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  • 301.
    Lavesson, Niklas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Evaluation of classifier performance and the impact of learning algorithm parameters2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Much research has been done in the fields of classifier performance evaluation and optimization. This work summarizes this research and tries to answer the question if algorithm parameter tuning has more impact on performance than the choice of algorithm. An alternative way of evaluation; a measure function is also demonstrated. This type of evaluation is compared with one of the most accepted methods; the cross-validation test. Experiments, described in this work, show that parameter tuning often has more impact on performance than the actual choice of algorithm and that the measure function could be a complement or an alternative to the standard cross-validation tests.

  • 302. LeBlanc, K.
    et al.
    Johansson, Stefan J.
    Malec, J.
    Martinez, H.
    Saffiotti, A.
    Team Sweden 20032003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 303. Lennerstad, Håkan
    et al.
    Lundberg, Lars
    Optimal Computer Combinatorics2003Book (Other academic)
  • 304.
    Lilja, Anna
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Hallerboij, Pia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Versant, en objektorienterad databas i jämförelse med relationsdatabas.2000Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Relationsmodellen kom 1970 och är i våra dagar generellt accepterad som ett landmärke. Databasen lagrar sin data i form av tabeller och har ett välbeprövat sätt att lagra information på. Första generationens objektorienterade databaser kom 1986. Det som är kännetecknande för en objektorienterad databas är att data sparas i form av objekt i databasen. Vi vill med vår uppsats testa om användandet av Versant minskar relationsdatabasens nackdelar och därmed är ett bättre val till typ av databas. I objektorienterade databaser är det möjligt att spara komplexa datatyper, som t.ex. bilder. I våra tester framgår det att vid användandet av Versant minskar relationsdatabasens nackdelar. Fyra av sju tester visar att Versant skulle kunna vara bättre alternativ pga. att relationsdatabasens nackdelar minskar. De nackdelar som Versant inte löste var begränsade operationer, integritet och användardefinierade regler och rekursiva frågor. I slutsatsen analyserar vi vår hypotes, ”Om man använder den objektorienterade databasen Versant minskas antalet nackdelar som en relationsdatabas har” och ser om den stämmer. Vi kan inte utifrån testerna och slutsatsen utgå ifrån att hypotesen gäller alla objektorienterade databaser eller datamodeller* i ”verkliga” livet. Testerna gjordes utifrån ett tänkt fall på en högskola med studenter, kurser, institutioner och personal. Vi kom i våra tester fram till att fyra av sju av relationsdatabasens nackdelar avlägsnades vid användandet av Versant. Detta gäller vår datamodell över ett uppdiktat fall på en högskola och med reservation för att vi inte har utnyttjat Versant på ett optimalt sätt.

  • 305.
    Lindblom, Johan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Rosquist, Jonas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Non-disruptive value-chains in home health care2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Treatment of elderly people and citizens in need of professional care is one of the most important aspects of any society to consider that aims at support for quality of life. Support for such qualitative aspects of a modern society often manifests itself by means of value-chains. However, all activities that a business or organization uses are not included in the value-chain, it is only the activities and information that generate any kind of value for the users in a particular organization that are included in the value-chains. To that end, the locality of health care related information primarily exists at the hospital and, therefore, the care of patients is most efficiently carried out at the hospital. However, if the involved information can be accessed anywhere throughout the value-chain, a possible situation would be to keep the patients in their homes without disrupting already established work practice and related value-chains. In principle, introducing new technology must not disrupt a value-chain; it must preserve or, even better, improve it. Health care is becoming more mobile and needs support for such behavior. The quantitative value to the user is quantified by means of value-chains, so it is important that they remain non-disrupted. Consequently, the fundamental concepts dealt with in this thesis are; value-chains, health care and mobile technology. The problem domain is distributed health care and we have chosen to focus on sustainability of the involved value-chains. In essence, we want to add new technology to the domain without disrupting already existing value-chains. This in order to make the distributed health care apparatus more efficient and cost effective. The main problem we have identified is regarding how medical doctors and nurses could access the same information in patients' homes as they can at the hospital.

