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  • 301.
    Madhira, Phani Srikara Sastry
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Investigating the Applicability of Agile Practices in Software Organizations2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Agile software development has gained significant importance the recent years. Software practitioners have recognized the importance of agile development due to the benefits offered. Therefore, agile software development has been identified as the replacement to traditional or plan driven style of development. There are different frameworks or methods, which follow agile principles, known as agile methodologies. SCRUM and XP are the most popular and widely used agile methods or framework. There are different types of agile methodologies, each containing a set of practices, which can be adapted and implemented in an organization. However, there is still a need for empirical studies to understand the factors like requirements/modifications, challenges and mitigation strategies/techniques, which can enable successful implementation of agile practices in software organizations. In this study, the primary objective is to provide a comprehensive model or framework to practitioners, which includes the list of important requirements/modifications, challenges and mitigation strategies/techniques while implementing agile, and also pertaining to adoption/implementation of individual agile practices specific to SCRUM and XP. This model also includes the categorization of the requirements/modifications and challenges into different levels of an organization, to which they mostly apply. This conceptual model or framework can aid the practitioners in understanding and implementing agile practices in a better way in their organizations. In this study, an industrial survey is conducted in order to identify the list of important requirements/modifications that are needed to implement agile, challenges faced during implementation, and mitigation strategies/techniques needed to address the challenges. Also, categorization of the identified lists into different levels of the organization is also performed using survey. A systematic literature review is performed in order to identify the primary lists of requirements/modifications, challenges and mitigation strategies/techniques, which are further validated and classified using survey. Also, systematic literature review is used to identify the list of requirements/modifications, challenges and mitigation strategies/techniques that are needed while implementing individual agile practices specific to SCRUM and XP. Based on the systematic literature review, 53 primary studies were identified which are relevant to the research area. Upon analyzing the primary studies, the list of requirements/modifications, challenges and solutions are identified for generic agile adoption/implementation and also pertaining to individual practices specific to SCRUM and XP. Thereupon, an industrial survey is conducted where, identified list of requirements/modifications, challenges and mitigation strategies/techniques are provided to the respondents. Respondents were asked to classify the obtained aspects based on the level of importance. Also, they were asked to categorize the obtained requirements/modifications and challenges into different levels of an organization. The survey has obtained 48 responses from different parts of the world. From the results of survey, requirements/modifications, challenges and mitigation strategies/techniques are classified based on the level of importance. Also, requirements/modifications and challenges are categorized into different levels of an organization. Using the obtained factors, a conceptual model or framework was constructed for practitioners that can enable them to understand and implement agile practices in their organizations in a better way. To conclude this research, a comprehensive model or framework was constructed using the final list of important requirements/modifications, challenges and mitigation strategies/techniques while implementing/adopting agile and also pertaining to the individual agile practices, and also based on the categorization of the requirements and challenges into levels of an organization, where they are applicable. The final list of identified lists of requirements/modifications; challenges and mitigation strategies/techniques pertaining to individual agile practices can help practitioners to understand the implementation criteria of agile practices in software organizations. It was observed from the results of survey that perception of literature and practitioners are different in terms of usage of agile practices, as some practices, which were given high focus in the literature, were not given equal priority by the respondents. Empirical findings also help to identify change in policies and procedures and change to open workspace as most important requirements/modifications, organizational resistance and lack of motivated programmers as most critical challenges and proper training and inclusion of experts as most used mitigation strategies/techniques. Moreover, it was concluded that there is also a need for further full-scale empirical works on identifying the factors that affect adoption of agile. Practitioners can identify the benefits from this research and researchers can extend this work to remaining agile methodologies.

  • 302.
    Magapu, Akshay Kumar
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Yarlagadda, Nikhil
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Performance, Scalability, and Reliability (PSR) challenges, metrics and tools for web testing: A Case Study2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Testing of web applications is an important task, as it ensures the functionality and quality of web applications. The quality of web application comes under non-functional testing. There are many quality attributes such as performance, scalability, reliability, usability, accessibility and security. Among these attributes, PSR is the most important and commonly used attributes considered in practice. However, there are very few empirical studies conducted on these three attributes.

    Objectives. The purpose of this study is to identify metrics and tools that are available for testing these three attributes. And also to identify the challenges faced while testing these attributes both from literature and practice.

    Methods. In this research, a systematic mapping study was conducted in order to collect information regarding the metrics, tools, challenges and mitigations related to PSR attributes. The required information is gathered by searching in five scientific databases. We also conducted a case study to identify the metrics, tools and challenges of the PSR attributes in practice. The case study is conducted at Ericsson, India where eight subjects were interviewed. And four subjects working in other companies (in India) were also interviewed in order to validate the results obtained from the case company. In addition to this, few documents of previous projects from the case company are collected for data triangulation.

    Results. A total of 69 metrics, 54 tools and 18 challenges are identified from systematic mapping study. And 30 metrics, 18 tools and 13 challenges are identified from interviews. Data is also collected through documents and a total of 16 metrics, 4 tools and 3 challenges were identified from these documents. We formed a list based on the analysis of data that is related to tools, metrics and challenges.

    Conclusions. We found that metrics available from literature are overlapping with metrics that are used in practice. However, tools found in literature are overlapping only to some extent with practice. The main reason for this deviation is because of the limitations that are identified for the tools, which lead to the development of their own in-house tool by the case company. We also found that challenges are partially overlapped between state of art and practice. We are unable to collect mitigations for all these challenges from literature and hence there is a need for further research to be done. Among the PSR attributes, most of the literature is available on performance attribute and most of the interviewees are comfortable to answer the questions related to performance attribute. Thus, we conclude there is a lack of empirical research related to scalability and reliability attributes. As of now, our research is dealing with PSR attributes in particular and there is a scope for further research in this area. It can be implemented on the other quality attributes and the research can be done in a larger scale (considering more number of companies).

  • 303.
    Maglyas, Andrey
    et al.
    Lappeenrannan Teknillinen Yliopisto, FIN.
    Nikula, Uolevi
    Lappeenrannan Teknillinen Yliopisto, FIN.
    Smolander, Kari
    Aalto Yliopisto Tuotantotalouden Laitos, FIN.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Core software product management activities2017In: Journal of Advances in Management Research, ISSN 0972-7981, E-ISSN 2049-3207, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 23-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Software product management (SPM) unites disciplines related to product strategy, planning, development, and release. There are many organizational activities addressing technical, social, and market issues when releasing a software product. Owing to the high number of activities involved, SPM remains a complex discipline to adopt. The purpose of this paper is to understand what are the core and supporting SPM activities. Design/methodology/approach - The authors adopted the research method of meta-ethnography to present a set of techniques for synthesizing individual qualitative studies to increase the degree of conceptualization. The results obtained from three empirical studies were synthesized using the meta-ethnography approach to enhance, rethink, and create a higher level abstraction of the findings. Findings - The results show that the study has both theoretical and practical contribution. As the meta-ethnography synthesis has not been widely applied in software engineering, the authors illustrate how to use this research method in the practice of software engineering research. The practical contribution of the study is in the identification of five core and six supporting SPM activities. Originality/value - The practical value of this paper is in the identification of core SPM activities that should be present in any company practicing SPM. The list of supporting SPM consists of activities that are not reported to product manager but affect the product success.

