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  • 301. Bosch, Jan
    et al.
    Molin, Peter
    Software Architecture Design: Evaluation and Transformation1997Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the architecture of a software system constrains the non-functional requirements, the decisions taken during architectural design have a large impact in the resulting system. An architectural design method is presented that employs iterative evaluation and transformation of the software architecture in order to satisfy the non-functional requirements (NFRs). Architecture evaluation is performed by using scenarios, simulation, mathematical modelling and reasoning. The architecture can be transformed by imposing an architectural style, imposing an architectural pattern, using a design pattern, converting an NFR to functionality and by distributing NFRs. The method has, in various forms, been applied in several industrial projects.

  • 302. Bosch, Jan
    et al.
    Molin, Peter
    Mattsson, Michael
    Bengtsson, PerOlof
    Object-oriented framework-based software development: problems and experi­ences2000Inngår i: ACM Computing Surveys, ISSN 0360-0300 , Vol. 32, nr 1, s. 3-8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 303. Bosch, Jan
    et al.
    Molin, Peter
    Mattsson, Michael
    Bengtsson, PerOlof
    Fayad, Mohamed E.
    Framework Problems and Experiences1999Inngår i: Building Applica­tion Frameworks: Object Oriented Foundations of Framework Design / [ed] Fayad, M. E.; Schmidt, D. C.; Johnson, R. E., Wiley & Sons , 1999, s. 55-82Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 304. Bosch, Jan
    et al.
    Szyperski, ClemensWeck, Wolfgang
    Proceedings of the Fifth International Workshop on Component-Oriented Programming (WCOP 2000)2000Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    WCOP 2000, held in conjunction with ECOOP 2000 in Sophia Antipolis, France, was the fifth workshop in the successful series of workshops on component-oriented programming. The previous workshops were held in conjunction with the respective ECOOP conferences in Linz, Austria, Jyväskylä, Finland, Brussels, Belgium and Lisbon, Portugal. WCOP96 had focused on the principal idea of software components and worked towards definitions of terms. In particular, a high-level definition of what a software component is was formulated. WCOP97 concentrated on compositional aspects, architecture and gluing, substitutability, interface evolution, and non-functional requirements. WCOP98 had a closer look at issues arising in industrial practice and developed a major focus on the issues of adaptation. WCOP'99 moved on to address issues of component frameworks, structured architecture, and some bigger systems built using components frameworks. The topics for WCOP 2000 focused on component composition, validation and refinement and the use of component technology in the software industry.

  • 305. Bosch, Jan
    et al.
    Szyperski, Clemens
    Weck, Wolfgang
    WCOP '98: Summary of the Third International Workshop on Component-Oriented Programming1998Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 306. Bosch, Jan
    et al.
    Szyperski, ClemensWeck, Wolfgang
    WCOP ´99: Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Component-Oriented Programming1999Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    WCOP'99 is the fourth event in a series of highly successful workshops, which took place in conjunction with every ECOOP since 1996, focusing on the important field of component-oriented programming (COP). COP has been described as the natural extension of object-oriented programming to the realm of independently extensible systems. Several important approaches have emerged over the recent years, including CORBA, COM (COM+, DCOM, ActiveX, DirectX, ...), JavaBeans. A component is not an object, but provides the resources to instantiate objects. Often, a single component will provide interfaces to several closely related classes. Hence, COP is about architecure and packaging, besides interoperation between objects. After WCOP'96 focused on the fundamental terminology of COP, the subsequent workshops expanded into the many re- lated facets of component software. WCOP'99 shall emphasis architectural design and construction of component-based systems beyond ad-hoc reuse of unrelated components. To enable lively and productive discussions, the workshop will be limited to 25 participants. Depending on the actually submitted positions papers, the workshop will be organized into three or four subsequent mini-sessions, each initiated by a presentation of two or three selected positions and followed by discussions. Instead of splitting the workshop into task forces, it is intended to provoke lively discussion by preparing lists of critical questions and some, perhaps provocative, statements (to be used on demand). Position papers will be formally reviewed, each by at least two independent reviewers. As an incentive for submission of high quality statements, the best position statements will be combined with transcripts of workshop results and published.

  • 307.
    Boström, Stellan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Institutionen för programvaruteknik och datavetenskap.
    Integrating Push Technology with the Ericsson Mobile Positioning Center2001Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Push is an Internet technology, which allow people to subscribe to a content- or service provider that automatically update the subscriber?s computer or Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) with the latest information without having the subscriber to first request for new information. The Ericsson Mobile Positioning Center (MPC) is a gateway that provides geographical positions of mobile stations to various applications. This Master Thesis gives the reader an overview of these technologies and presents an alternative way in integrating a third part Push-solution with the MPC. The integration proposal is also evaluated against the current Push functionality that Ericsson has developed and integrated into the MPC.

  • 308.
    BRAMAH-LAWANI, ALEX
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    REQUIREMENTS ELICITATION AND SPECIFICATION FOR HAPTIC INTERFACES FOR VISUALLY IMPAIRED USERS2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 309. Bratthall, Lars
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Is it Possible to Decorate Graphical Software Design and Architecture Models with Qualitative Information?: An Experiment2002Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 28, nr 12, s. 1181-1193Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Software systems evolve over time and it is often difficult to maintain them. One reason for this is often that it is hard to understand the previous release. Further, even if architecture and design models are available and up to date, they primarily represent the functional behaviour of the system. To evaluate whether it is possible to also represent some non-functional aspects, an experiment has been conducted. The objective of the experiment is to evaluate the cognitive suitability of some visual representations that can be used to represent a control relation, software component size and component external and internal complexity. Ten different representations are evaluated in a controlled environment using 35 subjects. The results from the experiment show that it representations with low cognitive accessibility weight can be found. In an example, these representations are used to illustrate some qualities in an SDL block diagram. It is concluded that the incorporation of these representations in architecture and design descriptions is both easy and probably worthwhile. The incorporation of the representations should enhance the understanding of previous releases and hence help software developers in evolving and maintaining complex software systems.