  • 306. Lindeberg, Olle
    et al.
    Dittrich, Yvonne
    System Design as Artful Integration of Different Contexts2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 307. Lindeberg, Olle
    et al.
    Dittrich, Yvonne
    Tailoring and Flexibility as Challenges for Design2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 308. Lindeberg, Olle
    et al.
    Eriksson, Jeanette
    Dittrich, Yvonne
    Using Metaobject Protocol to Implement Tailoring: Possibilities and Problems2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 309.
    Ling, Petra
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Pettersson, Ann-Christin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Från OMT till UML: ett nödvändigt val?2001Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid objektorienterad systemutveckling är det viktigt att man genomför en analys- och designfas, dels för att man inom ett utvecklingsteam lättare ska kunna visualisera hur ett system är tänkt att bli och dels för att kunna fånga och åskådliggöra kundens krav. Till sin hjälp i dessa faser har man metoder/processer och modelleringsspråk. Varje företag har i regel haft sin egen variant av ovan nämnda, men allteftersom kom kravet på en gemensam standard att bli oundvikligt. Sedan ett antal år tillbaka finns nu en standard. Trots det finns det säkert företag kvar som ännu inte antagit denna standard. I detta arbete har vi undersökt vilka modelleringsspråk som idag används. Vi har fokuserat på att göra en studie över hur en av dåtidens mest populära metoder Object Modeling Technique (OMT) står sig i konkurrens med den standard som används idag, Unified Modeling Language (UML). Således undersöker vi i detta arbete om det är nödvändigt för ett företag som idag använder OMT att byta till UML. Vi har till vår hjälp gjort en litteraturstudie samt intervjuer på en begränsad grupp företag inom Karlskrona-/Ronnebyområdet. För att ytterligare undersöka de väsentliga skillnaderna mellan OMT och UML, har vi gjort ett jämförande test mellan notationen i OMT och UML. Eftersom vi inte fann några stora skillnader i notationen har vi valt att endast visa några få diagram i arbetet, om intresse finns för mer detaljer angående notationen hänvisar vi i stället till Eriksson och Penker [6]. Det har visat sig att alla företag i vår undersökning idag använder UML. Sannolikt beror detta i huvudsak på tre orsaker. För det första har UML haft en stor genomslagskraft efter det att det blev en standard. För det andra kan man använda UML till annat än mjukvaruutveckling. För det tredje finns det en stor kunskap och kännedom om UML, vilket också har gjort att kunderna efterfrågar just detta. Avslutningsvis torde den dominans som UML har inom branschen till stor del bero på det faktum att UML är uppbyggt av det bästa från alla de modelleringsspråk som varit använda i modern tid.

  • 310. Lundberg, Jenny
    Communities of emergency handling2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 311. Lundberg, Lars
    Analyzing Fixed Priority Global Multiprocessor Scheduling.2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider a multiprocessor where hard real-time tasks are scheduled globally on m processors. Each task has a fixed priority and tasks are executed using preemptive scheduling. The state-of-the-art priority assignment scheme in such cases is called RM-US[US-LIMIT] [1], where US-LIMIT is a parameter to the RM-US algorithm. The challenge is to find the US-LIMIT that can gaurantee schedulability for as high utilization as possible. The previously best known US-LIMIT value could guarantee schedulability as long the multiprocessor utilization is below m/(3m-2), i.e. 0.33333 when m --> infinity. In this paper we define a new equation for US-LIMIT which quarantees schedulability for higher utilization values than the previous result. When m --> infinity we can now guarantee schedulability for all tasks sets when the multiprocessor utilization is below 0.37482. We also show that our US-LIMIT values are optimal, i.e. we show that there is no room for further improvement of this state-of-the-art priority assignment scheme.

  • 312. Lundberg, Lars
    Distributed High Performance Large Integer Arithmetic2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have evaluated a number of techniques for obtaining distributed high performance arithmetic for large integers. Two main ideas are presented: a technique for handling carry propagation in parallel additions and a technique for distributing not only the processing but also the storage of very large integers onto a number of computers. These ideas have been compared to state-of-the-art arithmetic libraries. We have carried out performance evaluations on a Linux cluster with 32 computers and an SMP with eight processors. The performance of addition was improved by a factor 13, and that the method where the storage of an integer is distributed was superior to the approaches where only processing is distributed. The multiplication performance was improved by a factor of 7.

  • 313. Lundberg, Lars
    Evaluating the performance implications of binding threads to processors1997Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 314. Lundberg, Lars
    Fixed priority scheduling of age constraint processes1998Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time systems often consist of a number of independent processes which operate under an age constraint. In such systems, the maximum time from the start process L-i in cycle k to the end in cycle k+1 must not exceed the age constraint A(i) for that process. The age constraint can be met by using fixed priority scheduling and periods equal to A(i)/2. However, this approach restricts the number of process sets which are schedulable. In this paper, we define a method for obtaining process periods other than A(i)/2. The periods are calculated in such a way that the age constraints are met. Our approach is better in the sense that a larger number of process sets can be scheduled compared to using periods equal to A(i)/2.

  • 315. Lundberg, Lars
    Multiprocessor performance evaluation of billing gateway systems for telecommunication applications1996Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a performance evaluation of different implementation alternatives of a parallel C++ program for telecommunication applications. The implementation alternatives use different combinations of Solaris threads and Unix processes. A Sun multiprocessor with eight processors was used in the performance evaluation. The measurements show that the multiprocessor system favors implementations with many Unix processes, containing a small number of threads each, compared to implementations with one process containing a large number of threads. It also turns out that the performance can be increased by binding threads to processors, and that the overhead grows significantly when the number of processors increases.

  • 316.
    Lundberg, Lars
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Predicting and bounding the speedup of multithreaded Solaris programs1999In: Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing, ISSN 0743-7315, E-ISSN 1096-0848, p. 322-333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Solaris, threads are frequently relocated. The data associated with a relocated thread have to be moved from the cache of the old processor to the new processor. In order to avoid poor memory performance due to thread relocation, threads can be bound to processors-static scheduling. Finding a static schedule which results in maximum speedup is NP-hard. It is even difficult to determine if a static schedule is close to the optimal case or not. Here, a technique for predicting the speedup of multithreaded Solaris programs is presented. Based on an existing theoretical result, a lower bound on the maximal speedup is also obtained. The predicted speedup and the bound are based on recordings from a single-processor execution. When comparing the predictions with the real speedup using a multiprocessor with eight processors, we see that the predictions are very good. By comparing the speedup of a static schedule with the bound, we see that it is worthwhile to look for other schedules. (C) 1999 Academic Press.