  • 304.
    Mahmood, Farrukh
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Rasheed, Waqas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Quality Requirement Abstraction Model (QRAM)2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Requirement engineering (RE) is an important phase in any project. Both functional and non-functional requirements are required to be elicited. Quality requirements (QRs) are usually catered at the end of software development process. Along with functional requirements, non-functional (QRs) also need to be handled and implemented through a structural way. It is observed that most organizations do not have proper management for quality requirements in their project life cycles. Especially if we consider the case of market driven requirement engineering (MDRE), it is a dire need to handle those QRs along with the functional requirement using a structural way. In this study we investigate Requirements Abstraction Model (RAM), which is basically designed for MDRE and is the case of continuous RE. The purpose was to analyze RAM specifications, which could be able to provide an effective way of manage QRs. RAM also deals with the specification of QRs, so it was required to investigate that how effective RAM can handle the creation of QRs.

  • 305.
    Mahmud, Zakaria
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Source of New and Advance Scientific Knowledge of Software Practitioners2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Academic researchers publish their results of new and advanced scientific knowledge (often in close collaboration with industry) in academic journals and conferences. However, it is not know to what extent this information reaches the practitioners. So far this has not been investigated. This information will help researchers in the dissemination process of their research findings. Objectives: In this study we investigate which types of knowledge dissemination forums exist in software engineering, how frequent and aware they are to software practitioners and how useful they find it in improving their professional activities. Methods: We conducted a survey of software practitioners posted on LinkedIn, Yahoo, Facebook, Google+, Meetup and Google groups. The survey contained demographics information, seven types of forums for obtaining scientific knowledge and how important respondents felt these forums improve their professional activities. Results: The results of the survey indicate that Book Publishers, Blogs, Video Tutorial and Social Media are considerable forums of sharing new and advance scientific knowledge for software practitioners. Whilst, IT magazines, scientific journals and meetings are suggested to be less considered forums in gaining new and advanced scientific knowledge. Conclusions: We conclude that academic researchers could improve the exposure of their research findings by presenting their results not only in journals and meetings. But also in new forums where they can represent results in the form of videos, blogs or social media. This exposes their research findings to a larger audience of software practitioners.

  • 306.
    Maksimov, Yuliyan V.
    et al.
    FHNW University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, CHE.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Tutschku, Kurt
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Artifact Compatibility for Enabling Collaboration in the Artificial Intelligence Ecosystem2018In: Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, Springer, 2018, Vol. 336, p. 56-71Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different types of software components and data have to be combined to solve an artificial intelligence challenge. An emerging marketplace for these components will allow for their exchange and distribution. To facilitate and boost the collaboration on the marketplace a solution for finding compatible artifacts is needed. We propose a concept to define compatibility on such a marketplace and suggest appropriate scenarios on how users can interact with it to support the different types of required compatibility. We also propose an initial architecture that derives from and implements the compatibility principles and makes the scenarios feasible. We matured our concept in focus group workshops and interviews with potential marketplace users from industry and academia. The results demonstrate the applicability of the concept in a real-world scenario.

  • 307.
    Marculescu, Bogdan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Interactive Search-Based Software Testing: Development, Evaluation, and Deployment2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 308.
    Marculescu, Bogdan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Interactive Search-Based Testing of Embedded Software: Understanding the Benefits and Difficulties of Industrial Application2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ubiquity of software has wide-ranging consequences for its development and testing. Increasingly often, software is developed and tested by engineers specialized in other areas. Embedded software, for example, is developed ad-hoc, for each product, by systems and domain engineers. Supporting testing activities in this context requires a highly flexible approach, powerful enough to create useful test cases, yet simple enough to not require specialized training in software testing. Search-based software testing promises the ability to generate and evaluate large numbers of test cases at minimal cost. It is, however, a set of complex techniques that cannot be used off-the-shelf as part of the software development process of a company. The objective of the work presented in this thesis is to investigate the applicability of Search-Based Software Testing in an industrial environment. A second objective was identifying additional knowledge gaps relating to integrating such techniques in existing software development processes. Investigating how meaningful interaction is to take place, what information is needed in order for both stakeholders to be able to achieve their objectives is a third goal. The findings are obtained by means of a series of case studies in a company developing both embedded software and the tools to enable embedded software development. A prototype Interactive Search-Based Software Testing (ISBST) system was developed that uses user interaction to drive the search-based component towards interesting test cases. The ISBST system was evaluated constantly, and improved based on the findings of each case study. The latest case study was an empirical evaluation of the system with the engineers, both software engineers and domain specialists, in the company. The empirical work includes both qualitative and quantitative data, with a focus on the exploratory study of the practical factors affecting the use of the ISBST system. A key early finding is that interactivity is essential when implementing search-based techniques in the industrial context described above. Repeated validations conducted with the company yielded additional information on the practicalities of interaction. The strength of SBST proved useful in investigating areas of the test space that were normally overlooked due to limitations in terms of resources. At the same time, developers were able to use their experience and intuition to guide the SBST system towards test cases that were more likely to be problematic. Overall, the results obtained indicate that the search-based techniques provide a useful complement to existing testing techniques. SBST, in its interactive form, can be a useful complement to existing testing techniques. An Interactive SBST (ISBST) system has been developed as a result of this research. Results show that this system is usable by the developers of embedded software, that often specialize on acquiring domain knowledge rather than software engineering expertise.

  • 309.
    Marculescu, Bogdan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Finding a Boundary between Valid and Invalid Regions of the Input Space2019In: Proceedings - Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference, APSEC, IEEE Computer Society , 2019, p. 169-178, article id 8719523Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of robustness testing, the boundary between the valid and invalid regions of the input space can be an interesting source of erroneous inputs. Knowing where a specific software under test (SUT) has a boundary is also essential for validation in relation to requirements. However, finding where a SUT actually implements the boundary is a non-trivial problem that has not gotten much attention. This paper proposes a method of finding the boundary between the valid and invalid regions of the input space, by developing pairs of test sets that describe that boundary in detail. The proposed method consists of two steps. First, test data generators, directed by a search algorithm to maximise distance to known, valid test cases, generate valid test cases that are closer to the boundary. Second, these valid test cases undergo mutations to try to push them over the boundary and into the invalid part of the input space. This results in a pair of test sets, one consisting of test cases on the valid side of the boundary and a matched set on the outer side, with only a small distance between the two sets. The method is evaluated on a number of examples from the standard library of a modern programming language. We propose a method of determining the boundary between valid and invalid regions of the input space, and apply it on a SUT that has a non-contiguous valid region of the input space. From the small distance between the developed pairs of test sets, and the fact that one test set contains valid test cases and the other invalid test cases, we conclude that the pair of test sets described the boundary between the valid and invalid regions of that input space. Differences of behaviour can be observed between different distances and different sets of mutation operators, but all show that the method is able to identify the boundary between the valid and invalid regions of the input space. This is an important step towards more automated robustness testing. © 2018 IEEE.

  • 310.
    Marculescu, Bogdan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Torkar, Richard
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Practitioner-Oriented Visualization in an Interactive Search-Based Software Test Creation Tool2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Search-based software testing uses meta-heuristic search techniques to automate or partially automate testing tasks, such as test case generation or test data generation. It uses a fitness function to encode the quality characteristics that are relevant, for a given problem, and guides the search to acceptable solutions in a potentially vast search space. From an industrial perspective, this opens up the possibility of generating and evaluating lots of test cases without raising costs to unacceptable levels. First, however, the applicability of search-based software engineering in an industrial setting must be evaluated. In practice, it is difficult to develop a priori a fitness function that covers all practical aspects of a problem. Interaction with human experts offers access to experience that is otherwise unavailable and allows the creation of a more informed and accurate fitness function. Moreover, our industrial partner has already expressed a view that the knowledge and experience of domain specialists are more important to the overall quality of the systems they develop than software engineering expertise. In this paper we describe our application of Interactive Search Based Software Testing (ISBST) in an industrial setting. We used SBST to search for test cases for an industrial software module and based, in part, on interaction with a human domain specialist. Our evaluation showed that such an approach is feasible, though it also identified potential difficulties relating to the interaction between the domain specialist and the system.