  • 310. Brazier, Frances
    et al.
    Cornelissen, Frank
    Gustavsson, Rune
    Jonker, Catholijn M.
    Lindeberg, Olle
    Polak, Bianca
    Treur, Jan
    Compositional Design and Verification of a Multi-Agent System for One-to-Many Negotiation1998Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A compositional verification method for multi-agent systems is presented and applied to a multi-agent system for one-to-many negotiation in the domain of load balancing of electricity use. Advantages of the method are that the complexity of the verification process is managed by compositionality, and that part of the proofs can be reused in relation to reuse of components.

  • 311. Brazier, Frances
    et al.
    Cornelissen, Frank
    Gustavsson, Rune
    Jonker, Catholijn M.
    Lindeberg, Olle
    Polak, Bianca
    Treur, Jan
    Compositional verification of a multi-agent system for one-to-many negotiation2004Inngår i: Applied intelligence (Boston), ISSN 0924-669X, E-ISSN 1573-7497, Vol. 20, nr 2, s. 95-117Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Verification of multi-agent systems hardly occurs in design practice. One of the difficulties is that required properties for a multi-agent system usually refer to multi-agent behaviour which has nontrivial dynamics. To constrain these multi-agent behavioural dynamics, often a form of organisational structure is used, for example, for negotiating agents, by following strict protocols. The claim is that these negotiation protocols entail a structured process that is manageable with respect to analysis, design and execution of such a multi-agent system. In this paper this is shown by a case study: verification of a multi-agent system for one-to-many negotiation in the domain of load balancing of electricity use. A compositional verification method for multi-agent systems is applied that allows to (1) logically relate dynamic properties of the multi-agent system as a whole to dynamic properties of agents, and (2) logically relate dynamic properties of agents to properties of their subcomponents. Given that properties of these subcomponents can be verified by more standard methods, these logical relationships provide proofs of the dynamic properties of the multi-agent system as a whole.

  • 312.
    Brisland, Karl
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Användarupplevelse på webben under skiftande tekniska förutsättningar: en fallstudie av ett implementationsprojekt2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport dokumenterar utvecklingen av en interaktiv tidslinje i webbformat, med högt ställda krav på utseende, funktion, visuella effekter samt konsekvent användarupplevelse på olika plattformar. Implementationen utfördes utifrån teoretiska riktlinjer som erhållits genom litteraturstudier och därefter värderades utfallet dels genom att bedöma dess efterlevnad av dessa riktlinjer och dels genom en användarstudie med ett flertal olika enheter. Resultaten från användarstudien användes sedan för att värdera den praktiska relevansen hos den teoretiska grunden. Slutprodukten utgörs av en välfungerande webbapplikation som, med vissa eftergifter, beter sig konsekvent på alla testade enheter och väl uppfyller de teoretiska rekommendationerna ur främst design- och prestandaperspektiv. Användartesten visade på vissa svagheter som åtgärdades i möjligaste mån samt avslöjade en mycket stark vilja bland användarna att själva kontrollera navigering och informationsinhämtning. Testen visade även att de identifierade riktlinjerna varit såväl värdefulla som användbara, inklusive hur användarstudien i sig skulle utföras. Projektet ledde fram till en väl underbyggd bästa praxis samt värdefulla insikter ifråga om användarbeteende och i synnerhet användandet av uppmärksamhetsfångande element i designen, samt utgjorde en tydlig demonstration av vilket stort mervärde som användartest kan medföra. Slutligen noteras att det på grund av tekniska begränsningar inte alltid går att uppnå fullständig konsekvens ifråga om användarupplevelse under skiftande förutsättningar.

  • 313.
    Britto, Ricardo
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Strategizing and Evaluating the Onboarding of Software Developers in Large-Scale Globally Distributed Legacy Projects2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Recruitment and onboarding of software developers are essential steps in software development undertakings. The need for adding new people is often associated with large-scale long-living projects and globally distributed projects. The formers are challenging because they may contain large amounts of legacy (and often complex) code (legacy projects). The latters are challenging, because the inability to find sufficient resources in-house may lead to onboarding people at a distance, and often in many distinct sites. While onboarding is of great importance for companies, there is little research about the challenges and implications associated with onboarding software developers and teams in large-scale globally distributed projects with large amounts of legacy code. Furthermore, no study has proposed any systematic approaches to support the design of onboarding strategies and evaluation of onboarding results in the aforementioned context.

    Objective: The aim of this thesis is two-fold: i) identify the challenges and implications associated with onboarding software developers and teams in large-scale globally distributed legacy projects; and ii) propose solutions to support the design of onboarding strategies and evaluation of onboarding results in large-scale globally distributed legacy projects.

    Method: In this thesis, we employed literature review, case study, and business process modeling. The main case investigated in this thesis is the development of a legacy telecommunication software product in Ericsson.

    Results: The results show that the performance (productivity, autonomy, and lead time) of new developers/teams onboarded in remote locations in large-scale distributed legacy projects is much lower than the performance of mature teams. This suggests that new teams have a considerable performance gap to overcome. Furthermore, we learned that onboarding problems can be amplified by the following challenges: the complexity of the product and technology stack, distance to the main source of product knowledge, lack of team stability, training expectation misalignment, and lack of formalism and control over onboarding strategies employed in different sites of globally distributed projects. To help companies addressing the challenges we identified in this thesis, we propose a process to support the design of onboarding strategies and the evaluation of onboarding results.

