt under control. Conclusions: This study highlights the necessity to monitor levels of technical debt and to preemptively introduce practices to keep the debt under control. Adding more people to an already difficult to maintain product could amplify other precedents, such as resource shortages, communication issues and negatively affect decisions pertaining to the use of good engineering practices. © 2018 ACM.

  • 261.
    Klotins, Eriks
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Prikladniki, Rafael
    Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, BRA.
    Tripathi, Nirnaya
    Oulun Yliopisto, FIN.
    Pompermaier, Leandro Bento
    Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, BRA.
    A progression model of software engineering goals, challenges, and practices in start-ups2019In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Software start-ups are emerging as suppliers of innovation and software-intensive products. However, traditional software engineering practices are not evaluated in the context, nor adopted to goals and challenges of start-ups. As a result, there is insufficient support for software engineering in the start-up context. IEEE

  • 262.
    Klotins, Eriks
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Software Engineering Anti-Patterns in Start-Ups2019In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 118-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software start-up failures are often explained with a poor business model, market issues, insufficient funding, or simply a bad product idea. However, inadequacies in software engineering are relatively unexplored and could be a significant contributing factor to the high start-up failure rate. In this paper we present the analysis of 88 start-up experience reports, revealing three anti-patterns associated with start-up progression phases. The anti-patterns address challenges of releasing the first version of the product, attracting customers, and expanding the product into new markets. The anti-patterns show that challenges and failure scenarios that appear to be business or market related are, at least partially, rooted in engineering inadequacies.

  • 263.
    Klotins, Eriks
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Software engineering in start-up companies: An analysis of 88 experience reports2019In: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 68-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Start-up companies have become an important supplier of innovation and software-intensive products. The flexibility and reactiveness of start-ups enables fast development and launch of innovative products. However, a majority of software start-up companies fail before achieving any success. Among other factors, poor software engineering could be a significant contributor to the challenges experienced by start-ups. However, the state-of-practice of software engineering in start-ups, as well as the utilization of state-of-the-art is largely an unexplored area. Objective: In this study we investigate how software engineering is applied in start-up context with a focus to identify key knowledge areas and opportunities for further research. Method: We perform a multi-vocal exploratory study of 88 start-up experience reports. We develop a custom taxonomy to categorize the reported software engineering practices and their interrelation with business aspects, and apply qualitative data analysis to explore influences and dependencies between the knowledge areas. Results: We identify the most frequently reported software engineering (requirements engineering, software design and quality) and business aspect (vision and strategy development) knowledge areas, and illustrate their relationships. We also present a summary of how relevant software engineering knowledge areas are implemented in start-ups and identify potentially useful practices for adoption in start-ups. Conclusions: The results enable a more focused research on engineering practices in start-ups. We conclude that most engineering challenges in start-ups stem from inadequacies in requirements engineering. Many promising practices to address specific engineering challenges exists, however more research on adaptation of established practices, and validation of new start-up specific practices is needed. © 2018 The Author(s)

  • 264.
    Klotins, Eriks
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Software-intensive product engineering in start-ups: a taxonomy2018In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 44-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software start-ups are new companies aiming to launch an innovative product to mass markets fast with minimal resources. However a majority of start-ups fail before realizing their potential. Poor software engineering, among other factors, could be a significant contributor to the challenges experienced by start-ups.

    Very little is known about the engineering context in start-up companies. On the surface, start-ups are characterized by uncertainty, high risk and minimal resources. However, such characterization is not granular enough to support identification of specific engineering challenges and to devise start-up specific engineering practices.

    The first step towards understanding on software engineering in start-ups is definition of the Start-up Context Map - a taxonomy of engineering practices, environment factors and goals influencing the engineering process. Goal of the Start-up Context Map is to support further research on the field and to serve as an engineering decision support tool for start-ups. 

  • 265. Kocaguneli, Ekrem
    et al.
    Menzies, Tim
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Transfer learning in effort estimation2015In: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 813-843Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When projects lack sufficient local data to make predictions, they try to transfer information from other projects. How can we best support this process? In the field of software engineering, transfer learning has been shown to be effective for defect prediction. This paper checks whether it is possible to build transfer learners for software effort estimation. We use data on 154 projects from 2 sources to investigate transfer learning between different time intervals and 195 projects from 51 sources to provide evidence on the value of transfer learning for traditional cross-company learning problems. We find that the same transfer learning method can be useful for transfer effort estimation results for the cross-company learning problem and the cross-time learning problem. It is misguided to think that: (1) Old data of an organization is irrelevant to current context or (2) data of another organization cannot be used for local solutions. Transfer learning is a promising research direction that transfers relevant cross data between time intervals and domains.

  • 266.
    Kollu, Ravichandra Kumar
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Requirements scoping outside product lines: Systematic Literature Review and Survey2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Scoping is admitted as a key activity in Market Driven Software Development for handling the constant inflow of requirements. It helps in identifying the features, domains and products which help for gaining economic benefits in Software Product Line (SPL) development. Beyond SPL, managing the scope of the project is a major risk for project management. Continuously changing scope creates a congestion state to handle the requirements inflow which causes negative consequences like scope scrap and scope creep. However, for managing negative consequences caused due to requirements volatility depicts a need for work on requirements scoping outside the product line. 

    Objectives: In this study, an exploratory work is carried to identify the literature and industrial perspectives on requirements scoping outside the product line. The main objectives are:

    • Identifying the state of literature of requirements scoping outside product line and variability analysis.
    • To explore the industrial practice on requirements scoping.
    • Suggesting recommendations in improving the scoping process based on the literature and survey. 

    Methods: Systematic Literature Review (SLR) using snowballing procedure was conducted to identify the literature available on requirements scoping outside the product line. Quality assessment using rigor and relevance was performed to find the trustworthiness of the papers obtained through SLR. The data obtained through SLR was analyzed using narrative analysis. Furthermore, an industrial survey was performed using web questionnaire to identify the industrial perspective on requirements scoping. Statistical analysis was performed for analyzing the data obtained from survey. 

    Results: 23 relevant papers were identified through SLR. The results were categorized as definitions obtained, phenomena, challenges and methods/tools identified. From the finding of SLR, an industrial survey was conducted, which has obtained 93 responses. The challenges that were identified through literature were validated through survey and are prioritized. Moreover, the study identified additional challenges that are not discussed in the literature. Additionally, the approaches followed in organizations while scoping the requirements were identified through the survey.