  • 311.
    Marculescu, Bogdan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Torkar, Richard
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Poulding, Simon
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    An initial industrial evaluation of interactive search-based testing for embedded software2015In: Applied Soft Computing, ISSN 1568-4946, E-ISSN 1872-9681, Vol. 29, p. 26-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Search-based software testing promises the ability to generate and evaluate large numbers of test cases at minimal cost. From an industrial perspective, this could enable an increase in product quality without a matching increase in the time and effort required to do so. Search-based software testing, however, is a set of quite complex techniques and approaches that do not immediately translate into a process for use with most companies. For example, even if engineers receive the proper education and training in these new approaches, it can be hard to develop a general fitness function that covers all contingencies. Furthermore, in industrial practice, the knowledge and experience of domain specialists are often key for effective testing and thus for the overall quality of the final software system. But it is not clear how such domain expertise can be utilized in a search-based system. This paper presents an interactive search-based software testing (ISBST) system designed to operate in an industrial setting and with the explicit aim of requiring only limited expertise in software testing. It uses SBST to search for test cases for an industrial software module, while also allowing domain specialists to use their experience and intuition to interactively guide the search. In addition to presenting the system, this paper reports on an evaluation of the system in a company developing a framework for embedded software controllers. A sequence of workshops provided regular feedback and validation for the design and improvement of the ISBST system. Once developed, the ISBST system was evaluated by four electrical and system engineers from the company (the ’domain specialists’ in this context) used the system to develop test cases for a commonly used controller module. As well as evaluating the utility of the ISBST system, the study generated interaction data that were used in subsequent laboratory experimentation to validate the underlying search-based algorithm in the presence of realistic, but repeatable, interactions. The results validate the importance that automated software testing tools in general, and search-based tools, in particular, can leverage input from domain specialists while generating tests. Furthermore, the evaluation highlighted benefits of using such an approach to explore areas that the current testing practices do not cover or cover insufficiently. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 312.
    Marculescu, Bogdan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Torkar, Richard
    Chalmers, SWE.
    Poulding, Simon
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Transferring Interactive Search-Based Software Testing to Industry2018In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 142, p. 156-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Search-Based Software Testing (SBST), and the wider area of Search-Based Software Engineering (SBSE), is the application of optimization algorithms to problems in software testing, and software engineering, respectively. New algorithms, methods, and tools are being developed and validated on benchmark problems. In previous work, we have also implemented and evaluated Interactive Search-Based Software Testing (ISBST) tool prototypes, with a goal to successfully transfer the technique to industry. Objective: While SBST and SBSE solutions are often validated on benchmark problems, there is a need to validate them in an operational setting, and to assess their performance in practice. The present paper discusses the development and deployment of SBST tools for use in industry, and reflects on the transfer of these techniques to industry. Method: In addition to previous work discussing the development and validation of an ISBST prototype, a new version of the prototype ISBST system was evaluated in the laboratory and in industry. This evaluation is based on an industrial System under Test (SUT) and was carried out with industrial practitioners. The Technology Transfer Model is used as a framework to describe the progression of the development and evaluation of the ISBST system, as it progresses through the first five of its seven steps. Results: The paper presents a synthesis of previous work developing and evaluating the ISBST prototype, as well as presenting an evaluation, in both academia and industry, of that prototype's latest version. In addition to the evaluation, the paper also discusses the lessons learned from this transfer. Conclusions: This paper presents an overview of the development and deployment of the ISBST system in an industrial setting, using the framework of the Technology Transfer Model. We conclude that the ISBST system is capable of evolving useful test cases for that setting, though improvements in the means the system uses to communicate that information to the user are still required. In addition, a set of lessons learned from the project are listed and discussed. Our objective is to help other researchers that wish to validate search-based systems in industry, and provide more information about the benefits and drawbacks of these systems.

  • 313.
    Marculescu, Bogdan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Torkar, Rickard
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Using Exploration Focused Techniques to Augment Search-Based Software Testing: An Experimental Evaluation2016In: Proceedings - 2016 IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation, ICST 2016, IEEE Computer Society, 2016, p. 69-79, article id 7515460Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Search-based software testing (SBST) often uses objective-based approaches to solve testing problems. There are, however, situations where the validity and completeness of objectives cannot be ascertained, or where there is insufficient information to define objectives at all. Incomplete or incorrect objectives may steer the search away from interesting behavior of the software under test (SUT) and from potentially useful test cases. This papers investigates the degree to which exploration-based algorithms can be used to complement an objective-based tool we have previously developed and evaluated in industry. In particular, we would like to assess how exploration-based algorithms perform in situations where little information on the behavior space is available a priori. We have conducted an experiment comparing the performance of an exploration-based algorithm with an objective-based one on a problem with a high-dimensional behavior space. In addition, we evaluate to what extent that performance degrades in situations where computational resources are limited. Our experiment shows that exploration-based algorithms are useful in covering a larger area of the behavior space and result in a more diverse solution population. Typically, of the candidate solutions that exploration-based algorithms propose, more than 80% were not covered by their objective-based counterpart. This increased diversity is present in the resulting population even when computational resources are limited. We conclude that exploration-focused algorithms are a useful means of investigating high-dimensional spaces, even in situations where limited information and limited resources are available.

  • 314.
    Marculescu, Bogdan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Jabbari, Ramtin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Molléri, Jefferson Seide
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Perception of Scientific Evidence: Do Industry and Academia Share an Understanding?2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Collaboration depends on communication and upon having a similar understanding of the notions that are being discussed, and a similar appraisal of their value. Existing work seems to show that the collaboration between industry and academia is hampered by a difference in values. In particular, academic work focuses more on generalizing on the basis of existing evidence, while industry prefers to particularize conclusions to individual cases. This has lead to the conclusion that industry values scientific evidence less than academia does. 

    Objective: This paper seeks to re-evaluate that conclusion, and investigate if industry and academia share a definition of scientific evidence. If evidence can be found of competing views, we propose a more finely grained model of empirical evidence and its role in building software engineering knowledge. Moreover, we seek to determine if a more nuanced look the notion of scientific evidence has an influence on how academics and industry practitioners perceive that notion. 

    Method: We have developed a model of key concepts related to understanding empirical evidence in software engineering. An initial validation has been conducted, consisting of a survey of master students, to determine if competing views of evidence exist at that level. The model will be validated by further literature study and semistructured interviews with industry practitioners. 

    Results: We propose a model of empirical evidence in software engineering, and initial validation of that model by means of a survey. The results of the survey indicate that conflicting opinions already exist in the student body regarding the notion of evidence, how trustworthy different sources of evidence and knowledge are, and which sources of evidence and types of evidence are more appropriate in various situations.

    Conclusion: Rather than a difference in how industry and academia value scientific evidence, we see evidence of misunderstanding, of different notions of what constitutes scientific evidence and what strength of evidence is required to achieve specific goals. We propose a model of empirical evidence, to provide a better understanding of what is required in various situations and a better platform for communication between industry and academia.