    Conclusions: The results show that scale, distribution and complex legacy code may make onboarding more difficult and demand longer periods of time for new developers and teams to achieve high performance. This means that onboarding in large-scale globally distributed legacy projects must be planned well ahead and companies must be prepared to provide extended periods of mentoring by expensive and scarce resources, such as software architects. Failure to foresee and plan such resources may result in effort estimates on one hand, and unavailability of mentors on another, if not planned in advance. The process put forward herein can help companies to deal with the aforementioned problems through more systematic, effective and repeatable onboarding strategies.

  • 314.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Cruzes, Daniella
    SINTEF Digital, NOR.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Šāblis, Aivars
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Onboarding Software Developers and Teams in Three Globally Distributed Legacy Projects: A Multi-Case Study2018Inngår i: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 30, nr 4, artikkel-id e1921Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Onboarding is the process of supporting new employees regarding their social and performance adjustment to their new job. Software companies have faced challenges with recruitment and onboarding of new team members and there is no study that investigates it in a holistic way. In this paper, we conducted a multi-case study to investigate the onboarding of software developers/teams, associated challenges, and areas for further improvement in three globally distributed legacy projects. We employed Bauer's model for onboarding to identify the current state of the onboarding strategies employed in each case. We learned that the employed strategies are semi-formalized. Besides, in projects with multiple sites, some functions are executed locally and the onboarding outcomes may be hard to control. We also learned that onboarding in legacy projects is especially challenging and that decisions to distribute such projects across multiple locations shall be approached carefully. In our cases, the challenges to learn legacy code were further amplified by the project scale and the distance to the original sources of knowledge. Finally, we identified practices that can be used by companies to increase the chances of being successful when onboarding software developers and teams in globally distributed legacy projects.

  • 315.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Freitas, Vitor
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för datalogi och datorsystemteknik.
    Usman, Muhammad
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Effort Estimation in Global Software Development: A systematic Literature Review2014Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2014 9th IEEE International Conference on Global Software Engineering, 2014, s. 135-144Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, software systems are a key factor in the success of many organizations as in most cases they play a central role helping them attain a competitive advantage. However, despite their importance, software systems may be quite costly to develop, so substantially decreasing companies’ profits. In order to tackle this challenge, many organizations look for ways to decrease costs and increase profits by applying new software development approaches, like Global Software Development (GSD). Some aspects of the software project like communication, cooperation and coordination are more chal- lenging in globally distributed than in co-located projects, since language, cultural and time zone differences are factors which can increase the required effort to globally perform a software project. Communication, coordination and cooperation aspects affect directly the effort estimation of a project, which is one of the critical tasks related to the management of a software development project. There are many studies related to effort estimation methods/techniques for co-located projects. However, there are evidences that the co-located approaches do not fit to GSD. So, this paper presents the results of a systematic literature review of effort estimation in the context of GSD, which aimed at help both researchers and practitioners to have a holistic view about the current state of the art regarding effort estimation in the context of GSD. The results suggest that there is room to improve the current state of the art on effort estimation in GSD. 

  • 316.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för datalogi och datorsystemteknik.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    An Empirical Investigation on Effort Estimation in Agile Global Software Development2015Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2015 IEEE 10th International Conference on Global Software Engineering, 2015, s. 38-45Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Effort estimation is a project management activity that is mandatory for the execution of softwareprojects. Despite its importance, there have been just a few studies published on such activities within the Agile Global Software Development (AGSD) context. Their aggregated results were recently published as part of a secondary study that reported the state of the art on effort estimationin AGSD. This study aims to complement the above-mentioned secondary study by means of anempirical investigation on the state of the practice on effort estimation in AGSD. To do so, a survey was carried out using as instrument an on-line questionnaire and a sample comprising softwarepractitioners experienced in effort estimation within the AGSD context. Results show that the effortestimation techniques used within the AGSD and collocated contexts remained unchanged, with planning poker being the one employed the most. Sourcing strategies were found to have no or a small influence upon the choice of estimation techniques. With regard to effort predictors, globalchallenges such as cultural and time zone differences were reported, in addition to factors that are commonly considered in the collocated context, such as team experience. Finally, many challenges that impact the accuracy of the effort estimates were reported by the respondents, such as problems with the software requirements and the fact that the communication effort between sites is not properly accounted.

  • 317.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för datalogi och datorsystemteknik.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    A Specialized Global Software Engineering Taxonomy for Effort Estimation2016Inngår i: International Conference on Global Software Engineering, IEEE Computer Society, 2016, s. 154-163Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To facilitate the sharing and combination of knowledge by Global Software Engineering (GSE) researchers and practitioners, the need for a common terminology and knowledge classification scheme has been identified, and as a consequence, a taxonomy and an extension were proposed. In addition, one systematic literature review and a survey on respectively the state of the art and practice of effort estimation in GSE were conducted, showing that despite its importance in practice, the GSE effort estimation literature is rare and reported in an ad-hoc way. Therefore, this paper proposes a specialized GSE taxonomy for effort estimation, which was built on the recently proposed general GSE taxonomy (including the extension) and was also based on the findings from two empirical studies and expert knowledge. The specialized taxonomy was validated using data from eight finished GSE projects. Our effort estimation taxonomy for GSE can help both researchers and practitioners by supporting the reporting of new GSE effort estimation studies, i.e. new studies are to be easier to identify, compare, aggregate and synthesize. Further, it can also help practitioners by providing them with an initial set of factors that can be considered when estimating effort for GSE projects.