    Conclusions: This study identified that scope creep is the most frequently occurring phenomenon that organizations are facing throughout the lifecycle of the project. In addition project delays, quality issues and project cost were identified as the most occurring scoping associated challenges. Moreover, scoping activity was identified as the continuous activity which changes significantly throughout the lifecycle. Finally, suggestions were given for improving the scoping process.

  • 267.
    Kolonko, Kamil
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Performance comparison of the most popular relational and non-relational database management systems2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Database is an essential part of any software product. With an emphasis on application performance, database efficiency becomes one of the key factors to analyze in the process of technology selection. With a development of new data models and storage technologies, the necessity for a comparison between relational and non-relational database engines is especially evident in the software engineering domain.

    Objectives. This thesis investigates current knowledge on database performance measurement methods, popularity of relational and non-relational database engines, defines characteristics of databases, approximates their average values and compares the performance of two selected database engines.Methods. In this study a number of research methods are used, including literature review, a review of Internet sources, and an experiment. Literature datasets used in the research incorporate over 100 sources including IEEE Xplore and ACM Digital Library. YCSB Benchmark was used as a direct performance comparison method in an experiment to compare OracleDB’s and MongoDB’s performance.

    Results. A list of database performance measurement methods has been defined as a result of the literature review. Two most popular database management engines, one relational and one non-relational has been identified. A set of database characteristics and a database performance comparison methodology has been identified. Performance of two selected database engines has been measured and compared.

    Conclusions. Performance comparison between two selected database engines indicated superior results for MongoDB under the experimental conditions. This database proved to be more efficient in terms of average operation latency and throughput for each of the measured workloads. OracleDB however, presented stable results in each of the category leaving the final choice of database to the specifics of a software engineering project. Activities required for the definition of database performance comparison methodology proved to be challenging and require study extension.

  • 268.
    Kommineni, Mohanarajesh
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Parvathi, Revanth
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    RISK ANALYSIS FOR EXPLORING THE OPPORTUNITIES IN CLOUD OUTSOURCING2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Cloud Outsourcing is a new form of outsourcing which is not more under implementation and yet to be implemented. It is a form of outsourcing in which software organizations outsource the work to e-freelancers available throughout the world using cloud services via the Internet. Software organizations handovers the respective task to the cloud and from the cloud e-freelancers undertake the development of task and then return back the finished task to the cloud. Organizations recollect the finished task from the cloud and verify it and then pay to the e-freelancer. Objectives: The aim of this study is to identify the sequence of activities involved during the entire process of cloud outsourcing and to find out the risks which are likely to be occurred during the implementation of this process. To prioritize the elicitated risks according to their probability of occurrence, impact and cost required to mitigate the corresponding risk. Methods: Data is collected by literature review and then the data is synthesized. On the other side interviews with practitioners are conducted to know the activities involved and to find out the risks that are likely to be occurred during the implementation of cloud outsourcing. After this, a survey is conducted in order to prioritize the risks and a standard risk analysis is conducted to know the risks which are likely to be occurred. Literature review is done using four databases including the literature from the year 1990 to till date. Results: Totally we have identified 21 risks that are likely to be occurred and 8 activities so far. By performing risk analysis we have presented the risks, which should be considered first and relevant counter measures are suggested to overcome them.

  • 269.
    Koppula, Thejendar Reddy
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Regression Testing Goals and Measures: An industrial approach2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context: When a software is modified, regression testing is performed to ensure the behaviour of software is not affected because of those modifications. Due to frequent modifications, the regression testing became challenging. Although there are many regression testing techniques are developed in the research, they are not incorporating in the industry. This is because of the differences in regression testing goals and measures in research and industry. The current context of this study is to identify the regression testing goals and measures in the research and industry perspectives and to find the differences and similarities in both perspectives.

    Objectives: The primary objective of this study is to identify the similarities and differences in regression testing goals and measure from research and industry perspectives. Additionally, in this study, a general adapted goals list is presented.

    Methods: A mixed method approach is used for this study. A literature review has been used to identify the regression testing goals and measures in research. A survey is used to identify the regression testing goals and measures in the industry. Semi-structured interviews and online questionnaire are used as data collection methods in the survey. Thematic analysis and descriptive statistics are used as data analysis methods for the qualitative and quantitative data.

    Results: A literature review is conducted using 33 research articles. In the survey, the data is collected from 11 semi-structured interviews which are validated with 45 responses from an online questionnaire. A total of 6 regression testing goals are identified from the literature review and 8 goals are identified in the survey respectively. The measures used to evaluate these goals are identified and tabulated.

    Conclusions: From the results, we observed the similarities and differences in the regression testing goals and measures in industry and research. There are few similarities in goals but the major difference is the priority order of these goals. There are various measures used in research but very fewer measures are incorporating in the industry. The respondents from the survey implied that there is a need for generic adaptive goals. Further, a general list of goals is presented.

    Keywords: Regression, Regression testing, Goals, Objectives, Measures, Metrics.

  • 270.
    Korraprolu, Srinivasa Abhilash
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Evaluation of the Relevance of Agile Maturity Models in the Industry: A Case Study2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background.

    Over the years, agile software development has become increasingly popular in the software industry. One of the reasons is that agile development addressed the needs of the organisations better than the traditional models, such as the waterfall model. However, the textbook version of agile development still leaves something to be desired. This could be learnt by observing the implementation of agile methods/frameworks in the industry. The teams often customize agile methods to suit their context-specific needs. When teams in the industry decide to adopt the agile way of working, they are confronted by a choice¾either they have to implement all the agile practices at a time or adopt them over the time. The former choice has shown to come with risks and, therefore, was found that practitioners generally preferred the latter. However, agile practices are not independent, they have dependencies amongst them. A new approach to agile development emerged in the recent years known as Agile Maturity Models (AMMs). AMMs claim to offer a better path to agile adoption. In AMMs, the practices are typically introduced gradually in a particular order. However, these AMMs are multifarious and haven’t been sufficiently evaluated¾especially in the industry practice. Thus, they need to be evaluated in order to understand their relevance in the industry.

     

    Objectives.

    The goal is to evaluate the relevance of AMMs in the industry. By finding relevant AMMs, they could be used to alleviate the formation of agile teams and contribute toward their smoother functioning. By finding those that aren’t, this research could act as a cautionary to those practitioners who could potentially implement these AMMs and risk failure. The objectives are: identifying the agile practice dependencies in the AMMs; finding the agile practice dependencies in an agile team by conducting a case study in the industry; comparing the dependencies from the case study with those in the AMMs.