  • 315.
    Marculescu, Bogdan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Poulding, Simon
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Torkar, Richard
    Chalmers, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Tester interactivity makes a difference in search-based software testing: A controlled experiment2016In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 78, p. 66-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Search-based software testing promises to provide users with the ability to generate high quality test cases, and hence increase product quality, with a minimal increase in the time and effort required. The development of the Interactive Search-Based Software Testing (ISBST) system was motivated by a previous study to investigate the application of search-based software testing (SBST) in an industrial setting. ISBST allows users to interact with the underlying SBST system, guiding the search and assessing the results. An industrial evaluation indicated that the ISBST system could find test cases that are not created by testers employing manual techniques. The validity of the evaluation was threatened, however, by the low number of participants. Objective: This paper presents a follow-up study, to provide a more rigorous evaluation of the ISBST system. Method: To assess the ISBST system a two-way crossover controlled experiment was conducted with 58 students taking a Verification and Validation course. The NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) is used to assess the workload experienced by the participants in the experiment. Results:The experimental results validated the hypothesis that the ISBST system generates test cases that are not found by the same participants employing manual testing techniques. A follow-up laboratory experiment also investigates the importance of interaction in obtaining the results. In addition to this main result, the subjective workload was assessed for each participant by means of the NASA-TLX tool. The evaluation showed that, while the ISBST system required more effort from the participants, they achieved the same performance. Conclusions: The paper provides evidence that the ISBST system develops test cases that are not found by manual techniques, and that interaction plays an important role in achieving that result. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 316.
    Martins, Luiz Eduardo G.
    et al.
    Univ Fed Sao Paulo, BRA.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    AN AGENDA FOR THE COMING YEARS2017In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 56-57Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 317. Martins, Luiz Eduardo G.
    et al.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Requirements engineering for safety-critical systems: A systematic literature review2016In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 75, p. 71-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Safety-Critical Systems (SCS) are becoming increasingly present in our society. A considerable amount of research effort has been invested into improving the SCS requirements engineering process as it is critical to the successful development of SCS and, in particular, the engineering of safety aspects. Objective: This article aims to investigate which approaches have been proposed to elicit, model, specify and validate safety requirements in the context of SCS, as well as to what extent such approaches have been validated in industrial settings. The paper will also investigate how the usability and usefulness of the reported approaches have been explored, and to what extent they enable requirements communication among the development project/team actors in the development of SCS. Method: We conducted a systematic literature review by selecting 151 papers published between 1983 and 2014. The research methodology to conduct the SLR was based on the guidelines proposed by Kitchenham and Biolchini. Results: The results of this systematic review should encourage further research into the design of studies to improve the requirements engineering for SCS, particularly to enable the communication of the safety requirements among the project team actors, and the adoption of other models for hazard and accident models. The presented results point to the need for more industry-oriented studies, particularly with more participation of practitioners in the validation of new approaches. Conclusion: The most relevant findings from this review and their implications for further research are as follows: integration between requirements engineering and safety engineering areas; dominance of the traditional approaches; early mortality of new approaches; need for industry validation; lack of evidence for the usefulness and usability of most approaches; and the lack of studies that investigate how to improve the communication process throughout the lifecycle. Based on the findings, we suggest a research agenda to the community of researchers and advices to SCS practitioners. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 318.
    Martins, Luiz Eduardo Galvão
    et al.
    Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, BRA.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Requirements Engineering for Safety-Critical Systems: An Interview Study with Industry Practitioners2018In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have conducted in-depth interviews with experienced practitioners in the Safety-Critical Systems (SCS) domain in order to investigate several aspects related to requirements specification and safety analysis for SCS. We interviewed 19 practitioners from eleven SCS companies in different domains with the intention of verifying which approaches they use day-today, and what their perceptions are in relation to the approaches used to elicit, analyze, specify and validate safety requirements. The aim of this study is to obtain an in-depth understanding of how requirements engineering is carried out in companies that develop SCS. IEEE

  • 319.
    Martins, Luiz Eduardo Galvão
    et al.
    Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, BRA.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Requirements Engineering for Safety-Critical Systems: Overview and Challenges2017In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 49-57, article id 7974683Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a world that depends increasingly on complex, critical, and intertwined systems, requirements engineering is crucial to developing and maintaining safety-critical systems (SCSs). Researchers studied the state of the art (through the literature) and the state of the practice (through in-depth interviews with practitioners) to discover what approaches are available for capturing, specifying, and communicating safety requirements throughout the SCS lifecycle and to determine the remaining challenges. © 2017 IEEE.

  • 320.
    Medidi, Prasadbabu
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Waste in Lean Software Development: A Root Cause Analysis2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Removal of wastes is a crucial area in lean software development. It has been found that there was little evidence on root causes of wastes in lean software development. Root causes from the state of practice had not being investigated. Furthermore, relations between wastes were now successfully exposed through root cause identifications process. Objectives: The objective of this study was to perform an in-depth investigation to identify causes which lead to wastes in Lean software development process in the context of medium to large software development. To this end, researcher also identified relationships that exist between wastes. Methods: The researcher conducted Literature review to look for evidence on waste related activities offered in peer-reviewed literature. Furthermore, the author conducted seven semi-structured interviews and used Grounded Theory method for both literature and interview data analysis. Results: The researcher identified three categories of factors of wastes. Namely, Technical, Non-technical and Global software product development. In the technical category, factors relating to different technical aspects to build a product such as required resource issues, solving complexity issues among others were identified. Similarly, factors relating to people knowledge, management issues as well as factors that bothered on communication, coordination and temporal distance were identified as non-technical and global software product development respectively. For all seven kinds of wastes the root causes were identified.

  • 321.
    Mehmood, Qaiser
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    A Maintainability Analysis of Dependability Evaluation of an Avionic System using  AADL to PNML Transformation2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context.In the context of Software Architecture, AADL (ArchitectureAnalysis and Design Language) is one of the latest standards (SAE StandardAS5506) used for analyzing and designing of architectures of software sys-tems. Dependability evaluation of an avionic system, modeled in AADL, isconducted using petri nets standard PNML (ISO standard ISO/IEC15909-2).A maintainability analysis of PNML dependability model is also con-ducted.

    Objectives. In this study we investigate maintainability analysis of PNMLdependability model of an avionic system designed in AADL. Structural,functional, fault-tolerance and recovery dependencies are modeled, imple-mented, simulated and validated in PNML. Maintainability analysis withrespect to ‘changeability’ factor is also conducted.

    Methods.This study is a semi-combination of ’case-study’ and ’implemen-tation’ research methodologies. The implementation of case-study systemis conducted by modeling the case-study system in AADL using OSATE2tool and simulating the dependability models in PNML using Wolfgangtool. PNML dependability models are validated by comparing with GSPNdependability models of previously published research.

    Results. As a result of this research, PNML dependability model was ob-tained. The difficulties that influenced the research in AADL Error ModelAnnex and the OSATE2 tool are also analyzed and documented. PNMLand GSPN are compared for complexity. And maintainability analysis forPNML dependability model w.r.t ‘changeability’ factor is also an outcomeof this research. This research is recommended for software testing at ar-chitecture level as a standardized way for testing the software componentsfor faults and errors and their impact on dependable components.

    Conclusions. We conclude that PNML is an ISO standard and is the al-ternative for GSPN for dependability. Also, AADL Error Model Annex isstill evolving and there is a need of availability of proper literature publiclyfor better understanding. Also, PNML dependability model possesses the‘changeability’ factor of maintainability analysis and therefore it is able toadapt changes in the architecture. Also, dependability factors of a softwarecan be tested at architecture level using the standards; AADL and PNML

  • 322.
    MELDRUM, MAX
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Flexible Paxos: An Industry Perspective2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Paxos is an algorithm for implementing fault-tolerant distributed systems. The core of Paxos is found in many consensus algorithms. Raft and Zab are two prominent protocols that are used in the industry. They serve as the foundation of distributed key-value stores and coordination services such as Consul, Etcd and ZooKeeper. In distributed consensus, the most common way for servers to agree over a value is to use majority quorums. However in 2016, FPaxos (Flexible Paxos) was published. The authors make the observation that majority quorums are not required as intersection is mandatory only across the two phases of Paxos. By taking advantage of this, developers will have more control over the choice between performance and availability. In this paper we will look at how FPaxos can be adopted into existing systems and demonstrate the advantages through a ZooKeeper modification running on City Cloud.