  • 318.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Usman, Muhammad
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Bloom's taxonomy in software engineering education: A systematic mapping study2015Inngår i: Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE), 2015, IEEE Communications Society, 2015, s. 392-399Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Designing and assessing learning outcomes could be a challenging activity for any SoftwareEngineering (SE) educator. To support the process of designing and assessing SE courses, educators have been applied the cognitive domain of Bloom's taxonomy. However, to the best of our knowledge, the evidence on the usage of Bloom's taxonomy in SE higher education has not yet been systematically aggregated or reviewed. Therefore, in this paper we report the state of the art on the usage of Bloom's taxonomy in SE education, identified by conducted a systematic mapping study. As a result of the performed systematic mapping study, 26 studies were deemed as relevant. The main findings from these studies are: i) Bloom's taxonomy has mostly been applied at undergraduate level for both design and assessment of software engineering courses; ii) software construction is the leading SE subarea in which Bloom's taxonomy has been applied. The results clearly point out the usefulness of Bloom's taxonomy in the SE education context. We intend to use the results from this systematic mapping study to develop a set of guidelines to support the usage of Bloom's taxonomycognitive levels to design and assess SE courses.

  • 319.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Usman, Muhammad
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för datalogi och datorsystemteknik.
    A TAXONOMY OF WEB EFFORT PREDICTORS2017Inngår i: Journal of Web Engineering, ISSN 1540-9589, E-ISSN 1544-5976, Vol. 16, nr 7-8, s. 541-570Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Web engineering as a field has emerged to address challenges associated with developing Web applications. It is known that the development of Web applications differs from the development of non-Web applications, especially regarding some aspects such as Web size metrics. The classification of existing Web engineering knowledge would be beneficial for both practitioners and researchers in many different ways, such as finding research gaps and supporting decision making. In the context of Web effort estimation, a taxonomy was proposed to classify the existing size metrics, and more recently a systematic literature review was conducted to identify aspects related to Web resource/effort estimation. However, there is no study that classifies Web predictors (both size metrics and cost drivers). The main objective of this study is to organize the body of knowledge on Web effort predictors by designing and using a taxonomy, aiming at supporting both research and practice in Web effort estimation. To design our taxonomy, we used a recently proposed taxonomy design method. As input, we used the results of a previously conducted systematic literature review (updated in this study), an existing taxonomy of Web size metrics and expert knowledge. We identified 165 unique Web effort predictors from a final set of 98 primary studies; they were used as one of the basis to design our hierarchical taxonomy. The taxonomy has three levels, organized into 13 categories. We demonstrated the utility of the taxonomy and body of knowledge by using examples. The proposed taxonomy can be beneficial in the following ways: i) It can help to identify research gaps and some literature of interest and ii) it can support the selection of predictors for Web effort estimation. We also intend to extend the taxonomy presented to also include effort estimation techniques and accuracy metrics.

  • 320.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Usman, Muhammad
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för datalogi och datorsystemteknik.
    Effort Estimation in Agile Global Software Development Context2014Inngår i: Agile Methods. Large-Scale Development, Refactoring, Testing, and Estimation: XP 2014 International Workshops, Rome, Italy, May 26-30, 2014, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, 2014, Vol. 199, s. 182-192Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Both Agile Software Development (ASD) and Global Software Development (GSD) are 21st century trends in the software industry. Many studies are reported in the literature wherein software companies have applied an agile method or practice GSD. Given that effort estimation plays a remarkable role in software project management, how do companies perform effort estimation when they use agile method in a GSD context? Based on two effort estimation Systematic Literature Reviews (SLR) - one in within the ASD context and the other in a GSD context, this paper reports a study in which we combined the results of these SLRs to report the state of the art of effort estimation in agile global software development (ASD) context.

  • 321.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Usman, Muhammad
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Minhas, Nasir Mehmood
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    A quasi-experiment to evaluate the impact of mental fatigue on study selection process2017Inngår i: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Association for Computing Machinery , 2017, s. 264-269Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Existing empirical evidence indicates that loss of alertness associated with mental fatigue is highly correlated with fluctuations in the performance of people carrying out auditory tasks. In software engineering research, mental fatigue may affect the results of study selection (an auditory task) when conducting secondary studies such as systematic literature reviews or systematic mapping studies. However, to date there is no empirical study that reports an in-depth investigation about the relationship between mental fatigue and researchers' selection decisions during study selection process. Objective: The main objective of this paper is to report the design and preliminary results of an investigation about the impact of mental fatigue on the study selection process of secondary studies. Method: We designed and piloted a quasi-experiment. Results: The preliminary results do not indicate that mental fatigue negatively impacts the correctness of selection decision and confidence. However, it is important to note that the preliminary results are only based on six subjects. Conclusion: This paper brings awareness about the role of mental fatigue in the conduction of secondary studies. Although the preliminary results do not indicate any meaningful relationship, we believe that it is worthwhile to continue the research, by adding more subjects, and also revising the design of the reported quasi-experiment. © 2017 ACM.

  • 322.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för datalogi och datorsystemteknik.
    An Extended Global Software Engineering Taxonomy2016Inngår i: Journal of Software Engineering Research and Development, ISSN 2195-1721, Vol. 4, nr 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Global Software Engineering (GSE), the need for a common terminology and knowledge classification has been identified to facilitate the sharing and combination of knowledge by GSE researchers and practitioners. A GSE taxonomy was recently proposed to address such a need, focusing on a core set of dimensions; however its dimensions do not represent an exhaustive list of relevant GSE factors. Therefore, this study extends the existing taxonomy, incorporating new GSE dimensions that were identified by means of two empirical studies conducted recently.

  • 323.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Damm, Lars-Ola
    Ericsson, SWE.
    Software Architects in Large-Scale Distributed Projects: An Ericsson Case Study2016Inngår i: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 33, nr 6, s. 48-55, artikkel-id 7725230Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Software architects are key assets for successful development projects. However, not much research has investigated the challenges they face in large-scale distributed projects. So, researchers investigated how architects at Ericsson were organized, their roles and responsibilities, and the effort they spent guarding and governing a large-scale legacy product developed by teams at multiple locations. Despite recent trends such as microservices and agile development, Ericsson had to follow a more centralized approach to deal with the challenges of scale, distribution, and monolithic architecture of a legacy software product. So, the architectural decisions were centralized to a team of architects. The team extensively used code reviews to not only check the code's state but also reveal defects that could turn into maintainability problems. The study results also suggest that the effort architects spend designing architecture, guarding its integrity and evolvability, and mentoring development teams is directly related to team maturity. In addition, significant investment is needed whenever new teams and locations are onboarded.

  • 324.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Damm, Lars-Ola
    Ericsson, SWE.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Performance Evolution of Newcomers in Large-Scale Distributed Software Projects: An Industrial Case Study2019Inngår i: Proceedings - 2019 ACM/IEEE 14th International Conference on Global Software Engineering, ICGSE 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, s. 1-11, artikkel-id 8807643Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Large-scale distributed software projects with long life cycles often involve a considerable amount of complex legacy code. The combination of scale and distribution challenges and the difficulty in acquiring knowledge about massive amounts of complex legacy code may make the onboarding of new developers/teams problematic. These problems may lead to extended periods of low performance. The primary objective of this paper is to investigate the performance evolution of offshore newcomers onboarded in a large-scale globally distributed project and how it relates to the employed onboarding strategy. To achieve our objective, we conducted a case study in Ericsson. We identified that the following aspects in the onboarding strategy employed in the investigated case seem to be related to the unexpectedly low performance evolution: i) the distance to mentors; ii) the used formal training approach, which did not fit the sociocultural background of the newcomers; iii) allocation of large and distributed tasks in the early stages of the onboarding process; and iv) team instability. We conclude that the onboarding of newcomers in globally distributed projects must be planned well ahead and should consider avoiding the aspects mentioned above. © 2019 IEEE.

  • 325.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik. Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Lars-Ola, Damm
    Ericsson, SWE.
    Experiences from Measuring Learning and Performance in Large-Scale Distributed Software Development2016Inngår i: Proceedings of the 10th ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement, ACM Digital Library, 2016, artikkel-id 17Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Developers and development teams in large-scale software development are often required to learn continuously. Organizations also face the need to train and support new developers and teams on-boarded in ongoing projects. Although learning is associated with performance improvements, experience shows that training and learning does not always result in a better performance or significant improvements might take too long.

    Aims: In this paper, we report our experiences from establishing an approach to measure learning results and associated performance impact for developers and teams in Ericsson.

    Method: Experiences reported herein are a part of an exploratory case study of an on-going large-scale distributed project in Ericsson. The data collected for our measurements included archival data and expert knowledge acquired through both unstructured and semi-structured interviews. While performing the measurements, we faced a number of challenges, documented in the form of lessons learned.

    Results: We aggregated our experience in eight lessons learned related to collection, preparation and analysis of data for further measurement of learning potential and performance in large-scale distributed software development.

    Conclusions: Measuring learning and performance is a challenging task. Major problems were related to data inconsistencies caused by, among other factors, distributed nature of the project. We believe that the documented experiences shared herein can help other researchers and practitioners to perform similar measurements and overcome the challenges of large-scale distributed software projects, as well as proactively address these challenges when establishing project measurement programs.

  • 326.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Lars-Ola, Damm
    Ericsson, SWE.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Learning and Performance Evolution of Immature Remote Teams in Large-ScaleSoftware Projects: An Industrial Case StudyInngår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Large-scale distributed software projects with long life cycles often involve a considerable amount ofcomplex legacy code. The combination of scale and distribution challenges, and the diculty to acquire knowledgeabout large amounts of complex legacy code may make the onboarding of new developers/teams problematic. Thismay lead to extended periods of low performance.Objective: The main objective of this paper is to analyze the learning processes and performance evolutions (teamproductivity and team autonomy) of remote software development teams added late to a large-scale legacy softwareproduct development, and to propose recommendations to support the learning of remote teams.Method: We conducted a case study in Ericsson, collecting data through archival research, semi-structured interviews,and workshops. We analyzed the collected data using descriptive, inferential and graphical statistics and softqualitative analysis.Results: The results show that the productivity and autonomy of immature remote teams are on average 3.67 and2.27 times lower than the ones of mature teams, respectively. Furthermore, their performance had a steady increaseduring almost the entire first year and dropped (productivity) or got stagnated (autonomy) for a great part of the secondyear. In addition to these results, we also identified four challenges that aected the learning process and performanceevolution of immature remote teams: complexity of the product and technology stack, distance to the main source ofproduct knowledge, lack of team stability, and training expectation misalignment.Conclusion: The results indicate that scale, distribution and complex legacy code may make learning more dicultand demand a long period to achieve high performance. To support the learning of remote teams, we put forward fiverecommendations. We believe that our quantitative analysis, as well as the identified factors and recommendationscan help other companies to onboard new remote teams in large-scale legacy product development projects.

  • 327. Broberg, Magnus
    et al.
    Lundberg, Lars
    Grahn, Håkan
    Selecting simulation models when predicting parallel program behavior2002Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of multiprocessors is an important way to increase the performance of a parallel program. This means that. the program has to be parallelized to make use of the multiple processors. The parallelization is unfortunately not an easy task. Development tools supporting parallel programs are important. Further, it is the customer that decides the number of processors in the target machine, and as a result the developer has to make sure that the program runs efficiently on any number of processors. Many simulation tools support the developer by simulating any number of processors and predict the performance based on a uniprocessor execution trace. This popular technique gives reliable results in many cases. Based on our experience from developing such a tool, and studying other (commercial) tools, we have identified three basic simulation models. Due to the flexibility of general purpose programming languages and operating systems, like C/C++ and Sun Solaris, two of the models may cause deadlock in a deadlock-free program. Selecting the appropriate model is difficult, we show that the three models have significantly different accuracy when using real world programs. Based on the findings we present a practical scheme when to use the models.

  • 328. Broberg, Magnus
    et al.
    Lundberg, Lars
    Grahn, Håkan
    Visualization and performance prediction of multithreaded Solaris programs by tracing kernel threads1999Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient performance tuning of parallel programs is often hard. We present a performance prediction and visualization tool called VPPB. Based on a monitored uni-processor execution, VPPB shows the (predicted) behaviour of a multithreaded program using any number of processors and the program behaviour is visualized as a graph. The first version of VPPB was unable to handle I/O operations. This version has, by an improved tracing technique, added the possibility to trace activities at the kernel level as well. Thus, VPPB is now able to trace various I/O activities, e.g., manipulation of OS internal buffers, physical disk I/O, socket I/O, and RPC. VPPB allows flexible performance tuning of parallel programs developed for shared memory multiprocessors using a standardized environment; C/C++ programs that lues the thread package in Solaris 2.X.

  • 329. Buglione, Luigi
    et al.
    Ferrucci, Filomena
    Gencel, Cigdem
    Gravino, Carmine
    Sarro, Federica
    Which COSMIC Base Functional Components are Significant in Estimating Web Application Development?: A Case Study2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimation is still a challenging process for planning and managing software projects. Often, estimates are being done on experiential or analogous basis or using effort estimation models. Mostly, these approaches take software size (e.g., Lines of Code, Function Points, Object points) and other cost factors as the main inputs to estimation. This study focuses on functional size based effort estimation for Web application development and investigates the significance of the functional sizes of each of the COSMIC Base Functional Component (BFC) types in explaining the variation in the development effort. A case study was conducted collecting data on 25 Web projects from a software organization. The results show that the size of only one of the BFC Types can explain the variation in the effort nearly as good as the total functional size.

  • 330. Buisman, J.
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Using Game Theory to Study Bidding for Software Projects2003Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 331.
    Buisman, Jacco
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Institutionen för programvaruteknik och datavetenskap.
    Game Theory and Bidding for Software Projects An Evaluation of the Bidding Behaviour of Software Engineers2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The conception phase is one of the most important phases of software projects. In this phase it is determined which software development company will perform a software project. To obtain a software project, companies can have several bidding strategies. This thesis investigates if and how game theory can be a helpful tool to evaluate bidding for software projects. This thesis can be divided into two different parts: a theoretical and a practical. The theoretical part investigates the applicable parts of game theory in this thesis, explains what software projects are, explains the difference between costing and bidding and provides results of a literature survey about bidding behaviour. The practical part introduces a study to investigate strategies and bidding behaviour of software engineers, explains the experimental design that found the study, provides the results of the performed study and a discussion of the results. This thesis concludes that game theory contains some concepts that make it possible to evaluate bidding for software projects.

  • 332.
    Bulusu, Santosh
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Sudia, Kalyan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    A Study on Cloud Computing Security Challenges2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Scientific computing in the 21st century has evolved from fixed to distributed work environment. The current trend of Cloud Computing (CC) allows accessing business applications from anywhere just by connecting to the Internet. Evidence shows that, switching to CC organizations' annual expenditure and maintenance are being reduced to a greater extent. However, there are several challenges that come along with various benefits of CC. Among these include security aspects. Objectives: This thesis aims to identify security challenges for adapting cloud computing and their solutions from real world for the challenge that do not have any proper mitigation strategies identified through literature review. For this the objective is to identify existing cloud computing security challenges and their solutions. Identify the challenges that have no mitigation strategies and gather solutions/guidelines/practices from practitioners, for a challenge with more references but no mitigation strategies identified (in literature). Methods: This study presents a literature review and a snowball sampling to identify CC security challenges and their solutions/mitigation strategies. The literature review is based on search in electronic databases and snowball sample is based on the primary studies searched and selected from electronic databases. Using the challenges and their solutions identified form literature review, challenges with no mitigation strategies are identified. From these identified challenges with no mitigation strategies, a challenge with more references is identified. The surveys are employed in the later stages to identify the mitigation strategies for this challenge. Finally the results from the survey are discussed in a narrative fashion. Results: 43 challenges and 89 solutions are identified from literature review using snowball sampling. In addition to these mitigation strategies few guidelines are also identified. The challenge with more (i.e., more articles mentioning the challenge) and no mitigation identified is incompatibility. The responses identified for the three insecure areas of incompatibility (i.e., interoperability, migration and IDM integration with CC) in cloud computing security are mostly guidelines/practices opined by experienced practitioners. Conclusions: This study identifies cloud computing security challenges and their solutions. Where these (challenges and solutions) are common to cloud computing applications and cannot be generalized to either service or deployment models (viz. SaaS, PaaS, IaaS, etc.). The study also identifies that there are methods guidelines/practices identified from practitioners) to provide secure interoperability, migration and integration of on-premise authentication systems with cloud applications, but these methods are developed by individuals (practitioners/organization) specific to their context. The study also identifies the non-existence of global standards for any of these operations (providing interoperability/migration/IDM integration with cloud). This identified non-existence of global standards and guidelines could be help academics to know the state of practice and formulate better methods/standards to provide secure interoperability. The identified cloud computing security challenges (43) and solutions (89), can be referred by practitioners to understand which areas of security need to be concentrated while adapting/migrating to a cloud computing environment.