     

    Methods.

    The agile maturity models were identified and analysed. A case study was conducted on an agile team to identify the dependencies between the agile practices in the industry practice. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with members of the agile team. Qualitative coding was used to analyse the collected data. The dependencies from the case study were compared with the AMMs to achieve the aim of this research.

     

    Results.

    It was found that dependencies between individual agile practices in the AMMs were almost never possible to be found. However, practices suggested in each maturity levels were derived. Hence, the dependencies were found in the maturity-level level. From the case study, 20 agile practice dependencies were found. 7/8 AMMs were found to be not relevant. 1 AMM couldn’t be evaluated as it heavily relied on the practitioner’s choices.

     

    Conclusions.

    The researchers could use the evaluation method presented in this thesis to conduct more such evaluations. By doing so, the dynamics present in the industry teams could be better understood. On their basis, relevant AMMs could be developed in the future. Such AMMs could help practitioners leverage agile development.

  • 271. Kosti, Makrina Viola
    et al.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Angelis, Lefteris
    Archetypal personalities of software engineers and their work preferences: a new perspective for empirical studies2016In: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 1509-1532Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 272.
    Koutsoumpos, Vasileios
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Marinelarena, Iker
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Agile Methodologies and Software Process Improvement Maturity Models, Current State of Practice in Small and Medium Enterprises2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract—Background: Software Process Improvement (SPI) maturity models have been developed to assist organizations to enhance software quality. Agile methodologies are used to ensure productivity and quality of a software product. Amongst others they are applied in Small and Medium – sized Enterprises (SMEs). However, little is known about the combination of Agile methodologies and SPI maturity models regarding SMEs and the results that could emerge, as all the current SPI models are addressed to larger organizations and all these improvement models are difficult to be used by Small and Medium – sized firms. Combinations of these methodologies could lead to improvement in the quality of the software products, better project management methodologies and organized software development framework. Objectives: The aim of this study is to identify the main Agile methodologies and SPI maturity models applied in SMEs, the combinations of these methodologies, and the results that could emerge. Through these combinations, new software development frameworks are proposed. What is more, the results of this study can be used as a guide with the appropriate combination for each SME, as a better project management methodology or as improvement in the current software engineering practices. Methods: A Systematic Literature Review was conducted, resulting in 71 selected relevant papers ranging from 2001 to 2013. Besides, a survey has been performed from June 2013 to October 2013, including 49 participants. Results: Seven Agile methodologies and six different SPI maturity models were identified and discussed. Furthermore, the combination of eight different Agile methodologies and Software Process Improvement maturity models is presented, and as well as their benefits and drawbacks that could emerge in Small and Medium – sized firms. Conclusion: The majority of the Agile methodologies and SPI maturity models are addressed to large or very large enterprises. Thus, little research has been conducted for SMEs. The combinations of the Agile methodologies and SPI maturity models are usually performed in experimental stages. However, it has been observed that such type of combination could present numerous benefits, which can also be applicable in SMEs as well. The combinations that are most common are the CMMI and XP, CMMI and Scrum, CMMI and Six Sigma, and the PRINCE2 and DSDM.

  • 273.
    Krishna Chaitanya, Konduru
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Scalability Drivers in Requirements Engineering2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 274.
    Krusche, Stephan
    et al.
    Technische Universität München, DEU.
    Seitz, Andreas
    Technische Universität München, DEU.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Bruegge, Bernd
    Technische Universität München, DEU.
    Interactive Learning: Increasing Student Participation through Shorter Exercise Cycles2017In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series Volume Part F126225, ACM Digital Library, 2017, p. 17-26Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In large classes, there is typically a clear separation between content delivery in lectures on the one hand and content deepening in practical exercises on the other hand. This temporal and spatial separation has several disadvantages. In particular, it separates students’ hearing about a new concept from being able to actually practicing and applying it, which may decrease knowledge retention.

    To closely integrate lectures and practical exercises, we propose an approach which we call interactive learning: it is based on active, computer based and experiential learning, includes immediate feedback and learning from the reflection on experience. It decreases the time between content delivery and content deepening to a few minutes and allows for flexible and more efficient learning. Shorter exercise cycles allow students to apply and practice multiple concepts per teaching unit directly after they first heard about them.

    We applied interactive learning in two large software engineering classes with 300 students each and evaluated its use qualitatively and quantitatively. The students’ participation increases compared to traditional classes: until the end ofthe course, around 50% of the students attend class and participate in exercises. Our evaluations show that students’ learning experience and exam grades correlate with the increased participation. While educators need more time to prepare the class and the exercises, they need less time to review exercise submissions. The overall teaching effort for instructors and teaching assistants does not increase.

  • 275.
    Krüger, Anders
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Recognizing and classifying a golf swing using accelerometer in a Smartwatch2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 276.
    Kulanthaivetpillai, Nishandan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorges, Gorges
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Implementing an Augmented Reality application to use on Microsoft Hololens to interact with automotive vehicle objects2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 277.
    Kuzniarz, Ludwik
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Martins, Luiz Eduardo Galvão
    Federal University of São Paulo, BRA.
    Teaching model-driven software development: A pilot study2016In: Proceedings of the 2016 ITiCSE Working Group Reports, ITiCSE 2016, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2016, p. 45-56Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software development is a process starting with specification of requirements, then providing design of the required software and implementing the design. Introducing understanding of the process and teaching the skills required for conducting the process is an important learning objective in any CS/SE curriculum. Recently a new paradigm - model-driven software development - has been introduced and extensively used in order to manage increasing complexity in the development of software. We want to investigate and discuss the state-of-The-practice of teaching MDSD and further to provide suggestions on what to include in the teaching curricula and how to teach MDSD in a proper way. The paper presents the results of the work performed by the ITiCSE 2016 "Teaching Model-Driven Software Development" working group. The objective for the work performed at ITiCSE was to elaborate on a foreseen survey based framework for the research by performing a pilot study using the framework. The pilot study was supposed to validate the framework by performing the initial survey, presenting the results, drawing conclusions from the results but also to find out necessary changes and modifications for the research framework so that it could be used for further more extensive research. CCS Concepts • Computing methodologies→Modeling and Siumlation →Model development and analysis→Modeling methodologies • Social and professional topics → Professional topics→Computing education→Computing education programs?Software engineering education.