  • 323.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Applying a knowledge management technique to improve risk assessment and effort estimation of healthcare software projects2014In: Communications in Computer and Information Science, ISSN 1865-0929, E-ISSN 1865-0937, Vol. 457, p. 40-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the pillars for sound Software Project Management is reliable effort estimation. Therefore it is important to fully identify what are the fundamental factors that affect an effort estimate for a new project and how these factors are inter-related. This paper describes a case study where a Knowledge Management technique was employed to build an expert-based effort estimation model to estimate effort for healthcare software projects. This model was built with the participation of seven project managers, and was validated using data from 22 past finished projects. The model led to numerous changes in process and also in business. The company adapted their existing effort estimation process to be in line with the model that was created, and the use of a mathematically- based model also led to an increase in the number of projects being delegated to this company by other company branches worldwide.

  • 324.
    Mendes, Emilia
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Ali, Nauman bin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Counsell, Steve
    Brunel University London, GBR.
    Baldassare, Maria Teresa
    Università degli Studi di Bari, ITA.
    Special issue on evaluation and assessment in software engineering2019In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 151, p. 224-225Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 325.
    Mendes, Emilia
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Kalinowski, M.
    Martins, D.
    Ferrucci, F.
    Sarro, F.
    Cross- vs. Within-company cost estimation studies revisited: An extended systematic review2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to extend a previously conducted systematic literature review (SLR) that investigated under what circumstances individual organizations would be able to rely on cross-company based estimation models. [Method] We applied the same methodology used in the SLR we are extending herein (covering the period 2006-2013) based on primary studies that compared predictions from cross-company models with predictions from within-company models constructed from analysis of project data. [Results] We identified 11 additional papers; however two of these did not present independent results and one had inconclusive findings. Two of the remaining eight papers presented both, trials where cross-company predictions were not significantly different from within-company predictions and others where they were significantly different. Four found that cross-company models gave prediction accuracy significantly different from within-company models (one of them in favor of cross-company models), while two found no significant difference. The main pattern when examining the study related factors was that studies where cross-company predictions were significantly different from within-company predictions employed larger within-company data sets. [Conclusions] Overall, half of the analyzed evidence indicated that cross-company estimation models are not significantly worse than within-company estimation models. Moreover, there is some evidence that sample size does not imply in higher estimation accuracy, and that samples for building estimation models should be carefully selected/filtered based on quality control and project similarity aspects. The results need to be combined with the findings from the SLR we are extending to allow further investigating this topic.

  • 326.
    Mendes, Emilia
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Rodriguez, Pilar
    University of Oulu, FIN.
    Freitas, Vitor
    University of Oulu, FIN.
    Baker, Simon
    University of Cambridge, GBR.
    Atoui, Mohamed Amine
    University of Oulu, FIN.
    Correction to: Towards improving decision making and estimating the value of decisions in value-based software engineering: the VALUE framework (Software Quality Journal, (2018), 26, 2, (607-656), 10.1007/s11219-017-9360-z)2018In: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 1595-1596Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in Figs. 1 and 21. © 2018, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.

  • 327.
    Mendes, Emilia
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Viana, Davi
    Univ Fed Maranhao, BRA.
    Vishnubhotla, Sai Datta
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Lundberg, Lars
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Realising Individual and Team Capability in Agile Software Development: A Qualitative Investigation2018In: Proceedings - 44th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2018 / [ed] Bures, T Angelis, L, IEEE , 2018, p. 183-190Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have shown that both individual and team capability can affect software development performance and project success; a deeper understating of such phenomena is crucial within the context of Agile Software Development (ASD), given that its workforce is a key source of agility. This paper contributes towards such understanding by means of a case study that uses data from 14 interviews carried out at a large telecommunications company, within the context of a mobile money transfer system developed in Sweden and India, to identify individual and team capability measures used to form productive teams. Our results identified 10 individual and five team capability measures, of which, respectively, five and four have not been previously characterised by a systematic literature review (SLR) on this same topic. Such review aggregated evidence for a total of 133 individual and 28 team capability measures. Further work entails extending our findings via interviewing other software/software-intensive industries practicing ASD.

  • 328.
    Mendes, Emilia
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Winkler, Dietmar
    Technische Universitat Wien, AUT.
    Special issue on “software quality in software-intensive systems”2018In: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 657-660Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 329.
    Miljak, Jozef
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    An experimental study on which anti-reverse engineering technique are the most effective to protect your software from reversers2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 330.
    Min, Yuhao
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Cai, Shengcong
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Comparing Different Approaches of GUI Testing for Mobile Applications on Android Platform2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background. With the development and popularization of mobile Internet, smartphones are becoming more and more popular. Android is one of the most popular platforms of smartphones.  And application is one of the most important part of a smartphone. There are a lot of money and human resources spent on Android application development every year. And quiet a big part of them goes to quality assurance of applications. Graphic user interface (GUI) testing is one important part of its quality assurance. Android phones use touch screen as the major I/O method. Therefore, GUI testing on android platform shall be different to conventional software applications that are designed to run on desktop environment.

    Objectives. The aim of this research is to assess the performance of two GUI testing approaches (2nd vs 3rd generation) of automated UI testing in terms of testing Android applications. By assessing these approaches, we could hopefully get insights of their advantages and limitations for using them in the context of Android development. And this aim can be divided into three objectives, to compare the time spent on implementing test cases of each tool, to compare the time costed when executing test cases of each tool, to compare the number of defects found by each tool.

    Methods. The research methodology we chose is controlled experiment. We have chosen UI Automator and Appium to represent 2nd generation GUI testing approach, EyeAutomate and SikuliX to represent 3rd generation GUI testing approach. We used each tool to implement and execute 120 test cases to compare them on the time spent on implementing test cases of each tool, the time costed when executing test cases of each tool, the number of real defects found by each tool, and the number of false positives found by each tool.

    Results. Tools using 3rd generation GUI testing approach take less time to implement test cases than tools using 2nd generation GUI testing approach. And there is no specific pattern when comparing tools using 2nd and 3rd generation GUI testing approaches in terms of time cost on executing test cases. It is different between different test cases. Besides false positive alerts appear at a much higher frequency in tools using 3rd generation GUI testing approach than tools using 2nd generation GUI testing approach. While, real defects found by each tool are the same.

    Conclusions. 3rd generation GUI testing approach is more efficient in terms of implementing test cases than 2nd generation GUI testing approach. But 3rd generation GUI testing approach finds much more false positives than 2nd generation approach. To decide if a defect alert is false positive or not requires human effort. In a long term, it may accumulate huge lost on human efforts. Therefore, to maintain test cases, 3rd generation approach consumes lots of human efforts.

  • 331.
    Minhas, Nasir Mehmood
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Regression Testing Challenges and Solutions: An Industry-Academia Perspective2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Software quality assurance (QA) is an essential activity in the software development lifecycle. Among the different QA activities, regression testing is a challenging task for large-scale software development. Regression testing is a well-researched area, and a large number of techniques have been proposed to fulfill the needs of industry. Despite the extensive research, the adoption of proposed regression testing techniques in the industry is limited. Studies show that there is a visible gap between research and practice.

    Objective: This work aims at reducing the gap between industry and academia in regression testing. To fulfill this aim we have the following objectives:

    1) Understanding the practitioners' goals regarding regression testing.

    2) Understanding the current state of regression testing practice and challenges in the industry.

    3) Investigating the testing research applicable in an industrial context.

    Method: We conducted multiple studies using different methods.

    To explore the industry perspective on regression testing we used focus group and interview-based studies. To explore solutions from the literature, we used the systematic literature review and systematic mapping study.

    Results: This thesis presents the practitioners' specific regression testing goals. The identified goals are confidence, controlled fault slippage, effectiveness, efficiency, and customer satisfaction. The challenges identified in the thesis are of two categories, 1) management related challenges and 2) technical challenges. Technical challenges relate to test suite maintenance, test case selection, test case prioritization, evaluation of regression testing.

    We have mapped 26 empirically evaluated regression testing techniques to the context, effect, and information taxonomies, and provided a guide to the practitioners regarding the adoption of the techniques in an industrial setting. We have also classified 56 model-based test case generation techniques regarding their strengths/limitations, input/intermediate models used, and relevance to the industrial context.

    Conclusions: The challenges identified in this study are not new for research and practice. There could be two reasons regarding the presence of recurring challenges: 1) regression testing techniques proposed in the literature do not fit the companies’ context, 2) or, companies are not aware of the availability of the techniques that could be suitable for their context. To support the adoption of existing research on regression testing in the industry, we have presented three taxonomies. These taxonomies, allow the characterization of regression testing techniques and enable to determine which of these techniques might be suitable in a given context. Furthermore, the identification of information needs for these techniques would be helpful to learn the implications regarding the cost of adoption. Regarding the support in test case generation, we conclude that current research on interaction model-based test case generation techniques did not illustrate the use of rigorous methodology, and currently, model-based test case generation techniques have low relevance for the industrial problems.

  • 332.
    Minhas, Nasir Mehmood
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Masood, Sohaib
    UIIT PMAS Arid Agriculture University, PAK.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Nadeem, Aamer
    Capital University of Science and Technology, PAK.
    A Systematic Mapping of Test Case Generation Techniques Using UML Interaction Diagram2018In: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Testing plays a vital role for assuring software quality. Among the activities performed during testing process, test cases generation is a challenging and labor intensive task. Test case generation techniques based on UML models are getting the attention of researchers and practitioners. This study provides a systematic mapping of test case generation techniques based on interaction diagrams. The study compares the test case generation techniques, regarding their capabilities and limitations, and it also assesses the reporting quality of the primary studies. It has been revealed that UML interaction diagrams based techniques are mainly used for integration testing. The majority of the techniques are using sequence diagrams as input models, while some are using collaboration. A notable number of techniques are using interaction diagram along with some other UML diagram for test case generation. These techniques are mainly focusing on interaction, scenario, operational, concurrency, synchronization and deadlock related faults.

    From the results of this study, we can conclude that the studies presenting test case generation techniques using UML interaction diagrams failed to illustrate the use of rigorous methodology, and these techniques did not demonstrate the empirical evaluation in an industrial context. Our study revealed the need for tool support to facilitate the transfer of solutions to industry.

  • 333.
    Minhas, Nasir Mehmood
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Ali, Nauman bin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Regression testing goals: View of practitioners and researchers2017In: 24th Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference Workshops (APSECW), IEEE, 2017, p. 25-32Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Regression testing is a well-researched area. However, the majority regression testing techniques proposed by the researchers are not getting the attention of the practitioners. Communication gaps between industry and academia and disparity in the regression testing goals are the main reasons. Close collaboration can help in bridging the communication gaps and resolving the disparities.Objective: The study aims at exploring the views of academics and practitioners about the goals of regression testing. The purpose is to investigate the commonalities and differences in their viewpoints and defining some common goals for the success of regression testing.Method: We conducted a focus group study, with 7 testing experts from industry and academia. 4 testing practitioners from 2companies and 3 researchers from 2 universities participated in the study. We followed GQM approach, to elicit the regression testing goals, information needs, and measures.Results: 43 regression testing goals were identified by the participants, which were reduced to 10 on the basis of similarity among the identified goals. Later during the priority assignment process, 5 goals were discarded, because the priority assigned to these goals was very low. Participants identified 47 information needs/questions required to evaluate the success of regression testing with reference to goal G5 (confidence). Which were then reduced to10 on the basis of similarity. Finally, we identified measures to gauge those information needs/questions, which were corresponding to the goal (G5).Conclusions: We observed that participation level of practitioners and researchers during the elicitation of goals and questions was same. We found a certain level of agreement between the participants regarding the regression testing definitions and goals.But there was some level of disagreement regarding the priorities of the goals. We also identified the need to implement a regression testing evaluation framework in the participating companies.

  • 334.
    Minhas, Nasir Mehmood
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Regression testing for large-scale embedded software development: Exploring the state of practice2018Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: A majority of the regression testing techniques proposed by the research have not been adopted in industry. To increase adoption rates, we need to better understand the practitioners' perspectives on regression testing.

    Objective: This study aims at exploring the regression testing state of practice in the large-scale embedded software development. The study has two objectives, 1) to highlight the potential challenges in practice, and 2) to identify the industry-relevant research areas regarding regression testing.

    Method: We conducted a qualitative study in two large-scale embedded software development companies, where we carried out semi-structured interviews with representatives from five software testing teams. We did conduct the detailed review of the process documentation of the companies to complement/validate the findings of the interviews.

    Results: Mostly, the practitioners run regression testing with a selected scope, the selection of scope depends upon the size, complexity, and location of the change. Test cases are prioritized on the basis of risk and critical functionality. The practitioners rely on their knowledge and experience for the decision making regarding selection and prioritization of test cases.The companies are using both automated and manual regression testing, and mainly they rely on in-house developed tools for test automation. The challenges identified in the companies are: time to test, information management, test suite maintenance, lack of communication, test selection/prioritization, lack of assessment, etc. The proposed improvements are in line with the identified challenges. Regression testing goals identified in this study are customer satisfaction, critical defect detection, confidence, effectiveness, efficiency, and controlled slip through of faults.

    Conclusions: Considering the current state of practice and identified challenges we conclude that there is a need to reconsider the regression test strategy in the companies. Researchers need to analyze the industry perspective while proposing new regression testing techniques. The industry-academia collaboration projects would be a good platform in this regard.

  • 335.
    Moe, Nils Brede
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Hanssen, Geir Kjetil
    Barney, Hamish
    From offshore outsourcing to insourcing and partnerships: four failed outsourcing attempts2014In: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 1225-1258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most large software companies are involved in offshore development, now small and medium-sized companies are starting to undertake global sourcing too. Empirical research suggests that offshoring is not always successful; however, only a few comprehensive failure stories have been reported. The objective of our study has been to understand why small and medium-sized companies terminate their offshore outsourcing relationships and what alternative arrangements they undertake afterwards. Therefore, we designed a multiple case study of four medium-sized Scandinavian software companies that have terminated their offshore outsourcing relationships. Our results are based on data collected through semi-structured interviews, informal dialogues and analysis of company documents. We found that all companies terminated their offshore contracts because of low quality of the software being developed. This was caused by an inability to build the necessary human and social capital. The companies reported challenges with domain knowledge, a lack of commitment of external developers, cultural clashes, poor communication and high turnover, which only amplified the problems. After termination all four companies changed their sourcing strategy from offshore outsourcing to offshore insourcing and partnerships. We conclude that successful offshore software development requires a change from a cost-driven focus to an intellectual capital driven focus. To prevent continuous investments into contracts that are destined to fail, companies should look for signs of escalating commitments and terminate relationships that cannot be corrected. Those companies that choose outsourcing shall also take into account that mismatch between the size of the offshore contract relative to the vendor may have a negative effect on a relationship.

