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  • 301.
    Miljak, Jozef
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    An experimental study on which anti-reverse engineering technique are the most effective to protect your software from reversers2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 302.
    Min, Yuhao
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Cai, Shengcong
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Comparing Different Approaches of GUI Testing for Mobile Applications on Android Platform2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background. With the development and popularization of mobile Internet, smartphones are becoming more and more popular. Android is one of the most popular platforms of smartphones.  And application is one of the most important part of a smartphone. There are a lot of money and human resources spent on Android application development every year. And quiet a big part of them goes to quality assurance of applications. Graphic user interface (GUI) testing is one important part of its quality assurance. Android phones use touch screen as the major I/O method. Therefore, GUI testing on android platform shall be different to conventional software applications that are designed to run on desktop environment.

    Objectives. The aim of this research is to assess the performance of two GUI testing approaches (2nd vs 3rd generation) of automated UI testing in terms of testing Android applications. By assessing these approaches, we could hopefully get insights of their advantages and limitations for using them in the context of Android development. And this aim can be divided into three objectives, to compare the time spent on implementing test cases of each tool, to compare the time costed when executing test cases of each tool, to compare the number of defects found by each tool.

    Methods. The research methodology we chose is controlled experiment. We have chosen UI Automator and Appium to represent 2nd generation GUI testing approach, EyeAutomate and SikuliX to represent 3rd generation GUI testing approach. We used each tool to implement and execute 120 test cases to compare them on the time spent on implementing test cases of each tool, the time costed when executing test cases of each tool, the number of real defects found by each tool, and the number of false positives found by each tool.

    Results. Tools using 3rd generation GUI testing approach take less time to implement test cases than tools using 2nd generation GUI testing approach. And there is no specific pattern when comparing tools using 2nd and 3rd generation GUI testing approaches in terms of time cost on executing test cases. It is different between different test cases. Besides false positive alerts appear at a much higher frequency in tools using 3rd generation GUI testing approach than tools using 2nd generation GUI testing approach. While, real defects found by each tool are the same.

    Conclusions. 3rd generation GUI testing approach is more efficient in terms of implementing test cases than 2nd generation GUI testing approach. But 3rd generation GUI testing approach finds much more false positives than 2nd generation approach. To decide if a defect alert is false positive or not requires human effort. In a long term, it may accumulate huge lost on human efforts. Therefore, to maintain test cases, 3rd generation approach consumes lots of human efforts.

  • 303.
    Minhas, Nasir Mehmood
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Regression Testing Challenges and Solutions: An Industry-Academia Perspective2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Software quality assurance (QA) is an essential activity in the software development lifecycle. Among the different QA activities, regression testing is a challenging task for large-scale software development. Regression testing is a well-researched area, and a large number of techniques have been proposed to fulfill the needs of industry. Despite the extensive research, the adoption of proposed regression testing techniques in the industry is limited. Studies show that there is a visible gap between research and practice.

    Objective: This work aims at reducing the gap between industry and academia in regression testing. To fulfill this aim we have the following objectives:

    1) Understanding the practitioners' goals regarding regression testing.

    2) Understanding the current state of regression testing practice and challenges in the industry.

    3) Investigating the testing research applicable in an industrial context.

    Method: We conducted multiple studies using different methods.

    To explore the industry perspective on regression testing we used focus group and interview-based studies. To explore solutions from the literature, we used the systematic literature review and systematic mapping study.

    Results: This thesis presents the practitioners' specific regression testing goals. The identified goals are confidence, controlled fault slippage, effectiveness, efficiency, and customer satisfaction. The challenges identified in the thesis are of two categories, 1) management related challenges and 2) technical challenges. Technical challenges relate to test suite maintenance, test case selection, test case prioritization, evaluation of regression testing.

    We have mapped 26 empirically evaluated regression testing techniques to the context, effect, and information taxonomies, and provided a guide to the practitioners regarding the adoption of the techniques in an industrial setting. We have also classified 56 model-based test case generation techniques regarding their strengths/limitations, input/intermediate models used, and relevance to the industrial context.

    Conclusions: The challenges identified in this study are not new for research and practice. There could be two reasons regarding the presence of recurring challenges: 1) regression testing techniques proposed in the literature do not fit the companies’ context, 2) or, companies are not aware of the availability of the techniques that could be suitable for their context. To support the adoption of existing research on regression testing in the industry, we have presented three taxonomies. These taxonomies, allow the characterization of regression testing techniques and enable to determine which of these techniques might be suitable in a given context. Furthermore, the identification of information needs for these techniques would be helpful to learn the implications regarding the cost of adoption. Regarding the support in test case generation, we conclude that current research on interaction model-based test case generation techniques did not illustrate the use of rigorous methodology, and currently, model-based test case generation techniques have low relevance for the industrial problems.

  • 304.
    Minhas, Nasir Mehmood
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Masood, Sohaib
    UIIT PMAS Arid Agriculture University, PAK.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Nadeem, Aamer
    Capital University of Science and Technology, PAK.
    A Systematic Mapping of Test Case Generation Techniques Using UML Interaction Diagram2018In: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Testing plays a vital role for assuring software quality. Among the activities performed during testing process, test cases generation is a challenging and labor intensive task. Test case generation techniques based on UML models are getting the attention of researchers and practitioners. This study provides a systematic mapping of test case generation techniques based on interaction diagrams. The study compares the test case generation techniques, regarding their capabilities and limitations, and it also assesses the reporting quality of the primary studies. It has been revealed that UML interaction diagrams based techniques are mainly used for integration testing. The majority of the techniques are using sequence diagrams as input models, while some are using collaboration. A notable number of techniques are using interaction diagram along with some other UML diagram for test case generation. These techniques are mainly focusing on interaction, scenario, operational, concurrency, synchronization and deadlock related faults.

    From the results of this study, we can conclude that the studies presenting test case generation techniques using UML interaction diagrams failed to illustrate the use of rigorous methodology, and these techniques did not demonstrate the empirical evaluation in an industrial context. Our study revealed the need for tool support to facilitate the transfer of solutions to industry.

  • 305.
    Minhas, Nasir Mehmood
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Ali, Nauman bin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Regression testing goals: View of practitioners and researchers2017In: 24th Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference Workshops (APSECW), IEEE, 2017, p. 25-32Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Regression testing is a well-researched area. However, the majority regression testing techniques proposed by the researchers are not getting the attention of the practitioners. Communication gaps between industry and academia and disparity in the regression testing goals are the main reasons. Close collaboration can help in bridging the communication gaps and resolving the disparities.Objective: The study aims at exploring the views of academics and practitioners about the goals of regression testing. The purpose is to investigate the commonalities and differences in their viewpoints and defining some common goals for the success of regression testing.Method: We conducted a focus group study, with 7 testing experts from industry and academia. 4 testing practitioners from 2companies and 3 researchers from 2 universities participated in the study. We followed GQM approach, to elicit the regression testing goals, information needs, and measures.Results: 43 regression testing goals were identified by the participants, which were reduced to 10 on the basis of similarity among the identified goals. Later during the priority assignment process, 5 goals were discarded, because the priority assigned to these goals was very low. Participants identified 47 information needs/questions required to evaluate the success of regression testing with reference to goal G5 (confidence). Which were then reduced to10 on the basis of similarity. Finally, we identified measures to gauge those information needs/questions, which were corresponding to the goal (G5).Conclusions: We observed that participation level of practitioners and researchers during the elicitation of goals and questions was same. We found a certain level of agreement between the participants regarding the regression testing definitions and goals.But there was some level of disagreement regarding the priorities of the goals. We also identified the need to implement a regression testing evaluation framework in the participating companies.

  • 306.
    Minhas, Nasir Mehmood
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Regression testing for large-scale embedded software development: Exploring the state of practice2018Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: A majority of the regression testing techniques proposed by the research have not been adopted in industry. To increase adoption rates, we need to better understand the practitioners' perspectives on regression testing.

    Objective: This study aims at exploring the regression testing state of practice in the large-scale embedded software development. The study has two objectives, 1) to highlight the potential challenges in practice, and 2) to identify the industry-relevant research areas regarding regression testing.

    Method: We conducted a qualitative study in two large-scale embedded software development companies, where we carried out semi-structured interviews with representatives from five software testing teams. We did conduct the detailed review of the process documentation of the companies to complement/validate the findings of the interviews.

    Results: Mostly, the practitioners run regression testing with a selected scope, the selection of scope depends upon the size, complexity, and location of the change. Test cases are prioritized on the basis of risk and critical functionality. The practitioners rely on their knowledge and experience for the decision making regarding selection and prioritization of test cases.The companies are using both automated and manual regression testing, and mainly they rely on in-house developed tools for test automation. The challenges identified in the companies are: time to test, information management, test suite maintenance, lack of communication, test selection/prioritization, lack of assessment, etc. The proposed improvements are in line with the identified challenges. Regression testing goals identified in this study are customer satisfaction, critical defect detection, confidence, effectiveness, efficiency, and controlled slip through of faults.

    Conclusions: Considering the current state of practice and identified challenges we conclude that there is a need to reconsider the regression test strategy in the companies. Researchers need to analyze the industry perspective while proposing new regression testing techniques. The industry-academia collaboration projects would be a good platform in this regard.