  • 278.
    Lenberg, Per
    et al.
    Chalmers, SWE.
    Alégroth, Emil
    Chalmers, SWE.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wallgren, Lars-Göran
    Göteborgs Universitet, SWE.
    An initial analysis of differences in software engineers’ attitudes towards organizational change2016In: Proceedings - 9th International Workshop on Cooperative and Human Aspects of Software Engineering, CHASE 2016, ACM Press, 2016, p. 1-7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to manage change is important in software engineering organizations, where rapid progress in technologies and constantly evolving methodologies create a turbulent environment. Research has identified employees’ attitudes towards organizational change as a key factor in the change process. Nonetheless, few studies exist that explore such attitudes in a software engineering context. The nature of change efforts is such that they often do not equally affect the various roles in the organization, which indicates that the roles may hold different attitudes. This study aimed to verify the existence of these presumed differences in attitudes towards organizational change between roles in a software engineering organization and to identify factors that contribute to these differences. The result of a survey (N=51) confirmed that there were significant differences, and that the software developers had a more positive attitude towards change and had deeper knowledge about the intended outcome compared to the line managers. The result of in-depth interviews (N=11) revealed that the software engineers evaluate the planned change in relation to the norms, values and standards of their peer group, meaning that an employee will have a positive attitude towards a change if its result is likely to make, or has made, it easier for him/her to uphold the peer group’s norms and values.

  • 279. Lenberg, Per
    et al.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wallgren, Lars Goran
    Behavioral software engineering: A definition and systematic literature review2015In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 107, p. 15-37Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout the history of software engineering, the human aspects have repeatedly been recognized as important. Even though research that investigates them has been growing in the past decade, these aspects should be more generally considered. The main objective of this study is to clarify the research area concerned with human aspects of software engineering and to create a common platform for future research. In order to meet the objective, we propose a definition of the research area behavioral software engineering (BSE) and present results from a systematic literature review based ori the definition. The result indicates that there are knowledge gaps in the research area of behavioral software engineering and that earlier research has been focused on a few concepts, which have been applied to a limited number of software engineering areas. The individual studies have typically had a narrow perspective focusing on few concepts from a single unit of analysis. Further, the research has rarely been conducted in collaboration by researchers from both software engineering and social science. Altogether, this review can help put a broader set of human aspects higher on the agenda for future software engineering research and practice. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 280. Lenberg, Per
    et al.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wallgren, Lars Göran
    Human Factors Related Challenges in Software Engineering: An Industrial Perspective2015In: 2015 IEEE/ACM 8TH INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON COOPERATIVE AND HUMAN ASPECTS OF SOFTWARE ENGINEERING CHASE, IEEE Press, 2015, p. 43-49Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 281. Lenberg, Per
    et al.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wallgren, Lars-Göran
    Towards a Behavioral Software Engineering2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout the history of Software Engineering (SE) it has been repeatedly found that the humans involved, i.e. the engineers and developers in addition to other stakeholders, are a key factor in determining project outcomes and success. However, the amount of research that focuses on human aspects has been limited compared to research with technology or process focus. With increasing maturity of the field, interest in agile methods and a growing dissatisfaction with the continued challenges of developing high-quality software on time, the amount of SE research putting human aspect in primary focus has increased. In this paper we argue that a synthesized view of the emerging human-focused SE research is needed and can add value through giving focus, direction and help identify gaps. Taking cues from the addition of Behavioral Economics as an important part of the area of Economics we propose the term Behavioral Software Engineering (BSE) as an umbrella concept for research that focus on behavioral and social aspects in the work activities of software engineers. We propose that a model based on three units of analysis can give structure and point to concepts that are important for BSE. To add detail to this model we are conducting a systematic review to map out what is currently known. To exemplify the model and the area we here present the results from a subset of the identified concepts.

  • 282.
    Lenberg, Per
    et al.
    Chalmers, SWE.
    Wallgren Tengberg, Lars Göran
    Göteborgs Universitet, SWE.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    An initial analysis of software engineers’ attitudes towards organizational change2017In: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 2179-2205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Employees’ attitudes towards organizational change are a critical determinant in the change process. Researchers have therefore tried to determine what underlying concepts that affect them. These extensive efforts have resulted in the identification of several antecedents. However, no studies have been conducted in a software engineering context and the research has provided little information on the relative impact and importance of the identified concepts. In this study, we have combined results from previous social science research with results from software engineering research, and thereby identified three underlying concepts with an expected significant impact on software engineers’ attitudes towards organizational change, i.e. their knowledge about the intended change outcome, their understanding of the need for change, and their feelings of participation in the change process. The result of two separate multiple regression analysis, where we used industrial questionnaire data (N=56), showed that the attitude concept openness to change is predicted by all three concepts, while the attitude concept readiness for change is predicted by need for change and participation. Our research provides an empirical baseline to an important area of software engineering and the result can be a starting-point for future organizational change research. In addition, the proposed model prescribes practical directions for software engineering organizations to adopt in improving employees’ responses to change and, thus, increase the probability of a successful change.

  • 283.
    Leshob, Abderrahmane
    et al.
    University of Quebec at Montreal, CAN.
    Mili, Hafedh
    University of Quebec at Montreal, CAN.
    Gonzalez-Huerta, Javier
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Boubaker, Anis
    University of Quebec at Montreal, CAN.
    A value-oriented approach to business process specialization: Principles, proof-of-concept, and validation2017In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 127, p. 120-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations build information systems to support their business processes. Precise modeling of an organization's processes is a prerequisite for building information systems that support those processes. Our goal is to help business analysts produce detailed models of the business processes that best reflect the needs of their organizations. To this end, we propose to a) leverage the best practices in terms of a kernel of generic business processes, and b) provide analysts with tools to customize those processes by generating new process variants. We use business patterns from the Resource Event Agent ontology to identify variation points, and to codify the transformations inherent in the generation of the process variants. We developed a prototype process specialization tool using the Eclipse modeling ecosystem. We tested our approach on a set of processes from the Enterprise Resource Planning literature, and a set of variation points to assess the extent to which: 1) the identified variation points made sense, and 2) whether the generated variants made sense, from a business point of view. The results showed that 94.12% of the variation points made sense, and that 80.6% of the generated process variants corresponded to what the business process management specialists expected.