  • 317. Lundberg, Lars
    Utilization based schedulability bounds for age constraint process sets in real-time systems2002In: Real-time systems, ISSN 0922-6443, E-ISSN 1573-1383, p. 273-295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some real-time systems consist of a number of processes that operate under age constraints. In such systems, the maximum time from the start of process L-i in cycle k to the end in cycle k+1 must not exceed the age constraint A(i) for that process. The age constraint can be met by using fixed priority scheduling and periods equal to A(i)/2. However, this approach restricts the number of process sets which are schedulable. In this paper, we define a method for obtaining process periods other than A(i)/2. The periods are calculated in such a way that the age constraints are met. Our approach is better in the sense that a larger number of process sets can be scheduled compared to using periods equal to A(i)/2. The main results in this paper are a number of performance bounds on age constraint processes. These bounds show that there is a significant gain in worst case as well as in best case behavior by using periods other than A(i)/2, particularly when there are a large number of processes in the system.

  • 318. Lundberg, Lars
    et al.
    Broberg, Magnus
    Klonowska, Kamilla
    Evaluating Heuristic Scheduling Algorithms for High Performance Parallel Processing2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most cluster systems used in high performance computing do not allow process relocation at run-time. Finding an allocation that results in minimal completion time is NP-hard and (non-optimal) heuristic algorithms have to be used. One major drawback with heuristics is that we do not know if the result is close to optimal or not. Here, we present a method for finding an upper bound on the minimal completion time for a given program. The bound helps the user to determine when it is worth-while to continue the heuristic search for better allocations. Based on some parameters derived from the program, as well as some parameters describing the hardware platform, the method produces the minimal completion time bound. A practical demonstration of the method is presented using a tool that produces the bound.

  • 319. Lundberg, Lars
    et al.
    Häggander, Daniel
    Klonowska, Kamilla
    Svahnberg, Charlie
    Recovery Schemes for High Availability and High Performance Distributed Real-Time Computing2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clusters and distributed systems offer fault tolerance and high performance through load sharing, and are thus attractive in real-time applications. When all computers are up and running, we would like the load to be evenly distributed among the computers. When one or more computers-fail the must be redistributed. The redistribution is determined by the recovery scheme. The recovery scheme should keep the load as evenly distributed as possible even when the most unfavorable combinations of computers break down, i.e. we want to optimize the worst-case behavior. In this paper we define recovery schemes, which are optimal for a number of important cases. We also show that the problem of finding optimal recovery schemes corresponds to the mathematical problem of finding sequences of integers with minimal sum and for which all sums of subsequences are unique.

  • 320. Lundberg, Lars
    et al.
    Klonowska, Kamilla
    Broberg, Magnus
    Lennerstad, Håkan
    Comparing the Optimal Performance of Multiprocessor Architectures2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consider a parallel program with n processes and a synchronization granularity z. Consider also two multiprocessors: a multiprocessor with q processors and run-time reallocation of processes to processors, and a multiprocessor with k processors and no run-time reallocation. There is an inter processor communication delay of t time units for the system with no run-time reallocation. In this paper we define a function g(n,k,q,t,z) such that the minimum completion time for all programs with n processes and a granularity z is at most g(n,k,q,t,z) times longer using the system with no reallocation and k processors compared to using the system with q processors and run-time reallocation. We assume optimal allocation and scheduling of processes to processors. The function g(n,k,q,t,z) is optimal in the sense that there is at least one program, with n processes and a granularity z, such that the ratio is exactly g(n,k,q,t,z). We also validate our results using measurements on distributed and multiprocessor Sun/Solaris environments.

  • 321. Lundberg, Lars
    et al.
    Lennerstad, Håkan
    Global multiprocessor scheduling of aperiodic tasks using time-independent priorities2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We provide a constant time schedulability test for a multiprocessor server handling aperiodic tasks. Dhall's effect is avoided by dividing the tasks in two priority classes based on task utilization: heavy and light. We prove that if the load on the multiprocessor server stays below U-threshold = 3 - root7 = 35.425%, the server can accept incoming aperiodic tasks and guarantee that the deadlines of all accepted tasks will be met. 35.425% utilization is also a threshold for a task to be characterized as heavy. The bound U-threshold = 3 - root7 approximate to 35.425% is easy-to-use, but not sharp if we know the number of processors in the multiprocessor. For a server with m processors, we calculate a formula for the sharp bound U-threshold(m), which converges to U-threshold from above as m --> infinity. The results are based on a utilization function u(m)(x) = 2(1-x)/(2+ root2+2x)+x/m. By using this function, the performance of the multiprocessor can in some cases be improved beyond U-threshold(m) by paying the extra overhead of monitoring the individual utilization of the current tasks.