  • 307.
    Moe, Nils Brede
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Hanssen, Geir Kjetil
    Barney, Hamish
    From offshore outsourcing to insourcing and partnerships: four failed outsourcing attempts2014In: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 1225-1258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most large software companies are involved in offshore development, now small and medium-sized companies are starting to undertake global sourcing too. Empirical research suggests that offshoring is not always successful; however, only a few comprehensive failure stories have been reported. The objective of our study has been to understand why small and medium-sized companies terminate their offshore outsourcing relationships and what alternative arrangements they undertake afterwards. Therefore, we designed a multiple case study of four medium-sized Scandinavian software companies that have terminated their offshore outsourcing relationships. Our results are based on data collected through semi-structured interviews, informal dialogues and analysis of company documents. We found that all companies terminated their offshore contracts because of low quality of the software being developed. This was caused by an inability to build the necessary human and social capital. The companies reported challenges with domain knowledge, a lack of commitment of external developers, cultural clashes, poor communication and high turnover, which only amplified the problems. After termination all four companies changed their sourcing strategy from offshore outsourcing to offshore insourcing and partnerships. We conclude that successful offshore software development requires a change from a cost-driven focus to an intellectual capital driven focus. To prevent continuous investments into contracts that are destined to fail, companies should look for signs of escalating commitments and terminate relationships that cannot be corrected. Those companies that choose outsourcing shall also take into account that mismatch between the size of the offshore contract relative to the vendor may have a negative effect on a relationship.

  • 308.
    Moe, Nils Brede
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Šāblis, Aivars
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Börjesson, Anne-Lie
    Andréasson, Pia
    Networking in a Large-Scale Distributed Agile Project2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: In large-scale distributed software projects the expertise may be scattered across multiple locations. Goal: We describe and discuss a large-scale distributed agile project at Ericsson, a multinational telecommunications company headquartered in Sweden. The project is distributed across four development locations (one in Sweden, one in Korea and two in China) and employs 17 teams. In such a large scale environment the challenge is to have as few dependences between teams as possible, which is one reason why Ericsson introduced crossfunctional feature teams – teams that are capable of taking the full responsibility for implementing one entire feature. To support such teams when solving problems, ensure knowledge sharing within the project and safeguard the quality Ericsson introduced a new role – Technical Area Responsible (TAR). Method: We conducted extensive fieldwork for 9 months at two Ericsson sites in Sweden and China. We interviewed representatives from different roles in the organization, in addition to focus groups and a survey with seven teams. Results: We describe the TAR role, and how the TARs communicate, coordinate and support the teams. Also architects support the teams, however not as closely as the TARs. We found that the TAR is usually a senior developer working halftime or fulltime in the role. We also present measures of the actual knowledge network of three Chinese and three Swedish teams and the TARs position in it. Conclusions: TARs are central in the knowledge network and act as the boundary spanners between the teams and between the sites. We learned that availability of the TARs across sites is lower than that with local TARs. We also found that the size of a team’s knowledge network depends on how long the team members have been working in the company. Finally we discuss the advantages and the challenges of introducing experts in key roles in large scale distributed agile development.

  • 309.
    MOGENSEN, JOHN
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    OPIJAC, DINO
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Improving response times over the HTTP-protocol: A comparative study of response times2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 310.
    Mohammadi Kho'i, Felix
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Jahid, Jawed
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Comparing Native and Hybrid Applications with focus on Features2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays smartphones and smartphone-applications are a part of our daily life. There are variety of different operating systems in the market that are unalike, which are an obstacle to developers when it comes to developing a single application for different operating system. Furthermore, hybrid application development has become a potential substitute. The evolution of new hybrid approach has made companies consider hybrid approach as a viable alternative when producing mobile applications. This research paper aims to compare native and hybrid application development on a feature level to provide scientific evidence for researchers and companies choosing application development approach as well as providing vital information about both native and hybrid applications.This study is based on both a literature study and an empirical study. The sources used are Summon@BTH, Google Scholar and IEEE Xplore. To select relevant articles, the Snowballing approach was used, with Inclusion and Exclusion criteria’s.The authors concluded that native development is a better way to develop more advanced applications which uses more device-hardware, while hybrid is a perfectly viable choice when developing content-centric applications.

  • 311.
    Molléri, Jefferson Seide
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Views of Research Quality in Empirical Software Engineering2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Software Engineering (SE) research, like other applied disciplines, intends to provide trustful evidence to practice. To ensure trustful evidence, a rigorous research process based on sound research methodologies is required. Further, to be practically relevant, researchers rely on identifying original research problems that are of interest to industry; and the research must fulfill various quality standards that form the basis for the evaluation of the empirical research in SE. A dialogue and shared view of quality standards for research practice is still to be achieved within the research community.

     Objectives. The main objective of this thesis is to foster dialogue and capture different views of SE researchers on method level (e.g., through the identification and reasoning on the importance of quality characteristics for experiments, surveys and case studies) as well as general quality standards for Empirical Software Engineering (ESE). Given the views of research quality, a second objective is to understand how to operationalize, i.e. build and validate instruments to assess research quality. 

    Method. The thesis makes use of a mixed method approach of both qualitative and quantitative nature. The research methods used were case studies, surveys, and focus groups. A range of data collection methods has been employed, such as literature review, questionnaires, and semi-structured workshops. To analyze the data, we utilized content and thematic analysis, descriptive and inferential statistics.

    Results. We draw two distinct views of research quality. Through a top-down approach, we assessed and evolved a conceptual model of research quality within the ESE research community. Through a bottom-up approach, we built a checklist instrument for assessing survey-based research grounded on supporting literature and evaluated ours and others’ checklists in research practice and research education contexts.

    Conclusion. The quality standards we identified and operationalized support and extend the current understanding of research quality for SE research. This is a preliminary, but still vital, step towards a shared understanding and view of research quality for ESE research. Further steps are needed to gain a shared understanding of research quality within the community. 

  • 312.
    Molléri, Jefferson Seide
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Ali, Nauman bin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Minhas, Tahir Nawaz
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Teaching students critical appraisal of scientific literature using checklists2018In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Association for Computing Machinery , 2018, p. 8-17Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Teaching students to critically appraise scientific literature is an important goal for a postgraduate research methods course. Objective: To investigate the application of checklists for assessing the scientific rigor of empirical studies support students in reviewing case study research and experiments. Methods:We employed an experimental design where 76 students (in pairs) used two checklists to evaluate two papers (reporting a case study and an experiment) each. We compared the students' assessments against ratings from more senior researchers. We also collected data on students' perception of using the checklists. Results: The consistency of students' ratings and the accuracy when compared to ratings from seniors varied. A factor seemed to be that the clearer the reporting, the easier it is for students to judge the quality of studies. Students perceived checklist items related to data analysis as difficult to assess. Conclusion: As expected, this study reinforces the needs for clear reporting, as it is important that authors write to enable synthesis and quality assessment. With clearer reporting, the novices performed well in assessing the quality of the empirical work, which supports its continued use in the course as means for introducing scientific reviews. © 2018 Association for Computing Machinery.

  • 313.
    Molléri, Jefferson Seide
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Benitti, Fabiane Barreto Vavassori
    SESRA: a web-based automated tool to support the systematic literature review process2015In: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering, ACM Digital Library, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 314.
    Molléri, Jefferson Seide
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Felderer, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Reasoning about Research Quality Alignment in Software EngineeringIn: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Research quality is intended to assess the design and reporting of studies. It comprises a series of concepts such as methodological rigor, practical relevance, and conformance to ethical standards. Depending on the perspective, different views of importance are given to the conceptual dimensions of research quality.

    Objective: We aim to better understand what constitutes research quality from the perspective of the empirical software engineering community. In particular, we intend to assess the level of alignment between researchers with regard to a conceptual model of research quality.

    Method: We conducted a mixed methods approach comprising an internal case study and a complementary focus group. We carried out a hierarchical voting prioritization based on the conceptual model to collect relative values for importance. In the focus group, we also moderate discussions with experts to address potential misalignment.

    Results: We provide levels of alignment with regard to the importance of quality dimensions in the view of the participants. Moreover, the conceptual model fairly expresses the quality of research but has limitations with regards the structure and description of its components.

    Conclusion: Based on the results, we revised the conceptual model and provided an updated version adjusted to the context of empirical software engineering research. We also discussed how to assess quality alignment in research using our approach, and how to use the revised model of quality to characterize an assessment instrument.

  • 315.
    Molléri, Jefferson Seide
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gonzalez-Huerta, Javier
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Henningsson, Kennet
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    A legacy game for project management in software engineering courses2018In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Association for Computing Machinery , 2018, p. 72-76Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Software project management courses are becoming popular for teaching software engineering process models and methods. However, in order to be effective, this approach should be properly aligned to the learning outcomes. Common misalignments are caused by using a correct degree of realism or an appropriate instruction level. Objective: To foster students to acquire knowledge (theoretical and practical) that enables them solving similar challenges to the ones they will face in real-world software projects. Methods: We prototype and validate a legacy game that simulates the software development process. Students are required to plan and manage a software project according to its specification provided by the teachers. Teachers act as both customers and moderators, presenting the challenges and guiding the students' teamwork. Results: Both students' and teachers' perception suggest that the proposed game has potential to motivate the knowledge acquisition through problem-solving. The feedback also suggests that some measures must be taken to ensure the pedagogical alignment and a fair game. Conclusion: The lessons learned provide suggestions for adopting this or similar games in the context of project courses. As further work, we plan to describe and extend the game rules based on the results of this application. © 2018 Association for Computing Machinery.