  • 284.
    Li, Junyang
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Xing, Xueer
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Evaluation of Test Data Generation Techniques for String Inputs2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. The effective generation of test data is regarded as very important in the software testing. However, mature and effective techniques for generating string test data have seldom been explored due to the complexity and flexibility in the expression form of the string comparing to other data types.

    Objectives. Based on this problem, this study is to investigate strengths and limitations of existing string test data generation techniques to support future work for exploring an effective technique to generate string test data. This main goal was achieved via two objectives. First is investigating existing techniques for string test data generation; as well as finding out criteria and Classes-Under-Test (CUTs) used for evaluating the ability of string test generation. Second is to assess representative techniques through comparing effectiveness and efficiency.

    Methods. For the first objective, we used a systematic mapping study to collect data about existing techniques, criteria, and CUTs. With respect to the second objective, a comparison study was conducted to compare representative techniques selected from the results of systematic mapping study. The data from comparison study was analysed in a quantitative way by using statistical methods.

    Results. The existing techniques, criteria and CUTs which are related to string test generation were identified. A multidimensional categorisation was proposed to classify existing string test data generation techniques. We selected representative techniques from the search-based method, symbolic execution method, and random generation method of categorisation. Meanwhile, corresponding automated test generation tools including EvoSuite, Symbolic PathFinder (SPF), and Randoop, which achieved representative techniques, were selected to assess through comparing effectiveness and efficiency when applied to 21 CUTs.

    Conclusions. We concluded that: search-based method has the highest effectiveness and efficiency in three selected solution methods; random generation method has a low efficiency, but has a high fault-detecting ability for some specific CUTs; symbolic execution solution achieved by SPF cannot support string test generation well currently due to possibly incomplete string constraint solver or string generator.

  • 285.
    Li, Wenguang
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Fan, Shuhan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    A Study of Elicitation Techniques in Market-Driven Requirements Engineering2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Compare with bespoke RE, market-driven requirements engineering (MDRE), has manyclassical requirements engineering activities of bespoke RE. Elicitation is one of these activities. Thisprocess is to capture, extract and obtain needs from stakeholders. And there are many techniques toguide MDRE elicitation, and some techniques for bespoke RE are also used in MDRE contextnowadays. However, not all of these techniques are suitable for MDRE due to the difference betweenMDRE and bespoke RE, for example, in MDRE context, there is no specific customers’ participation.Meanwhile, there is a lack of studies that compare elicitation techniques by evaluating theircompetence of mitigating MDRE challenges.

    Objectives. In this study, we investigate and collect techniques which can be used for MDREelicitation. We also identify challenges of MDRE elicitation practice from literature as evaluatingcriteria. Then, we evaluate elicitation techniques’ competence of mitigating these challenges. Finally,we discuss with some interviewees to validate our result with real-world MDRE context.

    Methods. We use literature review and snowball sampling to investigate and collect MDRE elicitationtechniques and challenges. Next, we summarize elicitation techniques’ advantages and limitationsfrom literature and compare these techniques by evaluating whether they can mitigate MDREchallenges we find. Next, we conduct interview with 8 interviewees who are practitioners or havedeveloping experience in order to find out and discuss the difference between academic and realworldMDRE.

    Results. We identify 6 elicitation techniques which can be used in MDRE to compare. We also collect6 challenges which may happen in MDRE elicitation process. We compare them by literature studyand interview with practitioners and find that although some interviewees’ opinions are similar withliterature, there are still many different cases we need to consider before choosing elicitationtechniques.

    Conclusions. In this research, we fill the gap that there is a lack of studies about the comparison ofelicitation techniques in MDRE context. We also find 4 factors which should be studied in-depth inthe future MDRE elicitation techniques research, and validate our result with practice and discuss thereason of differences. Our result can help requirements engineers to choose suitable elicitationtechniques in MDRE projects.

  • 286.
    Li, Xian
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Cao, Qian
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    A Comparative Study of Value in Agile Software Development Organizations2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Agile software development mainly focuses on value creation, and the first principle of theAgile Manifesto is to deliver a valuable software to customers. In spite of the great significance of value,there are few studies investigated what value is from the perspective of industry practitioners.

    Objectives. In this study we perform a replication study about value definitions, usage, andmeasurements in China and make a comparative analysis with the similar study did in Sweden. Theprimary objectives of this study are to: a) identify value aspects from Chinese software organizations;b) list and describe activities to achieve or maximize the value aspects, and also with the measurements;c) find the similarities and differences between China and Sweden.

    Methods. The data was collected by using the semi-structured interviews from 30 participants in 20Chinese agile software development organizations. We utilized the content analysis and the Statisticsmethods to analyze the 30 data points.

    Results. The participants identified 18 value aspects and prioritized them, and the value aspects wereanalyzed by domains and roles. The three most important value aspects are the Delivery process w.r.t.time, Organization, and Team members; different domain focused on different value aspects; the projectmanager concerned more about the Delivery process w.r.t. time, Organization, and Team members,while the product owners focused more on Customer satisfaction. Then, we list and described theactivities to achieve or maximize the value aspects, described some methods and strategies tomeasure/assure/evaluate them. Most of the activities were related to agile practices and the mostactivities were used to achieve the Delivery process w.r.t. time. Finally, we presented the similaritiesand differences between those value results from China and Sweden, the most important difference isthat the Swedish participants put the Customer value perspective at the first place, while Chineseparticipants would like to balance the value between Customer and Internal Business.

    Conclusions. We concluded that: 1) the Chinese participants thought that the key success factor of asoftware product was to delivery it with high quality to customers on time; 2) the main activities toachieve value were related to agile practices, and some participants used some tools to assure projectprocess; 3) For better communications and collaborations between Chinese and Swedish softwarecompanies, we recommend: a) for Chinese companies, they need to i) concern more about Customerperspective than before; ii) understand the core concepts of agile methods and their using contexts forflexible application; iii) transfer from traditional organization architecture to project-based organizationarchitecture; b) for Swedish companies, they need to i) focus more on Internal business perspective; ii)use some tools and methods to achieve their value aspects; iii) find a suitable way to collaborate betweenagile teams and non-agile teams.