  • 322. Lundberg, Lars
    et al.
    Roos, Marco
    Predicting and speedup of multithreaded Solaris programs1997Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 323. Lundberg, Lars
    et al.
    Svahnberg, Charlie
    Normal Versus Worst-case Performance in High Availability Cluster and Distributed Computing2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clusters and distributed systems offer fault tolerance and high performance, When all computers are up and running, we would like the load to be evenly distributed among the computers. When a computer breaks down the load on this computer must be redistributed to the other computers in the cluster. Most cluster systems are designed to tolerate one single fault, and one can thus distinguish between two modes of operation: normal operation when all computers are up and running and worst-case operation when one computer is down. The performance during these two modes of operation is determined by the way work is allocated to the computers in the cluster or distributed system. It turns out that the same allocation can in general not achieve optimal normal and worst-case performance, i.e. there is a trade-off. In this paper we put an optimal upper bound on the loss of normal case performance when optimizing for worst-case performance, and an optimal upper bound on the loss of worst-case case performance when optimizing for normal case performance. We also provide a heuristic algorithm for doing engineering trade-offs between worst-case and normal case performance.

  • 324.
    Magnusson, Linn
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Andersson, Therese
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Användbarhet: En studie av BTH:s webbplats2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning Idag finns många interaktiva tjänster, till exempel publika webbtjänster. Dessa tjänster väljer användaren själv om han/hon vill använda sig av. Detta betyder att produkten bör vara enkel och behaglig att använda, annars tappar man användare och eventuella kunder. Det finns ett flertal teorier och guidelines för hur man gör en webbplats användbar. I denna rapport har vi valt att behandla de teorier som rör navigering och informationsstruktur och jämför dessa med Blekinge Tekniska Högskolas webbplats. Vi har studerat användbarheten på webbplatsen, om det finns något som kan förbättras och om webbplatsen uppfyller användarens krav när det gäller navigering och informationens struktur. För att kunna ta reda på vår frågeställning har vi gjort olika studier. Vi har intervjuat informationschefen på Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, för att få en bra uppfattning av hur skapandet av webbplatsen gick till. För att ta reda på hur webbplatsen upplevs av användaren, valde vi att utföra användbarhetstester. Vi testade webbplatsens användbarhet på totalt tio användare. Dessa användare bestod av studenter som nu finns på skolan. Men vi hade även användare som bestod av eventuellt blivande studenter. Testerna bestod av moment som användaren skulle utföra, men även av intervjufrågor. Vi kom fram till att användarna uppfattade webbplatsen som användbar och i många olika frågor samtyckte med utvecklaren av webbplatsen. Det fanns dock frågor där de tyckte olika, till exempel gällande informationens placering på startsidan. Det var intressant att se att trots att användarna tyckte att webbplatsen var användbar hade de en hel del synpunkter och förslag som kan förbättra BTH:s webbplats. Dessa tester har hjälpt oss att ta fram en del förbättringsförslag som utvecklaren kan ha nytta utav inför nästa omarbetning av webbplatsen.

  • 325.
    Magnusson, Veronika
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Lindström, Anna
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    En utvärdering av fastighetsskötares användande av ett mobilt arbetsordersystem2002Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is important to follow up, whether a system is full functionable and useable, when a new system is being introduced. Enovation in Karlskrona has developed a mobile workorder system to the janitors of the real estate company Gallionen. We have been evaluating this system with this paper. There are many reasons why the system was developed. The most important, was that the janitors wouldn?t have to drive back and forth to the reception to get new workorders. They could also get away from bringing a lot of papers. They would now have a better overview about their own and the other janitors work during a workday. We have first and foremost been focused whether the system really makes the janitors workday more easy. We decided then to compare the current system with how it worked before it came in use and which advantages and disadvantages that comes with the system and the earlier way of working. At last we have been talking about some new functions and changes that we after our investigations have found very appropriate for the system. We have not been able to decide the selection by our selves, because the only user of the system is three male janitors. We first interviewed the janitors one by one, and complemented the results by observing them a half workday. Finally we performed a test of the system by our own where we received a lot of proposals of new functions and changes. If technical problems can be ignored, the useability of the system are great in the highest degree. It is hard to say how much influence the work order system has had in the janitos work, since the janitors still uses the old way to work by in parallel with the new system. We have come to the conclusion that the system in the highest degree have facilitate the janitors working day. It is easy to learn, easy to understand and it works almost totally accordning to the janitors desire. We believe in the system as an aid, but we find it rather hard to understand why a company with onlu three users has choosen to introduce the system. We think that the system will be more useful in a company with more persons involved.

  • 326.
    Maksimovic, Gordana
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Query Languages for Semi-structured Data2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Semi-structured data is defined as irregular data with structure that may change rapidly or unpredictably. An example of such data can be found inside the World-Wide Web. Since the data is irregular, the user may not know the complete structure of the database. Thus, querying such data becomes a difficult issue. In order to write meaningful queries on semi-structured data, there is a need for a query language that will support the features that are presented by this data. Standard query languages, such as SQL for relational databases and OQL for object databases, are too constraining for querying semi-structured data, because they require data to conform to a fixed schema before any data is stored into the database. This paper introduces Lorel, a query language developed particularly for querying semi-structured data. Furthermore, it investigates if the standardised query languages support any of the criteria presented for semi-structured data. The result is an evaluation of three query languages, SQL, OQL and Lorel against these criteria.