  • 336.
    Moe, Nils Brede
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Šāblis, Aivars
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Börjesson, Anne-Lie
    Andréasson, Pia
    Networking in a Large-Scale Distributed Agile Project2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: In large-scale distributed software projects the expertise may be scattered across multiple locations. Goal: We describe and discuss a large-scale distributed agile project at Ericsson, a multinational telecommunications company headquartered in Sweden. The project is distributed across four development locations (one in Sweden, one in Korea and two in China) and employs 17 teams. In such a large scale environment the challenge is to have as few dependences between teams as possible, which is one reason why Ericsson introduced crossfunctional feature teams – teams that are capable of taking the full responsibility for implementing one entire feature. To support such teams when solving problems, ensure knowledge sharing within the project and safeguard the quality Ericsson introduced a new role – Technical Area Responsible (TAR). Method: We conducted extensive fieldwork for 9 months at two Ericsson sites in Sweden and China. We interviewed representatives from different roles in the organization, in addition to focus groups and a survey with seven teams. Results: We describe the TAR role, and how the TARs communicate, coordinate and support the teams. Also architects support the teams, however not as closely as the TARs. We found that the TAR is usually a senior developer working halftime or fulltime in the role. We also present measures of the actual knowledge network of three Chinese and three Swedish teams and the TARs position in it. Conclusions: TARs are central in the knowledge network and act as the boundary spanners between the teams and between the sites. We learned that availability of the TARs across sites is lower than that with local TARs. We also found that the size of a team’s knowledge network depends on how long the team members have been working in the company. Finally we discuss the advantages and the challenges of introducing experts in key roles in large scale distributed agile development.

  • 337.
    MOGENSEN, JOHN
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    OPIJAC, DINO
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Improving response times over the HTTP-protocol: A comparative study of response times2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 338.
    Mohammadi Kho'i, Felix
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Jahid, Jawed
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Comparing Native and Hybrid Applications with focus on Features2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays smartphones and smartphone-applications are a part of our daily life. There are variety of different operating systems in the market that are unalike, which are an obstacle to developers when it comes to developing a single application for different operating system. Furthermore, hybrid application development has become a potential substitute. The evolution of new hybrid approach has made companies consider hybrid approach as a viable alternative when producing mobile applications. This research paper aims to compare native and hybrid application development on a feature level to provide scientific evidence for researchers and companies choosing application development approach as well as providing vital information about both native and hybrid applications.This study is based on both a literature study and an empirical study. The sources used are Summon@BTH, Google Scholar and IEEE Xplore. To select relevant articles, the Snowballing approach was used, with Inclusion and Exclusion criteria’s.The authors concluded that native development is a better way to develop more advanced applications which uses more device-hardware, while hybrid is a perfectly viable choice when developing content-centric applications.

  • 339.
    Molléri, Jefferson Seide
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Views of Research Quality in Empirical Software Engineering2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Software Engineering (SE) research, like other applied disciplines, intends to provide trustful evidence to practice. To ensure trustful evidence, a rigorous research process based on sound research methodologies is required. Further, to be practically relevant, researchers rely on identifying original research problems that are of interest to industry; and the research must fulfill various quality standards that form the basis for the evaluation of the empirical research in SE. A dialogue and shared view of quality standards for research practice is still to be achieved within the research community.

     Objectives. The main objective of this thesis is to foster dialogue and capture different views of SE researchers on method level (e.g., through the identification and reasoning on the importance of quality characteristics for experiments, surveys and case studies) as well as general quality standards for Empirical Software Engineering (ESE). Given the views of research quality, a second objective is to understand how to operationalize, i.e. build and validate instruments to assess research quality. 

    Method. The thesis makes use of a mixed method approach of both qualitative and quantitative nature. The research methods used were case studies, surveys, and focus groups. A range of data collection methods has been employed, such as literature review, questionnaires, and semi-structured workshops. To analyze the data, we utilized content and thematic analysis, descriptive and inferential statistics.

    Results. We draw two distinct views of research quality. Through a top-down approach, we assessed and evolved a conceptual model of research quality within the ESE research community. Through a bottom-up approach, we built a checklist instrument for assessing survey-based research grounded on supporting literature and evaluated ours and others’ checklists in research practice and research education contexts.

    Conclusion. The quality standards we identified and operationalized support and extend the current understanding of research quality for SE research. This is a preliminary, but still vital, step towards a shared understanding and view of research quality for ESE research. Further steps are needed to gain a shared understanding of research quality within the community. 

  • 340.
    Molléri, Jefferson Seide
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Ali, Nauman bin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Minhas, Tahir Nawaz
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Teaching students critical appraisal of scientific literature using checklists2018In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Association for Computing Machinery , 2018, p. 8-17Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Teaching students to critically appraise scientific literature is an important goal for a postgraduate research methods course. Objective: To investigate the application of checklists for assessing the scientific rigor of empirical studies support students in reviewing case study research and experiments. Methods:We employed an experimental design where 76 students (in pairs) used two checklists to evaluate two papers (reporting a case study and an experiment) each. We compared the students' assessments against ratings from more senior researchers. We also collected data on students' perception of using the checklists. Results: The consistency of students' ratings and the accuracy when compared to ratings from seniors varied. A factor seemed to be that the clearer the reporting, the easier it is for students to judge the quality of studies. Students perceived checklist items related to data analysis as difficult to assess. Conclusion: As expected, this study reinforces the needs for clear reporting, as it is important that authors write to enable synthesis and quality assessment. With clearer reporting, the novices performed well in assessing the quality of the empirical work, which supports its continued use in the course as means for introducing scientific reviews. © 2018 Association for Computing Machinery.

  • 341.
    Molléri, Jefferson Seide
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Benitti, Fabiane Barreto Vavassori
    SESRA: a web-based automated tool to support the systematic literature review process2015In: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering, ACM Digital Library, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 342.
    Molléri, Jefferson Seide
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Felderer, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Reasoning about Research Quality Alignment in Software EngineeringIn: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Research quality is intended to assess the design and reporting of studies. It comprises a series of concepts such as methodological rigor, practical relevance, and conformance to ethical standards. Depending on the perspective, different views of importance are given to the conceptual dimensions of research quality.

    Objective: We aim to better understand what constitutes research quality from the perspective of the empirical software engineering community. In particular, we intend to assess the level of alignment between researchers with regard to a conceptual model of research quality.

    Method: We conducted a mixed methods approach comprising an internal case study and a complementary focus group. We carried out a hierarchical voting prioritization based on the conceptual model to collect relative values for importance. In the focus group, we also moderate discussions with experts to address potential misalignment.

    Results: We provide levels of alignment with regard to the importance of quality dimensions in the view of the participants. Moreover, the conceptual model fairly expresses the quality of research but has limitations with regards the structure and description of its components.

    Conclusion: Based on the results, we revised the conceptual model and provided an updated version adjusted to the context of empirical software engineering research. We also discussed how to assess quality alignment in research using our approach, and how to use the revised model of quality to characterize an assessment instrument.

  • 343.
    Molléri, Jefferson Seide
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gonzalez-Huerta, Javier
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Henningsson, Kennet
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    A legacy game for project management in software engineering courses2018In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Association for Computing Machinery , 2018, p. 72-76Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Software project management courses are becoming popular for teaching software engineering process models and methods. However, in order to be effective, this approach should be properly aligned to the learning outcomes. Common misalignments are caused by using a correct degree of realism or an appropriate instruction level. Objective: To foster students to acquire knowledge (theoretical and practical) that enables them solving similar challenges to the ones they will face in real-world software projects. Methods: We prototype and validate a legacy game that simulates the software development process. Students are required to plan and manage a software project according to its specification provided by the teachers. Teachers act as both customers and moderators, presenting the challenges and guiding the students' teamwork. Results: Both students' and teachers' perception suggest that the proposed game has potential to motivate the knowledge acquisition through problem-solving. The feedback also suggests that some measures must be taken to ensure the pedagogical alignment and a fair game. Conclusion: The lessons learned provide suggestions for adopting this or similar games in the context of project courses. As further work, we plan to describe and extend the game rules based on the results of this application. © 2018 Association for Computing Machinery.

  • 344.
    Molléri, Jefferson Seide
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Felderer, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Aligning the Views of Research Quality in Empirical Software EngineeringIn: ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology, ISSN 1049-331X, E-ISSN 1557-7392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Research quality is intended to assess the design and reporting of studies. It comprises a series of concepts such as methodological rigor, practical relevance, and conformance to ethical standards. Depending on the perspective, different views of importance are given to the conceptual dimensions of research quality.

    Objective: We intend to assess the level of alignment between researchers with regard to a conceptual model of research quality. This includes aligning the definition of research quality and reasoning on the relative importance of quality characteristics.

    Method: We conducted a mixed methods approach comprising an internal case study and a complementary focus group. We carried out a hierarchical voting prioritization based on the conceptual model to collect relative values for importance. In the focus group, we also moderate discussions with experts to address potential misalignment.

    Results: The alignment at the research group level was higher compared to that at community level. Moreover, the interdisciplinary conceptual quality model was seeing to express fairly the quality of research, but presented limitations regarding its structure and components' description, which resulted in an updated model. 

    Conclusion: The interdisciplinary model used was suitable for the software engineering context. The process used for reflecting on the alignment of quality with respect to definitions and priorities was working well. 

  • 345.
    Molléri, Jefferson Seide
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Nurdiani, Indira
    Syddansk Universitet, DEN.
    Fotrousi, Farnaz
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Experiences of studying attention through EEG in the context of review tasks2019In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Association for Computing Machinery , 2019, p. 313-318Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Electroencephalograms (EEG) have been used in a few cases in the context of software engineering (SE). EEGs allow capturing emotions and cognitive functioning. Such human factors have already shown to be important to understand software engineering tasks. Therefore, it is essential to gain experience in the community to utilize EEG as a research tool. Objective: To report experiences of using EEG in the context of a software engineering education (review of master theses proposals). We provide our reflections and lessons learned of (1) how to plan an EEG study, (2) how to conduct and execute (e.g., tools), (3) how to analyze. Method: We carried out an experiment using an EEG headset to measure the participants’ attention rate. The experiment task includes reviewing three master thesis project plans. Results: We describe how we evolved our understanding of experimentation practices to collect and analyze psychological and cognitive data. We also provide a set of lessons learned regarding the application of EEG technology for research. Conclusions: We believe that that EEG could benefit software engineering research to collect cognitive information under certain conditions. The lessons learned reported here should be used as inputs for future experiments in software engineering, where human aspects are of interest. © 2019 Association for Computing Machinery.

  • 346.
    Molléri, Jefferson Seide
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    An Empirically Evaluated Checklist for Surveys in Software EngineeringIn: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Over the past decade Software Engineering research has seen a steady increase in survey-based studies, and there are several guidelines providing support for those willing to carry out surveys. The need for auditing survey research has been raised in the literature. Checklists have been used to assess different types of empirical studies, such as experiments and case studies.

    Objective: This paper proposes a checklist to support the design and assessment of survey-based research in software engineering grounded in existing guidelines for survey research. We further evaluated the checklist in the research practice context.

    Method: To construct the checklist, we systematically aggregated knowledge from 12 methodological studies supporting survey-based research in software engineering. We identified the key stages of the survey process and its recommended practices through thematic analysis and vote counting. To improve our initially designed checklist we evaluated it using a mixed evaluation approach involving experienced researchers.

    Results: The evaluation provided insights regarding the limitations of the checklist in relation to its understanding and objectivity. In particular, 19 of the 38 checklist items were improved according to the feedback received from its evaluation. Finally, a discussion on how to use the checklist and what its implications are for research practice is also provided.

    Conclusion: The proposed checklist is an instrument suitable for auditing survey reports as well as a support tool to guide ongoing research with regard to the survey design process.

  • 347.
    Molléri, Jefferson Seide
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    CERSE - Catalog for empirical research in software engineering: A Systematic mapping study2019In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 105, p. 117-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context Empirical research in software engineering contributes towards developing scientific knowledge in this field, which in turn is relevant to inform decision-making in industry. A number of empirical studies have been carried out to date in software engineering, and the need for guidelines for conducting and evaluating such research has been stressed. Objective: The main goal of this mapping study is to identify and summarize the body of knowledge on research guidelines, assessment instruments and knowledge organization systems on how to conduct and evaluate empirical research in software engineering. Method: A systematic mapping study employing manual search and snowballing techniques was carried out to identify the suitable papers. To build up the catalog, we extracted and categorized information provided by the identified papers. Results: The mapping study comprises a list of 341 methodological papers, classified according to research methods, research phases covered, and type of instrument provided. Later, we derived a brief explanatory review of the instruments provided for each of the research methods. Conclusion: We provide: an aggregated body of knowledge on the state of the art relating to guidelines, assessment instruments and knowledge organization systems for carrying out empirical software engineering research; an exemplary usage scenario that can be used to guide those carrying out such studies is also provided. Finally, we discuss the catalog's implications for research practice and the needs for further research. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.

  • 348.
    Molléri, Jefferson Seide
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Towards understanding the relation between citations and research quality in software engineering studies2018In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of achieving high quality in research practice has been highlighted in different disciplines. At the same time, citations are utilized to measure the impact of academic researchers and institutions. One open question is whether the quality in the reporting of research is related to scientific impact, which would be desired. In this exploratory study we aim to: (1) Investigate how consistently a scoring rubric for rigor and relevance has been used to assess research quality of software engineering studies; (2) Explore the relationship between rigor, relevance and citation count. Through backward snowball sampling we identified 718 primary studies assessed through the scoring rubric. We utilized cluster analysis and conditional inference tree to explore the relationship between quality in the reporting of research (represented by rigor and relevance) and scientiometrics (represented by normalized citations). The results show that only rigor is related to studies’ normalized citations. Besides that, confounding factors are likely to influence the number of citations. The results also suggest that the scoring rubric is not applied the same way by all studies, and one of the likely reasons is because it was found to be too abstract and in need to be further refined. Our findings could be used as a basis to further understand the relation between the quality in the reporting of research and scientific impact, and foster new discussions on how to fairly acknowledge studies for performing well with respect to the emphasized research quality. Furthermore, we highlighted the need to further improve the scoring rubric. © 2018, The Author(s).

  • 349.
    Mols, Carl-Eric
    et al.
    Sony Mobile, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Charting the market disruptive nature of open source: Experiences from sony mobile2017In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2017 IEEE/ACM 39TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING COMPANION (ICSE-C 2017), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, p. 175-176Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Open Source Software (OSS) has substantial impact on how software-intensive firms develop products and deliver value to the customers. These companies need both strategic and operational support on how to adapt OSS as a part of their products and how to adjust processes and organizations to increase the benefits from OSS participation. This work presents the key insights from the journey that Sony Mobile has made from a company developing proprietary software to a respected member of OSS communities. We framed the experiences into an Open Source Maturity Model that includes two scenarios: engineering-driven and business-driven open source. We outline the most important decisions, roles, processes and implications. © 2017 IEEE.

  • 350.
    Mols, Carl-Eric
    et al.
    Sony Mobile, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Linåker, Johan
    Lunds Universitet, SWE.
    The open source officer role – experiences2017In: IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, Springer-Verlag New York, 2017, Vol. 496, p. 55-59Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This papers describe the Open Source Officer role and the experiences from introducing this role in several companies. We outline the role description, main responsibilities, and interfaces to other roles and organizations. We investigated the role in several organization and bring interesting discrepancies and overlaps of how companies operate with OSS. © The Author(s) 2017.

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