  • 316.
    Molléri, Jefferson Seide
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    An Empirically Evaluated Checklist for Surveys in Software EngineeringIn: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Over the past decade Software Engineering research has seen a steady increase in survey-based studies, and there are several guidelines providing support for those willing to carry out surveys. The need for auditing survey research has been raised in the literature. Checklists have been used to assess different types of empirical studies, such as experiments and case studies.

    Objective: This paper proposes a checklist to support the design and assessment of survey-based research in software engineering grounded in existing guidelines for survey research. We further evaluated the checklist in the research practice context.

    Method: To construct the checklist, we systematically aggregated knowledge from 12 methodological studies supporting survey-based research in software engineering. We identified the key stages of the survey process and its recommended practices through thematic analysis and vote counting. To improve our initially designed checklist we evaluated it using a mixed evaluation approach involving experienced researchers.

    Results: The evaluation provided insights regarding the limitations of the checklist in relation to its understanding and objectivity. In particular, 19 of the 38 checklist items were improved according to the feedback received from its evaluation. Finally, a discussion on how to use the checklist and what its implications are for research practice is also provided.

    Conclusion: The proposed checklist is an instrument suitable for auditing survey reports as well as a support tool to guide ongoing research with regard to the survey design process.

  • 317.
    Molléri, Jefferson Seide
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    CERSE - Catalog for empirical research in software engineering: A Systematic mapping study2019In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 105, p. 117-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context Empirical research in software engineering contributes towards developing scientific knowledge in this field, which in turn is relevant to inform decision-making in industry. A number of empirical studies have been carried out to date in software engineering, and the need for guidelines for conducting and evaluating such research has been stressed. Objective: The main goal of this mapping study is to identify and summarize the body of knowledge on research guidelines, assessment instruments and knowledge organization systems on how to conduct and evaluate empirical research in software engineering. Method: A systematic mapping study employing manual search and snowballing techniques was carried out to identify the suitable papers. To build up the catalog, we extracted and categorized information provided by the identified papers. Results: The mapping study comprises a list of 341 methodological papers, classified according to research methods, research phases covered, and type of instrument provided. Later, we derived a brief explanatory review of the instruments provided for each of the research methods. Conclusion: We provide: an aggregated body of knowledge on the state of the art relating to guidelines, assessment instruments and knowledge organization systems for carrying out empirical software engineering research; an exemplary usage scenario that can be used to guide those carrying out such studies is also provided. Finally, we discuss the catalog's implications for research practice and the needs for further research. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.

  • 318.
    Molléri, Jefferson Seide
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Towards understanding the relation between citations and research quality in software engineering studies2018In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of achieving high quality in research practice has been highlighted in different disciplines. At the same time, citations are utilized to measure the impact of academic researchers and institutions. One open question is whether the quality in the reporting of research is related to scientific impact, which would be desired. In this exploratory study we aim to: (1) Investigate how consistently a scoring rubric for rigor and relevance has been used to assess research quality of software engineering studies; (2) Explore the relationship between rigor, relevance and citation count. Through backward snowball sampling we identified 718 primary studies assessed through the scoring rubric. We utilized cluster analysis and conditional inference tree to explore the relationship between quality in the reporting of research (represented by rigor and relevance) and scientiometrics (represented by normalized citations). The results show that only rigor is related to studies’ normalized citations. Besides that, confounding factors are likely to influence the number of citations. The results also suggest that the scoring rubric is not applied the same way by all studies, and one of the likely reasons is because it was found to be too abstract and in need to be further refined. Our findings could be used as a basis to further understand the relation between the quality in the reporting of research and scientific impact, and foster new discussions on how to fairly acknowledge studies for performing well with respect to the emphasized research quality. Furthermore, we highlighted the need to further improve the scoring rubric. © 2018, The Author(s).

  • 319.
    Mols, Carl-Eric
    et al.
    Sony Mobile, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Charting the market disruptive nature of open source: Experiences from sony mobile2017In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2017 IEEE/ACM 39TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING COMPANION (ICSE-C 2017), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, p. 175-176Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Open Source Software (OSS) has substantial impact on how software-intensive firms develop products and deliver value to the customers. These companies need both strategic and operational support on how to adapt OSS as a part of their products and how to adjust processes and organizations to increase the benefits from OSS participation. This work presents the key insights from the journey that Sony Mobile has made from a company developing proprietary software to a respected member of OSS communities. We framed the experiences into an Open Source Maturity Model that includes two scenarios: engineering-driven and business-driven open source. We outline the most important decisions, roles, processes and implications. © 2017 IEEE.

  • 320.
    Mols, Carl-Eric
    et al.
    Sony Mobile, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Linåker, Johan
    Lunds Universitet, SWE.
    The open source officer role – experiences2017In: IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, Springer-Verlag New York, 2017, Vol. 496, p. 55-59Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This papers describe the Open Source Officer role and the experiences from introducing this role in several companies. We outline the role description, main responsibilities, and interfaces to other roles and organizations. We investigated the role in several organization and bring interesting discrepancies and overlaps of how companies operate with OSS. © The Author(s) 2017.

  • 321.
    Moraes, Ana Luiza Dallora
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Eivazzadeh, Shahryar
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Health.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Berglund, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Health.
    Anderberg, Peter
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Health.
    Machine learning and microsimulation techniques on the prognosis of dementia: A systematic literature review2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 6, article id e0179804Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Dementia is a complex disorder characterized by poor outcomes for the patients and high costs of care. After decades of research little is known about its mechanisms. Having prognostic estimates about dementia can help researchers, patients and public entities in dealing with this disorder. Thus, health data, machine learning and microsimulation techniques could be employed in developing prognostic estimates for dementia. Objective The goal of this paper is to present evidence on the state of the art of studies investigating and the prognosis of dementia using machine learning and microsimulation techniques. Method To achieve our goal we carried out a systematic literature review, in which three large databases -Pubmed, Socups and Web of Science were searched to select studies that employed machine learning or microsimulation techniques for the prognosis of dementia. A single backward snowballing was done to identify further studies. A quality checklist was also employed to assess the quality of the evidence presented by the selected studies, and low quality studies were removed. Finally, data from the final set of studies were extracted in summary tables. Results In total 37 papers were included. The data summary results showed that the current research is focused on the investigation of the patients with mild cognitive impairment that will evolve to Alzheimer's disease, using machine learning techniques. Microsimulation studies were concerned with cost estimation and had a populational focus. Neuroimaging was the most commonly used variable. Conclusions Prediction of conversion from MCI to AD is the dominant theme in the selected studies. Most studies used ML techniques on Neuroimaging data. Only a few data sources have been recruited by most studies and the ADNI database is the one most commonly used. Only two studies have investigated the prediction of epidemiological aspects of Dementia using either ML or MS techniques. Finally, care should be taken when interpreting the reported accuracy of ML techniques, given studies' different contexts. © 2017 Dallora et al.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  • 322.
    Motyka, Mikael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Impact of Usability for Particle Accelerator Software Tools Analyzing Availability and Reliability2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of considering usability when developing software is widely recognized in literature. This non-functional system aspect focuses on the ease, effectiveness and efficiency of handling a system. However, usability cannot be defined as a specific system aspect since it depends on the field of application. In this work, the impact of usability for accelerator tools targeting availability and reliability analysis is investigated by further developing the already existing software tool Availsim. The tool, although proven to be unique by accounting for special accelerator complexities not possible to model with commercial software, is not used across facilities due to constraints caused by previous modifications. The study was conducted in collaboration with the European Spallation Source ERIC, a multidisciplinary research center based on the world’s most powerful neutron source, currently being built in Lund, Sweden. The work was conducted in the safety group within the accelerator division, where the availability and reliability studies were performed. Design Science Research was used as research methodology to answer how the proposed tool can help improving the usability for the analysis domain, along with to identify existing usability issues in the field. To obtain an overview of the current field, three questionnaires were sent out and one interview was conducted, listing important properties to consider for the tool to be developed along with how usability is perceived in the accelerator field of analysis. The developed software tool was evaluated with After Scenario Questionnaire and the System Usability Scale, two standardized ways of measuring usability along with custom made statements, explicitly targeting important attributes found when questioning the researchers. The result highlighted issues in the current field, listing multiple tools used for the analysis along with their positive and negative aspects, indicating a lengthy and tedious process in obtaining the required analysis results. It was also found that the adapted Availsim version improves usability of the previous versions, listing specific attributes that could be identified as correlating to the improved usability, fulfilling the purpose of the study. However, results indicate existing commercial tools obtained higher scores regarding the standardized tests targeting usability compared to the new Availsim version, pointing towards room for improvements.

  • 323.
    Mourao, Erica
    et al.
    Fluminense Fed Univ, BRA.
    Kalinowski, Marcos
    Pontifical Catholic Univ Rio de Janeiro PUC Rio, BRA.
    Murta, Leonardo
    Fluminense Fed Univ, BRA.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering. Blekinge Inst Technol, Karlskrona, Sweden..
    Investigating the Use of a Hybrid Search Strategy for Systematic Reviews2017In: 11TH ACM/IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON EMPIRICAL SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AND MEASUREMENT (ESEM 2017), IEEE , 2017, p. 193-198Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [Background] Systematic Literature Reviews (SLRs) are one of the important pillars when employing an evidence-based paradigm in Software Engineering. To date most SLRs have been conducted using a search strategy involving several digital libraries. However, significant issues have been reported for digital libraries and applying such search strategy requires substantial effort. On the other hand, snowballing has recently arisen as a potentially more efficient alternative or complementary solution. Nevertheless, it requires a relevant seed set of papers. [Aims] This paper proposes and evaluates a hybrid search strategy combining searching in a specific digital library (Scopus) with backward and forward snowballing. [Method] The proposed hybrid strategy was applied to two previously published SLRs that adopted database searches. We investigate whether it is able to retrieve the same included papers with lower effort in terms of the number of analysed papers. The two selected SLRs relate respectively to elicitation techniques (not confined to Software Engineering (SE)) and to a specific SE topic on cost estimation. [Results] Our results provide preliminary support for the proposed hybrid search strategy as being suitable for SLRs investigating a specific research topic within the SE domain. Furthermore, it helps overcoming existing issues with using digital libraries in SE. [Conclusions] The hybrid search strategy provides competitive results, similar to using several digital libraries. However, further investigation is needed to evaluate the hybrid search strategy.

  • 324.
    Mudduluru, Pavan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Value Based Requirements Engineering: State-of-art and Survey2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 325.
    Munir, Husan
    et al.
    Lund University, SWE.
    Runeson, Per
    Lund University, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    A theory of openness for software engineering tools in software organizations2018In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 97, p. 26-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: The increased use of Open Source Software (OSS) affects how software-intensive product development organizations (SIPDO) innovate and compete, moving them towards Open Innovation (OI). Specifically, software engineering tools have the potential for OI, but require better understanding regarding what to develop internally and what to acquire from outside the organization, and how to cooperate with potential competitors. Aim: This paper aims at synthesizing a theory of openness for software engineering tools in SIPDOs, that can be utilized by managers in defining more efficient strategies towards OSS communities. Method: We synthesize empirical evidence from a systematic mapping study, a case study, and a survey, using a narrative method. The synthesis method entails four steps: (1) Developing a preliminary synthesis, (2) Exploring the relationship between studies, (3) Assessing the validity of the synthesis, and (4) Theory formation. Result: We present a theory of openness for OSS tools in software engineering in relation to four constructs: (1) Strategy, (2) Triggers, (3) Outcomes, and (4) Level of openness. Conclusion: The theory reasons that openness provides opportunities to reduce the development cost and development time. Furthermore, OI positively impacts on the process and product innovation, but it requires investment by organizations in OSS communities. By betting on openness, organizations may be able to significantly increase their competitiveness. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

  • 326.
    Munir, Hussan
    et al.
    Lunds universitet, SWE.
    Linåker, Johan
    Lunds universitet, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Runeson, Per E.R.
    Lunds universitet, SWE.
    Regnell, Björn
    Lunds universitet, SWE.
    Open innovation using open source tools: a case study at Sony Mobile2018In: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 186-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite growing interest of Open Innovation (OI) in Software Engineering (SE), little is known about what triggers software organizations to adopt it and how this affects SE practices. OI can be realized in numerous of ways, including Open Source Software (OSS) involvement. Outcomes from OI are not restricted to product innovation but also include process innovation, e.g. improved SE practices and methods. This study explores the involvement of a software organization (Sony Mobile) in OSS communities from an OI perspective and what SE practices (requirements engineering and testing) have been adapted in relation to OI. It also highlights the innovative outcomes resulting from OI. An exploratory embedded case study investigates how Sony Mobile use and contribute to Jenkins and Gerrit; the two central OSS tools in their continuous integration tool chain. Quantitative analysis was performed on change log data from source code repositories in order to identify the top contributors and triangulated with the results from five semi-structured interviews to explore the nature of the commits. The findings of the case study include five major themes: i) The process of opening up towards the tool communities correlates in time with a general adoption of OSS in the organization. ii) Assets not seen as competitive advantage nor a source of revenue are made open to OSS communities, and gradually, the organization turns more open. iii) The requirements engineering process towards the community is informal and based on engagement. iv) The need for systematic and automated testing is still in its infancy, but the needs are identified. v) The innovation outcomes included free features and maintenance, and were believed to increase speed and quality in development. Adopting OI was a result of a paradigm shift of moving from Windows to Linux. This shift enabled Sony Mobile to utilize the Jenkins and Gerrit communities to make their internal development process better for its software developers and testers. © 2017 The Author(s)

  • 327. Munir, Hussan
    et al.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Moayyed, Misagh
    An experimental evaluation of test driven development vs. test-last development with industry professionals2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Test-Driven Development (TDD) is a software development approach where test cases are written before actual development of the code in iterative cycles. Context: TDD has gained attention of many software practitioners during the last decade since it has contributed several benefits to the software development process. However, empirical evidence of its dominance in terms of internal code quality, external code quality and productivity is fairly limited. Objective: The aim behind conducting this controlled experiment with professional Java developers is to see the impact of Test-Driven Development (TDD) on internal code quality, external code quality and productivity compared to Test-Last Development (TLD). Results: Experiment results indicate that values found related to number of acceptance test cases passed, McCabe's Cyclomatic complexity, branch coverage, number of lines of code per person hours, number of user stories implemented per person hours are statistically insignificant. However, static code analysis results were found statistically significant in the favor of TDD. Moreover, the results of the survey revealed that the majority of developers in the experiment prefer TLD over TDD, given the lesser required level of learning curve as well as the minimum effort needed to understand and employ TLD compared to TDD.

  • 328.
    Murari, Bhanu Teja
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Impact of Internet of Things on Software Business Model and Software Industry2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Internet of things (IoT) technology is rapidly increasing and changes the business environment for a software organization. There is a need to understand what are important factors of business model should a software company focus on obtaining benefits from the potential that IoT offers. This thesis also focuses on finding the impact of IoT on software business model and software industry especially on software development.

    Objectives: In this thesis, we do research on IoT software business model and also software industry. The objectives of this research are included as follows:

    1. Summarize the current business models for IoT and to identify the important factor for IoT business models.

    2. Analyze the impact of IoT on software business models.

    3. Analyze the impact of IoT on Software development especially on requirement engineering.

    4. Provide recommendations how requirements engineering are connected to provide better support business modeling for IoT.

    Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review based on the guidelines suggested by Wohlin, to find the current business model for the IoT. Next, we designed and executed an industrial survey to explore the impact of IoT on a software business model and software development.The results of survey were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-square test of significance and Friedman test.

    Results: 21 peer reviewed papers were identified which were analyzed in relation to their rigor and relevance. From the literature reviews, results indicate 9 business model elements are being focused on the IoT business models. In addition to this 4 most important business model factors were identified. On the other hand, the industrial survey resulted from 56 survey responses, identified that value proposition is the most important element for the IoT business model. It was also observed that even the impact is high for the value proposition. Regarding the software development, customer demands is highly impactful and moreover, the results suggest that requirement management is highly impactful.

    Conclusions: The current software business models were found for the IoT industries. In additional the software business model elements which were majorly focused in the IoT industries were also identified and the most important factor which brings the value for IoT business models were also discussed. Furthermore the impact of IoT on software business model element and software development, especially on the requirement phase, was analyzed and discussed. This helps the practitioners to understand the impact of IoT on software business models and software industry and helps the organization to improve IoT business to its full potential.

  • 329.
    Musatoiu, Mihai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    An approach to choosing the right distributed file system: Microsoft DFS vs. Hadoop DFS2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. An important goal of most IT groups is to manage server resources in such a way that their users are provided with fast, reliable and secure access to files. The modern needs of organizations imply that resources are often distributed geographically, asking for new design solutions for the file systems to remain highly available and efficient. This is where distributed file systems (DFSs) come into the picture. A distributed file system (DFS), as opposed to a "classical", local, file system, is accessible across some kind of network and allows clients to access files remotely as if they were stored locally.

    Objectives. This paper has the goal of comparatively analyzing two distributed file systems, Microsoft DFS (MSDFS) and Hadoop DFS (HDFS). The two systems come from different "worlds" (proprietary - Microsoft DFS - vs. open-source - Hadoop DFS); the abundance of solutions and the variety of choices that exist today make such a comparison more relevant. Methods. The comparative analysis is done on a cluster of 4 computers running dual-installations of Microsoft Windows Server 2012 R2 (the MSDFS environment) and Linux Ubuntu 14.04 (the HDFS environment). The comparison is done on read and write operations on files and sets of files of increasing sizes, as well as on a set of key usage scenarios.

    Results. Comparative results are produced for reading and writing operations of files of increasing size - 1 MB, 2 MB, 4 MB and so on up to 4096 MB - and of sets of small files (64 KB each) amounting to totals of 128 MB, 256 MB and so on up to 4096 MB. The results expose the behavior of the two DFSs on different types of stressful activities (when the size of the transferred file increases, as well as when the quantity of data is divided into (tens of) thousands of many small files). The behavior in the case of key usage scenarios is observed and analyzed.

    Conclusions. HDFS performs better at writing large files, while MSDFS is better at writing many small files. At read operations, the two show similar performance, with a slight advantage for MSDFS. In the key usage scenarios, HDFS shows more flexibility, but MSDFS could be the better choice depending on the needs of the users (for example, most of the common functions can be configured through the graphical user interface).

  • 330.
    Mutyala, Suhrullekha
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Nelapudi, Shravani
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Assessing Barriers and Facilitators to Evidence Use in Decisions: A Tertiary and Interview Study2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Decision-making is a significant step in development process of software engineering. Evidence-based Software Engineering has been one of the strategies attempting to facilitate decision-making process. It follows process of gathering suitable evidence in the aim of making a viable use the evidence.

    Objectives. In this study, evidence use in practice was mainly focused as a part of which barriers and facilitators concerning it were aspired to be obtained from the practitioners. Concerning existing evidence, it was also aimed in finding out and gathering the existing evidence in software engineering, as a contribution to the evidence use in practice.

    Methods. To obtain the outcomes for the specified objectives, an extensive tertiary study and 18 interviews were conducted. The tertiary study was replication of study by Kitchenham et al. [1]. It was also an updated version for the years of 2010 to 2016. The interviews were conducted among the software practitioners from several types of industries and regions.

    Results. 67 SLRs were analysed and extracted to gather and obtain existing evidence. 18 interviews were conducted among software practitioners to assess barriers and facilitators to evidence use in making decisions.

    Conclusions. We conclude from results of tertiary study that the research studies in every sub-domain are available under software engineering and are even increasing year by year. From the analysed results of the semi-structured interviews, it was clear that the implementation of research results in practice is inter-dependant on many major as well as trivial factors concerning the practitioners.

    Reference

    [1] B. Kitchenham et al., “Systematic literature reviews in software engineering – A tertiary study,” Inf. Softw. Technol., vol. 52, no. 8, pp. 792–805, Aug. 2010.

  • 331. Mäntylä, Mika
    et al.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Lehtinen, Timo O. A.
    Lassenius, Casper
    Time pressure: a controlled experiment of test case development and requirements review2014In: 36TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING (ICSE 2014), Hyderabad: ACM , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time pressure is prevalent in the software industry in which shorter and shorter deadlines and high customer demands lead to increasingly tight deadlines. However, the effects of time pressure have received little attention in software engineering research. We performed a controlled experiment on time pressure with 97 observations from 54 subjects. Using a two-by-two crossover design, our subjects performed requirements review and test case development tasks. We found statistically significant evidence that time pressure increases efficiency in test case development (high effect size Cohen’s d=1.279) and in requirements review (medium effect size Cohen’s d=0.650). However, we found no statistically significant evidence that time pressure would decrease effectiveness or cause adverse effects on motivation, frustration or perceived performance. We also investigated the role of knowledge but found no evidence of the mediating role of knowledge in time pressure as suggested by prior work, possibly due to our subjects. We conclude that applying moderate time pressure for limited periods could be used to increase efficiency in software engineering tasks that are well structured and straight forward.

  • 332.
    Münch, Jürgen
    et al.
    Reutlingen University, DEU.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Workshops and tutorials2018In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), Springer Verlag , 2018, Vol. Code 221089, p. 365-369Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 19th International Conference on Product-Focused Software Process Improvement (PROFES 2018) hosted two workshops and three tutorials. The workshops and tutorials complemented and enhanced the main conference program, offering a wider knowledge perspective around the conference topics. The topics of the two workshops were Hybrid Development Approaches in Software Systems Development (HELENA) and Managing Quality in Agile & Rapid Software Development Processes (QUaSD). The topics of the tutorials were The human factor in agile transitions – Using the personas concept in agile coaching, Process Management 4.0 – Best Practices, and Domain-specific languages for specification, development, and testing of autonomous systems. The workshop organizers would like to thank all persons that organized the workshop or contributed to the workshops as well as the presenters of the tutorials. The workshops and tutorials provided interesting forums for discussing ideas, presenting novel work, learning and networking. In the following the workshop and tutorials are summarized based on the content of the respective workshop and tutorial web descriptions. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018.

  • 333.
    Nadikattu, Srikar Reddy
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Integrating User Experience (UX)Development with Agile SoftwareDevelopment Practices.: A Multiple Case Study Involving Organizations DevelopingInteractive Healthcare Technology (IHT) Applications2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. User Experience has become key to product development in recent years, as manyorganizations have realized its role in maintaining high user acceptance ratings. User ExperienceDevelopment and Agile Software Development are two highly iterative processes and user-centricprocesses. While both methods stack up well theoretically, there are many challenges encountered whenthey are integrated together in real-world development scenarios. Similar to Agile development, UserExperience Development, has many phases: performing user research, gathering UCD (User-CenteredDesign) requirements, iterating design activities, and performing usability evaluation through user tests.Executing both processes in parallel and mapping their corresponding phases is a major issue andapplying these principles in development environment is even more challenging. This integration bearseven more significance in the field of healthcare technology, where user-centered requirements ofpatients and medical practitioners need to handled systematically, as there are a wide range ofspecifications that cater to unique individuals. Hence, a case study was conducted in two majororganizations involved in the development of Interactive Healthcare Technology (IHT) applications.

    Objectives. Through a case study, the author attempts to investigate the factors that influence theintegration between UX development and Agile methodologies. These factors include the contemporarytools, processes and methods (TPMs) that are being used integration and the challenges that persistwhen it is applied in industry. The study aims to analyze the Agile-UX development approaches of twodistinct organizations, involved in the same domain, to get an understanding of the mentioned factors.

    Methods. The multiple case study was conducted through interviews, surveys and direct observation.The qualitative data analysis of the surveys was done through thematic analysis. Quantitative dataanalysis was performed on the data gathered from the surveys. A literature review was conducted priorto the case study to gain knowledge on this issue, which also partially answers the research questions.The case study design was kept consistent across both organizations.

    Results. Through the results of the case study and a literature review, current UX development practicesin the industry have been identified. The challenges encountered at both case organizations have been studied. These results are further validated and contrasted with the results of the literature review.Following, a retrospection of the methods employed at the case environments, a set of recommendationsfor better integration was generated. A detailed comparative analysis of Agile-UX integration at twoorganizations has been documented. At the end a generic framework has been proposed based on theanalysis of results acquired.

    Conclusions. Numerous conclusions were drawn from the results and data analysis. Several challengeswere identified through the study, in addition to those suggested by relevant literature. Some of thesewere uniquely prevalent in the field of IHT development. It was found that dynamically changing usercenteredrequirements and late integration of usability and UX development with Agile practices werethe most profound challenges. Adoption of UCD techniques such as Design Studio played a positiverole in easing integration. Usability evaluation and user research are also major factors in the integrationprocess. Lack of time to iterate design and issues in scheduling and performing usability testing had abig impact. Involving users in the design and development process from an early stage is essential toensure high usability and good user experience of the product. The framework designed to counter thesechallenges, takes into account, all these aspects to provide a meticulous Agile-UX integrationframework. Some key conclusion drawn from this framework, are that the application of the “One SprintAhead” approach diminishes many challenges, while performing usability testing in parallel withsystem testing can support integration.

  • 334.
    Namirimu, Victoria
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    User Requirements for Internet Of Things (IoT) Applications: An Observational study2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Internet of Things (IoT) is a new trending phase of technology. IoT refers to communication and connectivity between things such as technological devices, actuators, sensors, and people or processes with unique identifiers. The importance of IoT is to improve the daily living standards of an average user. IoT is made for the people and used by the people for many reasons such as improved health, business innovations, and personal health trackers. Examples of IoT applications and services today include  Smart thermostats like NEST, connected cars like Car2Go, activity trackers like BASIS, smart outlets like Belkin, Parking sensors like streetline and so much more services being developed.

    Objectives. The main goal of this study is to identify the challenges users face in understanding IoT and monitoring it as it undergoes change through self-adaptation. Once the challenges have been known then the gap between system requirements and user requirements can be bridged. The study also states the different ways the developers can improve the IoT services and applications for the users through user feedback.

    Methods. In this paper, an observational study is conducted. Within the study, two data collection methods were used; observational of the users and post observation questionnaires. The observational study was done by video recording users while using the IoT application. This was to obtain information about the IoT. The post observational questionnaires were to obtain information about the users’ judgement of their IoT experience. The IoT application used in this study is a Smart Home Starter Kit. The users are to secure a room with the Smart Home Starter kit. Later on, the users are presented with a post observational questionnaire to further elaborate on their experience in case the researcher missed something while recording. The study was performed with 5 users. The users were found through convenience sampling at the Karlskrona central train station and the Hogsland Park. They were then asked, if they were willing to take part in the study. This number of users was enough to reach saturation needed for the research. The author used a deductive approach together with conventional content analysis method to analyze the data and its quality.

    Results. The research questions of the study focused mainly on learning, maintaining awareness and re-process of the IoT. Re-process of the IoT refers to implementing the IoT with the new information received from user feedback. This enables the IoT to become more user compatible and friendly. When the results of the study were mapped to the research questions, the author deduced that learnability requirements were lacking. The users suggested simpler step by step guidelines would have made their experience with IoT much better. Thus the IoT developers would implement the user feedback through simple online tutorials, an online technician that could guide the users through the IoT application.