  • 327.
    Malmberg, Ulrika
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Lorentzon, Thomas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    En studie om HTML och XML: Blir det en förbättrad struktur i dokumenten med XML jämfört med HTML?2001Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Problemområde: I dag utvecklas nästan alla webbsidor på Internet med märkspråket HTML. XML är ett nytt märkspråk och används bland annat för att utveckla webbsidor. Uppsatsen undersöker skillnader mellan de båda märkspråkens grundläggande dokumentstruktur. Den grundläggande dokumentstrukturen för HTML är HTML, HEAD och BODY samt för XML är den Prolog, Rot and Epilog. Hypotes: Uppsatsen baseras på hypotesen -?Vid användning av XML blir det en förbättrad struktur på informationen i dokumenten?. Genomförandet: För att undersöka hypotesen har två kriterier definierats och testats; Märkspråkens struktur och Sökbarheten i märkspråkens struktur. De två kriterierna undersöks med hjälp av tre olika tester, varav två tester tillhörande det första kriteriet och det tredje testet tillhörande det andra kriteriet. De två första testerna utförs med hjälp av fem testpersoner och det tredje med hjälp av två sökmotorer på Internet. Slutsats: Test ett och två visade att XMLs dokumentstruktur är mycket lättare att läsa jämfört med HTMLs dokumentstruktur enligt resultaten och analysen efter testerna. Även det tredje testet visade att XMLs dokumentstruktur är förbättrad jämfört med HTMLs dokumentstruktur. Slutsatsen som drogs av testresultaten bekräftar hypotesen.

  • 328.
    Malmgren, Magnus
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Mobile Internet Developing2001Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The problem that is examined is how to make courses from the product of Academy World "Kunskapsbanken" to be suitable for accessing from a smart phone. "Kunskapsbanken is Web product where customer take courses over the Internet. To determine the suitability of each course page three Factors:  Page size  Transmission rate  Information presentation technique are examined of how they are configured and then checked against three criteria's:  15 second criteria  Page size criteria  Comparison criteria If the factors are within the limits of the criteria's the course page in question is suitable. All pages are examined according to the mentioned procedure individually Seven of seventeen tested course pages in the course "Euron i din vardag" where approved according to the comparison criteria. Three were approved with exception, which means that some part of the page was not approved. With a 9.6 kbps connection three pages were approved, with a 28.8 kbps connection nine pages were approved and with a 43.2 kbps connection nine pages were approved according to the 15 second and page size criteria. Important things to find out are the technical features of the smart phone(s) which are suppose to access the pages e.g. browser version, support for presentation techniques HTML, WML and scripts and in what way it is connected to the Internet. The use of client side scripting should not be relied on, there should be an alternative way to the functionality it provides e.g. server side scripting. Frames should be avoided, when making a Web page for mobile accessing.

  • 329. Marchese, Maurizio
    et al.
    Jacucci, Gianni
    Martin, Mike
    Wessels, Bridgette
    Dittrich, Yvonne
    Eriksén, Sara
    A Participatory design approach for the development of environments in eGovernment services to citizens.2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of eGovernment services and applications leads to major changes in the structure and operation of public administrations. We describe the work in progress in an Italian project called "SPO.T." aimed at the analysis, development, deployment and evaluation of tools and environments to support the people who plan, deliver, use and evaluate user-centred provision of One-Stop-Shop services to citizens. The "SPO.T." project has focused on two requirements: 1. the support tools and environments must facilitate the active involvement of all stakeholders in the definition and evolution of eGovernment applications and services, and it is argued that through participatory design changes of structure, process and culture can be delivered effectively; 2. they must embody a set of architecturally coherent resources which reflect the new roles and relationships of public administration and which are sufficiently generic to be relevant to a wide range of local contexts across the community.

  • 330.
    Matton, Jonas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Tradeoffs Between Quality Attributes in a Large Telecommunication System2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Modern telecommunication applications must provide high availability and performance. They must also be maintainable in order to reduce the maintenance cost and time-to-market for new versions. Previous studies have shown that the ambition to build maintainable systems may result in very poor performance. Here we evaluate an application called SDP pre-paid and show that the ambition to build systems with high performance and availability can lead to a complex software design with poor maintainability. We show that more than 85% of the SDP code is due to performance and availability optimizations. By implementing a SDP prototype with an alternative architecture we show that the code size can be reduced with an order of magnitude by removing the performance and availability optimizations from the source code and instead using modern fault tolerant hardware and third party software. The performance and availability of the prototype is as least as good as the old SDP. The hardware and third party software cost is only 20-30% higher for the prototype. We also define three guidelines that help us to focus the additional hardware investments to the parts where it is really needed.