  • 287. Liebel, G.
    et al.
    Olaru, A.
    Lönn, H.
    Kaijser, H.
    Rajendran, S.
    Ingelsson, U.
    Berntsson Svensson, Richard
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Addressing model complexity in automotive system development: Selection of system model elements for allocation of requirements2016In: MODELSWARD 2016: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Model-Driven Engineering and Software Development / [ed] Pires L.F.,Desfray P.,Hammoudi S.,Selic B., 2016, p. 168-175Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern automotive embedded systems are developed by Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) together with multiple suppliers. A key problem for a supplier is to allocate an OEM’s requirements specification to their own subsystem design. This is a difficult manual task especially on complex systems and it requires expert knowledge about the system design. To address this problem, this paper presents a design science research to develop and evaluate a Requirements Allocation Assistant tool (RAA). The tool provides functionality to search through and filter requirements and system models to enable efficient requirements allocation even in the presence of complexity. RAA is built on top of the EATOP/Eclipse framework using EAST-ADL as system modelling language. The tool was evaluated and validated during a qualitative usability study with 17 engineers active in the Swedish automotive industry. Key findings are that searching is used to learn about a system, whereas filtering is used to narrow down a set of candidate elements of the system design. Engineers request further support in narrowing down a set of candidate elements and in checking that an allocation is correct.

  • 288.
    Lilja, Erik
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Rosander, William
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Lead time analysis for code changes in a large-scale telecom development environment: An Ericsson case study2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigate how lead time is affected during development of a large-scale telecom product. We

    collected raw data from the product’s Gerrit repository which were later processed with statistical analysis. When

    we analysed the various areas, we concluded that a method to divide the lead time into different sequences would be

    the preferred method. We therefore chose to analyse lead time for different parts of the development. We found that

    on average lead time is roughly 3,4 days for the areas we investigate. The results indicated that lead time for

    reviewing increases with the years. The results also indicated that the lead time decreases for developers as they

    become more familiar with the product however the overall lead time for implementation did not. This can be as

    developers switch tasks internally or decides to change employment. The results also indicated that there is no

    relation between the amount of submitted LOC and lead time.

  • 289.
    Liljegren, Alexander
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Franksson, Robin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Measuring a LoRa Network: Performance, Possibilities and Limitations2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main goal of this thesis is to highlight the various limitations that the LPWAN LoRa and by proxy other similar technologies currently suffers from to give further insight into how these limitations can affect implementations and products using such a network. The thesis will be supported by experiments that test how a LoRa network gets affected by different environmental attributes such as distance, height and surrounding area by measuring the signal strength, signal to noise ratio and any resulting packet loss. The experiments are conducted using a fully deployed LoRa network made up of a gateway and sensor available to the public.

    To successfully deploy a LoRa network one needs to have concrete information about how to set it up depending on different use cases as battery lifetime and a solid connection has to be kept in mind. We test the various performance aspects of a LoRa network including signal quality and packet loss at different communication ranges. In addition to that we also test different environments and investigate how these can impact the performance.

    The conclusions made in this thesis are that a LoRa network is limited in its use cases for smaller scale projects with low gateway elevation that still require a large distance. This is due to the obstruction of the signal quickly making it reach unusable levels at roughly 300m in a city and 600m in a forest. Making the line of sight free either by elevation of the hardware or by adapting to the terrain makes the network perform very well making the possibility for packet loss lower which in combination with the low duty cycle of the transmissions is needed as every packet lost is going to be very noticeable.

  • 290.
    Lin, Fangfei
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Chen, Hao
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Comparative Study of Requirements Traceability in Facing Requirements Change: Systematic Literature Study and Survey2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Requirements change commonly occurs during the software development lifecycle. Requirements traceability is one of the important techniques to support requirement change management and analysis, ensure quality and keep requirements consistent during development. We find that existing research mentioned various issues and challenges during practicing requirements traceability, and the practitioners show certain obstacles on the subject. Major existing work of the area focuses on requirements traceability processes, frameworks, and techniques to address certain issues accordingly. And we want to focus on and investigate the existing challenges to practice requirements traceability systematically.

    Method: We investigate the requirements traceability and its challenges through a systematic literature review (SLR) of various concepts and existing challenges of requirements traceability, and a survey of 7 Chinese small-and-medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). With 7 interviews, we studied different traceability practices and situations with the surveyed companies under the possible impact of requirement change, development processes, tools, and other factors. And then we conducted conventional qualitative content analysis to identify and classify the challenges in practicing requirements traceability.

    Results: With the systematic literature review, we classified 14 categories of academic identified challenges. Through the collected data of the survey, we identified and discussed 6 categories of the requirement traceability challenges, involving costs, tools, awareness, documentation, etc. And we compared and discussed the connections and differences of the survey results with the literature for validation of our survey results and possible extension to the existing work.

    Through research, we may help the practitioners to deal with requirements change with traceability practice better by recognizing and preventing the obstacles. Our research may provide researchers with more information on practical situations. And in the future, researchers may study the traceability models more effectively aiming at addressing the existing problems.

  • 291.
    Lindblom, William
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Johnsson, Jesper
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    The Effects of Parallelizing Builds in Continuous Integration Software2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Quick feedback in regards to build times is important in Continuous Integration. If builds become too long, it can hurt the rate of software development. There are multiple methods to reduce build times. One commonly suggested method is to parallelize builds.

    This thesis aims to investigate the effects of parallelizing builds in Continuous Integration software and provide support for whether parallelizing is a good way of reducing build times or not.

    We conducted an experiment consisting of running tests on different Continuous Integration software with different configurations. These configurations changed how many tests were executed and how many parallel build agents were used. The aspects that were observed and analyzed was how build time, average CPU usage and CPU time were affected.

    What we found was that parallelizing a Continuous Integration build drastically improves build time, while RAM usage and CPU time remains similar. This entails that there are no major consequences to parallelizing other than utilizing more threads and therefore using more of the available CPU resources.