    Conclusions. In comparison to related work, the author concluded that there is still a big knowledge gap between the system requirements and the user requirements of the IoT. Many related papers are more focused on what IoT applications to develop and design than the users of the IoT applications. That is where this paper comes in, to bridge the gap. Without focus on users and their needs, then complex IoT systems will fail to accomplish their goal. The users suggested simple step by step approach on how to use the IoT due to the learnability problem that is faced by the majority of them. The product developers can make simpler and more user friendly IoT applications with these results. In the future, User requirements could further get categorized according to the different types of IoT and users. This would make it simpler for the researcher as the scope is narrowed down and at the same time for the IoT developers, as they know what to implement in the IoT applications. 

  • 335.
    Nanduri, V S S N R Ram
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Lean + Agile vs Seven Wastes in Software Development2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Software Process Improvement uses lean principles for eliminating wastes in the software development process. Waste is defined as anything that does not add value to the customer and product. The seven traditional wastes in software engineering are partially done work, extra process, extra features, waiting, motion, task switching and defects. Using the lean principles and practices, the wastes can be reduced or eliminated. It is important to know the lean practices that are widely used in software development and to know the practices, which captures the seven wastes. From the literature, the ability of waste reduction is theoretically discussed [2], but practically only little empirical evidence is available on ‘which practice is best capable in reducing specific kinds of waste.’ Objectives: Many software development organizations have adopted lean practices and agile practices for eliminating wastes of different kinds. Therefore, this study focuses on evaluating the effectiveness of lean practices in their ability to reduce the seven types of wastes associated with Lean Software Engineering. Methodology: The methodology that is used in this study is systematic literature review and industrial survey. In order to achieve the objective on evaluating the lean practices and agile practices in their ability to reduce the seven types of wastes that have more attention in research, a systematic literature review is conducted. Thereafter, to capture the effectiveness of lean practices in waste removal, a survey is designed to capture the perception of practitioners. Results: The systematic literature review has identified 53 relevant studies to the research topic. From these primary studies, the lean practices/principles, hybrid agile and lean practices, and the efficiency of agile practices in eliminating the seven wastes were identified. In addition to that, wastes that are captured by using lean practices; hybrid lean and agile practices were also identified. The reason for considering agile practices is that, agile and lean have similarities in eliminating the wastes and creating value to the customer [2][3]. Through the systematic literature review, it can be observed that researchers have not investigated all the seven wastes captured by lean practices. Thereafter, survey is the main contribution to this research where, the responses of 55 respondents from different countries were recorded. Most of the respondents are from India with 42% of the responses. We have asked the role of every respondent in their companies, and 19 respondents are Team leaders, 16 respondents are project managers and remaining people perform various other roles in software development. 38 respondents are from large-scale industry, which constitutes the majority part of the survey. The main contribution of the survey is identifying the ability of lean practices in eliminating different wastes. The respondents were asked to provide their level of agreement related to the effectiveness of each lean practices and agile practice in waste removal. A comparison between the results of SLR and survey reveals that there is a lot of variance in the perception of researchers and practitioners regarding the lean practices in eliminating wastes. Survey captures more wastes than SLR. From the results of survey, it was also identified that using the lean practices i.e. Kanban and VSM can eliminate most of the wastes. Kanban (41) and VSM (33) are mostly used and more efficient in industries. Conclusions: To conclude, the obtained results from this study will be quite useful for the real-time execution of lean practices. Team leaders, project managers, and organizations can adopt lean by choosing lean practices in accordance to the wastes that have to be eliminated from their software development process. This study has also identified the benefits and limitations of lean practices implemented in industry. This study helps researchers in providing necessary information that is very useful for further research in lean practices. The combinations of lean practices were also presented, which in terms one lean practice can compensate another in capturing all the seven wastes. In the survey, the additional wastes were identified when compared to SLR and this complements the literature. There is a considerable reach gap between the state of art and state of practice. It has been identified that VSM and Kanban practices have much attention in the literature. The remaining practices like Kotter and Kaizen are less concentrated in most of the research literature. From the literature, it is evident that none of the practices is capable of eliminating all the seven wastes in software development. VSM is capable of capturing wastes like waiting, extra process and motion. In addition, Kanban captures and eliminates wastes like partially done work, defects, task switching and extra features. With respect to the survey, Kanban and VSM practices are efficient in eliminating wastes. When the practitioners consider hybrid lean and agile practices, the combination of Kanban and Scrum, Scrum and VSM are efficient in eliminating wastes. The practitioners can consider the benefits of lean practices that are identified in this research.

  • 336.
    Nanduru, Pavan Kumar
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Non-Functional Requirement Modeling in the Early-Phase Software Product Life Cycle: A Systematic Literature Review and a Meta Model2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Non-functional requirements (NFRs) are important aspects which directly or indirectly determine whether a product is a success or a failure. It becomes essential to incorporate and understand them, before the software product enters the development phase. Despite the increasing emphasis put into NFR studies (namely; models and frameworks etc.) over the past few years, most industries prefer not use these techniques or to deal with NFRs later, in simpler manners. This could limit the efficiency of the development process. Integration of the existing NFR models/frameworks into the earlier phases of the product life cycle can provide a systematic approach to plan and anticipate NFRs for any software product.

    Objectives. This study aims to provide a generic meta model which acts as a compilation of the best NFR models/frameworks integrated into the early phases of the software product life cycle. This study also provides a real-world example which applies the conceptual meta model. Lastly, the meta model undergoes some limited validation to determine its relevance to what is being used and the extent of its practical use.

    Methods. Initially, a systematic literature review (snowballing) was conducted, to identify the different types of NFR models/frameworks. A comparative pro-con analysis was performed on the results of the SLR, which was the basis of the inclusion criteria for the meta model. The conceptual meta model was developed based on the International Software Product Management Association’s (ISPMA) definition of a product life cycle. Each phase of this meta model was imbedded with an NFR model/framework associated to the purpose of that phase and the results from the SLR. The application of the meta model was then demonstrated using a mobile phone example. Finally, the meta model was validated limitedly via an exploratory survey and the results were analyzed.

    Results. The meta model introduced can be used for the constructive inclusion of NFRs from product inception to product development. All phases required for the fulfillment of an NFR, are included. The overall positive feedback of the meta model is at 67%. Validations and assessments by practitioners helped determine to some extent that some industries are open to using the approach. Keeping in mind most of the available models on NFRs have not been validated, the NFR works used in this research have gone through some preliminary validation in this study.

    Conclusions. The study promotes the use of NFR models in the early phases of the software product life cycle. Some of the best modeling techniques were included based on results of literature analysis and their capability to fit into each phase. This study also analyzed the various insights of practitioners and researchers, justifying the significance of modeling, and the proposed technique. Possible extensions to this research were also mentioned.

  • 337.
    Nasir, Nayla
    et al.
    Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, MYS.
    Minhas, Nasir Mehmood
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Implementing Value Stream Mapping in a Scrum-based project: An Experience Report2018In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, CEUR-WS , 2018, Vol. 2273, p. 38-43Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    —The value stream mapping is one of the lean practices, that helps to visualize the whole process and identifies any bottlenecks affecting the flow. Proper management of the value stream can significantly contribute towards waste elimination by categorizing process activities to be either value adding or non value-adding. Lean development focuses on the value through the elimination of waste. Adding value through embracing change and customer satisfaction are also the benefits of Scrum. This study reports our experience regarding the implementation of VSM with Scrum. We followed the action research method, with an objective to see if VSM can contribute to the identification and reduction of wastes in a Scrum-based project. We identified a noticeable amount of waste even with strict compliance to the Scrum practices. On the basis of identified waste, their root causes, and possible mitigation strategy we have proposed a future state map, that could help improve the productivity of the process. The results of our study are encouraging, and we suggest that adoption of VSM with Scrum could add more value to the Scrum-based projects. Copyright © 2018 for this paper by its authors.

  • 338.
    Nekkanti, Lakshmi Sowjanya
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Impact of coordination challenges on quality of global software development projects2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Global software development (GSD) gained huge recognition in today’s business world. Most of the software companies day by day are striving hard to evolve globally where software is developed in the context of different environmental settings that are distanced on various factors like geography, timezone, culture and language. Coordination is the factor that plays one of the prominent roles in such a setting for effective teamwork and project success. Although numerous efforts has been done in this research area, there has been no proper evidence from industry about the impact of these coordination challenges on the overall quality of the software when being developed in a distributed setting.

    Objectives. The purpose of this study is to examine and identify the coordination challenges and risks faced in global software development projects that has a negative impact on the quality of software from practitioner’s perspective. It also identify the tools, methods, and techniques that are used in industry to overcome these challenges and maintain quality standards.

    Methods. The aims and objectives of our study are fulfilled by conducting survey among practitioners working in GSD projects all around the globe. Further, 10 interviews are conducted with practitioners working in different companies and geographical locations in order to gain a detailed understanding of the impact of identified coordination challenges on the quality of software in GSD projects.

    Results. A total of 50 survey responses are recorded, out of which 48 respondents specify that coordination challenges has a negative impact on software quality in GSD context. By the ratings given by the participants, we identified the challenges and risks that had a major impact. Mixed results are obtained during interviews where most of them prioritized coordination as a major problem in GSD projects. It also included that use of some tools, methods and processes help them in overcoming this issue. The quality attributes that are mostly affected due to the challenges in GSD projects are also identified.

    Conclusions. After the analysis of survey results, the coordination challenges and associated risks in GSD projects are identified. They were found to havemostly negative impact on software quality. After thematic analysis of interview results, we observed that though the impact of coordination challenges is negative, its extent of implication is moderate in most cases.

  • 339.
    Nielsen, Sebastian
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Tollemark, David
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Code readability: Code comments OR self-documenting code: How does the choice affect the readability of the code?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Code readability is something every software developer tackles every day. In order for efficient maintainability and learning of a program the documentation needs to be of high quality.

    Objectives: This thesis is attempting to show what the general perspective the software developers have. We investigate which method that is preferred and why. We will also look at readability and what similarities and differences there are among students and IT professionals.

    Conclusion: We have collected data from several sources. Firstly from a literature review where different papers within the field are presented. Secondly from two separate surveys conducted on students and IT professionals.

    From our results we found that documentation is something that software developers heavily rely on and that the need for extensive documentation differs with working experience.

  • 340.
    Nilsson, Anton
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Att hindra en Notpetya- och WannaCry-attack: Redogörelse med förebyggande metoder och tekniker2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    WannaCry och NotPetya är två ransomware-program som använder sig av National Security Agency (NSA) läckta penetreringsverktyg EternalBlue för att få operativsystemsbehörighet över ett Windowssystem som tillåter kommunikation med dess Service Message Block (SMB) server. WannaCry och NotPetya utnyttjar detta genom att söka igenom systemets alla lagringsmedier efter användarfiler och krypterar sedan dessa med både symmetriska och asymmetriska krypteringsalgoritmer.

    För att få tillgång till den nyckel som används för att dekryptera filerna krävs det att offret betalar förövaren en specifik summa, vanligtvis i Bitcoin. Det finns ingen garanti att filerna återfås efter betalning utan endast förövarens ord, uttryckt i ett utpressningsmeddelande som först uppenbarar sig efter att alla filer krypterats.

    Det finns flera metoder och tekniker som kan användas för att bygga ett försvar mot att ransomware infekterar eller kryptera data. En metod för att förhindra att NotPetya och WannaCry infektera ett system är att blockera all kommunikation med Windows-systemets SMB-server. Eftersom detta förhindrar alla program från att kommunicera med systemet genom SMB protokollet utgör denna metod endast ett alternativ om systemet inte är beroende av funktioner så som fil och skrivardelning.

    En metod för att förhindra att data försvinner vid en eventuell infektion är att kontinuerligt säkerhetskopiera sina filer till externa lagringsmedier så som till CD-skivor, USB-minnen och hårddiskar. Detta gör det möjligt att återfå data efter en infektion och offret behöver därför inte att förlita sig på förövaren för att få tillbaka sina filer.

  • 341.
    Nilsson, Gunvor
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Smarta gränssnitt för flexibel effektanvändning: - Stäng av ugnen, jag måste ladda bilen!2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom en snar framtid kommer allt fler villaägare välja att skaffa elbil. Därigenom kommer det lokala elnätet att utsättas för stora utmaningar i form av oregelbunden belastning och potentiell överlast. Studien undersöker om man med mjukvara kan underlätta och få till stånd en effektstyrning av energi i lokalnätet, såväl som i den egna villan. Med hjälp av befintliga rapporter,webbfrågor och intervjuer kartläggs olika berörda aktörers inställning till, och beredskap för, attfördela last.

    En testbädd för att ta fram förslag till styrning på olika nivåer med fokus på villor, lokalnät och elbilar med laddplats har tagits fram. Testappar med olika grad av information och olika möjlighet till påverkan har knutits därtill. 

    En slutsats av arbetet är att effektstyrning måste ske och i ökande omfattning. I steg 1 kan det räcka att flytta användningen några timmar från eftermiddag till natt. Framöver när en stor andel fordon blir eldrivna behöver elnätsbolagen mer aktivt få styra sina elnätskunders effektuttag i tiden.

  • 342.
    Nilsson, Joakim
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Jonasson, Andreas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Using Artificial Intelligence for Gameplay Testing On Turn-Based Games2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Game development is a constantly evolving multi billion dollar in-dustry, and the need for quality products is very high. Testing the games however isa very time consuming and tedious task, often coming down to repeating sequencesuntil a requirement has been met. But what if some parts of it could be automated,handled by an artificial intelligence that can play the game day and night, givingstatistics about the gameplay as well as reports about errors that occurred duringthe session?

    Objectives. This thesis is done in cooperation with Fall Damage Studio AB, andaims to find and implement a suitable artificial intelligent agent to perform auto-mated test on a game Fall Damage Studio AB are currently developing, ProjectFreedom. The objective is to identify potential problems, benefits, and use casesof using a technique such as this. A secondary objective is to also identify what isneeded by the game for this kind of technique to be useful.

    Methods. To test the technique, aMonte-Carlo Tree Searchalgorithm was identi-fied as the most suitable algorithm and implemented for use in two different typesof experiments. The first being to evaluate how varying limitations in terms of thenumber of iterations and depth affected the results of the algorithm. This was doneto see if it was possible to change these factors and find a point where acceptablelevels of plays were achieved and further increases to these factors gave limited en-hancements to this level but increased the time. The second experiment aimed toevaluate what useful data can be extracted from a game, both in terms of gameplayrelated data as well as error information from crashes. Project Freedom was onlyused for the second test due to constraints that was out of scope for this thesis totry and repair.

    Results. The thesis has identified several requirements that is needed for a game touse a technique such as this in an useful way. For Monte-Carlo Tree Search specifi-cally, the game is required to have a gamestate that is quick to create a copy of anda game simulation that can be run in a short time. The game must also be testedfor the depth and iteration point that hit the point where the value of increasingthese values diminish. More generally, the algorithm of choice must be a part of thedesign process and different games might require different kind of algorithms to use.Adding this type of algorithm at a late stage in development, as was done for thisthesis, might be possible if precautions are taken.

    Conclusions. This thesis shows that using artificial intelligence agents for game-play testing is definitely possible, but it needs to be considered in the early part ofthe development process as no one size fits all approach is likely to exist. Differentgames will have their own requirements, some potentially more general for that typeof game, and some will be unique for that specific game. Thus different algorithmswill work better on certain types of games compared to other ones, and they willneed to be tweaked to perform optimally on a specific game.

  • 343.
    Nilsson, Sebastian
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    The Current State of DDoS Defense2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A DDoS attack is an attempt to bring down a machine connected to the Internet. This is done by having multiple computers repeatedly sending requests to tie up a server making it unable to answer legitimate requests. DDoS attacks are currently one of the biggest security threats on the internet according to security experts. We used a qualitative interview with experts in IT security to gather data to our research. We found that most companies are lacking both in knowledge and in their protection against DDoS attacks. The best way to minimize this threat would be to build a system with redundancy, do a risk analysis and revise security policies. Most of the technologies reviewed were found ineffective because of the massive amount of data amplification attacks can generate. Ingress filtering showed promising results in preventing DDoS attacks by blocking packages with spoofed IP addresses thus preventing amplification attacks.

  • 344.
    Nimmakayala, Akhilesh
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gudivada, Venkata Sai Anurudh
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    The significance of Software Engineering Management in Software projects: A study on Project Management success factors, an ideal Project Manager and the current state of Project Management Education2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Management is an essential factor in any organization let alone its kind and size. Project management is the art and science of planning and implementing a project to achieve the desired outcome. Project Management (PM) plays a crucial role in businesses which are bound to function in a team-based environment regardless of the type of business. Although a variety of project management practices are employed in different kinds of industries, it is well understood that the style and level of employment of these project management practices have a significant impact on the project success. The software engineering industry has its own project management practices and the employment of these practices depends on the project manager who thus plays a key role in project management. Project manager has been a ubiquitous feature of traditional software projects. Project managers are a merger of personal characteristics and areas of competency that act together to integrate the various components of a project. In this study, the author discusses about the concept of software engineering management, various characteristics and key competencies of a project manager and also the factors influencing the overall success of a project. The authors also discuss about the current state and importance of PM education and its influence in the real time industry.

    Objectives. This research study is to analyze and make conclusions about the ideal features of a project manager and therefore attempt to understand its association with critical factors of PM for a project’s success in terms of delivering the product as scheduled and also understand various non-PM factors that are critical for project success. The study also attempts to show the significance of studying PM specifically in the context of Software Engineering as different from other contexts and the importance of PM education in academics and teaching PM in the industry.

    Methods. To achieve the objectives of this research, we attempt to study project management in the context of Software Engineering by conducting a literature review followed with a descriptive Survey as our research methods for this study to show how far literature complies to the present-day views and overall form a common opinion on this subject by comparing both the findings.

    Results. The results yielded by conducting a literature review conclude that Project Management or Software Engineering Management plays a vital role in software projects. Various factors that contribute towards successful project management were identified. Also, relevant literature was reviewed to identify the characteristics and competencies of an effective project manager and the status of project management education in academics and in the software engineering industry. The results obtained from the literature review were used in designing a survey and were further used to compare with and validate the results of this survey. A thorough analysis of these results yielded in capturing the current status and views with a snapshot of the situation in the present Software Engineering industry. A clear view on the subject area and results from a sample population of 73 software engineering professionals consisting of up to 41 experienced managers were analyzed, commented and documented.

    Conclusions. Various conclusions were drawn including discussions on the compliances and contradictions between present literature and software professionals in the present industry have been made. It was found that the majority of software professionals believe that project management in software engineering is unique from project management in other disciplines. It was found that professionals believe project management to be highly to very highly crucial for the overall success of software projects and that the most important key factors for successful project management were team motivation, communication and risk management. It was found that ‘Ability to foresee a problem’, ‘Decision making’ and ‘Inspires a shared vision’ were among the top three characteristics and ‘Team management’, ‘Leadership’ and ‘Ability to work under pressure’ were among the top three competencies of an effective project manager. It was found that managers feel the need to be taught about project management standards and that the ‘PMBoK’ and ‘ISO 9001’ were the most popular standards implemented. It was found that there are very contrasting views among companies on training project managers before promoting them to managerial positions whereas managers expect to be trained.

    Keywords: Software Engineering Management, Software Project Management, Project Manager, Project Success, Project Management Education, Software Engineering.

  • 345.
    Nurdiani, Indira
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Introduction of Agile Practices: Strategies and Impacts2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Software development organizations frequently face changes that require them to be flexible. The principles and practices of Agile software are often associated with improving software organizations’ flexibility. However, introducing Agile practices have its benefits and limitations. To amplify benefits and alleviate challenges, Agile adoption guidelines are being proposed to provide strategies for introducing Agile practices. One instance of such guidelines is known as Agile Maturity Models (AMMs). AMMs typically suggest that Agile practices are introduced in certain orders. However, AMMs provide contradictory strategies. Thus it is not known whether one strategy to introduce Agile practices is better than others.

    Objective: The objective of this thesis is to gather and examine the evidence on the different strategies of introducing Agile practices, particularly on the order of introduction as suggested in the AMMs. The thesis seeks if one order for introducing Agile practices is better than others.

    Method: Combination of empirical studies were used in this thesis. The data collection was done through a survey and semi-structured interviews. This involved analyzing the introduction of Agile practices over time, i.e. the start and/or end of Agile practices. A qualitative method like qualitative coding was used to analyze data obtained from the interviews. Different quantitative methods like inferential statistics and social network analysis were also used. Literature studies were also conducted to provide background and support for the empirical studies.

    Results: The examination of the evidence indicates that there is not one strategy to introduce Agile practices that would yield better results than others. The lack of conclusive evidence could be caused by the lack of consideration on reporting the context of empirical studies, particularly on the baseline situation, i.e. situation prior to Agile introduction. A checklist is proposed to capture a baseline contextual information focusing on internal organizational aspects of a software organization: the constellation of team members’ skills and experience, management principles, existing practices and systems characteristics of the software under development. The checklist was validated  by seven experts in academia. The experts who participated in the validation perceived the checklist to be useful and relevant to research.

    Conclusion:  The studies presented in this thesis can be a useful input for researchers who are conducting an empirical study in Agile software development. The checklist proposed in this thesis could be used to help researchers to improve their research design when evaluating the extent of improvements from introducing Agile practices. If researchers use the checklist, consistency across empirical studies can be improved. Consistency in reporting empirical studies is desired for comparing and aggregating evidence. In turn, this will help practitioners to make a fair assessment whether research results are relevant to their contexts and to what extent the results are helpful for them.

  • 346.
    Nurdiani, Indira
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Managing requirements interdependencies in agile software development: A preliminary result2016In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, ISSN 1613-0073, E-ISSN 1613-0073, Vol. 1564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently managing requirement interdependencies using Agile practices is relatively unexplored. This study explores the state of practice of managing requirements interdependencies in Agile software development through a survey. A total of 52 complete responses were obtained, with 50% of the respondents suggesting that they consider requirements interdependencies. The preliminary result indicates that requirements interdependencies become a greater concern as the project and product complexity increases.

  • 347.
    Nurdiani, Indira
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Understanding flexibility of a software organization2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Flexibility is an important capability for a software organization. Without flexibility a software organization risks losing its competitive advantage. To build software organization flexibility every constituent of the organization need to be taken into account. Otherwise there are unforeseen trade-offs that could have negative impacts on the rest of the organization. However, currently known flexibility approaches, such as, Agile and Lean methodologies are currently implemented at project level. There is a need for an approach that provides a holistic view to build software organization flexibility.

     

    Objective: The aim of this licentiate thesis to understand challenges that a software organization faces with respect to flexibility and how flexibility is built, and explore the potential of Agile and Lean practices to build software organization flexibility. Particularly in understanding the process of building software organization and the associated trade-offs.

    Method: A grounded theory study and a tertiary study were performed as part of this licentiate thesis. A grounded theory study was conducted to gain a better understanding pertaining to the challenges and processes in building software organization flexibility. The data was collected from an IT Department that provides services to a Fortune 500 financial institution. A tertiary study was performed to identify empirically evaluated Agile and Lean practices and their respective impacts. The findings from the tertiary study were synthesized using qualitative meta-study method.

     

    Results: The findings in this thesis uncovered a number of challenges that a software organization faces with respect to flexibility, they include budget cuts, overhead due to inconsistent development process, and regulatory changes. These challenges then can cause uncertainties that impede the organization’s op-erational efficiency, like delays and inefficient use of resources. To cope with the uncertainty, a software organization would build its flexibility through modi- fications of its organization constituents. Processes and trade-offs associatedi with achieving flexibility were also identified. Furthermore, a consolidated view of the impacts of Agile and Lean practices and their empirical support is also provided.

     

    Conclusion: With the challenges that a software organization face, build- ing software organization flexibility is becoming more prevalent. To improve software organization flexibility different constituents of the organization needs to be considered. Otherwise, the trade-offs associated to achieving flexibility cannot be thoroughly considered. Furthermore, Agile and Lean practices can have positive, negative, or no impacts on quality, budget, schedule, etc. The findings of this thesis can help practitioners identify flexibility needs, as well as improve their awareness of possible negative trade-offs when building software organization flexibility.

     

  • 348.
    Nurdiani, Indira
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Literature Review of Flexibility Attributes: A Flexibility Framework for Software Developing Organization2018In: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 30, no 9, article id e1937Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software developing organizations strive to achieve flexibility to maintain a competitive advantage. There is no common understanding of what characterize flexibility for a software organization beyond the scope of the software product. Without a common understanding, it is difficult to evaluate the degrees of flexibility of software development approaches. The aim of this literature review is to collect attributes that characterize flexibility. The collected attributes are consolidated into a flexibility framework with 3 main attributes: properties of change, flexibility perspectives, and flexibility enablers. The resulting flexibility framework is then used to evaluate Agile and Lean practices. The evaluation shows that Agile and Lean practices address many flexibility attributes. However, some attributes are not addressed, such as infrastructure flexibility and strategic flexibility. On the basis of our evaluation, the classifications of flexibility attributes that we present in this paper could be used to aid software organization flexibility evaluation.

  • 349.
    Nurdiani, Indira
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Fricker, Samuel A.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    The impacts of agile and lean practices on project constraints: A tertiary study2016In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 119, p. 162-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing interest in Agile and Lean software development is reflected in the increasing number of secondary studies on the benefits and limitations of Agile and Lean processes and practices. The aim of this tertiary study is to consolidate empirical evidence regarding Agile and Lean practices and their respective impacts on project constraints as defined in the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK): scope, quality, schedule, budget, resources, communication, and risk. In this tertiary study, 13 secondary studies were included for detailed analysis. Given the heterogeneity of the data, we were unable to perform a rigorous synthesis. Instead, we mapped the identified Agile and Lean practices, and their impacts on the project constraints described in PMBOK. From 13 secondary studies, we identified 13 Agile and Lean practices. Test-Driven Development (TDD) is studied in ten secondary studies, meanwhile other practices are studied in only one or two secondary studies. This tertiary study provides a consolidated view of the impacts of Agile and Lean practices. The result of this tertiary study indicates that TDD has a positive impact on external quality. However, due to insufficient data or contradictory results, we were unable to make inferences on other Agile and Lean practices. Implications for research and practice are further discussed in the paper. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 350.
    Nurdiani, Indira
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Strategies to Introduce Agile Practices: Comparing Agile Maturity Models with Practitioners’ExperienceIn: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Agile maturity models (AMMs) have been proposed to provide guidance for adopting Agile practices. Evaluations of AMMs indicatethat they might not be suitable for industry use. One issue is that AMMs have mainly been evaluated against pre-defined sets of criteria, instead of industry practice. Objectives: The objectives of this study are to: (1) compare current AMMs regarding their guidance for Agile adoption, (2) investigate the strategies for Agile adoption used by practitioners, and (3) investigate similarities and differences between (1) and (2). Methods: We conducted a literature survey that included grey literature to identify strategies proposed by the AMMs. We also conducted a survey and 11 interviews to identify the strategies used by practitioners to introduce Agile practices. This study combines quantitative and qualitative analysis. Results: From the literature survey we found 26 AMMs, whereof 12 provide explicit mappings of Agile practices to maturity levels. These mappings showed little agreement in when practices should be introduced. Based on 40 survey responses we identified three high-level strategies for introducing Agile practices: big-bang, incremental, and complex strategies. The survey andinterviews revealed that the guidance suggested by AMMs are not aligned well with industry practice and that Agile practices might already be in place before an organization starts a transition to Agile. Conclusion: In their current form, AMMs do not provide sufficient information to guide Agile adoption in industry. Our results suggest that there might be no universal strategy for Agile adoption that works better than others.

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