  • 331. Mattsson, Michael
    Comparison of Three Evaluation Methods for Object-Oriented Framework Evolution2006In: Software Evolution and Feedback / [ed] Madhavji, Nazim H.; Fernandez-Ramil, Juan; , Dewayne Perry, John Wiley & Sons , 2006, p. 281-311Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 332. Mattsson, Michael
    Evolution and Composition of Object-Oriented Frameworks2000Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis comprises studies of evolution and composition of object-oriented frameworks, a certain kind of reusable asset. An object-oriented framework is a set of classes that embodies an abstract design for solutions to a family of related problems. The work presented is based on and has its origin in industrial contexts where object-oriented frameworks have been developed, used, evolved and managed. Thus, the results are based on empirical observations. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches have been used in the studies performed which cover both technical and managerial aspects of object-oriented framework technology. Historically, object-oriented frameworks are large monolithic assets which require several design iterations and are therefore costly to develop. With the requirement of building larger applications, software engineers have started to compose multiple frameworks, thereby encountering a number of problems. Five common framework composition problems, together with existing solution approaches and the underlying causes for the problems are presented in this thesis. Adopting a reuse technology, such as object-oriented frameworks, in a software development organization causes changes and additions of practices and procedures. We present problems and possible solutions related to these issues. Examples of topics addressed are; domain scoping, business models, verification of the framework’s abstract behavior, and when to release a framework. Object-oriented frameworks, as all software, evolve due to changed and new requirements. The evolution of object-oriented framework can be more costly than conventional software since there generally exist several applications based on and forced to evolve with the framework. In our studies, we characterize different views of framework evolution. Aspects investigated are structural and behavioral stability, change and growth rates using historical information and effort distribution of framework development and customization. We also provide an assessment of the methods used for characterizing the evolution against the following management issues; identification of evolution-prone modules, framework deployment, change impact analysis, benchmarking and requirements management. As part of these studies, we have extended and validated two proposed methods for software evolution; one for quantitatively assessing stability of a framework, which has been extended with a set of framework stability indicators, and one for identifying evolution-prone modules based on historical information (adapted for object-orientation). Our studies have validated that these methods are feasible and possible to apply on industrial object-oriented frameworks. In addition, we provide quantitative evidence that the use of framework technology reduces application development effort.

  • 333. Mattsson, Michael
    et al.
    Bosch, Jan
    Assessing Object-Oriented Application Framework Maturity: A Replicated Case Study1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Object-oriented application frameworks present one of the most successful approaches to developing reusable assets in industry, but developing frameworks is both difficult and expensive. Framework generally evolve to maturity through a number of iterations due to the incorporation of new requirements and better domain understanding. Since changes to frameworks have a large impact due to the effects on the applications build based on the asset, it is important to assess the maturity of a framework. Bansiya [3, 4] presents an approach to assessing framework maturity based on a set of design metrics and formulates four statements. In this paper, we present the results of a replicated case study of the framework maturity assessment approach. Our study subject consists of four successive versions of a proprietary black-box application framework. Our findings partly support the statements formulated in the original study, but differ in some places. The differences are discussed and explanations and argumentation provided.

  • 334. Mattsson, Michael
    et al.
    Bosch, Jan
    Assessment of Three Evaluation Methods for Object-Oriented Framework Evolution1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Object-oriented framework technology has become a common reuse technology in object-oriented software development. As with all software, frameworks tend to evolve. Once the framework has been deployed, new versions of a framework cause high maintenance cost for the products built with the framework. This fact in combination with the high costs of developing and evolving an object-oriented framework make it important to have controlled and predictable evolution of the framework?s functionality and costs. We present three methods 1) Evolution Identification Using Historical Information, 2) Stability Assessment and 3) Distribution of Development Effort which have been applied to between one to three different frameworks, both in the proprietary and commercial domain. The methods provide management with information which will make it possible to make well-informed decisions about the framework?s evolution, especially with respect to the following issues; identification of evolution-prone modules, framework deployment, change impact analysis, benchmarking and requirements management. Finally, the methods are compared to each other with respect to costs and benefits.

  • 335. Mattsson, Michael
    et al.
    Bosch, Jan
    Characterizing Stability in Evolving Frameworks1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Object-oriented application frameworks present one of the most successful approaches to developing reusable assets in industry, but developing frameworks is both difficult and expensive. Framework generally evolve through a number of iterations due to the incorporation of new requirements and better domain understanding. Since changes to frameworks have a large impact on the applications build based on the asset, it is important to assess the stability of a framework. Recently, an approach for assessing framework stability has been proposed [3]. We have extended and applied the assessment approach on one proprietary telecommunication framework and two commercial GUI application frameworks. Based on our findings we formulate a set of hypotheses, which characterize the stability of an object-oriented application framework. We believe these hypotheses to be the most promising ones for further studies of framework stability.

  • 336. Mattsson, Michael
    et al.
    Bosch, Jan
    Observations on the Evolution of an Industrial OO Framework1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently an approach for identifying potential modules for restructuring in large software systems using product release history was presented[4]. In this study we have adapted the original approach to better suit object-oriented frameworks and applied it to an industrial black-box framework product in the telecommunication domain. Our study shows that using historical information as a way of identifying structural shortcomings in an object-oriented system is viable and useful. The study thereby strengthens the suggested approach in [4] and demonstrates that the approach is adaptable and useful for object-oriented systems. The usefulness of the original approach has been validated through this study too.

  • 337.
    Mejstad, Valdemar
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Tångby, Karl-Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Compiling an Interpreted Processing Language: Improving Performance in a Large Telecommunication System2001Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this report we evaluate different techniques for increasing the performance of an interpreted processing language in a telecommunication system, called Billing Gateway R8. We have implemented a prototype in which we first translate the language into C++ code, and then compile it using a C++ compiler. In our prototype we experienced a threefold increase in processing throughput, compared to the original system, when running on a Symmetric Multi Processor with four CPU:s that were under full load. The prototype also showed better scalability than Billing Gateway R8, due to less use of dynamic memory management.