  • 333.
    Buqinca, Alban
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för telekommunikationssystem.
    Zangana, Ala
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för telekommunikationssystem.
    TelMe Mobile2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens teknik har bidragit till att mobiltelefonens användningsområden har expanderat avsevärt de senaste åren. Detta har lett till att alltfler mobila tjänster har dykt upp på marknaden. Uppgiften i detta examensarbete består i att utveckla en version anpassad för mobiltelefoner av den existerande produkten TelMe, som är en webbtjänst för vikarietillsättning inom olika verksamheter. Den mobilanpassade versionen kommer att gå under namnet TelMe Mobile. Problemställningen var att implementera de väsentliga funktionerna i produkten med avsikt för att göra dessa tillgängliga för mobiltelefoner. För att hitta en lösning till problemställningen har följande frågeställningar formulerats; hur kan webbtjänsten TelMe anpassas till en mobiltelefon, hur kan innehållet presenteras i en mobiltelefon på ett användarvänligt sätt, hur kan dataflödet reduceras samt hur implementeras de tekniska lösningarna för TelMe Mobile? Eftersom utveckling för mobiltelefoner kräver ett helt annat tankesätt, samlades information om mobila webbapplikationer från officiella organisationer. Begränsningar i mobiltelefoner som t.ex. skärmstorlek, bandbredd och förhållandevis underlägsen hårdvara innebär att webbapplikationen måste vara enkel och inte resurskrävande. Med hänsyn till ovanstående restriktioner måste TelMe designas om och följa denna enkla struktur. Webbapplikationen måste ha en enkelkolumnig layout på grund av mobiltelefoners relativt mindre skärmstorlekar. På grund av den begränsade bandbredden och minneskapaciteten för mobiltelefoner är det viktigt att datamängden inte är för stor. För att reducera datamängden för varje sida måste antalet rader med information minskas. Användning av bilder för layouten kan bidra till en ökning av datamängden, därför bör mindre eller inga bilder utnyttjas. Den tekniska lösningen för TelMe Mobile har implementerats som en separat sida för mobiltelefoner medan TelMe är avsedd för datorer. Implementeringen genomfördes med hjälp av XHTML Mobile Profile 1.0 och eFrog Builder. W3C:s riktlinjer för mobil webbutveckling har följts för att säkerställa TelMe Mobiles kompatibilitet med ett brett utbud av mobiltelefoner. Kompatibiliteten kan dock inte garanteras med alla mobiltelefoner på grund av den breda variationen av mobila plattformar. TelMe Mobile har testats på ett antal olika mobiltelefoner med de vanligast förekommande plattformarna. Webbapplikationen har även testats på Opera Mini, som är en populär tredjepartswebbläsare med bra stöd för den mobila webben. Mobilvänligheten för TelMe Mobile har validerats på http://ready.mobi, vilket kontrollerar webbapplikationen gentemot W3C:s standarder för mobil webbutveckling.

  • 334.
    Burman, Niklas
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för för interaktion och systemdesign.
    Nilsson, Kristofer
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för för interaktion och systemdesign.
    Koordination? -FULLT! 5 platser (11.45) kollat med Turistbyrån2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen behandlar hur två organisationer samarbetar och koordinerar deras kooperativa arbete med hjälp av en artefakt. De två organisationerna är Marinmuseum och Turistbyrån där deras kooperativa arbete handlar om att skapa guidade turer tillsammans. Vi har jobbat mot målgruppernas målsättningar, behov och krav för att hitta det ultimata stödet för deras verksamhet. Syftet är att förmedla förståelse för hur organisationerna idag använder artefakten i deras gemensamma arbete, baserat på intervjuer och observationer. Huvudfrågorna i vår studie har varit: Hur kan vi som utvecklare kan stödja de två olika organisationernas samarbetsmöjligheter och förbättra koordinationen i det fall då de använder denna artefakt, deras pappersbaserade bokningslista som primär informationsplats? Hur kan denna artefakt ersättas utan att tappa dess koordinations och interaktions förmågor samt flexibilitet? Studien har visat att den pappersbaserade artefakten, deras bokningslista, innefattar många positiva egenskaper som vid digitalisering måste tas hänsyn till. Denna artefakt har vi valt att kalla för koordinationsartefakt för att belysa dess koordinationsegenskaper. Med vår studie vill vi framhäva den markanta skillnaden med ett system som är anpassat efter verksamheten istället för att verksamheten är anpassad efter systemet.

  • 335.
    Butt, Asim
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för programvarusystem.
    Identifying Factors Affecting Software Process Improvement during Change2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Software process improvement is an important activity which starts when an organization plans to enhance/purify the capabilities of its ongoing processes. When improvement or change is planned or started, there are a number of factors which originate and affect the effectiveness of software process improvement. If they are not identified and dealt with proper expertise, they can leave adverse effects in the form of low effectiveness, high cost, low quality etc. Such factors change the intensity or the expected results of software process improvement. It is very important to understand and highlight these factors in order to make the process improvement effective and efficient in an organization during change. This master thesis is written to answer the research questions which elaborate the understanding of software process improvement and factors affecting the software process improvement during change in an organization. Moreover, a systematic review is also performed in identifying and prioritizing the factors which affect the software process improvement activity in change. The outcomes of this research can be helpful in understanding the factors affecting SPI during change.

  • 336.
    Bäck, Oscar
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Andersson, Niklas
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Google AMP and what it can do for mobile applications in terms of rendering speed and user-experience2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    On today’s web, a web page needs to load fast and have a great user experiencein order to be successful. The faster the better. A server side rendered webpage can have a prominent initial load speed while a client side rendered webpage will have a great interactive user experience. When combining the two,some users with a bad internet connection or a slow device could receive a pooruser experience. A new technology called Amplified Mobile Pages (AMP) wascreated by Google to help combat this issue.The authors of this report gives an answer to if Google AMP could maintain theuser experience while still contributing with a fast initial load speed for applica-tions. To do this, we conducted an experiment through creating a Google AMPapplication and compared it to another application using a different renderingengine called Pug. We have also measured the metrics: page load time, speedindex and application size between the two applications. To fully understandthe AMP format, the authors conducted a literature study, to further strengthentheir findings.Google AMP is a great technology but it can still grow to become better. Theformat could increase the speed of a website, however the same result could beachieved without AMP if focus was set on writing a fast application. From theexperiment, the authors concluded that Google AMP takes a great time to learnbecause of its own version of JavaScript through modules. The format also hasa different structure than standard HTML. From the tests, a smaller applica-tion does not favor the implementation of AMP. We did however derive fromthe experiment and the literature study that bigger applications could benefitfrom the perks of AMP and could therefor be a potential choice for old and newapplications.

  • 337.
    Bäcklin, Anna
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för programvarusystem.
    Jansson, Peter
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för programvarusystem.
    Designing ePeer: Using Participatory Design to bridge cultural differences when developing computer software2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents a study that was conducted within a project, the purpose of which was development of a software application (ePeer) for students at Mbarara University of Science and Technology (MUST). ePeer is a tool for gaining information about Youth Sexual and Reproductive Health and will be used in a peer education project which is currently being set up in Mbarara. The study presented in this report aims at designing the interface of ePeer. Our intention was to develop a design that would suit the future users of ePeer. Achieving that involved learning about user expectations and bridging the cultural differences between us, the software developers, and the future users. In order to meet the user expectations we decided to get students at MUST involved in the design process of ePeer’s interface. Two methods were used to accomplish that, namely mock-ups and evaluations. The mock-up sessions provided us with a number of prototypes of ePeer’s interface, created by the students. The evaluation of three applications, with functionality similar to ePeer, resulted in a list of application features that were most appreciated by the students. By analyzing the outcome of the mock-up and evaluation sessions we managed to learn about the students’ expectations concerning ePeer’s content, functionality and layout. Basing on that analysis we suggested a design of ePeer’s interface. The design was positively evaluated by representatives of the future users.

  • 338. Bäumer, Martin
    et al.
    Siedler, Patrick
    Torkar, Richard
    Tomaszewski, Piotr
    Damm, Lars-Ola
    Feldt, Robert
    Predicting Fault Inflow in Iterative Software Development Processes: An Industrial Evaluation2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 339.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Classes or Objects? CRC-cards Considered Harmful: Extended Abstract2004Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 340.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    CRC-Cards and Roleplay Diagrams--Informal Tools to Teach OO Thinking2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 341.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Improving CRC-Card Role-Play with Role-Play Diagrams2005Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 342.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Killer Examples Workshop: Expression of Interest2005Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 343.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Object-Oriented Analysis and Design Through Scenario Role-Play2004Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 344.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Objektorientiertes Programmieren--Machen wir irgendwas falsch?2007Inngår i: Didaktik der Informatik in Theorie und Praxis / [ed] Sigrid Schubert, 2007, s. 9-20Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 345.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Software Engineering Research and Practice in Sweden2006Konferanseproceedings (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 346.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Tenth workshop on pedagogies and tools for the teaching and learning of object-oriented concepts2007Inngår i: Object-oriented technology: ECOOP 2006 workshop reader / [ed] Mario Südholt & Charles Consel, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg , 2007, s. 147-157Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report summarizes the results of the tenth workshop on pedagogies and tools for the teaching and learning of object-oriented concepts. The focus of this year’s workshop was on examples, modelling and abstraction. Participants agreed that carefully developed scaffolded examples are a key element for learning to program. For the teaching of modelling and abstraction this area, however, seems badly neglected. The workshop gathered 12 participants, all from academia, from 10 different countries.

  • 347.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten.
    Using Role-Play Diagrams to Improve Scenario Role-Play2010Inngår i: Graph Transformations and Model-Driven Engineering: Essays Dedicated to Manfred Nagl on the Occasion of his 65th Birthday / [ed] Gregor Engels, Claus Lewerentz, Wilhelm Schäfer, Andy Schürr, Bernhard Westfechtel, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg , 2010, s. 309-334Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    CRC-cards are a common lightweight approach to collaborative object-oriented analysis and design. They have been adopted by many educators and trainers to teach object-oriented modelling. In our experience, we have noticed many subtle problems and issues that have largely gone unnoticed in the literature. Two of the major issues are related to the CRC-card role-play as described in the literature. Although CRC-cards are representing classes, they are also utilized as substitutes for the actual objects during the scenario role-play. Furthermore; it is quite difficult to document or trace the scenario role-play. We propose using Role-Play Diagrams (RPDs) to overcome these problems. Our experience so far is quite positive. Novices have fewer problems with role-play activities when using these diagrams. Teaching and learning the new type of diagram adds only little overhead to the overall CRC-approach. Although our improvements specifically target the teaching and learning of object-oriented modelling, we believe that RPDs can be successfully applied in professional software development.

  • 348.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Caspersen, Michael E.
    Nordström, Marie
    Beauty and the Beast: on the readability of object-oriented example programs2016Inngår i: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 24, nr 2, s. 231-246Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Some solutions to a programming problem are more elegant or more simple than others and thus more understandable for students. We review desirable properties of example programs from a cognitive and a measurement point of view. Certain cognitive aspects of example programs are captured by common software measures, but they are not sufficient to capture a key aspect of understandability: readability. We propose and discuss a simple readability measure for software, SRES, and apply it to object-oriented textbook examples. Our results show that readability measures correlate well with human perceptions of quality. Compared with other readability measures, SRES is less sensitive to commenting and white-space. These results also have implications for software maintainability measures.

  • 349.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Caspersen, Michael E.
    Nordström, Marie
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Beauty and the Beast--Toward a Measurement Framework for Example Program Quality2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 350.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Christensen, Henrik B
    Nordström, Marie
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Kallin Westin, Lena
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Moström, Jan Erik
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Caspersen, Michael E
    Evaluating OO Example Programs for CS12008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
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