  • 292.
    Linåker, Johan
    et al.
    Lund universitet, SWE.
    Munir, Hussan
    Lund universitet, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Mols, Carl Eric
    Sony Mobile, SWE.
    Motivating the contributions: An Open Innovation perspective on what to share as Open Source Software2018In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 135, p. 17-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Open Source Software (OSS) ecosystems have reshaped the ways how software-intensive firms develop products and deliver value to customers. However, firms still need support for strategic product planning in terms of what to develop internally and what to share as OSS. Existing models accurately capture commoditization in software business, but lack operational support to decide what contribution strategy to employ in terms of what and when to contribute. This study proposes a Contribution Acceptance Process (CAP) model from which firms can adopt contribution strategies that align with product strategies and planning. In a design science influenced case study executed at Sony Mobile, the CAP model was iteratively developed in close collaboration with the firm's practitioners. The CAP model helps classify artifacts according to business impact and control complexity so firms may estimate and plan whether an artifact should be contributed or not. Further, an information meta-model is proposed that helps operationalize the CAP model at the organization. The CAP model provides an operational OI perspective on what firms involved in OSS ecosystems should share, by helping them motivate contributions through the creation of contribution strategies. The goal is to help maximize return on investment and sustain needed influence in OSS ecosystems. © 2017

  • 293.
    Linåker, Johan
    et al.
    Lund University, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Requirements Analysis and Management for Benefiting Openness (RAMBO)2016In: Proceedings - 2016 IEEE 24th International Requirements Engineering Conference Workshops, REW 2016, IEEE, 2016, p. 344-349Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Requirements Engineering has recently been greatly influenced by the way how firms use Open Source Software (OSS) and Software Ecosystems (SECOs) as a part of their product development and business models. This is further emphasized by the paradigm of Open Innovation, which highlights how firms should strive to use both internal and external resources to advance their internal innovation and technology capabilities. The evolution from market-driven requirements engineering and management processes, has reshaped the understanding of what a requirement is, and how it is documented and used. In this work, we suggest a model for analyzing and managing requirements that is designed in the context of OSS and SECOs, including the advances and challenges that it brings. The model clarifies how the main stages of requirements engineering and management processes can be adjusted to benefit from the openness that the new context offers. We believe that the model is a first step towards the inevitable adaptation of requirements engineering to an open and informal arena, where processes and collaboration are decentralized, transparency and governance are the key success factors.

  • 294.
    Liu, Di
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Zhai, Zhichao
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    An empirical study of Agile planning critical success factors2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. With the popularity of Agile methods, many studies about Agile software development has been done by researchers. Among the phases in Agile software projects, planning is critical because it provides an overview of the project and a guiding of future work. In addition, success factors are also mandatory to the success of Agile software development. The current literature focus on the success factors during the whole lifecycle rather than planning phase, and they don’t make an in-depth analysis on the factors. In this thesis, we perform an empirical study to deeply study the critical success factors at agile planning phase.

    Objectives. The main aim of our research is to identify the critical success factors at Agile planning phase and challenges associated with each factor. We list four objectives to support our main aim. First is to investigate the factors that are mandatory to the success of Agile software development at planning phase. Second is to investigate the challenges associated with each factor. Third is to find out the ways to address these challenges. The last is to identify the consequence of not ensuring these factors.

    Methods. We employed two research methods: systematic mapping and survey. Systematic mapping is used to identify the critical success factors of entire lifecycle in current literature. To find critical success factors at agile planning phase and make in-depth analysis, we conducted a survey based on an online questionnaire. The online questionnaire was consisted of open-ended questions and was sent to respondents who have experience on Agile development.

    Results. Through systematic mapping, we identified 13 papers and 47 critical success factors for Agile software development. We also made a frequency analysis for these factors and they will be the effective evidence to support the results of survey. Through the survey, we identified 13 critical success factors at agile planning and made an in-depth analysis for these 13 factors. These 13 factors are divided into two categories: people factor (individual-level, team-level) and process factor. Through the contrastive analysis of mapping results and survey results, we found that 7 factors of survey results are same or similar with some factors shown in mapping. The other 6 factors of survey are first shown.

    Conclusions. The factors proposed in this thesis are proved that they are important to the success of the project at planning phase. Failure to consider these critical success factors may lead to inefficient planning and even result in the failure ofthe whole project. The challenges and corresponding solutions can help organizations well manage these critical success factors. In conclusion, these detailed descriptions of critical success factors can be used as a guideline to help people increase the chance of successfully developing software with high quality and low cost in practice. 

  • 295. Lokan, Chris
    et al.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Investigating the use of duration-based moving windows to improve software effort prediction: A replicated study2014In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 56, no 9, p. 1063-1075Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Most research in software effort estimation has not considered chronology when selecting projects for training and testing sets. A chronological split represents the use of a projects starting and completion dates, such that any model that estimates effort for a new project p only uses as training data projects that were completed prior to p's start. Four recent studies investigated the use of chronological splits, using moving windows wherein only the most recent projects completed prior to a projects starting date were used as training data. The first three studies (S1-S3) found some evidence in favor of using windows; they all defined window sizes as being fixed numbers of recent projects. In practice, we suggest that estimators think in terms of elapsed time rather than the size of the data set, when deciding which projects to include in a training set. In the fourth study (S4) we showed that the use of windows based on duration can also improve estimation accuracy. Objective: This papers contribution is to extend S4 using an additional dataset, and to also investigate the effect on accuracy when using moving windows of various durations. Method: Stepwise multivariate regression was used to build prediction models, using all available training data, and also using windows of various durations to select training data. Accuracy was compared based on absolute residuals and MREs; the Wilcoxon test was used to check statistical significances between results. Accuracy was also compared against estimates derived from windows containing fixed numbers of projects. Results: Neither fixed size nor fixed duration windows provided superior estimation accuracy in the new data set. Conclusions: Contrary to intuition, our results suggest that it is not always beneficial to exclude old data when estimating effort for new projects. When windows are helpful, windows based on duration are effective.

  • 296. Lucas, Gren
    et al.
    Torkar, Richard
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Robert, Feldt
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    The prospects of a quantitative measurement of agility: A validation study on an agile maturity model2015In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 107, p. 38-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agile development has now become a well-known approach to collaboration in professional work life. Both researchers and practitioners want validated tools to measure agility. This study sets out to validate an agile maturity measurement model with statistical tests and empirical data. First, a pretest was conducted as a case study including a survey and focus group. Second, the main study was conducted with 45 employees from two SAP customers in the US. We used internal consistency (by a Cronbach’s alpha) as the main measure for reliability and analyzed construct validity by exploratory principal factor analysis (PFA). The results suggest a new categorization of a subset of items existing in the tool and provides empirical support for these new groups of factors. However, we argue that more work is needed to reach the point where a maturity models with quantitative data can be said to validly measure agility, and even then, such a measurement still needs to include some deeper analysis with cultural and contextual items.