  • 338. Mejstad, Valdemar
    et al.
    Tångby, Karl-Johan
    Lundberg, Lars
    Improving Multiprocessor Performance of a Large Telecommunication System by Replacing Interpretation with Compilation.2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider different techniques for increasing the multiprocessor performance of an interpreted processing language in a large real-time telecommunication system, called Billing Gateway. We have implemented a prototype in which we first translate the language into C++ code, and then compile it using a C++ compiler. In our prototype we achieved a more than fourfold increase in throughput, compared to the original system, when running on an SMP with eight CPUs. The prototype also shows better scalability than the original system, due to less use of dynamic memory.

  • 339.
    Mellstrand, Per
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Protection of System Layer Affordances2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With more and more open systems connected to the Internet security is perhaps the most important attribute of modern software systems. A large problem when creating secure systems is developers misunderstanding or incorrectly assuming how objects behave. In this paper I describe how such incorrect assumption can result in large problems in software systems, under which conditions these problems typically appear and a method that can be used to reduce the number of software defects caused by incorrect assumption.

  • 340. Mellstrand, Per
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Rune
    Safe Execution of Unreliable Software2003In: Electronical Notes in Theoretical Computer Science, ISSN 1571-0661, E-ISSN 1571-0661, Vol. 85, no 3, p. 71-88Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 341.
    Milicic, Drazen
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Svensson, Pontus
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Sparks to a living quality organization1998Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    See pdf-file

  • 342.
    Molin, Gustaf
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Graphically visualising large hierarchies of information2001Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The age of information means too much information. Users want relief from information overload. They need the ability to navigate and explore large data sets without getting buried. The challenge for application developers is to provide both an overview of huge data sets and a useful interface for drilling down to access details of interest. The use of new techniques for graphical visualisation of large hierarchies of information provides a solution to these problems. These new techniques apply knowledge gained from cognitive psychology and put them into practice. All to improve usability and lucidity for the user. In this thesis a case study has been conducted in order to provide proof to the above statement. An application was developed using the Visual tree studio from inxight. The application explored the Hyperbolic tree. The case study was connected to the theoretical part of the thesis and the conclusion is that using the hyperbolic tree when visualising large hierarchies of information will improve lucidity and usability.

  • 343.
    Mui, Angela Koh Ser
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Investigation of IT/IS Outsourcing in Singapore2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of outsourcing information technology (IT) or systems (IS) has been around since mid 1960s. Today, outsourcing has become a potentially viable business solution that many IT managers are looking into in order to remain competitive in the current dynamic business and technological environment. In Singapore, the recent IT outsourcing by DBS Bank has raised the awareness and sparked off the interest to conduct this study. The purpose of this thesis is therefore to investigate this latest IT trend and to look into the concepts and practice of outsourcing in Singapore. An intensive literature review and an empirical survey based on questionnaire technique were conducted to learn about outsourcing concepts and practices. In the literature review, the concepts of outsourcing were explored. The different types of outsourcing practices and trends, categories of outsourcing services, drivers, benefits, risks, challenges and critical success factors of outsourcing based on the lessons learnt from past outsourcing experiences were discussed while the survey assessed the IT/IS outsourcing trend in Singapore. The survey revealed that outsourcing has been a positive experience. Generally, there are differences in views between people of different roles and there is a gap in the understanding and practice of IT/IS outsourcing in Singapore in comparison to the literature.It is learnt in this study that outsourcing is not a perfect and workable solution for everyone. Organizations should always stand back and examine the outsourcing option. The bottom line is outsourcing should always be backed by an objective business case. It should be not a decision that blindly follows the market trend. Organizations should not simply jump into the outsourcing bandwagon without fully comprehending the outsourcing concept. Thorough evaluation of the feasibility of such business venture is necessary.

  • 344.
    Månsson, Joacim
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Lindgren, Marcus
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    XML som informationsbärare för EDI2001Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Informationshantering har varit en viktig fråga för olika företag under en längre tid. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) används för att transportera affärsdokument mellan företag. Utbytet sker på ett sådant sätt att informationen som skickas, är separerad från hur informationen lagras och hanteras i företagens interna system. Då olika företag har olika system, behövs ett standardiserat format för detta utbyte. Det är en stor skillnad mellan EDI-system beroende på vilken EDI-standard som används. Den mest använda standarden i Europa är EDIFACT, men med ett ökat intresse för att använda Internet för företagskommunikation behövs det en standard som är anpassad för Internet. En XML-baserad standard för företagskommunikation ses som ett alternativ för användning över Internet. XML, som är ett språk utvecklat för Internet, kan vara ett alternativ för EDI-kommunikation. Uppsatsen tar upp ämnen såsom business-to-business (B2B), e-handels fördelar, affärssystem, olika EDI-standarder och visar en schematisk bild över EDI-system. Huvudsyftet med uppsatsen är att titta närmare på en XML-baserad standard för EDI. Samt att undersöka om den är mogen att användas som ett alternativ för EDI. Resultatet, från vår intervju och litteraturstudier, är att en XML-baserad lösning för EDI inte är tillräckligt mogen för att ersätta nuvarande EDI-standarder. En XML-baserad lösning skall ses som ett komplement till existerande EDI-standarder.

  • 345. Mårtensson, Frans
    et al.
    Grahn, Håkan
    Mattsson, Michael
    An Approach for Performance Evaluation of Software Architectures using Prototyping2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fundamental structure of a software system is referred to as the software architecture. Researchers have identified that the quality attributes of a software system, e.g., performance and maintainability, often are restricted by the architecture. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the quality properties of a system already during architectural design. In this paper we propose an approach for evaluating the performance of a software architecture using architectural prototyping. As a part of the approach we have developed an evaluation support framework. We also show the applicability of the approach and evaluate it using a case study of a distributed software system for automated guided vehicles.

  • 346.
    Mårtensson, Frans
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Jönsson, Per
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Software Architecture Simulation2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A software architecture is one of the first steps towards a software system. A software architecture can be designed in different ways. During the design phase, it is important to select the most suitable design of the architecture, in order to create a good foundation for the system. The selection process is performed by evaluating architecture alternatives against each other. We investigate the use of continuous simulation of a software architecture as a support tool for architecture evaluation. For this purpose, we study a software architecture of an existing software system in an experiment, where we create a model of it using a tool for continuous simulation, and simulate the model. Based on the results from the simulation, we conclude that the system is too complex to be modeled for continuous simulation. Problems we identify are that we need discrete functionality to be able to correctly simulate the system, and that it is very time-consuming to develop a model for evaluation purposes. Thus, we find that continuous simulation is not appropriate for evaluating a software architecture, but that the modeling process is a valuable tool for increasing knowledge and understanding about an architecture.

  • 347. Mårtensson, Frans
    et al.
    Jönsson, Per
    Bengtsson, PerOlof
    Grahn, Håkan
    Mattsson, Michael
    A Case Against Continous Simulation for Software Architecture Evaluation2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 348.
    Möller, Ulrika
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Novljakovic, Ervina
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Rudolphson, Ann-Sofie C
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Elektronisk identifiering vid 24-timmarsmyndighet: en fallstudie i Karlskrona kommun2002Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of Internet and number of services increase more and more. Internet is an open media and to be able to use Internet in a greater extent even when you handle with sensitive information you need better security. The purpose with this report is from Karlskrona municipality security policy together with citizen opinions about security, analyse which security solution that is best at the planned 24- hour- government. This report examines which of the alternative citizen certificate that authorities are allowed to use. The goal is to be able to present a possible solution for electronic identification in the future 24- hour- government at Karlskrona municipality. To be able to realize this investigation we have used interview, questionnaire and literature studies. To enhance the understanding of the report, are there some backgrounds facts. The research were carried out with analyse of the possible citizen certificate and of the questionnaire that was carried out among the citizens. The result shows that soft certificate is best for the future 24- hour- government. The citizen certificate that answered our questions best is the one provided by Föreningssparbanken.

  • 349.
    Nilsson, Janna
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Gunnarsson, Sophie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Utvecklingen av röstigenkänningsprogram under en treårsperiod2002Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta kandidatarbete är utarbetat på Blekinge Tekniska Högskola under våren 2002. I utredningen har vi jämfört röstigenkänningsprogram under en treårsperiod, program från 1999 och program från 2002. 1999 års test visade på programvaror med lång träningstid, enkla gränssnitt, stor känslighet för bakgrundsljud och låg användbarhet. Vid arbetsstart förväntade vi oss inte att hitta någon större förändring i användbarheten hos dessa program 2002, då röstigenkänningsprogram inte verkar ha stor användarskara. Utifrån följande hypotes har vi genomfört arbetet: Vi vill med vår undersökning bevisa att användbarheten inom röstigenkänningsteknologi inte har förbättrats under perioden 1999-2002. Vi har för avsikt att med hjälp av test utförda på program och demoversioner bevisa vår hypotes. I enighet med bifogad testspecifikation har vi utfört testerna. Många företag har utvecklat sina produkter och gjort dem bättre. Men de vänder sig mot en annan marknad nu, år 2002, det är mot mobiltelefoni och inte mot diktering. Under utredningens gång har vi kommit fram till att vår hypotes stämmer. Det tar fortfarande lång tid att träna röstigenkänningsprogram och det blir många fel.

  • 350.
    Nilsson, Kim
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Increasing Quality with Pair Programming2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Extreme programming is an agile software development process, which has gained a lot of publicity the last couple of years. It has also brought Pair Programming into new light. Research and experiments have shown that the usage of Pair Programming can increase the quality in software development. People who used Pair Programming are usually satisfied using it and they are also more confident in their solutions. Having a pair colleague is not redundancy, people bring the best out of each other and they produce better solutions. Wages for employees are today heavy costs for companies but quality and time aspects in software development become more and more important. A quantitative survey has been conducted among professionals and students, both with and without Pair Programming experience. People surveyed have very low resistance from the start when using Pair Programming. They actually find benefits from it compared to being singles, but they think it should not be used on every task and at every time. This report investigates if Pair Programming is a technique to increase quality and productivity within software development. We also address business related aspects compared to the usage of Pair Programming as well as management aspects to see if we can find other synergy effects from the use of Pair Programming.

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