  • 297.
    Madala, Anvitha
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Reasons behind changing of sourcing strategies in software organizations: in India2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context Global Software Development plays a crucial role in the growthof software organizations. It gives a way to global sourcing, which involvescongregation of knowledge forces from all over the world to work for thecompletion of software projects with benefits. Most of the organizations usesourcing strategies to connect with other organizations in order to form aprocess for the work. The document incorporates the types of organizationsinvolved in this practice. The sourcing specifications vary from those of thesoftware organizations when compared to the others. The sourcing strategieshave some criteria for their selection but the existing literature doesnot reflect the change of sourcing strategy. This forms a research gap whichfocuses on the reasons behind the change of sourcing strategies, particularlyin software organizations. When considering this, it varies from one locationto other. Taking this into account, India is chosen as it is one of thedeveloping countries globally.Objectives The main objective of this research is to investigate the reasonsbehind the change of sourcing strategies in the present software organizationswhich are located in India. This information should act as a primarysource of information which acts as a reference for selecting the sourcingstrategy based on reasons behind changing sourcing strategies.Methods In this research, mixed method approach is used. Through thisapproach both the criteria that are qualitative and quantitative data is obtained.At first for the literature review, the systematic mapping is usedto scrutinize the available information within the topic area. Secondly, thesurvey is done to gain the input at present from software organizations inIndia and finally, the interviews (India) are conducted to validate the resultsobtained from both the above mentioned methods. Further, for thesampling of the data from research, the convenience sampling is used. Theanalysis of qualitative data is done using the thematic analysis method andfor quantitative data, the descriptive statistics is used.Results The general reasons for the change of sourcing strategies implementedby software organizations are obtained from literature and also thestate of practice in India is retrieved through surveys. Also the final primarysource of information,a checklist of reasons behind the change of sourcingstrategies in India are documented.Conclusions The main objectives of the research are answered. The generalreasons are obtained by studying the state of art. State of practice also liststhe upcoming reasons caused due to recent changes in software organizationsin India. The primary source of information which are reasons behindthe change of sourcing strategies are mentioned with each particular sourcingstrategy segregating them in both technical and non-technical reasons inIndia. So that, it will act as a checklist for practitioners, apart from havingthe criteria of selection, this checklist based on reasons behind changing thesourcing strategies in India will help them to select the sourcing strategyand understand the reasons which will lead to run the process smoothly.

  • 298.
    Maddila, Kalyan Chakravarthy
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Potential metrics for Agile and Lean: Systematic Literature Review and Survey2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Despite continuously increasing importance of Agile and Lean in software development, the number of studies that investigate on use of metrics relevant to Agile or Lean are limited and yet few studies implements was unclear. Unclear is which are the prominent metrics that are useful in industries, and their purpose of usage. Objectives: Main goal of this study is to find the metrics useful in Agile and Lean practicing industries; that are evaluated in industries by systematically identifying all the metrics from empirical evidence found in Literature as well as verifying which of them are prominently being used in industries. In addition, the purpose of using these metrics in industries are reported, and causes for dissatisfaction on use of some of the identified metrics among surveyed companies are investigated and reported. Methods: Two research methodologies are used; Systematic Literature Review (SLR) and Industrial Survey. SLR is performed using snowballing as search approach to select primary studies. SLR is used to identify all the metrics that are useful for Agile and Lean software development. Rigor and relevance analysis is performed to assess the quality of the resulted primary studies. Industrial survey was conducted in order to verify and extend the empirical evidence exists in Literature regarding metrics by finding which of them are more prominently being used. Moreover causes for dissatisfaction over outcome of metrics use for process improvements were observed by performing comparative analysis between unsatisfied respondents results and satisfied respondents results. Results: In total 20 metrics were identified from the studies having high rigor and high relevance. Moreover 11 out of these 20 metrics were identified to be prominently being used in industries using survey and other 9 metrics are found useful for Agile or Lean methods but need more awareness. Evidence from both SLR and survey shows that most of these identified or potential metrics are used for time associated purposes which are predictability, tracking, forecasting or planning, and very little evidence found for metrics that are being used directly for quality purpose. It was observed that some of the surveyed respondents who answered not satisfied with the metrics being used are not aware of the potential benefits these metrics can offer in Agile or Lean settings. Conclusion: Evidence from both SLR and survey shows that the identified 20 metrics are very important and useful for Agile or Lean methods. 11 out of these 20 metrics are prominently being used by industries and evidence shows for other 9 metrics are also useful for Agile but needs more awareness for industries to realize their potential benefits in large scale. Also, more evidence is found for metrics that are used for time related purposes which are being dominant and important in industries than quality focused metrics. Therefore, it is important for industries not only to know which metrics are appropriate for Agile or Lean but also to have a deep understating of metrics behaviors. This will help to realize the level predictability these metric’s offer in order to make right assumptions or planning.

  • 299.
    Madeyski, Lech
    et al.
    Wrocław University of Science and Technology, POL.
    Kitchenham, Barbara Ann
    Keele University, GBR.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Introduction to the special section on Enhancing Credibility of Empirical Software Engineering2018In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 99, p. 118-119Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 300. Madeyski, Lech
    et al.
    Orzeszyna, Wojciech
    Torkar, Richard
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Józala, Mariusz
    Overcoming the equivalent mutant problem: A systematic literature review and a comparative experiment of second order mutation2014In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 23-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. The equivalent mutant problem (EMP) is one of the crucial problems in mutation testing widely studied over decades. Objectives. The objectives are: to present a systematic literature review (SLR) in the field of EMP; to identify, classify and improve the existing, or implement new, methods which try to overcome EMP and evaluate them. Method. We performed SLR based on the search of digital libraries. We implemented four second order mutation (SOM) strategies, in addition to first order mutation (FOM), and compared them from different perspectives. Results. Our SLR identified 17 relevant techniques (in 22 articles) and three categories of techniques: detecting (DEM); suggesting (SEM); and avoiding equivalent mutant generation (AEMG). The experiment indicated that SOM in general and JudyDiffOp strategy in particular provide the best results in the following areas: total number of mutants generated; the association between the type of mutation strategy and whether the generated mutants were equivalent or not; the number of not killed mutants; mutation testing time; time needed for manual classification. Conclusions. The results in the DEM category are still far from perfect. Thus, the SEM and AEMG categories have been developed. The JudyDiffOp algorithm achieved good results in many areas.

3456789 251 - 300 of 590
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf